The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Benedict XIV (1740-1758)
Consistory of November 26, 1753 (IV)


(38) 1. FERONI, Giuseppe Maria (1693-1767)

Birth. April 30, 1693, Florence. From the opulent and patrician family of the marquises of Bellavista. Son of Marquis Fabio Feroni and Costanza della Stufa. His last name is also listed as Ferroni; as Feronio; and as Feronus.

Education. Studied at Collegio Clementino, Rome; then, at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, 1711; and later, at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on January 15, 1716.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature as protonotary apostolic participante on January 16, 1716. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, January 23, 1716.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 22, 1719. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government in the pontificate of Pope Innocent XIII. In 1722, he was named relator of the S.C. of Good Government, prelate of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's basilica, and of the S.C. of Rites. Named canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Lateran basilica by Pope Clement XI. Pope Benedict XIII named him voter of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace in 1724. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites. Secretary of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, 1728.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Damasco, May 10, 1728. Consecrated, May 30, 1728, at the Altar of the Confession, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Pope Benedict XIII, assisted by Francesco Borghese, titular archbishop of Traianopoli, and by Nicola Saverio Santamaria, titular bishop of Cirene. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 4, 1728. Assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, April 1737 to 1743. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, December 2, 1741. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, September 1743.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1753; received the red hat on November 29, 1753; and the title of S. Pancrazio, December 10, 1753. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Holy Office, Propaganda Fide, Ecclesiastical Immunity, Bishops and Regular. Abbot of Ss. Leonardo, Barnaba ed Apolonia de Reggio, June 1754. Protector of the Holy Places of the Holy Land from February 1756. Protector of the Benedictine Congregation of Vallombrosa March 10, 1758, replacing Cardinal Giovanni Antonio Guadagni. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 28, 1760 until February 16, 1761. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites after the death of Cardinal Fortunato Tamburini, O.S.B.Cas. occurred on August 9, 1761. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, December 17, 1764. Protector of Collegio Greco, Rome, in 1765, succeeding Cardinal Giuseppe Spinelli. In the fall of 1765, he went to Siena, where he was abbot commendatario of the abbey of S. Galgano. In 1766, he was named protector of the monastery of S. Marta, in Rome; and the following year, protector of the monastery of Cecilia, Rome. He had the ability of not making enemies and was known by all in the Roman Curia as onesto e gentile. He was extraordinarily eloquent.

Death. November 15, 1767, of renal disorders, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Cecilia, Rome, where the funeral took place, with the participation of the pope and the Sacred College of Cardinals; and buried in an elegant monument with his bust and an honorable inscription, on the left side beside the main altar, in that same church (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 39-40; Marchesi Buonaccorsi, Giorgio Viviano. Antichità ed eccellenza del Protonotariato appostolico partecipante, colle più scelte notizie de' santi, sommi pontefici, cardinali, e prelati che ne sono stati insigniti sino al presente, opera di Monsignor Giorgio Viviano Marchesi Buonaccorsi forlivese. Faenza : pel Benedetti, 1751. Note: Book; Computer File; Internet Resource, p. 502-503; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, p. 181; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 16, 42, 47 and 56; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 502-505; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 347; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 608.

Webgraphy. Biography by F. Sanfilippo, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; his bust by AndreJean Lebrun, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, flickr; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his portrait?, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his tomb in S. Cecilia, Rome, ArtServe, The Australian National University; and several photographs of his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D     ·     O     ·     M
IOSEPHO MARIÆ FERONIO FLORENTINO
TIT . S. CECILIÆ PRESBYTERO CARDINALI
AMPLISSIMIS IN CHRISTIANA REP . MVNERIBVS PRÆCLARE FVNCTO
EXIMII INTEGRITATIS PIETATIS RELIGIONIS EXEMPLIS
SPECTANTISSIMO
OB SINGVLAREM MORVM COMITATEM VITÆQVE SPLENDOREM
OMNIBVS CARO
MARCHIO JOSEPHVS FERONIVS FRATRIS FILIVS ET HÆRES
PERPETVVM AMORIS ET GRATI ANIMI MONVMENTVM
MOERES POSVIT .
VIXIT ANNOS LXXIV MENSIS VI DIES XV
OBIIT XVII KALE . DECEMB . MDCCLXVIII .

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(39) 2. SERBELLONI, Fabrizio (1695-1775)

Birth. November 4, 1695, Milan (1). From a patrician family. Fourth of the six children of Giovanni Serbelloni, second duke of San Gabrio, Grande de España, and Maria Giulia Trotti Bentivoglio, of the marquises of Incisa. The other siblings were Costanza, Luigia, Gabrio, Giovanni Battista and Galeazzo. His last name is also listed as Sorbelloni.

Education. Initial education at home; then he was sent to study at Collegio Clementino, Rome (2); and then, at the University of Pavia, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on July 19, 1718.

Early life. Went to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Innocent XIII. In 1719, he entered the Roman prelature as domestic prelate of His Holiness. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, August 27, 1721. Vice-legate in Ferrara in 1722, for seven years. Inquisitor general in the island of Malta, May 7, 1726 (3); because of his proud, fierce and contemptuous temperament, he had a bad encounter with some young knights of Malta, who threw him in the ditch of the old city. Recalled to Rome, he was named governor of Loreto and Recanati, October 17, 1730. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition.

Sacred orders. Received the minor orders, June 22, 1731; subdiaconate, June 24, 1731; diaconate, June 29, 1731.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 1, 1731.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Patras, August 6, 1731. Consecrated (no information found). Nuncio in Tuscany, September 1, 1731 (4). Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 9, 1731. Nuncio in Cologne, February 5, 1734. Nuncio in Poland, August 8, 1738. Nuncio in Austria, March 1, 1746.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1753; the pope sent him the red biretta to Vienna with Count Petroni; the biretta was imposed with grand solemnity by Emperor Francis I; received the red hat on July 18, 1754; and the title of S. Stefano in Monte Celio, July 22, 1754. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Propaganda Fide, Ecclesiastical Immunity, and Bishops and Regulars. Protector of the Orders of the Eremites of Saint Augustine; and of the Congregation of the Blessed Peter of Pisa. Legate in Bologna, September 16, 1754. Legation prorogated for a triennium, January 3, 1757. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. Legation prorogated for another triennium, August 2, 1758; remained in the post until 1761. Protector of the Lombardian Congregation of Observants of the Order of S. Girolamo, January 25, 1763. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, March 21, 1763. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, May 16, 1763. When Pope Clement XIII was going to celebrate the consistory of September 26, 1766 and Cardinal Serbelloni learned that Monsignor Mario Marefoschi was not among the new cardinals, he went to see the pope, expressed his displeasure and told the pontiff that he was not going to attend the consistory and was absent for a few days. Protector of the Order of the Eremites of Saint Augustine, January 23, 1768. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, April 18, 1774, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals (5). Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. Abbot in commendam of the abbeys of S. Lanfranco, Pavma; and S. Dionigi, Milan.

Death. December 7, 1775, Rome. Exposed in the church of Ss. Carlo e Ambrogio al Corso, della Nazione Milanese, Rome, where the funeral also took place, with the participation of the pope and the Sacred College of Cardinals; and, according to his will, buried in that same church, in front of the main altar with a magnificent eulogy placed by his brothers, his heirs (6).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 40-41; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912. (Suomalaisen Tiedeakatemian Toimituksia. Sarja B. Nid.5, no. 3), pp. 123, 127, 132, 134 and 261; Martinelli, Raffaello. Le Lapidi di San Carlo al Corso : catechesi in immagini. Roma : Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo, 2007. (Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo; Variation: Arciconfraternita dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo), p. 86; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, VI, 16, 39, 40, 47, 49 and 330; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 641-643; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunci apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, pp. 168-170; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 879; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 160, 254, 283 and 908; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 894.

Webgraphy. Biography by Ekkart Sauser, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; and his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to Reitzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 330; Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 261, says that he was born on November 7, 1695.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IX, 40. Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 641, says that. at the recommendation of the emperor, he went to study in Rome at Collegio Germanico and that he did not profit much in his studies because, even as an adult, he understood little Latin.
(3) This is according to Reitzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 330; Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 908, indicates that he occupied the post from 1728 to 1730. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IX, 40, also says that he was named inquisitor in Malta in 1728.
(4) There are minor discrepancies concerning the date of appointment to the nunciatures between Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800 and Riztler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, because the first follows the documentation of the Apostolic Chancery and the second uses that of the Secretariat of Apostolic Briefs.
(5) According to Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 642, at the death of Cardinal Carlo Alberto Guidobono Cavalchini, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, on March 7, 1774, it corresponded to Cardinal Gian Francesco Albani, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the college, to become the dean. But Cardinal Albani, unhappy with the constitution of Pope Clement XIV, which gave the temporal jurisdiction of Velletri to the S.C. Congregation of Good Government, declined to opt and this allowed Cardinal Serbelloni to become the dean. At the death of Cardinal Serbelloni, during the pontificate of Pope Pius VI, Cardinal Albani became the dean.
(6) This is the text of the inscription, taken from Requiem Datenbank:

A · XP · Ω
FABRITIO · SERBELLONIO · MEDIOLANENSI ·S · R · E · CARDINALI · AMPLISSIMO
EPISCOPO · ALBANENSI · DEIN · OSTIENSI · ET · VELLITERNO
QVI
VICELEGAT · FERRARIEN · ET · MELITEN · INQVISIT · MVNLFE · NAVITER · PER · FVNCTVS
NVNCIVS · APOSTOLICVS · FLORENTIAE · COLONIAE · VARSAVIAE · ET · VINDOLANAE · ABLEGATVS EST
AC · TANTOPVM · MERITORVM · PRAEMIVM · A · BENED · XIV · ROMANAM · PVRPVRAM · ADEPTVS
TANDEM · LEGATIONEM · BONONIENSIS · PROVINCIAE · HONOFIFICE · ET · INTEGRE · ADMINISTRAVIT
OBIIT · VI · IDVS · DECEMB · MDCCLXXV · VIX · A · LXXX · M · I · D · III
I · BAPT · COMES · SERBELLONIVS · AVRI · VELLERIS · EQ · CASTR · PRAEFECTVM
IOSEPHI · II · ROM · IMPERATORIS
NEC · NON · M · THERESIAE · REGINA · APL
ET · IOA · GALLEAT · DVX · SERBELLONIVS
HAEREDES
MON · POS

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(40) 3. STOPPANI, Giovanni Francesco (1695-1774)

Birth. September 16, 1695, Milan. Of a noble family. Youngest of the five children of Marquis Giovanni Francesco Stoppani, questore straordinario, and Laura Croce. The other children were Anna, Gerolama, Gioseffo and Cristoforo; the first three died in infancy. His first name is also listed as Gianfrancesco.

Education. Initial education at home under the direction of well accredited teachers; later, he studied at Collegio Borromeo, Milan; then, he studied at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, 1714; and finally at the University of Pavia, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on November 10, 1716. Received the clerical tonsure on June 24, 1715.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace on June 30, 1724.Chamberlain of honor and domestic prelate of Pope Innocent XIII. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government. Voter of the S.C. Consistorial. Inquisitor general in the island of Malta from November 19, 1730 to 1736.

Sacred orders. Received the minor orders on June 14, 1734; the subdiaconate on July 19, 1734; and the diaconate on July 25, 1734.

Priesthood. Ordained on August 1, 1734.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Corinto, March 14, 1735. Consecrated, March 25, 1735, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Giorgio Spinola, assisted by Antonio Pallavicini, titular archbishop of Lepanto, and by Carlo Alberto Guidobono Cavalchini, titular archbishop of Filippi. Nuncio in Florence, April 13, 1735 (1). Nuncio in Venice, March 10, 1739. Nuncio extraordinary before the emperor, November 12, 1743. Nuncio extraordinary to the Diet of Frankfurt for the election of the new emperor, March 16, 1745. Returned to Rome and stayed for two years without a new assignment. Named president of Urbino on January 26, 1747; remained in the post until 1754.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1753; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of December 1, 1753, with Monsignor Benedetto Veterani, ablegato apostolic; received the red hat on April 25, 1754; and the title of S. Martino ai Monti, May 20, 1754. Legate in Urbino, May 20, 1754. Legate in Romagna, September 20, 1756; legation prorogued for a triennium, August 2, 1759; occupied the post until October 27, 1761. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. Prefect of the Economy of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, March 1763. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, July 10, 1763; he conducted frequent episcopal visitations and built a library for the seminary. On July 1, 1765, he was named protector of the Congregation of the Canons Regular Lateranense; and in 1767, of the Order of the Basilians. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, December 12, 1770 until his death. Did not participate in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI; died during its celebration. He was a patron of literary men; and a generous protector of the poor since his youth.

Death. November 18, 1774, Rome, of renal disorders, during the sede vacante, after receiving the last rites. Exposed in the church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome, where the funeral took place. Buried in the tomb he had built for himself in the chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary in that same church, with his bust and a simple inscription.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 130, no. 334; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 41-42; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 263; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 16, 40, 47 and 183; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 619-622; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 926; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 372, 420 and 934-935.

Webgraphy. His portrait by Rosalba Carriera, pinacoteca di Cremona, Franco Moro, Historian of Art; his portrait, attributed to Andrea Barbiani, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Giovanni Antonio Faldoni, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his tomb in S. Andrea della Valle, Rome, Requiem Datendbank (2).

(1) There are minor discrepancies concerning the date of appointment to the nunciatures between Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800 and Riztler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, because the first follows the documentation of the Apostolic Chancery and the second uses that of the Secretariat of Apostolic Briefs.
(2) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

A   ·  XP   ·  Ω
HIC IACET
IO · FRANCISCVS · EP · PRAENESTINVS
S · R · E · CARDINALIS STVPPANIVS
MEDIOLANENSIS
QVI VIVVS SIBI SVISQ·
HOC MONVMENTVM POSVIT
OB · XVI · KAL · DEC · AN · S · MDCCLXXIV
AET · SVAE · AN · LXXIX
ORATE PRO EO

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(41) 4. TEMPI, Luca Melchiore (1688-1762)

Birth. February 13, 1688, Florence. From a patrician family. Third of the four children of Senator Ludovico Tempi, marquis of Barone, gentiluomo of chamber of Grand-duke Cosimo III of Florence; and Maria Maddalena Albizzi, of the marquises of Castelnovo. The other siblings were Leonardo, Benedetto and Caterina. His first name is also listed as Gianfrancesco; and his second as Melchiorre. His last name is also listed as Tempius. Uncle of Cardinal Francesco d'Elci (1773).

Education. Sent to Rome, he studied at Seminario Romano; and later, at the University of Pisa, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on May 11, 1713.

Early life. After finishing his studies, he went to Rome and learned the practice of the Roman Curia under the direction of Advocate Giacomo Lanfredini, future cardinal, his compatriot. Protonotary apostolic. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, August 13, 1716. Governor of the city of Faenza, June 3, 1719. Vice-legate in Ferrara, July 1721. Vice-legate in Bologna, March 23 to June 14, 1724. Governor of the city of Fano, February 23, 1725. Governor of the city of Ancona, November 9, 1730. Governor of the city of Viterbo, September 13, 1734.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 31, 1736.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicomedia, April 11, 1736. Consecrated, April 15, 1736, church of S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Antonio Guadagni, O.C.D., vicar general of Rome and its district, assisted by Giuseppe Feroni, titular archbishop of Damasco, and by Francesco Ginori, bishop of Fiesole. Nuncio in Belgium, November 19, 1736 (1). Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 10, 1742. Nuncio in Portugal, January 22, 1744 until October 1, 1754.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1753; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of December 1, 1753; received the red hat on July 17, 1755; and the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, July 21, 1755. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Bishops and Regulars, Sacred Consulta, Ecclesiastical Immunity, and Propaganda Fide. Opted for the title of S. Susanna, May 24, 1756. Opted for the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, May 23, 1757. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 16, 1761 until January 25, 1762. He was described as uomo pleno di umanità, e di beneficenza, di intigri, e moderati costumi, e di un genio talmente placido, e tranquilo, che no si sarebbe, nè tubato, nè commosso per qualsivoglia sinistro incontro (2)

Death. July 17, 1762, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, where the funeral took place, and buried in the middle of his title, under a well adorned tombstone with an honorable epitaph, placed by Marquis Luigi Tempi, his nephew (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 42-43; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 264; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 16, 43, 48, 49 and 309; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 433-434; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 923; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 118, 159, 231, 237, 254, 434 and 943; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 936-937; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 511, no. 701.

Webgraphy. His engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; another version of the same engraving, his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, 309. Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 264, says that he was nuncio in Fiandra (Flanders).
(2) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IX, 43: "a man full of humanity, and of beneficence, of integral, and moderate habits, and a of a very peaceful and quiet character, which would not be disturbed nor affected by any sinister encounter."
(3) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

MEMORIAE · AETERNAE
LUCAE MELCHIORIS
TIT · S · CRVCIS · S · R · E · PRESB · CARDINALIS
TEMPI · (sic) FLORENTINI
QVI · FEVENTIA · FANO · ANCONA · PATRIMONII · PROVINCIA
IVSTE · SANCTEQUE · ADMINISTRATIS
LEGATIONIBVS · BELGICA · ET · LVSITANICA
SVMMA · DIGNITATE · ET FIDE · FELICITER · GESTIS
A · BENEDICTO · XIIII · P · M
VI. KAL. DECEMB. ANN. ANN. [sic!] MDCCLIII. IN. SACR. COLLEGIVM. COOPTATVS
VIXIT · OMNIBVS · CARVS · ANN · LXXIII · MENS · IIII · DIES · IIII
QVI FVIT IN PACE · XVII · KAL · AVG · MDCCLXII
RELIGIONIS · TRANQVILLITATIS · PRVDENTIAE · HVMANITATIS
BENEFICENTAE · QVAE · DESIDERIO · RELICTO
ALOYSIVS · MARCHIO · BARONIS
EX · TESTAMENTO · HERES
PATRVO · INCOMPARABILI
MOERENS · POSVIT

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(42) 5. DURINI, Carlo Francesco (1693-1769)

Birth. January 20, 1693, Milan. From a noble family originally from Como. Youngest of the nine children of Giovanni Giacomo Durini, count of Monza, and Margherita Visconti. He is also listed as Carlo only. The other children were Giovanni Battista, Giuseppe, Angelo Maria, and five boys and girls who died very young. Uncle of Cardinal Angelo Maria Durini (1776).

Education. He was destined to the ecclesiastical state at a very young age. Sent to Rome, he received his initial education at the Somaschan Collegio Clementino; later, he studied at the University of Pavia, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on April 24, 1714.

Early life. Returned to Rome and was named privy chamberlain of Pope Clement XI. Entered the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace and domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 20, 1723.

Priesthood. Ordained, February 3, 1725. Governor of the city of Benevento, February 28, 1725. Governor of the city of Spoleto, february 1727. Vice-governor of the city of Fermo, November 9, 1730. Abbot in commendam of the abbey of S. Spirito, Comignago, 1731. Governor of the province of Campagna e Marittima, July 1, 1732. In December 1734, he was named commissary apostolic to assist the Spanish troops going to Tuscany from Naples. Inquisitor general in the island of Malta, April 4, 1735 until 1739.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Rodi, June 22, 1739. Consecrated, July 5, 1739, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Antonio Saverio Gentili, assisted by Antonio Pallavicini, titular archbishop of Lepanto, and by Carlo Alberto Guidobono Cavalchini, titular archbishop of Filippi. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, July 5, 1739. Nuncio in Switzerland, August 12, 1739. Nuncio in France, January 10, 1744. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery S. Vincenzo, Milan, March 28, 1746. Transferred to the see of Pavia on July 23, 1753, with personal title of archbishop; on that same day he was granted the pallium; the see of Pavia had been united with the titular metropolitan see of Amasea by apostolic brief of February 15, 1743.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1753; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic bull of December 1, 1753; received the red hat on December 5, 1753; and the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, December 16, 1754. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Tridentine Council, Bishops and Religious, Propaganda Fide and Ecclesiastical Immunity. In Pavia, he dedicated himself to the reform of the clergy and the people; he restored numerous churches; and especially the cathedral, which had been dismantled by his predecessor because it was in ruins due to its antiquity; for the space of six miles he ordered works to keep the river Pò in its bed. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV, although he obtained some votes for the papacy.

Death. June 25, 1769, during the night, of vomito improviso convulsivo, in Milan. His body was embalmed and transferred to Pavia; and on July 4, exposed in the cathedral of Pavia, where the funeral took place; and buried in that cathedral; a monument to his memory, with an elegant and wordy inscription, was built by his nephew, Angelo Maria Durini, titular archbishop of Ancira, nuncio in Poland. In his will, he left half of his possessions to the cathedral and the other half to the seminary.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 129, no. 331; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 43-44; Fink, Urban. Die Luzerner Nuntiatur 1586-1873 : Zur Behördengeschichte und Quellenkunde der päpstlichen Diplomatie in der Schweiz. Luzern ; Stuttgart : Rex Verlag, 1997. (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani ; Bd. 40) (Luzerner Historische Veröffentlichungen ; Bd. 32); Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 242; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 16-17, 25, 43, 328 and 357; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 530-531; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 383; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 143, 184, 247, 389 and 650; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 594; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 511, no. 702.

Webgraphy. Biography by F. Satta, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; biography by Urban Fink, in Italian, concentrating in his nunciature in Switzerland, Dizionario storico della Svizzera; I Durini by Paolo Colussi, in Italian, Storia di Milano; his portrait., carabinieri.it; his engraving by Giovanni Antonio Faldoni, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; another version of the same engraving, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy.

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(43) 6. ENRIQUEZ, Enrico (1701-1756)

Birth. September 30, 1701, Campi, fiefdom of his family, diocese of Lecce. From an ancient and noble family originally from Castilla, Spain, Second of the two children of Giovanni Enriquez, prince of Squinzano and marquis of Campi, and Cecilia Capece Minutolo, of the princes of Canosa. The other child was Gabriel Augustinus. His last name is also listed as Henriquez de Herrera; and as Henriquez only. Another cardinal of the family was Enrico Minutoli (1389).

Education. Started his studies at Accademia degli Spioni, Lecce (letters, Latin and Italian poetry, physics, geometry); continued his studies at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on June 21, 1726. He was bright and lively, and interested in literary subjects, and in what was new in the world; the focus of his attention was the cultural life of Naples, about which he read books, information and reviews. Alongside his scholarly passion, another important aspect of his personality was his steadfast commitment to Jansenism. He was in contact with the leading members of the Roman Jansenism; in his public life, he was always faithful to the austere Jansenist morality; and when he entered the Roman prelature, he resided in the curia for a very short time and remained essentially foreign to its intrigues and maneuvers.

Early life. As a second child, he was dedicated to the ecclesiastical state. Entered the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, July 4, 1726. Continued his studies in theology and ecclesiastical history. On July 18, 1726, he was named domestic prelate of His Holiness. Governor of the city of Camerino, March 17, 1727; entered in the city, April 23, 1727. Governor of the city of Ascoli June 28, 1732. Governor of the city of Civitavecchia, January 7, 1733. Governor of Campagna e Marittima (Frosinone), December 23, 1734. Governor of the city of Perugia, April 17, 1738. Governor of the city of Macerata and Marche Anconitana, August 2, 1741 to 1743.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate on December 8, 1743; and the diaconate on December 15, 1743. Elected to the episcopacy with dispensation for not having yet received the priestly ordination.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nazianzo, December 16, 1743. Consecrated, December 29, 1743, in the Hall of the Holy Office, in the Quirinale palace, Rome, by Pope Benedict XIV, assisted by Ferdinando Maria de Rossi, titular archbishop of Tarso, and by Mattino Ignazio Caracciolo di Mattina, titular archbishop of Calcedonia. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, January 1, 1744. Nuncio in Spain, January 8, 1744 until 1753.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1753; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of December 1, 1753; received the red hat on July 18, 1754; and the title of S.Eusebio, July 22, 1754. Legate in Romagna, September 16, 1755; arrived in Ravenna on January 31, 1755; he reestablished the independence of the Republic of San Marino, which his predecessor, Cardinal Giulio Alberoni, had suppressed. He translated from Latin to Italian, with notes, the book Imitazione di Cristo of Thomas à Kempis.

Death. April 25, 1756, in Ravenna. His funeral took place on April 28, in the Theatine church of Santo Spirito, in Ravenna; the funeral oration was delivered by Father Bartolomeo Carrara, Theat.; the oration was later printed by Giuseppe Antonio Archi, in Faenza in 1756 (1); he was buried in that same church, with only his name inscribed in the tombstone.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 140, no. 357; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 44-45; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 243; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 17, 43 and 303; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 327-329; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 368; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 125, 176, 184, 290, 220, 334, 371 and 650; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 595; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 511-512, no. 703.

Webgraphy. Biography by P. Messina, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; his engraving by Giovanni Antonio Faldoni, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his engraving, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his engraving, Galleria foto storiche sammarinesi, Università della Repubblica di San Marino; and his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church.

(1) "Orazione di D. Bartolomeo Carrara, cherico regolare. per le solenni esequie dell'Emo e Rmo cardinale Enrico Enriquez, legato della Romagna morto a 25 d'aprile l'anno 1756, celebrate nella Chiesa dello Spirito Santo de' chierici regolari il giorno 28 dello stesso mese presente il cadavero in 4º." In Faenza MDCCLVI. Presso Gioseffantonio Archi Impressor Camerale, e del Sant' Ufficio. Con licenza de' superiori. Si vendono in Ravenna apresso Francesco Collina Librajo.

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(44) 7. IMPERIALI, Cosimo (1685-1764)

Birth. April 24, 1685, Genoa. Youngest of the four children of Doge Ambrogio Imperiale and Marzia (Maria) Centurione. The other siblings were Michele, Francesca and Lorenzo. His first name is also listed as Cosmas and as Cosmus; and his last name Imperiale and Imperialis. Great-grand-nephew of Cardinal Lorenzo Imperiali (1652). Nephew of Cardinal Giuseppe Renato Imperiali (1690). Cousin of Cardinal Giuseppe Spinelli (1735).

Education. Studied at the Jesuit Seminario Romano.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, March 13, 1710; and February 5, 1725. Governor of Rieti, October 27, 1710 until 1713. Admitted to the Genoese nobility, November 22, 1710. Governor of Sabina, January 12, 1713 until 1717. Governor of Città di Castello, May 8, 1717 until 1720. Governor of Ascoli, December 16, 1720 until 1721. Governor of Fermo, July 16, 1721 until 1725. Governor of Civitavecchia, February 5, 1725 until 1730. Governor of Campagna e Marittima (Frosinone), February 9, 1730 until 1732. Governor of Viterbo, June 28, 1732 until 1734. Governor of Perugia, September 4, 1734 until 1738. Governor of Marche, April 19, 1738 until 1741. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, June 23, 1741; and as such prefect of the Archives, June 30, 1741; and prefect of the Annona, September 9, 1743 to January 7, 1747. Vicar of S. Maria in Via Lata, February 1744-1747. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, April 14, 1747 until November 26, 1753.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1753; received the red hat on November 29, 1753; and the title of S. Clemente, December 10, 1753. He was ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Sacred Consulta, Good Government, Regular Discipline, Reform of the Tribunals. Granted dispensation to be a cardinal priest without having received minor and major orders, September 24, 1754. Received the diaconate, December 8, 1754. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, February 12, 1759. Protector of Brotherhood of San Giovanni Battista dei Genovesi, Rome, 1759. He founded six chaplaincies in the church of S. Giovanni de' Genovesi, which had the obligation of instructing the faithful in the mysteries of the Catholic religion and in the Christian duties.Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 25, 1762 until January 24, 1763.

Death. Saturday October 13, 1764, at 8:15 p.m., of an attacco di petto, after receiving the sacraments of the Church, in Rome. Exposed in his title, where the solemn funeral took place, in the presence of the pope and the Sacred College of Cardinals; the final absolution was given by Cardinal Pietro Girolamo Guglielmi; and buried in that same church, with an honorable epitaph placed by his niece Marzia Imperiali Centurioni.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 172; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 45-46; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 116; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 17,42, 43 and 56; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 457-461; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 533; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 125, 184, 210, 220, 247, 290, 334, 345, 362, 377, 434, and 724; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 675.

Webgraphy. His engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his tomb in the church of S. Cecilia, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

COSMO IMPERIALI
PATRICIO GENVENSI
TIT. S. CÆCIL PRESBYTERO CARD
RELIGIONE SVAVITATE MORVM MIRAQVE
IN FAMILIARES AMICOS PAVPERES LIBERALITATE
MVLTIS · H · S · MILLIBVS · LEGATIS · CONSPICVO
MARTIA IMPERIALIS · CENTVRIONA
PATRVO · B · M · DOLENS · P.
DECESSIT · IN · P · III · IDVS · OCT · AN · MDCCLXIV

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(45) 8. MALVEZZI, Vincenzo (1715-1775)

Birth. February 22, 1715, Bologna. Of the ancient patrician family of the counts of Selva. Second of the two sons of Pier Paolo Malvezzi, ninth count of Selva, and Maria Catterina Leoni. The eldest son was Giuseppe Ercole. He is also listed as Vincentius Malvetius; and his last name as Malvezzi Bonfioli.

Education. He was destined to the ecclesiastical state at a young age. Studied at Jesuit Collegio dei Nobili di S. Francesco Saverio, Bologna; and then, at the Seminary of Bologna; later, he obtained a doctorate in law at La Sapienza University, Rome. On August 9, 1754, he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, at the Studio bolognese and was aggregated to Collegio Civile and Collegio Canonico of Bologna.

Early life. He met and became a friend of Archbishop Prospero Lambertini of Bologna, future Pope Benedict XIV.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). He celebrated his first mass at the church of the Carthusians in Bologna. Named canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Bologna by Archbishop Lambertini on February 25, 1736; resigned the post on December 2, 1738. He closely collaborated with Cardinal Lambertini in the profound work of renewal of the Church and clergy of Bologna. He was called to Rome by the new Pope Benedict XIV, who named him canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in October 1741. Master of chamber of His Holiness, September 1743.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1753; received the red hat on November 29, 1753; and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, December 10, 1753. He was ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Holy Office, Tridentine Council, Bishops and Regulars, Apostolic Visitation, and Propaganda Fide.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bologna, January 14, 1754; on that same day he was granted the pallium; Pope Benedict XIV had retained the archdiocese of Bologna after his election to the papacy; on January 22, 1754, Cardinal Giorgio Doria, legate in Bologna, took possession of the archdiocese in his name. Consecrated, March 19, 1754, in the Pauline chapel of the Quirinale palace, Rome, by Pope Benedict XIV, assisted by Cardinal Giovanni Antonio Guadagni, bishop of Frascati, and by Cardinal Scipione Borghese, bishop of Albano. He entered the city on May 31, 1754; and celebrated his first pontifical mass in the metropolitan cathedral of S. Pietro on the following June 29. With an apostolic brief of June 15, 1756, the pope granted him the faculty to consecrate again the metropolitan cathedral of S. Pietro of Bologna; the ceremony took place on the following August 15, 1756. In the early years of his episcopate, he issued instructions on the building and furnishings of churches (1755); the rules directed the pastors and officers of companies and sacred places on the proper management of their patrimony (1756); the pastoral instruction on the caution in reading the books (1760); and the notification of burials (1762). At the pastoral level, he promoted the training of clergy and encouraged the development of religious life in the parishes. He was a rigorist with certain Jansenists tendencies and worked to moralize and reaffirm the primacy of the religious and ethical powers of the bishop. He was against the worship of false devotions and superstitious behaviors and fought to contain the scandals in the private life and was a protagonist in the decided persecution of prostitutes. His rigorist measures attracted the sympathies of most of the clergy but it originated a series of tensions with the Senate and civil society in Bologna. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. The election of the new pope marked the return to an all-out defense of the prerogatives of the Roman Curia, which soured the political relations with the courts, paving the way for a clash focused in particular in the attack on the Society of Jesus. Cardinal Malvezzi became one of the main centers of opposition to the zealot addresses of the new pontiff, continuing the Lambertian line of dialog and mediation with the courts and the new ideas of the Enlightenment. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. An advocate of the supremacy of the bishop over the autonomist demands of the various religious orders, he maintained an anti-Jesuitic position. In October 1769, he prohibited the Jesuits to hear confessions and to preach outside their church; and deprived them of the monopoly of giving spiritual exercises to the clergy. Named visitor to the Society of Jesus in the city and archdiocese of Bologna by apostolic brief of February 6, 1773, with the authority to audit its financial statements; investigate the religious customs; favor the alternation of local superiors; and the secularization of the professed religious; he started his visitation on the 22 of the same month (1). Called to Rome by Pope Clement XIV, who named him datary of His Holiness; occupied the post from June 14, 1774 until February 1775, when that pontiff died. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. Returned to his archdiocese of Bologna, on March 20, 1775, shortly after the ceremonies that followed the election of the new Pope Pius VI, who asked him to choose between the datary and the archdiocese because holding both was incompatible.

Death. December 3, 1775 (2), of high fever with convulsions, after receiving the sacraments of the Church, in Cento, the principal archiepiscopal palace of the archdiocese of Bologna, where he was trying to improve his precarious health. His body was embalmed, transferred to Bologna in the evening of December 4; exposed on December 5 in his chamber in the archiepiscopal palace, dressed in pontifical habit, on a high layer over the throne; on the evening of that day, the body was taken in procession to the metropolitan cathedral, where the solemn exequies took place; the expenses of the funeral were paid by Count Giuseppe Ercole, his brother, because of the late cardinal's debts; he was buried at the foot of the altar of S. Apollinare of that cathedral (3). In 1952, the body was transferred to the subterranean of the cathedral and deposited in a niche under the tombstone, with a magnificent epitaph placed by Giulia Malvezzi, his niece (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 46-47; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica, 3), pp. 482-486; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 17, 5 and 126; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 635-640; Storti, Nicola. La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni. Napoli : Athena Mediterranea Editrice, 1969, p. 173, no. 72; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 584.

Webgraphy. Biography, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; his engraving and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait by Crescimbeni, University of Bologna; his portrait attributed to Gaspare Landi, iccd immagini, Fototeca Nazionale, Italy; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving by Giovanni Antonio Faldoni, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna.

(1) According to his first biography in Italian, linked above, "His main concern was to stay within the limits established by the apostolic brief and to avoid encroaching on an arbitrary conduct. The initial measure of concentrating and sealing the archives was followed in the subsequent months of March to June by a series of progressive restrictions that resulted in the 'presoppressione' and anticipated the papal brief of July 21, 1773 that sanctioned the final suppression of the Society: closing to the public the church of S. Ignazio; the notice to the novices and clerics to lay their religious dress and leave the city; the suspension of classes in the school of S. Lucia; the warning to the parishes not to entrust to the Jesuits the teaching of the Christian doctrine; the prohibition of preaching in their churches which were still open; the suspension of the faculties for hearing confessions; the closure of the schools of S. Luigi, S. Francesco Saverio and S. Lucia; the expulsion from the papal territories of the father rector of the latter; and of the other fathers of the Society."
(2) This is according to Meluzzi, I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna, p. 486; and Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, 17 and 126. Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 639, says that he died in the morning of December 4, at 17:15.
(3) In the south side of the nave, by the third pillar of the nave on its west side, in front of the chapel of S. Apollinare, to the east of the tomb slab of Cardinal Andrea Gioannetti, O.S.B.Cam. (1777); the memorial tablet is on the floor. This is the text provided by Mr. Mark West, London, England:

D.    O.    M.
VINCENTIO MALVETIO
CARDINALI ARCHIEPISCOPO BONONIENSI
S.R.I. PRINCIPI
OB EXIMIAM PROBATAMQUE VIRTUTEM
A BENEDICTO XIV
CUBICULO PONTIFICIO PRAEFECTO
PURPURA DONATO
ET PATRIAE SACRIS REGENDIS
IN SUUM LOCUM SUFFECTO
A CLEMENTE XIV PRODATARII MUNERE AUCTO
OMNIBUS HIS HONORIBUS
VIXIT ANNOS LV MENSES IX DIES XVIII
OBIIT NONAS DECEMBRIS AN. MDCCLXXXV
JULIA MALVETIA SCAPPIA.
H. E.T.
PATRUO B.M.
MOESTISSIMA POSUIT


There are then three lines of text in smaller letters dealing presumably with the tomb, but the letters are almost completely worn away and impossible to read.
(4) Meluzzi, I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna, p. 486, who saw the remains, indicates that they were dressed with the vestments of a prelate and that the wig that the cardinal used to wear was well preserved.

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(46) 9. MATTEI, Luigi (1702-1758)

Birth. March 17, 1702, Rome. Eldest of the seven children of Alessandro Mattei, duke of Giove, and Teresa Naro.The other children were Asdrubale, Costanza, Girolamo, Marianna, Dorotea and Francesco. His last name is also listed as Matthaeius. Brother-in-law of Cardinal Vincenzo Maria Altieri (1777). Uncle of Cardinals Alessandro Mattei (1779); and Lorenzo Girolamo Mattei (1833). His first name is also listed as Aloisio.

Education. Wishing, when he was very young, to enter the ecclesiastical state, he dedicated himself very seriously to the study of ecclesiastical history and of law.Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on January 31, 1727.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace and domestic prelate of His Holiness on February 14, 1727. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica from July 1730. Judge of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's in 1733. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, 1734-1737. Civil auditor of the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church from September 1734. Pope Benedict XIV placed him in charge of the reform of the tribunals. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber on September 9, 1743; as such, he was prefect of the Archives; vicar of the patriarchal Vatican baslica 1744-1747; and president delle Carcere. Governor of Cesi and Terre Arnolfe, 1746-1747. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota on November 14, 1747.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1753; received the red hat on November 29, 1753; and the title of S. Matteo in Via Merulana, December 10, 1753. Protector of the Order Camaldolese on January 24, 1756. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, April 5, 1756. Abbot commendatario of S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, May 1756.

Death. January 30, 1758, after suffering for a few days from high fever, in Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in that same church, ius padronato of his family, with a magnificent eulogy placed in 1782 by his nephew Alessandro Mattei, cardinal and archbishop of Ferrara (1).

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 141-142, no. 362; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 47-48; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 17, 46 and 47; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 373-374; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 605; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 732-733; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 512, no. 706.

Webgraphy. His engraving,CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his tomb in S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of the epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D ·     O ·      M
ALOYSIO MATTHAEIO EX DVCIB · IOVII
POST VARIOS HONORVM GRADVS
A BENEDICTO XIV · P · M · AD PVRPVRAM EVECTO
TIT · PRIMVM S · MATTHAEI IN MERVLANA
DEIN · S · MARIAE IN ARACOELI · VIRO IN OMNI MVNERE
SINGVLARIS IUSTITIAE PERPETVAE MODESTIAE
ET INCOMPARABILIS PROBITATIS LAVDEM PROMERITO
QVI CVM EVM VIVERE MAXIME REIP · INTERESSET
IMMATURA MORTE SVBREPTVS
NCREDIBILE SVI DESIDERIVM RELIQVIT
DIE XXX · IAN · AN · MDCCLVIII · AET · SVAE LVI
ALEXANDER S · R · E · PRESB · CARD · TIT · S · BALBINAE
ARCHIEPISCOPVS FERRARIENSIS
PATRVO BENEFICENTISSIMO PS
ANNO     1782

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(47) 10. MILLO, Giovanni Giacomo (1695-1757)

Birth. June 16, 1695, Casale Monferrato. Of the marquises of Tubine and of Altare. Second child of Francesco Bartolomeo Millo, marquis of Altare, and his second wife, Ottavia Civalieri. The other siblings were Federico Gaetano, Doralice and Francesco. His first name is also listed as Giangiacomo and as Gian Giacomo; and his last name as Milio and as Millus.

Education. Went to Rome and studied at Accademia de' Pizzardoni, where he studied law under Monsignor Prospero Lambertini, future Pope Benedict XIV, who became his friend and protector; later, in 1716, he studied at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Vicar general of Bishop Lambertini in the diocese of Ancona in 1727; and in the archdiocese of Bologna in 1731. When Cardinal Lambertini was elected to the papacy in 1740, he called Monsignor Millo to Rome and named him uditore Santissimo. Protonotary apostolic supernumerary participante on August 4, 1740. Referendary of the Tribunals Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, October 4, 1740. Named datary of His Holiness in 1743, after the resignation of Cardinal Pompeio Aldrovandi; occupied the post until his death. Examiner of bishops and member of several congregations of the Roman Curia.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1753; received the red hat on November 29, 1753; and the title of S. Crisogono, December 10, 1753. Named protector of the Congregation of Blessed Peter of Pisa, of the Congregation of Saint Jerome, on May 8, 1754. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, December 16, 1756 until his death. His family was ascribed to the nobility of Bologna and of Ancona. Abbot commendatario of S. Michele di Chiusa.

Death. November 16, 1757, suddenly, Rome. Exposed in his title, where the funeral took place; and buried in that same church, on the left side of the main door, in a noble and elegant monument with his bust in white marble and an honorable epitaph placed by his nephew Marquis Carlo Francesco Millo (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 48; Del Re, Nicola. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 127-128; Marchesi Buonaccorsi, Giorgio Viviano. Antichità ed eccellenza del Protonotariato appostolico partecipante, colle più scelte notizie de' santi, sommi pontefici, cardinali, e prelati che ne sono stati insigniti sino al presente, opera di Monsignor Giorgio Viviano Marchesi Buonaccorsi forlivese. Faenza : pel Benedetti, 1751. Note: Book; Computer File; Internet Resource, p. 536; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 17 and 43; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 371-373; Storti, Nicola. La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni. Napoli : Athena Mediterranea Editrice, 1969, p. 172, no. 69; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 700; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 745.

Webgraphy. His portrait, University of Bologna; his portrait by Gaspare Traversi, Kunstmarkt Media; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his engraving and portraits, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait and tomb in the church of S. Crisogono, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D    ·    O    ·    M
IOANNI IACOBO MILLO
CASALENSI
EX MARCHIONIBVS ALTARIS
RELIGIONE CANDORE MARUMQUE
INTEGRITATE SPECTABILI
QVI
A BENEDICTO XIV. PONT. MAXIMO
JVDEX SACRARUM COGNITIONUM
MOX DATARIUS
DEMUM S. R. E. PRÆSBYTER CARDINALIS
TIT. S. CHRYSOG. RENUNCIATUS
ET SACRÆ CONGREGATIONIS
PURPURATORUM PATRUM TRID. CONC.
INTERPRETUM
PRÆFECTURA AUCTUS
XVI KAL DECEMBRIS ANNO MDCCLVII
REPENTE OBIIT ÆTAT. SUÆ AN. LXIII
MARCHIO FRANCISCUS CAROLUS MILLO
PATRUO BENEMERENTI
P

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(48) 11. ARGENVILLIERS, Clemente (1687-1758)

Birth. December 30, 1687, Rome. From a very modest family of French origin (1). Son of Giovanni Battista Argenvilliers, consistorial advocate. His first name is also listed as Clemens.

Education. Studied law in Rome.

Early life. He became a celebrated lawyer. Pope Clement XII ascribed him to the Collegio degli avvocati consistorial. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. He became good friend and earned the trust of Cardinal Prospero Lambertini, future Benedict XIV. Conclavist of Cardinal Lambertini in the conclave of 1740, where he was elected to the papacy. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, September 19, 1743. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. Auditor of His Holiness (Sanctissimi), 1743, in spite the open and lively opposition of Cardinal Silvio Valenti Gonzaga, secretary of State; the post involved the direction of the pope's private secretariat and the custody of its archives. Secretary of the S.C. for the Examination of Bishops. Secretary of the special congregation for the economy, which had been set up to review the financial management of the Apostolic Chamber, 1746. Rector of La Sapienza University, Rome, August 11, 1747; he promoted the reform of the university, which was approved by a papal chirografo of September 14, 1748; to effect the papal document, in the fall of 1748, were established the teaching of higher mathematics and chemistry; special fund to support scientific research; and later, the institute of physics and the laboratory of chemistry; and the anatomical auditorium was refurbished; he kept the post of rector until his death. Canonist of the Apostolic Penitentiary from 1751.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1753; received the red hat on November 29, 1753; and the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, December 10, 1753. His promotion had to be postponed many times because of the difficulties presented by the jealousies of the European powers large and small. Protector of the Order of Friars Minimi of S. Francesco di Paola, May 8, 1754. Named pro-auditor of His Holiness. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, from the end of 1757 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII, whose election he opposed. After his promotion to the cardinalate, he continued to stand out for his modesty and his alacrity.

Death. December 23, 1758, Rome. Exposed in his title, where the funeral took place; and buried in the chapel of S. Francesco di Paolo, in that same church. He had himself composed a brief and simple epitaph, to which was added an elegant one composed by Francesco Saverio Zelada, future cardinal, who was his testamentary executor (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 49-50; Del Re, Nicola. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 128; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 17 and 49; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 389-390; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 423; .

Webgraphy. Biography by U. Coldagelli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi,CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his portrait and tomb in the church of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to his biography by Codagelli, linked above. Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 389, says that the family was originally from Brussels.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbanl, linked above:

D·     O·     M·
CLEMENTES ARGENVILLIERES ROMANO
S· R· E· PRESBYTERO CARDINALI
RELIGIONE FIDE GRAVITATE VIRTUTE SINGULARI
EGREGIO JURISCONSULTO
A CLEMENTE XII IN COLLEGIUM ADVOCATORUM CONSISTORIALIUM ADLECTO
A BENEDICTO XIV CUI AUDITOR FUIT
PRIMO LATERANENSIS BASILICA CANONICATU INSIGNITO
ET CONGREGATIONI EXAMINIS AD EPISCOPATUM PROMOVENDORUM A SECRETIS CONSTITUTO
TUM IN SACRÆ POENITENTIARIA DE JURE CANONICO DELIBERATIONIBUS ADHIBITO
EDINDE S· R· E· TIT· SS· TRINITATIS IN MONTE PINCIO PRESBYTER CARDINALI RENUNCIATO
AD EXTREMUM CONGREGATIONI SACRI CONCILII TRIDENTINI INTERPRETUM PRÆFECTO
HIS ALIISQUE AMPLISSIMIS SEDIS APOSTOLICA MUNERIBUS SIBI DEMANDATI
SUMMAM APUD OMNES AC CONSTANTEM DEXTERITATIS ET INTEGRITATIS FAMAM ADEPTUS
FRANCISCUS XAVERIUS DE ZELADA U· S· R· ET A· C· LOCUMTENENS EXEQVUTOR TESTAMENTUM
INSTITUTORI OPTIMO
FRANCISCUS ARGENVILLIERS TESTAMENTO HERES
FRATRI CLARISSIMO
ACCEPTORUM BENEFICIORUM MEMORES
IN HACE MINIMORUM A.DE CUJUS ORDINIS PATRONUS EXTITIT
EX PRIMUS QUAM IPSE SIBI VIVENS SCRIPSERAT ET IN FROMTE HUJUS MARMORIS LOCATUM EST
SACELLI AC SEPULCRI DOMINIS ANNUENTIBUS
MONUMENTUM PONENDUM CENSUERUNT
VIXIT ANN· LXX· M· XI· D· XXIV· OBIIT DIE XXIII DECEMBRIS
ANNO SALUTIS MDCCLVIII

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(49) 12. GALLI, Can. Reg. Lat., Antonio Andrea (1697-1767)

Birth. November 30, 1697, Bologna. Of a noble family. Son of Sebastiano Galli and Teresa Maria Mazzoni. He is also listed as Antonius Andreas Gallus.

Education. He received his initial education at home. Destined to the religious life, he began his studies in the Jesuit school of Bologna; then, on December 17, 1711, he entered the Congregation of the Canons Regular of the Most Holy Savior of Bologna, of Augustinian inspiration; he later passed to the canons Lateranense. After finishing his courses in rhetoric, philosophy and theology, he took the solemn vows on December 11, 1713, keeping his baptismal name; he was then sent to S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, to perfect his theological studies. Later, after his ordination, he obtained a doctorate in theology at the University of Bologna.

Priesthood. Ordained in 1726. Went to Bologna to continue his studies; and then, returned to Rome to teach at S. Pietro in Vincoli. In 1730, he was named lettore perpetuo of philosophy and theology. Teaching enabled him to remain in Rome and take part in the controversy over Jansenism and the Jesuits. His training and correspondence with Augustinian Canon E. Amort, even more than the study of theology and liturgy in France, led him slowly, between 1733 and 1735, to a moderate adhesion to the anti-Jesuit front, without making his any Jansenist thesis, but rather supporting greater spirituality and freedom in theological studies. He was named consultor of the S.C. of the Index. In 1736, he declined the charge of abbot of the monastery of S. Angelo, in Naples, arguing that the nomination was not legally valid; in fact, he was afraid of being forced to leave Rome. Later that year, he was elected and accepted the charge of abbot of the monastery of S. Cecilia di Corbara, Bologna. Member of Accademia liturgica; and of the Congregation for the Reform of the Breviary, 1741-1747; Pope Benedict XIV was not satisfied with the result of the work of the congregation and decided to study it carefully and add his comments; the pope's study of the work is lengthened considerably and the pontiff died before expressing a definitive opinion on the matter; after him, the text was dropped. Named qualificator of the Holy Office on May 14, 1744; and examiner of bishops on January 13, 1746. Procurator general of his congregation on May 16, 1748; elected abbot general in May 1751.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1753; received the red hat on November 29, 1753; and the title of S. Alessio, December 10, 1753. On December 10, 1753, he was ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Holy Office, Index, Rites and Examination of Bishops; on July 24, 1754, to the S.C. of Indulgences and Sacred Relics; and on the following August 2, to the S.C. of Propaganda Fide. Grand penitentiary, June 21, 1755 until his death. In 1755, he was named a member of the cardinalitial congregation which dealt with the application of the papal bull Unigenitus Dei Filius in France and the problems created by the "appellant" Jansenists concerning the administration of the sacraments. The issues raised by Jansenism remained central to the activities of Cardinal Galli. Protector of the Clerics Regular of Saint Paul (Theatines) in 1756. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, February 1757. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, May 23, 1757. As penitentiary major, he assisted Pope Benedict XIV at his death on May 3, 1758. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. In 1761, Cardinal Galli became ponente of the cause of beatification of anti-Jesuit Bishop Juan Palafox y Mendoza of Puebla, México, begun in 1760 by the will of the Spanish King Charles III. The cardinal made the difficult and somewhat dubious cause proceed and after his death it was carried out by Cardinal Lorenzo Ganganelli , future Pope Clement XIV (who suppressed the Society of Jesus); in 1777, the cause was declared inadmissible by Pope Pius VI (1). Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 24, 1763 until February 20, 1764. Protector of the Order of the Bethlemites in the West Indies, November 9, 1763. In 1763, he was named protector of Collegio Greco and of Accademia di teologia; and in 1764, protector of the Congregation of S. Antonio Abate in Monte Libano. In 1766, he was ascribed to the S.C. for the Correction of the Books of the Oriental Church. As a cardinal, he was a frequent visitor of the Roman circle dell'Archetto and of the group of cardinals "philo-Jansenist" headed by Cardinals Domenico Silvio Passionei, Fortunato Tamburini and Andrea Corsini. But Cardinal Galli always distinguished himself from them for his moderation and a desire to avoid discussions that would involve him directly. He wrote several books in theology, which he did not want to publish; the manuscripts of some of them are kept in the archive of the Procura Generale of the canons Lateranense in S. Pietro in Vincoli (2). He updated the library of the monastery of Ss. Salvatore in Bologna, where he started his career; built virtually from scratch that of S. Pietro in Vincoli, buying the books of Cardinal Niccolò Maria Lercari; he also redid the floor of the church of S. Pietro in Vincoli in 1765, causing, however, the destruction of the old cosmatesco floor; as well as other minor works.

Death. March 24, 1767, in his palace at Quattro Fontane, in Rome. After an autopsy was performed, the body was embalmed; and on March 27 transported in a solemn procession to the church of S. Pietro in Vincoli, where it was exposed and where the funeral took place; then it was buried in that same church. He had built his tomb in front of the altar of SS. Sagramento with a simple epitaph that he himself composed (3). The canons erected a monument to his memory in front of the statue of Moses by Michelangelo, with a celebratory inscription composed by Abbot Michelangelo Monsacrati (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 50-51; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 17, 41, 48 and 56; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 486-493; .

Webgraphy. Biography by D. Busolini, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; his portrait, Quadreria, University of Bologna; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Giovanni Antonio Faldoni, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving by Giovanni Antonio Faldoni, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his tomb in S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, ArtServe, The Australian National University; additional images of his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) The process continued for over two centuries; and finally it culminated with the approval, on March 27, 2010, of the promulgation of the decree of Pope Benedict XVI concerning a miracle performed by Bishop Palafox.
(2) These are De angelis; De opere sex dierum; De virtutibus et vitiis; De Trinitate; Tractatus historicus criticus et theologicus adversus donatistas, jovinianistas et pelagianos; De Trinitate et virtutibus theologicis; De verbi incarnatione, adventu Messiae et cultu sanctorum; De locis theologicis; and De Deo et divinis attributis.
(3) This is the text of the epitaph that he composed, taken from Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 491:

ANTONIUS ANDREAS GALLI BONONIENSIS
CANONICUS REGULARIS SSMI SALVATORIS CONGREGATIONIS RHENANAE
S.R.E. PRAESBITER CARDINALIS TIT S. PETRI IN VINCULA
MAJOR POENITENTIARIUS ET SAC. INDICIS CONG. PRAEFECTUS
MORTIS MEMOR VIVENS SIBI POSUIT
ANNO AETAT. EJUS LXVIII
OBIIT ANNO MDCCIX.... DIE... AETAT.

(4) This is the text of the inscription composed by Abbot Monsacrati, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D.    O.    M.
ANTONIO ANDREA GALLI BONONIENSI
ORD. CANONIC. REGVL. SS. SALVATORIS
S. E. R. PRESBYTERO CARDINALI
SACR, CONGREGAT. INDICIS PRAEFECTO
MAIORI POENITENTIACRIO
VIRO
INGENII DOCTRINAE INTEGRITATIS
MODESTIAE RELIGIONISQ. LAVDE
SPECTATISSIMO
ABBAS ET CANONICI S. PERTI AD VINCVLA
SODALI PATRONO ET BENEFACTORI
EXIMIO
G. A. M. P.
VIX. A. LXIX . M. III. D. XXIV.

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(50) 13. CHIGI, iuniore, Flavio (1711-1771)

Birth. September 8, 1711, Rome. Third of the four children of Augusto Chigi, prince of Farnese, and Princess Maria Eleonora Rospigliosi. The other siblings were Laura, Agostino and Alessandro. He is also listed as Flavius Chisius; and his last name as Ghigi. Grand-nephew of Cardinals Giacomo Rospigliosi (1667); and Felice Rospigliosi (1673), on his mother's side. Great-grand-nephew of Pope Alexander VII. Third-cousin of Cardinal Flavio Chigi, seniore (1657). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Sigismondo Chigi (1667). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Flavio III Chigi (1873).

Education. He was educated at home and instructed in all disciplines under the guidance of excellent teachers.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, March 17, 1736. Protonotary apostolic participante, May 8, 1736. In 1738, he was sent as commissary apostolic, to the border of the Papal States to receive Maria Amalia of Saxony, daughter of King Augustus III of Poland, who was on her way to Naples to marry King Charles of Bourbon of the Two Sicilies. President of the Apostolic Chamber, 1740. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1741-1743. President della Zecca. Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber in place of Reverend Father Antonio Ruffo, September 9, 1743 until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 26, 1753; received the red hat on November 29, 1753; and the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, December 10, 1753.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate on May 26, 1754; and the diaconate on June 2, 1754. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, February 12, 1759. Protector of the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans), May 7, 1765. Protector of the Canons Regular Lateranense, 1767. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites January 1768. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. In his testament, prepared on May 13, 1771, he left detailed instructions concerning his funeral and burial (1). He was very generous with the poor (padre de' poveri); and a patron of the men of letters. He was a grand benefactor of the home of orphans of S. Maria in Aquiro.

Death. July 12, 1771, of high fever and convulsions, after receiving the sacraments of the Church, in Rome. Exposed in his deaconry, where the solemn funeral took place; privately transported to the church of S. Maria del Popolo, where he was buried in the chapel della Madonna di Loreto, of his family, without a memorial. In the home of orphans of S. Maria in Aquiro was placed a plaque in his memory (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 51-52; Marchesi Buonaccorsi, Giorgio Viviano. Antichità ed eccellenza del Protonotariato appostolico partecipante, colle più scelte notizie de' santi, sommi pontefici, cardinali, e prelati che ne sono stati insigniti sino al presente, opera di Monsignor Giorgio Viviano Marchesi Buonaccorsi forlivese. Faenza : pel Benedetti, 1751. Note: Book; Computer File; Internet Resource, p. 528-529; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 17, 50 and 52; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 545-549; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 242; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 543; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 362, no. 72.

Webgraphy. His portrait by an anonymous artist, church of S. Maria in Via Parrocchiale, Rome, iccd-immagini, Fototeca Nazionale, Italy; his portrait by Vincenzo Milione, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait by Davide Loreti, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy.

(1) These are the details, taken from Requiem Datenbank (Archivio di Stato di Roma, Archivio Capitolino, vol. 4852, fol. 764v, 765r):

"Doppo che il mio corpo sarà seperato dall'anima, il che, supplico S. D. Mtà., che siegua in sua Santa Grazia, voglio, ed ordino, che il medesimo sia esposto nella Chiesa di S. Maria in Portico mio Titolo, indi trasportato nell'altra Chiesa della Madonna SS.ma del Popolo, e poi sepolto nella Cappella Gentilizia di mia Casa esistendo nella medesima Chiesa.
Nel tempo che il mio cadavere sar` esposto nell'abitazione, dove mi trovo, voglio che negli altari da erigersi secondo il solito nella medesima si celebri qual numero possibile di messe, che si potrà coll elemosina di Scudi 15 per ciascheduna Messa; Voglio in oltre che terminate le Messe, si dica il solito offizio di Requiem dai i Religiosi di S. Francesco di Paola, di S. Maria in Via, e da altri ad arbitrio del mio Ess.re Testam.rio, distribuendosi fra di loro le ore secondo il solito. Voglio di più, che subito seguita la mia morte si faccino celebrare due Messe cantate in ciascheduna dell Chiese di S. Gregorio, di S. Lorenzo fuori delle Mura, e di S. Prassede.
Nel giorno poi dell'essequie, che si faranno nella Chiesa del mio Titolo, ordino, che parimente si celebrino tante Messe quante se ne potranno trovare trà Sacerdoti Secolari, e Regolari colla solita Limosina. Di più ordino, che da miei Sig.ri Eredi si faccino celebrare in suffraggio colla brevità, e sollecitudine, che sarà loro permessa."
(2) This is the text of the inscription, taken from Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 548-549:

FLAVIO CHISIO
S.R.E. DIACONO CARDINALI
A RELIGIONE A PRUDENTIA
AC LIBERALITATE
COMMENDATISSIMO
QUI
UTRIUSQUE SEXUS
PARENTIBUS ORBATIS
QUOS IN PRAESIDIUM ET TUTELAM
RECEPERAT
MULTIS BENEFICIIS TRIBUTIS ET DATIS
IIII MILLIA AUREORUM
ORPHANOTROPHIO LEGAVIT
ET AUREOS MILL. CCXXV PARTHENOTROPHIO
S.S. QUATUOR CORONATORUM
UT. EX. EO. REDDITU
HORTUS. PROMERIDIANIS. PUELLARUM
AMBULATIONIBUS
HONESTOQUE. OTIO. APERTUS
VEPRIBUS. MALISQUE. HERBIS REPURGETUR
EX. TESTAM. RELIQUIT. SINE. SACRIS
XIII. VIRI. PRAEFECTI
PATRONO. OPTINO
BENEFICENTISSIMO
MONUMENTUM. HOC. PONI
DICARIQUE
AN. AET. CHR. MDCCLXXI.

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(51) 14. BANCHIERI, Giovanni Francesco (1694-1763)

Birth. September 23 (or 26), 1694, Pistoia. From an ancient and noble family. Youngest of the three children of Pietro Banchieri and Juditta Cardi. The other children were Giulio and Ignazio. His last name is also listed as Bancherius. Nephew of Cardinal Antonio Banchieri (1726). Cousin of Cardinal Giacomo Oddi (1743).

Education. Initial education at home; later, he studied at Seminario Romano; then, he studied law.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace on July 9, 1733. Relator of the Sacred Consulta, Febrary 1736 -1742. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, January 8, 1742, because of the death of Monsignor Giovanni Luca Nicolini. President della Zecca, 1742. Pro-president delle Ripe, September 9 to December 1743. Commissary of the sea and superintendent general of the Castle of Sant'Angelo, September 1743-1747. Treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber in place of Reverend Father Giovanni Battista Mesmer, who was promoted to the cardinalate, April 10, 1747 .

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 26, 1753; received the red hat on November 29, 1753; and the deaconry of S. Adriano, December 10, 1753. Ascribed to the SS. CC. the Tridentine Council, of the Sacred Consulta, of the Ecclesiastical Immunity, of Good Government, and of the Reform of the Tribunals. Abbot commendatario of Subiaco, December 1753. Legate in Ferrara, vacant because of the death of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Barni, February 11, 1754; his legation was prorogued, September 20, 1756; and again, August 8, 1758 until July 13, 1761; he left Ferrara on the first days of October 1761, returning to Rome.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate on February 24, 1754. Abbot commendatario of S. Firmano, May 1756. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. Protector of the Order of the Bethlemites in the West Indies, April 14, 1761. In July 1763, he was named one of the superintendents of Ospizio Apostolic dell'Invalidi, post vacant because of the death of Cardinal Lodovico Merlini. In August 1763, he went to the Bagni of Lucca, to try to recover his health.

Death. October 18, 1763, of kidney and stomach disorders caused by podagra, after receiving the sacraments of the Church, in his home in Pistoia. Exposed in the church of the Society of Jesus, Pistoia; and buried in the chapel of his family in that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 52-54; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 17 and 50; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 451-453; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 78; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 255 and 471-472; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 434; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 512, no. 708.

Webgraphy. His portrait by Pompeo Girlamo Batoni, Cesare Lampronti, Milano; similar portrait, Roman School, 18th century, Bonhams; RITRATTO BAROCCO. Ritratti del '600 e '700 nelle raccolte private, in Italian, the portrait of the cardinal is no. 32; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy.

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(52) 15. LIVIZZANI, Giuseppe (1688-1754)

Birth. March 20, 1688, Modena. From an ancient and noble family. Youngest of the six children of Marquis Paolo Camillo Livizzani, marquis of Baiso, and Ippolita Mulazzani; when his wife died, he became a priest. The other children were Giulia, Vittoria, Camilla, Anna and Ippolito; all the four girls became nuns. His last name is also listed as Livizzani Mulazzani. Uncle of Cardinal Carlo Livizzani (1785).

Education. Studied at Collegio dei Nobili di San Carlo, Modena (named prince of the academy of letters, 1708-1709).

Early life. Went to Rome to find fortune but he did not succeed during the pontificates of Popes Clement XI, Innocent XIII and Benedict XIII, Finally, with the help of Cardinal Renato Imperiali, Pope Clement XII named him his privy chamberlain and secretary of the Cipher in July 1730. Secretary of the S.C. dei Confini in December 1733, which carried the habit of prelate; he occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate. Referendary of the Supreme Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, February 25, 1734. Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial and of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 17, 1735; occupied the first post until January 1744. Secretary of Memoriali in August 1740; resigned the secretariat of the Sacred College of Cardinals to dedicate himself with more solicitude to his new post. Domestic prelate of His Holiness Pope Benedict XIV. Protonotary apostolic supernumerary participante in September 1740.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 26, 1753; received the red hat on November 29, 1753; and the deaconry of Ss. Vito e Modesto, December 10, 1753. Confirmed as pro-secretary of Memorials.

Death. March 21, 1754, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marcello in Via Lata, Rome, where the capella papalis took place; privately transported to and buried in his deaconry, according to his will (1).

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 213-217; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 53-54; Marchesi Buonaccorsi, Giorgio Viviano. Antichità ed eccellenza del Protonotariato appostolico partecipante, colle più scelte notizie de' santi, sommi pontefici, cardinali, e prelati che ne sono stati insigniti sino al presente, opera di Monsignor Giorgio Viviano Marchesi Buonaccorsi forlivese. Faenza : pel Benedetti, 1751. Note: Book; Computer File; Internet Resource, p. 537-538; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXIX, 78-79; Pásztor, Lajos. "Giuseppe Livizzani sul governo pontificio nel Settecento." Archivum Historiae Pontificiae, XXIV (1986), 233-272; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 17and 52; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 311-312; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 567; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 693.

Webgraphy. His portrait by Marco Caricchia, Fondazione Collegio San Carlo di Modena; his engraving, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), 312:

D.     O.     M.
JOSEPH SS. MM. VITI ET MODESTI
S.R.E. DIACONUS CARDINALIS LIVIZZANI MUTINENSIS
VIXIT ANN. LXVI.
OBBIT DIE XXI MARTII ANNO MDCCLIV
ORATE PRO EO.

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(53) 16. TORRIGIANI, Luigi Maria (1697-1777)

Birth. October 18, 1697, Florence. From the patrician family of the barons of Decimo Fiorentino. Son of Marquis Giovanni Francesco Torregiani and Baroness Teresa del Nero, the last member of that Florentine noble family, related to Pope Leo XI. His last name is also listed as Torregiani.

Education. He was arrogant and not docile to the education that he was receiving at home, therefore his parents decided to send him to Rome when he was twelve to study at Collegio Romano, under the discipline of the Jesuits, to moderate his character. There, he matured, seriously applied himself to his studies, and decided to enter the ecclesiastical state. In 1716, he entered the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, September 4, 1721. Governor of Rieti, September 23, 1721 until October 1722. Governor of Città di Castello, August 17, 1722 until March 1728. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, March 1728. Domestic prelate of Pope Clement XII. Prelate of the S.C. of Immunity. Sent to Perugia as commissary general for the provisions of the Spanish troops which were crossing through Italy, February to November 1734. Secretary of the Congregation for Commerce with Ancona, 1735; he was also in charge of the expenditure accounts for the provisions of the legations of Ravenna and Ferrara, October 1736. Secretary of the S.C. of Immunity, April 1737. Secretary of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, September 1743. Protonotary apostolic supernumerario e participanti, June 1746.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 26, 1753; received the red hat on November 29, 1753; and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, December 10, 1753. Opted for the deaconry of Ss. Vito e Modesto, April 22, 1754. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, Good Government, Consistorial, Rites, Index, Fabric of St. Peter's basilica, and delle Acque. Abbot commendatario of Ss. Giuliano e Gaudenzio, Rimini, 1754; of Monte Verde; of Campagnolo, Reggio, June 1754; and of S. Pastore, Rieti, May 1756. Secretary of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta; of Avignon; and of Loreto. Received the minor orders on June 1, 1754; and the subdiaconate on June 2, 1754. Pro-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, June to September 1756. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. Secretary of State, October 8, 1758 until February 2, 1769, replacing the late Cardinal Alberico Archinto; against the opinion of the majority of the Sacred College of Cardinals, which estimated he was not apt to deal with the foreign courts because he had never been outside of Rome and had a crude, impetuous and strong character; actually, the pope suffered very much for the controversies which his secretary of State created with several Christian princes. Protector of the Order of Friars Minor Observant, February 1763; of the Order of the Friars Minor Reformed; of the Third Order of Saint Francis (Tertiaries); of the Congregation of Monte Oliveto, May 1761; and of the Congregation of Monte Vergine. Opted for the deaconry of S. Agata in Suburra, April 22, 1765. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. He was replaced as secretary of State by Cardinal Lazzaro Opizio Pallavicini. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. Secretary of the S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, February 22, 1775 until his death. He was very generous with the poor and his house was the refuge of the needy.

Death. January 6, 1777, at 9 p.m., suddenly, of an apoplexy, in Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini, Rome, where the solemn funeral took place in the presence of the Sacred College of Cardinals; and buried in the tomb he had built for himself in the chapel of S. Filippo Neri, which he had renovated and embellished. The executor of his testament was Cardinal Carlo Livizzani.

Bibliography. Baum, Wilhelm. "Luigi Maria Torrigiani (1697-1777) Kardinalstaatssekretär Papst Klemens' XIII." Zeitschirft für katholishe Theologie XCIV (1972), 46-78; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 54-55; Del Re, Niccolò. La Curia romana : lineamenti storico giuridici. 4th ed. aggiornata ed accresciuta. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 89; Marchesi Buonaccorsi, Giorgio Viviano. Antichità ed eccellenza del Protonotariato appostolico partecipante, colle più scelte notizie de' santi, sommi pontefici, cardinali, e prelati che ne sono stati insigniti sino al presente, opera di Monsignor Giorgio Viviano Marchesi Buonaccorsi forlivese. Faenza : pel Benedetti, 1751. Note: Book; Computer File; Internet Resource, p. 551-552; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 17, 50, 51 and 52; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 657-662; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 174; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 210, 345, and 950-951; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 513, no. 709.

Webgraphy. His engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his coat of arms on his tomb in S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

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