The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Benedict XIV (1740-1758)
Consistory of April 5, 1756 (VII)
Celebrated in Rome


(56) 1. SAULX-TAVANNES, Nicolas-Charles de (1690-1759)

Birth. September 19, 1690, Paris, France (1). Third of the four children of Charles-Marie de Saulx de Tavannes, count of Buzançais, marquis of Tavannes, and Marie-Catherine d' Aguesseau dame of Châteaux and of Lux. The other children were Léon Charles, Henri Charles and Charles Henri. Second cousin of Cardinal Étienne-René de Potier de Gesvres (1756), on his mother's side.

Education. Studied at La Sorbonne University, Paris, where he earned a doctorate in theology in March 1716.

Early life. He entered the ecclesiastical state at a very young age. Canon of Saint-Pierre d'Apognac.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). In the 1715 Assembly of the Clergy, he was one of the promoters of the Gallican Liberties. Abbot commendatario of Mount-Benoît, archdiocese of Besançon, in 1717. Vicar general of Pontoise, archdiocese of Rouen. Nominated bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne by the duke of Orléans, regent of the Kingdom of France.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne, September 24, 1721. Consecrated, November 9, 1721, church of the Theatins, Paris, by André-Hercule de Fleury, former bishop of Fréjus, assisted by César Le Blanc, bishop of Avranches, and by François-Honoré de Maniban, bishop of Mirepoix. Pair de France, 1721. He took part in the Parlement of 1722. Attended the coronation of King Louis XV of France on October 25, 1722. In 1722, he blessed the nuptials of Duke Louis of Orléand and Princess Augusta Maria von Baden. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Michel-en-Thiérache, diocese of Laon, in 1725. First chaplain of Queen Marie Leszczyńska of France in 1725; her grand chaplain in 1743. Resigned government of the diocese, December 17, 1733. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Rouen, December 18, 1733. Abbot commendatario of de Saint-Étienne, Caen, from 1745 until his death. Commander of the Order of Saint-Esprit on January 1, 1748. Grand almoner of France, 1757-1759. Provisor of La Sorbonne University.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 5, 1756; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated April 7, 1756; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Did not participate in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. He presided over the Extraordinary Assembly of the Clergy.

Death. March 10, 1759, Paris. Exposed and buried in the church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, without any funeral memorial.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1546; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 59-60; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 485-486; Notizie per l'anno1763. In Roma MDCCLXIII : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, p. 128, no. 8; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 395-397; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 514, no. 712.

Links. His arms and biographical entry, in French, Wikipedia; his genealogy, GeneaNet; his genealogy, GeneAll; his arms, third on page; his arms on a bronze medal, Compagnie Generale de Bourse, France; his engraving by Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; Les évêques et archevêques de Rouen, Paroisse Notre Dame de Rouen.

(1) This is according to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1546; and Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 395. Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973, p. 485-486; and Notizie per l'anno1763, p. 128, no. 8, say that he was born on September 9, 1690. Le Gazzette bolognesi says that he was born on September 29, 1690.

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(57) 2. ARCHINTO, Alberico (1698-1758)

Birth. November 8, 1698, Milan. Of the patrician family of the counts of Tainate. Fifth of the eleven children of Carlo Archinto, third count of Tainate, and his first wife, Giulia Barbiani, of the counts of Belgioioso. The other siblings were Francesca, Teresa, Maria, Filippo, Giusppe, Camilla, Giosefa, Ludovico, Girolamo, Anna, and a boy, who died at a young age. His first name is also listed as Alberigo. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Giuseppe Archinto (1699). Uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Archinto (1776).

Education. Studied at the University of Pavia, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. He accopanied his uncle Girolamo Archinto to his nunciature in Cologne; when the uncle died in 1721, while nuncio in Poland, he returned to Rome. Admitted to Collegio degli avvocati of Milan in 1723.

Early life. Went to Rome in 1724 and entered the papal curia as protonotary apostolic de numero participantium, October 6, 1724. Referendary of the Supreme Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, September 23, 1728 (1). Vice-legate in Bologna, 1730-1731. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta. Abbot commendatario of S. Maria di Brera; of San Pietro e Paolo di Viboldone; and of S. Pietro e S. Calogero di Civate.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1736.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicea, September 30, 1739. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, October 1, 1739. Consecrated, November 1, 1739, Milan, by Ludovico Calini, bishop of Crema. Nuncio in Florence, November 17, 1739 (2) until April 1746. Nuncio in Poland, March 1, 1746 (3) until March 12, 1754, when he returned to Rome. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, September 14, 1754 until April 5, 1756.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 5, 1756; received the red hat on April 7, 1756; and the title of S. Matteo in Via Merulana, May 24, 1756. Secretary of State, September 10, 1756, after the death of Cardinal Silvio Valenti Gonzaga occurred on August 28, 1756; confirmed by Pope Clement XIII in 1758; occupied the post until his death on September 30, 1758. Granted license to hear criminal causes, September 10, 1756; license granted again, July 15, 1758. Prefect of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta; of the State of Avignon; of the Holy House of Loreto; and of the State of Fermo. Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church and sommista, September 20, 1756 until his death. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, proper of the vice-chancellor, September 20, 1756. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. He opposed the Jesuits. While visiting Cardinal Giuseppe Maria Feroni in his residence in via del Corso, he suffered an apoplectic attack and died in the arms of that cardinal.

Death. September 30, 1758, near 10 p.m., Rome. Exposed in his title, where the funeral took place; and buried beside the main altar of that church, under tombstone splendidly adorned, with his arms and a magnificent eulogy, placed by his nephew future cardinal Giovanni Archinto (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 60-61; Del Re, Niccolò. La Curia romana : lineamenti storico giuridici. 4th ed. aggiornata ed accresciuta. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 89; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 117; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 231; Marchesi Buonaccorsi, Giorgio Viviano. Antichità ed eccellenza del Protonotariato appostolico partecipante, colle più scelte notizie de' santi, sommi pontefici, cardinali, e prelati che ne sono stati insigniti sino al presente, opera di Monsignor Giorgio Viviano Marchesi Buonaccorsi forlivese. Faenza : pel Benedetti, 1751. Note: Book; Computer File; Internet Resource, p. 507-508; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 18, 44, 47 and 308; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 386-387; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 58; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 159, 362 and 461; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 421.

Links. Biography by E. Gencarelli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; biography, in Italian, Enciclopedia Italiana, Treccani; his portrait, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait by Anton Raphael Mengs, images doctissimo; his portrait by Anton Raphael Mengs, Ciudad de la Pintura; his engraving by Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his arms on a medal, during the 1758 vacant see, mcsearch.info, the Medieval and Modern Coin Search Engine; his tomb in the church of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 386; and Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 461. Marchesi, Antichità ed eccellenza del Protonotariato appostolico partecipante, p. 507, says that he was appointed on September 27, 1724.
(2) This according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 308; Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 231, indicates that he was named on January 23, 1740.
(3) This according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 308; Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 231, indicates that he was named on March 12, 1746.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D   ·   O   ·   M   ·
ALBERICO · CARD · ARCHINTO
IN · MASIMIS · GESTIS · MVNERIBVS
IVSTITIÆ · RELIGIONIS · CONSILII · LAVDE · SPECTATISSIMO
MASIMORVM · PONTIFICIVM
BENEDICTI · XIV · CLEMENTIS · XIII
A · SECRETIS · STATVS
S · R · E · VICECANCELLARIO
OBIIT · ANNO · DNI · MDCCLVIII · SVÆ · ÆTATIS · LX
IOANNES · CARD · ARCHINTVS
PATRVO · DE · SE · OPTIME · MERITO
M · P · ANNO · DNI · MDCCLXXVII

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(58) 3. ROVERO, Giovanni Battista (1684-1766)

Birth. November 28, 1684, Pralormo, fiefdom of his family, diocese of Asti. Fourth of the five children of Carlo Odone Rovero and Paola Curbis. The other children were Giuseppe Antonio, Caterina, Isabelle Felice and Girolamo. His first name is also listed as Giambattista; and his last name as Roero; as Rotarius; as Rotario; and as Rotarius de Pralormo.

Education. Studied in Turin and Rome; and later, at the University of Pisa, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on June 27, 1706. Returned to Turin after finishing his studies.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 21, 1711. In the archdiocese of Turin, canon; and later, archdeacon of its metropolitan cathedral chapter; advisor to the archbishop. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, January 19, 1716. Nominated to the episcopate by King Vittorio Amadeo of Sardinia.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Acqui, October 1, 1727. Consecrated, October 12, 1727, Pauline chapel of the Quirinale palace, Rome, by Pope Benedict XIII, assisted by Francesco Finy, titular archbishop of Damasco, and by Antonio Gentili, titular archbishop of Petra. Presented by King Carlo Emmanuel III of Sardinia for the archdiocese of Turin on December 24, 1743. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Turin, February 3, 1744; he was granted the pallium on that same day. Named abbot commendatario of S. Maria di Casanova by King Carlo Emmanuel III of Sardinia, who decorated him with the Order of the SS.ma Annunziata, as chancellor; and who also asked the pope for his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 5, 1756; received the red hat on July 27, 1758; and the title of S. Crisogono, August 2, 1758. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. Ascribed to the SS. CC. Bishops and Regulars, Rites, Ecclesiastical Immunity, and Indulgences and Sacred Relics. He was a scrupulous observer of the ecclesiastical discipline.

Death. October 9, 1766, at 1 p.m., of attacco al petto, an illness which he had suffered for several months, in Turin. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedal of Turin, where the solemn exequies took place; and buried in the church of the Carmelites Discalced, Turin, in the tomb that he had built for himself, with a simple funeral inscription. He had been a benefactor of that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 61-62; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, p. 93; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 18, 43, and 395; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 479-481; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 834; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 860.

Link. His engraving by Antonio Pazzi, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy.

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(59) 4. SOLÍS FOLCH DE CARDONA, Francisco de (1713-1775)

Birth. February 16, 1713, Salamanca (or Madrid), Spain. Son of José Solís y Gante, marquis of Castelnovo, count of Saldueña and third duke of Montellano, and Josefa Folch de Cardona, marchioness of Castelnovo y Pons. His father was one of the original members of the Real Academia Española, founded in 1713. His brother José Solís Folch de Cardona was viceroy of Nueva Granada (future Colombia); and later entered the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans). Because of the influence that his family enjoyed in the court, he obtained the title of baron of Santa María de Aracena.

Education. He was educated at home with the best teachers, profiting in all sciences; his parents provided him with all the means to cultivate his rare talent and intelligence in the pursuit of his ecclesiastical career; at eighteen, he suffered a grave illness which caused him to lose his left eye; he had a glass eye placed in its stead (1).

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Royal chaplain. Treasurer and canon of the cathedral chapter of Málaga; its dean in October 1744.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Trajanopoli, January 20, 1749. Co-administrator of the metropolitan see of Sevilla, occupied by Cardinal Luis de Borobón, Infante of Spain, January 28, 1749. Consecrated, Sunday March 16, 1749, Royal Monastery of the Incarnation, Discalced Augustinian nuns, Madrid, by Enrico Enriquez, titular archbishop of Nazianzo, nuncio in Spain, assisted by Juan Antonio Pérez Arellano, titular bishop of Casio, auxiliary of Toledo, and by Andrés Núñez Montegaudo, titular bishop of Mascula, auxiliary of Toledo. In the same ceremony was consecrated Manuel Quintano Bonifax, titular archbishop of Farsalo, co administrator of Toledo. Transferred to the see of Córdoba, with personal title of archbishop, September 25, 1752. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, November 17, 1755; he was granted the pallium on that same day. He expanded and modernized the seminary; and rebuilt and embellished the metropolitan cathedral and the monastery of of the Capuchin nuns. He was created cardinal at the instance of King Fernando VI of Spain.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 5, 1756; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of April 7, 1756; the ablegato apostolic, Abbot Count Giovanni Maria Mandelli, brought him the red biretta; King Fernando VI of Spain imposed it on the new cardinal. Did not participate in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. In 1762, he rebuilt the convent of Santa Rosalía. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Received the red hat on June 22, 1769; and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, June 26, 1769. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Tridentine Council, Propaganda Fide, Rites and Indulgences and Sacred Relics. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI.

Death. March 21, 1775, in the morning, in Rome. He had suffered furiosa febre con attaco di petto during the night of March 17; received the sacraments of the Church and the papal blessing. The funeral was celebrated on the following March 27 in his titular church of Ss. XII Apostoli, of the Friars Minor, with the participation of the pope and the Sacred College of Cardinals; at the end, the pope imparted the final absolution. The body, placed in a triple coffin, was consigned to the Father Guardian of that church and buried, without any funeral memorial, to await the decision of his relatives in Spain. His heart was sent from Rome in a crystal urn and buried in the church of the Capuchins in Sevilla, which he had founded.

Bibliography. Asenjo Rubio, Eduardo. "Promoción artística de D. Francisco de Solís Folch y Cardona, cardenal en la Roma de Clemente XIII." Comunicación. Creación Artística y Mecenazgo en el Desarrollo Cultural del Mediterraneo en la Edad Moderna. Congreso Internacional. Málaga, 9-11 de diciembre, 2010. Universidad de Málaga, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Aula de Grados María Zambrano; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 73; Ladero Fernández, Carlos L. "Semblanza de un arzobispo de Sevilla: Francisco de Solms Folch de Cardona (1755-1775)." Anuario de Historia de la Iglesia andaluza, III (2010), 107-137; Merino, P. R. "Solís Folch de Cardona, Francisco." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), IV, 2501; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 626-630; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 18, 42, 83, 238 and 412; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 213.

Bibliography. Portrait and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; portrait and biography, in Spanish, Sevilla TQ, El blog de una ciudad mágica; brief biographical entry, in Spanish, Cordobapedia; his engraving, Colección Carderera, Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, Europeana.EU; his engraving by Tomás Francisco Prieto, Colección Carderera, Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, Europeana.EU; his engraving and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; El Cardenal Espadachín, in Spanish, La Sevilla que no vemos by Julio Domínguez Arjona; his portrait, Biblioteca Colombina, Sevilla; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; De summa felicitate, quam nobis litterarum amor afferat, ad Regiam Hispalensem Academiam in solemni studiorum instauratione : Oratio habita a D. Augustino Guerrero, Zerrn, et Cansinos ... / ac ... D.D.D. Francisco ... Cardinali de Solis ... ; sub auspiciis Bacc. D. Caroli Vazquez ... anno MDCCLXXII by Francisco de Solís Folch de Cardona, Arzobispo de Trajanoli, Fundación Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes; Un original desconocido (o perdido) de Batoni y tres versiones del retrato del cardenal Solís by Jesús Porres Benavides, Manuel Sánchez Lópiz, in Spanish, Archivo Español de Arte; Episcopologio de la diócesis de Cóordoba, in Spanish, diócesis de Córdoba; Episcopologio, in Spanish, archdiócesis de Sevilla.

(1) This is according to Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 626-627. His biography in Spanish from Wikipedia, linked above, says that he lost his left eye in a foil sword (florete) from Infante Carlos de Borbón, future King Carlos III of Spain; and adds that his portraits were always in profile to conceal the lack of that eye. El Cardenal Espadachín, linked above, also says that he lost his eye in a foil sword.

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(60) 5. TRAUTSON, Johannes Joseph von (1704-1757)

Birth. July 27, 1704, Vienna, Austria. Fourth of the eight children of Prince Johann Leopold Donat von Trautson lord chamberlain under Emperors Joseph I and Karl VI, and Maria Theresia Ungnad, countess of Weißenwolf. Baptized on the same day of his birth. The other siblings were Johan Wilhelm, Anton Ernst, Maria Christina, Maria Antonia, Maria Franziska, Karl Franz and Maria Elisabeth. His last name is also listed as Trautshon; and as Trautsohn. He was count von Falkenstein.

Education. Initial studies under the famous Abbot Biagio Garofalo, Neapolitan, well known in the literary world; he graduated from the humanities in Vienna; and early on was destined for an ecclesiastical career; then, he went, with his younger brother Karl Franz, to Rome to Collegio Germanico-Ungarico; and studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned doctorates in theology on April 9, 1723, and in utroque iure, both civil and canon law, on October 27, 1723. Later that year, he enrolled at the University of Siena; and then, took an educational trip to Paris, at La Sorbonne University; to Amsterdam; and the University of Lyon, where he devoted himself to the study of nature and international law. He was praised by his contemporaries for his comprehensive education: his Greek and Hebrew skills attracted special attention; at the same time, he had developed a deep familiarity with the intellectual life of France and the States General; as well as with Jansenism. Besides his native German, he perfectly knew and spoke French, Italian and Spanish.

Early life. In 1715, Emperor Karl VI tried unsucessfully to have him named a beneficiary of preces primariae in the cathedral chapter of Trent. He received the ecclesiastical tonsure in 1720; and in that same year he became canon of the cathedral chapter of Salzburg. In 1723, he was named to the cathedral chapter of Passau; and later, to the chapter of Breslau.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate on September 18, 1728; an the diaconate on September 21, 1728.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 26, 1728, Salzburg. In the following years, he was one of the group of reformist young canons, which included Leopold Ernest and Virgilius von Firmian, Johann Maximilian von Thun, and Karl von Herberstein. Among them, the works of Ludovico Antonio Muratori, an Italian historian and a leading scholar of his age, were discussed. Canon Trautson was also in personal contact with other scholars and exponents of the Italian Catholic reform. The dedication of Muratori's work, De paradiso, to Cardinal Joseph Dominicus von Lamberg, prince-bishop of Passau was conveyed by Canon Trautson. Beneficiary of the abbey of S. Salvatoris, Sexhard, archdiocese of Esztergom. Cardinal Lamberg, prince-bishop of Passau, named him his vicar in Lower Austria, in March 1743. At this time, he was also appointed to the abbot commendatarioof the royal abbey of Szekszard, diocese of Fünfkirchen (Pécs), in Hungary. In the War of Austrian Succession, he was an outspoken supporter of Austria and promoted it openly in Passau. In 1745, as a member of the Salzburg cathedral chapter, he was the deciding factor preventing the election Cardinal Lamberg as prince archbishop. Two years late, in 1747, Canon Trautson was himself the candidate of the Austrian party in the chapter for the archdiocese of Salzburg. He was assisted by Cardinal Philip Ludwig von Sinzendorf of Breslau. But his election failed due to resistance of Jakob Maximilian von Thun, prince-bishop of Gurk. He met and established a close friendship with Cardinal Sigismund von Kollonitsch, archbishop of Vienna. On September 8, 1750, Cardinal Kollonitsch asked to have as coadjutor Canon Trautson.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cartago and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Cardinal Kollonitsch, archbishop of Vienna, December 7, 1750; with the consensus of Empress Maria Theresa. Consecrated, December 25, 1750, in the midnight mass. at Vienna, by Cardinal Sigismund von Kollonitsch, archbishop of Vienna. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Vienna, April 12, 1751. He received the pallium on May 17, 1751. The enthronement took place on June 29, 1751. Archbishop Trautson was an exponent of the Catholic Reformation. He concerned himself with the lifestyle of the priests, making 296 foreign priests undergo an examination; with the relations of the people and the clergy with secular authorities; he caused a sensation with his long pastoral letter addressed to the ministers in 1752, demanding they move away from peripheral Baroque devotions, and return to the essence of Christianity; for the purposes of Muratori's work, Della regolata divozione he demanded a new assessment of the cult of saints, processions, pilgrimages and brotherhoods. The Latin letter was quickly translated and widely distributed. The interest the Protestants had in the letter earned the archbishop accusations of secret Protestantism. He also placed great emphasis on the introduction to the sacraments. He did not want to leave the then customary ceremonies and prayers, but emphasized an in-depth instruction about their origin and meaning. The archbishop also promoted the spiritual life of priests with daily Scripture reading, annual participation at retreats, and participation in deanery and pastoral conferences. Behind all this was the ideal of the pastor as "Pastor Bonus". He supported the policy of educational reform of Empress Maria Theresa. In 1752, he became Protector of the philosophical and theological studies; and Protector of the students of the University of Vienna. In 1754, he was named director of the Theresian's Knights Academy. Imperial privy counselor. He was very generous with the poor and the needy families. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of Empress Maria Theresa

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 5, 1756; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated April 7, 1756; the imposition of the red biretta by the empress took place on the following July 10, in the palace chapel. He never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title.

Death. March 10, 1757, Vienna, as a result of an apoplexy he had suffered on December 19, 1756. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Vienna, where a monument with an honorable eulogy was erected to his memory by his brother, Prince Johannes Wilhelm von Trauson. His funeral oration was published in Vienna in that same year (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 63-64; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 18, 149, and 441; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 368; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), VI, 981. Weißensteiner, Johann. "Trautson. Johann Joseph Reichsgraf von Falkenstein (1704-1757)." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1648 bis 1803 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Stephan M. Janker. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1990, pp. 524-526.

Links. Brief biographical data, in English, Encyclopedia of Austria; his engraving by Giananotnio Faldoni, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his tomb in the metropolitan cathedral of Vienna, findagrave; and the Trautson Palace, Vienna, Encyclopedia of Austria; Bishops and cardinals of Vienna, in English, TourMyCountry.com.

(1) This is its title, taken from Weißensteiner, "Trautson. Johann Joseph Reichsgraf von Falkenstein (1704-1757)." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1648 bis 1803, p. 526: Oratio gratulatoria celsissimo ac reverendissimo Principi Josepho e comitibus de Trautson oblata a Societatis Jesu Collegiis in eins Archidioecesi sitis (Wien 1752). - Praemia Virtutis et Scientiae. quae Eminentissimo ac celsissimo S. R. E. Presbytero Cardinali Josepho Trautsohn ... die X. Iulii MDCCLVI obtulit Curia Archiepiscopalis ad S. Stephanum.

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(61) 6. ALBERT DE LUYNES, Paul d' (1703-1788)

Birth. January 5, 1703, Versailles, France. Second of the four children of Honoré Charles d'Albert de Luynes, duke of Monfort, and Marie Anne Jeanne de Courcillon. His father, who was also a military man in the Chevaux-légers of the Royal Guard, was killed by a shot of a mousquet near Landau, on September 9, 1704. The other siblings were Charles Philippe, Marguerite-Eustochie and Charlotte-Mélanie; both sisters became Benedictine nuns; the second one was prioress perpetual of the monastery of Montargis. He is also listed as Luynes, Paul d'Albert de; and as Paolo Alberto di Luines. He was called Cardinal de Luynes.

Education. He was initially educated by his mother and paternal grandparents, the duke and duchess of Chevreuse; the duke remained a close friend of Archbishop François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon of Cambrai, even when the prelate fell in disgrace; the future cardinal learned how to read with Les Aventures de Télémaque, a thinly veiled attack on the French monarchy, written by Fénelon. The piety and charity that marked him for the rest of his life, he obtained from his mother. After quitting the military, he entered the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, where he distinguished himself brilliantly. He later attended the University of Bourges, where he obtained a doctorate.

Early life. After finishing his studies, he gladly followed a military career and adopted the title of count of Monfort, which belonged to his family. On March 6, 1719, he became the colonel of an infantry regiment that had his name. After an altercation, the young officer was challenged to a duel and he hesitated; his mother urged him to choose between that duel and the religious orders; he decided for the latter.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Without delay, his family obtained for him, from Cardinal Henri-Pons de Thiard de Bissy, bishop of Meaux, the post of vicar general of that diocese. In spite of his natural inclination for a quiet and retired life, his position, rank, family and friendship with the queen, Marie Leczinska, wife of King Louis XV, forced him to participate in the life of the royal court. His position in the court of Versailles helped his elevation to the highest ecclesiastical dignities. In 1727, he was named abbot commendatario of Saint-Vigor de Cérisy, diocese of Bayeux; he retained it after his promotion to the episcopate. Two years later, Cardinal André-Hercule de Fleury, prime minister of France, proposed him to the king for the episcopate initially, the abbé refused believing that he was incapable of worthily assuming such a post; the cardinal replied asking him if he wanted to contradict the king in such a manner; finally, the abbé accepted and the royal brevet was issued on February 17, 1729.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bayeux, August 17, 1729; in preparation for his episcopal consecration, he dedicated himself to the study of the Sacred Scriptures and the councils. Consecrated, Sunday September 25, 1729, Dominican church of Saint-Germain, Paris, by Louis La Vergne-Montenard de Tressan, archbishop of Rouen, assisted by Léon de Beaumont, bishop of Saintes, and by César Le Blanc, bishop of Avranches. After having taken the oath of loyalty to the king, he took possession of the see on December 11, 1729. He regularly visited his diocese. On October 9, 1730, in Vire, he approved and confirmed the statutes of the Congregation de la Vierge, called des Bourgeois. Some years later, he gave the rules and constitutions to the Filles du Bon-Sauveur de Caen. He celebrated several diocesan synods, was a tireless preacher and organized popular missions. One of the missions that he preached in Bayeux for Lent 1732 provoked a violent Jansenist reaction. The Jansenists printed an insolent pamphlet entitle Remotrances des fidèles de la ville de Bayeux à M. de Luynes, leur évêque; they complained about missions in Bayexu, Caen and other cities; the excessive zeal of the Eudist Fathers supporting the papal bull Unigenitus Dei Filius, their intransigence and their lack skill in their pressure to encourage the faithful to choose them as directors of conscience, as well as denying the sacraments by mere suspicion of Jansenism, caused much of the uproar. The incidents of Bayeux, made Bishop Luynes the target of the redactors of the clandestine Jansenist publication Les Nouvelles ecclésiastiques. Member of the Académie Française, March 28, 1743; he replaced Cardinal Fleury. Proposed by Jean François Boyer, bishop of Mirepoix and minister of the feuille des bénéfices, he was named by the king first aumônier of Madame la Dauphine, Marie-Josèphe de Saxe, later the mother of the last three Bourbon kings, January 14, 1747. On August 9, 1753, King Louis XV nominated him metropolitan archbishop of Sens. After hesitating to "divorce" the see of Bayeux, he resigned it on September 21, 1753. Preconized to the metropolitan see of Sens, November 26, 1753; on that same day, he was granted the pallium. He made his solemn entrance in the archdiocese in June 1754. Honorary member of the Académie des Sciences, December 7, 1755; its vice-president, 1757; its president, 1758; honorary after the reorganization of April 23, 1785. Abbot commendatario of Corbie, 1756. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Ouen; and of Sainte-Wandrille.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 5, 1756; with a papal brief of April 7, 1756, the pope sent him the red biretta; received the red biretta from King Louis XV on June 9, 1756; received the red hat and the title of S. Tommaso in Parione, August 2, 1758. On June 3, 1757, he was named by the king president of an extraordinary commission of the Council of State for the relief of the religious communities of the kingdom. Between 1756 and 1761, he devoted himself principally to his charge of aumônier and to general affairs of the Church and the State, specially grave during the Seven Years' War; he entrusted to his vicars general the care and visitation of the archdiocese. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. Commander of the Order of Saint-Esprit, January 1, 1759. From 1761, he dedicated himself almost completely to his archdiocese, renewing his pastoral visits. In 1761, an assembly of the French bishops, which appealled to the pope in defense of the Jesuits, was celebrated at the cardinal's house; a letter written to the pope in 1764, in favor of the Jesuits and the archbishop of Paris, is attributed to him. The Assembly of the Clergy of 1765, in which he participated, strongly protested against the suppression of the Society of Jesus and published the acts in which it justified its adhesion to the papal bull Unigenitus Dei Filius and the papal encyclical of 1756. On December 20, 1765, he assisted his friend the Dauphin Louis-Ferdinand in his deathbed; he presided over the funeral in the metropolitan cathedral of Sens. On March 13, 1767, he also assisted the dauphin's wife, Marie-Josèphe de Saxe, at her death. After the deaths of his friends and protectors, he retired completely to his archdiocese and devoted all his time to it. In the Assembly of the Clergy of April 1, 1767, celebrated again in the cardinal's house, the bishops protested to the king the detentions of the Parlelemnt, which were against canon law. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. His master work in apologetics as Instruction pastorale contre la doctrine des incrédules et portant condamnation du Système de la Nature du baron d'Holbach, a pastoral instruction issued on December 20, 1770, at the Assembly of the Clergy. In 1774, he attended the consecration of King Louis XVI in the cathedral of Reims; he addressed the monarch in the name of all the clergy invited to the ceremony. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. Cardinal protoprete. He was an astronomer and a physicist and did many important astronomical observations in Sens, Fontainebleau and in his own residence in Versailles. His observations were transcribed in the records of the Académie des sciences between 1761 and 1772. He also published in 1768 a memoir on the properties of mercury in the barometers. In September 1779, his episcopal golden anniversary was magnificently celebrated in Sens. He protected the Party of des Feuillants, who were moderate anti-Jansenists.

Death. January 21, 1788, Paris. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Sens. His funeral oration was pronounced on March 14, 1788, by Abbé Le Gris (1). On March 25, 1794, his tomb was desecrated and his remains were transferred to the grand cemetery of Sens, where they now rest.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1162-1163; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 64-65; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 163-164; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCI. In Roma MDCCXCI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, presso la fine del Corso, p. 87-88, no. 47; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 112; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminu Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 18, 49 and 376; Vallery-Radot, Maurice.Le Cardinal de Luynes, archevêque de Sens (1753-1788). Meaux : Sociité d'histoire et d'art du diocèse de Meaux, 1966. (Société d'histoire et d'art du diocèse de Meaux. Études & documents, 1). Note: At head of title: Un administrateur écclésiastique à la fin de l'Ancien Régime. Other title: Administrateur ecclésiastique à la fin de l'Ancien Régime; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 515, no. 716.

Links. His engraving and biography, in French, Wikipedia; his engraving and bried biography, in French, Academie Française; his genealogy, A1 B2 C2, Genealogy EU; his portrait, copy of the original by Frangois Adrien Latinville, hich is in Bibliothèque de l'Institut de France, Réunion des musées nationaux, France; his portrait, cathedral of Sens, Ministère de la Culture et de Communication, France; his engraving by Étienne Fessard and François Adrien Latinville, châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, Versailles, Réunion des musées nationaux, France; his engraving by Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy.

(1) It was published under the title Oraison funèbre d'éminentis. et révérendis. Seigneur d'Albert de Luynes, Cardinal-Prêtre de la S. E. R., Archevêque-vicomte de Sens prononcée dans l'église Primatiale... de Sens (14 mars 1788),

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(62) 7. POTIER DE GESVRES, Étienne-René (1697-1774)

Birth. January 2, 1697, Paris, France. Son of Duke François Potier des Gesvres and Marie Geneviève de Seiglièères. He is also listed as Stephanus Ronatus Potter de Geavres; and as Stefano Renato Potier de Gesures. Nephew of Cardinal Léon Potier des Gesvres (1719). Second cousin of Cardinal Nicolas de Saulx-Tavannes (1756), on his mother's side. At the end of his adolescence, he decided to dedicate himself to the service of the Church under the direction of his uncle the cardinal.

Education. Studied at La Sorbonne University, Paris, where he obtained a licentiate in theology in 1718; and later, a licentiate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Abbot commendatario of the royal abbey of Notre-Dame d'Orsscamp, 1723 to 1734.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1725. For two years, vicar general of Bourges with his uncle. King Louis XV nominated him for the diocese of Beauvais.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Beauvais, April 24, 1728. Consecrated, June 6, 1728, church of Saint-Ouen-le Aumône, Val-d'Oise, by Louis de la Vergne Tressan, archbishop of Rouen, assisted by Nicolas de Saulx-Tavannes, bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne, and by Charles de La Roche-Aymon, titular bishop of Sarepta. Promoted to the cardinalate at the instance of King Augustus III of Poland, at the request of James III, pretender to the British Throne.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 5, 1756; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated April 7, 1756; received the red hat on July 27, 1758; and the title of S. Agnesi fuori le mura, August 2, 1758. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Propaganda Fide, Ecclesiastical Immunity and Index. Abbot commendatario of the royal abbey of Saint-Vincent de Laon from July 1756. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. Commander of the Order of Saint-Esprit, February 1759. Abbot commendatario of the royal abbeys of Saint-Étienne de Caen, 1759; and Saint-Lambert de Leisses. Did not participate in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV . Resigned the government of the diocese, May 22, 1772; and retired to Paris. He was Pair of France.

Death. July 24, 1774, of dropsy, Paris. Exposed and buried in his family's tomb in the church of the Celestines, Paris.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1423; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 65-66; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 435-454; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, p. 117; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 18, 25, 41 and 119; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 569-570; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 825-826; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 515, no. 717.

Links. His portrait by Pompeo Batoni, San Diego Museum of Art, San Diego, California, United States; his portrait by Pompeo-Girolamo Batoni, at the San Diego Museum of Art in San Diego, California, United States of America, flicker; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; and his engraving by Robert Gaillard, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

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(63) 8. RODT, Franz Konrad Kasimir Ignaz von (1706-1775)

Birth. March 10, 1706, Meersburg, diocese of Konstanz. Of a noble family. Son of Imperial field marshal-lieutenant Franz Christoph Joseph von Rodt zu Orsenhausen and Maria Theresia Freiin von Sickingen. His first name is also listed as Francesco Corrado Casimiro.

Education. He enrolled at the University of Fribourg in 1721; and obtained a magister in philosophy in 1722; then, in 1723 he continued his studies in Strasbourg; and later in Rome and Siena.

Early life Canon of the cathedral chapter of Konstanz; expectant, 1713; first possession, 1728; second possession, 1733; in 1739, he became coadjutor of his uncle as provost of Konstanz; became dean of the chapter in 1741; he later resigned the office to the dedicate himself to the work of the court and of the bishop in 1747. Canon of the cathedral chapter Augsburg, 1726; its dean in 1741.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 14, 1737. Elected provost of Konstanz by Pope Benedict XIV in 1744. In 1750, he was the leading candidate of the Austrian party for the see of Konstanz. Against him were the "French" and the "Count" party in the cathedral chapter. With massive support from the Imperial Commissioner, he was elected unanimously.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Konstanz by its cathedral chapter, November 9, 1750. Preconized by the pope, March 15, 1751. Consecrated (no information found). Succeeded his maternal uncle Bishop Kasimir Anton Sickingen (1744-1750); and was succeeded by his brother Maximilian von Rodt (1776-1800). Nominated to the cardinalate by Empress Maria Theresa of Austria.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 5, 1756; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of April 7, 1756; Emperor Francis I imposed on him the red biretta on July 22, 1756, in Vienna; he received the red hat on July 27, 1758; and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, August 2, 1758. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. In 1765, he was awarded the Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Sankt Stephen. As diocesan bishop as his predecessors, Cardinal Rodt did not spare confrontations with the nunciature in Lucerne and the secular states. The old tensions with Austria increased as a result of the ecclesiastical policies of Empress Maria Theresa. The attempt of Cardinal Rodt to replace the Concordat of 1629 with new treaty with Austria failed; but the empress was ready in 1756 to arrange a comprehensive decree by the Austrian Government for the mutual relations. The cardinal could only obtain a partial enforcement of his wishes. In 1757, he received papal permission to expel the Benedictine monks from their monastery of Reichenau. The monks were housed in other monasteries, while in the island monastery only a "mission" of twelve priests remained, which were provided to by the neighboring abbeys. All the efforts of the exiled community to return, and even the restitution of the abbey, failed. He embellished the chapel of the seminary at a high cost; it was consecrated in 1767. Did not participate in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. He was abbot commendatario of the abbeys of Ss. Pietro e Paolo, Cremona, and S.Giovanni alle Vigne, Lodi.

Death. The night of October 15 to 16, 1775, suddenly of an apoplexy, a servant found him dead in his bed in the morning, in the castle of Meersburg. The body was transferred to the cathedral of Konstanz, where the solemn funeral, celebrated by the chapter and the clergy, took place; and buried in the tomb of the bishops (1). His heir was his last surviving brother Maximilian, who became his successor as bishop Konstanz.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 66; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LVIII, 94-95; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 18, 46 and 180; Reinhardt, Rudolf. "Rodt, Franz Konrad Kasimir Ignaz Reichsfreiherr von (1706-1775)." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1648 bis 1803 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Stephan M. Janker. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1990, pp. 382-383; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 633-635.

Links. His portrait, arms and biography, in German, Wikipedia; his portrait, Badische Heimat; his portrait by an anonymous artists, 1767, Christie's; hia engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Antique Portraits; his engraving by Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; and his effigy on one medal and four coins; and another coin, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate.

(1) This is according to Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 635. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IX, p. 66, says that he was buried in the chapel of the castle of Moersburg and that a magnificent monument was erected to his memory with and honorable and wordy epitaph. Reinhardt, "Rodt, Franz Konrad Kasimir Ignaz Reichsfreiherr von (1706-1775)." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1648 bis 1803, p. 383, says that after an old custom, the cathedral chapter wanted the coffin escorted by Konstanz' infantry, troops of the Swabian realm circle, into which was an Austrian episcopal city. The Hapsburg general commander refused to grant permission. Finally, the body had to be buried in great haste in the city parish church of Moersburg.

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(63) 9. SALDANHA DA GAMA, Francisco de (1713-1776)

Birth. May 20, 1713, Lisbon, Portugal. Of the senhores de Assequins. Seventh of the eighteen children of João de Saldanha da Gama, 41st viceroy of India, and Joana Bernarda de Noronha e Lancastre.The other siblings were Luís de Saldanha da Gama Melo Torres, Ana Joaquina de Meneses, Mariana Josefa Joaquina de Lancastre, António Francisco de Saldanha da Gama, Madalena de Lancastre, José de Saldanha da Gama, Ana Joaquina de Melo e Castro, Manuel de Saldanha da Gama, Joana da Silva Caldeira Pimentel Guedes de Brito, Francisca Joana Josefa da Câmara, Ana Joaquina de Lancastre, Antonio José de Melo e Torres, José Joaquim de Miranda Henriques, Maria Barbara Xavier de Lancastre, José Joaquim de Miranda Henriques, José António de Saldanha da Gama and Tomé Caetano de Saldanha de Gama (1). He was baptized on May 28, 1723, in the church of Nossa Senhora de Ajuda, by Father Luís Alvarez do Soutto; his godparents were Rodrigo César de Meneses and Antónia de Santiago. He is also listed as Gama, Francisco de Saldanha da.

Education. Porcionista at Colégio Real de São Paulo, Coimbra, where he earned a doctorate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained in 1739. Prelate of the chapter of the patriarchal cathedral of Lisbon in 1743; its primarius principalis, toward the end of August 1755. Visitor and reformer of the Society of Jesus in the provinces of Portugal and the East and West Indies, April 1, 1758. Nominated to the cardinalate by King José I of Portugal.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of April 5, 1756; with an apostolic brief of April 7, 1756, the pope sent him the biretta; it was brought to Lisbon by Monsignor Andrea Corsini, ablegato apostolic, in July 1756; the imposition of the biretta took place in the chapel of Real Barraca de Belém; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. On April 1, 1758, shortly before his death, Pope Benedict XIV sent an apostolic brief, In specula supremae dignitatis, to Cardinal Saldanha giving him ample faculties to visit, reform and reduce to the original discipline all the houses and schools of the Society of Jesus in Portugal. The brief was requested by Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, marquis of Pombal, prime minister of Portugal, a declared enemy of the Jesuits, to investigate the allegations against the Jesuits that had been raised in the name of King José I of Portugal. The polemic question of the Jesuits marked his life and legacy for ever, even though it only lasted for a year and a half, April 1758 to October 1759. He contributed 1000 scudi for the monument in memory of Pope Benedict XIV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. His promotion to the patriarchate was supported by the marquis of Pombal because of Cardinal Saldanha's adherence to the minister's war against the Jesuits. The King José I of Portugal nominated him to the patriarchate on July 25, 1758.

Episcopate. Elected patriarch of Lisbon, May 28, 1759. He took possession of the see on July 12, 1759, at 11 a.m., through his procurator Fernando Sousa e Silva, future patriarch and cardinal. Consecrated, August 5, 1759, in the chapel of his residence of Junqueira, by José Dantas Barbosa, titular archbishop of Lacedemonia, auxiliary of Lisbon, assisted by Hilário de Santa Rosa, O.F.M., former bishop of Macau, and by Valério do Sacramento, O.F.M. Cap., former bishop of Angra. He made the solemn entrance in the city on September 7, 1759. Opted for the order of priests, May 28, 1759; never received his title. In October 1759, he issued a pastoral proscribing the Society of Jesus. In March 1760, he was named member of the Council of State. In 1760, Portugal interrupted relations with the Holy See for a decade. He was named grand chaplain and first almoner of the kingdom of Portugal. In 1765, he fell in disgrace for favoring the illegitimate brothers of the king, theMeninos de Palhavâ, who were exiled. Did not participate in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI.

Death. November 1, 1776, at 2 a.m., of idropsia di petto, after receiving the sacraments of the Church, in Lisbon. His body, dressed in the habits of patriarch and cardinal, solemnly was transported in a magnificent carriage to the church of Belem, in Lisbon, of the Fathers Girolamini; the solemn exequies were celebrated in that church on November 3 in the presence of the patriarchal chapter and the participation of the secular and regular clergy; the late cardinal was buried in the pavement of the transept of that church (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 66-67; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 18, 25, 29 and 425; Saldanha, Nuno. "D. Francisco de Saldanha da Gama (1759-1776)." Os patriarcas de Lisboa. Coordenação D. Carlos Azevedo, Sandra Costa Saldanha, António Pedro Boto de Oliveira. Palavra de apresentação do Cardeal Patriarca, D. José da Cruz Policarpo. Lisboa : Centro Cultural do Patriarcado de Lisboa; Alêtheia Editores, 2009, p. 33-48; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 652-654; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), VI, 846.

Links. Biography, in Portuguese, Wikipedia; brief biographical data in Os Cardeais Portugueses, in Portuguese, patriarchate of Lisbon; his image and biographical data, in Portuguese, third on page, Geneall.net; his portrait, Secretariado Nacional da Pastoral da Cultura, Lisbon; his engraving by Giovanni Antonio Faldoni, Biblioteca Nacional Digital, Portugal; and his engraving by Giovanni Antonio Faldoni, Arquipelagos .

(1) Saldanha, "D. Francisco de Saldanha da Gama (1759-1776)." Os patriarcas de Lisboa, p. 182, note 3. His biographical data in Portuguese, linked above, lists ten siblings.
(2) This is the text of the unscription in his tomb, taken from Saldanha, "D. Francisco de Saldanha da Gama (1759-1776)." Os patriarcas de Lisboa, p. 45

AQUI JAZ
O CARDEAL
PATRIARCA DE LISBOA
D. FRANCISCO
SALDANHA
NASCEU EM
2 - 5 - 1723
FALECEU EM
1 - 11 - 1776

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