The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Clement XIII (1758-1769)
Consistory of September 24, 1759 (III)

(4) 1. ROSSI, Ferdinando Maria de (1696-1775)

Birth. August 3, 1696, Cortona. From a patrician Roman family, marquises of Florence. Son of Pietro Paolo de Rossi. He is also listed as Ferdinandus Maria de Rubeis. Shortly after his birth, the family moved to Città della Pieve, where his father was aggregated to the local nobility and named gonfaloniere in 1701.

Education. Initial studies in Città della Pieve; then at Collegio Romano, where he obtained doctorates in philosophy and theology on January 13, 1716; and later, at the University of Macerata, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on October 27, 1716.

Early life. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 17, 1724. Referendary of the Supreme Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Grace and of Justice, November 17, 1724 (1). In 1731, together with Federico Marcello Lante, future cardinal, he was sent by Pope Clement XII to bring the fascie benedette for the new dauphin son of King Louis XV of France. Monsignor Lante, who had been his condisciple at Collegio Romano, continued to be his friend and protector for the rest of his life. Named canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in October 1731, through the influence of the Late family. Relator of the S.C. Consistorial, June 1732. Relator of the S.C. of Religious Immunity. Civil lieutenant of the tribunal of the vicariate of Rome, October 1732. Prelate of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity from 1735 until 1744. Pro-vicegerent of Rome at the death of Nunzio Baccari, bishop of Boiano, occurred on January 10, 1738; occupied the post until February 15, 1738, when the new vice-gerent, Filippo Carlo Spada, took possession. Examiner of the Roman clergy, by concourse, in 1738. Also at this time, he was named voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace and relator of the S.C. of Good Government.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 30, 1739.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tarso, July 20, 1739. Consecrated, August 2, 1739, chapel of the Benedictine nuns at Campo Marzio, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Antonio Guadagni, O.C.D., assisted by Raffaele Girolami, titular archbishop of Damiata, and by Filippo Spada, titular archbishop of Teodosia. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, August 3, 1739. Vicegerent of Rome, January 8 1742 until September 24, 1759; during his exercise, he made several powerful enemies but with the support of the Jesuits was able to succeed. In 1743, he became part of the SS. CC. of the Consulta of the Holy Office; of the Sacred Apostolic Visit; and of Indulgences and Sacred Relics. Dean of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace. Promoted to the titular patriarchate of Constantinople, February 1, 1751. When his brother, Marquis Filippo de Rossi, died in 1752, he was deeply affected because they were very close; with his passing, the family would be extinguished. In 1755, acting as vicegerent, he consecrated the fourteen Stations of the Cross at the Colosseum, ordered by Pope Benedict XIV, who had consecrated that place to the passion of Christ. Appointed director of the Via Crucis, he obtained from the pope permission to make part of it the celebrations of worship to the Sacred Heart of Jesus; the permission was renewed by Pope Clement XIV in 1772; this gave the cardinal the general reputation of being a friend of the Jesuits, to whom that cult that was especially dear. That reputation helped make him deeply unpopular with all the party related to the Bourbon courts. When Cardinal Guadagni died on January 15, 1759, the pope named him vicar of Rome until the appointment of Cardinal Antonio Maria Erba-Odescalchi on the following September 28. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the continuous request of the Jesuits.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1759; received the red hat on September 27, 1759; and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, November 19, 1759. He was ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Holy Office, Bishops and Religious, Examination of Bishops, della Ripe and del Tevere. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, September 28, 1759 to February 4, 1775. In 1762, he entered the S.C. of the Holy Office, and distinguished himself in this congregation in 1767, when, having been expelled the Jesuits from Spain, it had to decide whether to accept them in the Papal States. At its meeting on 21 April, Cardinal de Rossi, along with Cardinal Carlo Alberto Cavalchini Guidobono, voted in favor of receiving them. In January of the following year began the dispute between Rome and the duchy of Parma, and Cardinal de Rossi was asked to join the congregation of cardinals and prelates formed by the pope to meet the initiatives from the ducal government . From this congregation came out the apostolic brief of January 30. 1768 that, rejecting all claims jurisdictionalism, deemed void all acts of the ducal government, reaffirming all the ancient privileges of the Church; the document provoked the most resentful reactions not only in Parma, but in all the Bourbon states. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, December 14, 1767. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 4, 1765 until January 27, 1766. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Performed also the functions of vicar general of Rome. Because of poor health and advanced age did not participate in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI, and died during its celebration (2). He was protector of the Order of the Cistercians, November 12, 1761; of the Theological Academy; of Collegio di S. Bernardo alle Terme; of the Archconfraternities of S. Giovanni della Pigna; of Ss. Orsola e Caterina a Tor de' Specchi; of SS. Sagramento e Gesù Maria in S. Simone profeta; of the monasteries of S. Cecilia; and of Monte di nove; of the Conservatory of delle Viperesche; of several università artistiche; of Spello, Massa Lombarda, Collescipoli and Castel S. Pietro; of Collegio Lucarini of Trevi.

Death. February 4, 1775, of an apoplexy, after receiving the sacraments of the Church, in his Roman palace, during the conclave. Exposed in the church of S. Cecilia, his title, where the funeral, according to the practice of the sede vacante took place; Orazio Mattei, titular archbishop of Colosso, celebrated the requiem mass; and his body was buried in that same church, according to his will, with a simple inscription that he had composed (3). In his will, he arranged for the celebration of 7000 masses for the repose of his soul; Cardinal Vincenzo Maria Altieri, his close friend, was his fiduciary heir.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 133, no. 342; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LIX, 178; Del Re, Niccolò. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 129; Del Re, Niccolò. Il vicegerente del vicariato di RomaHierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 21, 42, 49, 56, 180 and 394; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 622-626; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), 861.

Links. Biography by Pietro Messina, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 39 (1991), Treccani; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his tomb in the church of S. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, The Australian National University; more views of his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to Beltrami, Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina, p. 133, no. 342; and his biography in Italian, lined above. Weber, Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809, p. 861, says that he was named on December 14, 1724.
(2) Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, 21, says that because of illness and age ingressus minime erat conclave. Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 625, says that he entered the conclave but had to leave after suffering an apoplectic attack.
(3) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D     O     M
HIC IACENT OSSA
FERDINANDI MARIÆ DE RVBEIS
S. R. E. PRESB. CARD. HVIVS TITVLI
OBIIT PRIDIE NONAS FEBRVARIJ
MDCCLXXV.
ORATE PRO EO

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(5) 2. CRIVELLI, Ignazio Michele (1698-1768)

Birth. September 30, 1698, Cremona. The family was originally from Canton Ticinese and found fortune in Cremona. Of the counts of Ossolaro. Younger of the three children of Count Giuseppe Angelo Crivelli and Francesca Maria Ferrari. The other siblings were Marianna and Stefano Gaetano. His last name is also listed as Cribelli. Uncle of Cardinal Carlo Crivelli (1801). The family gave the Church Cardinal Uberto Crivelli (1173), future Pope Urban III.

Education. Studied at Seminario Romano; then at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, 1721; and later, at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on April 5, 1726.

Early life. Protonotary apostolic de numero participantium, July 7, 1726. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Grace and of Justice, December 19, 1726. Vice-legate in Ferrara, 1728-1730; in practice, he substituted for the legate, Cardinal Tommaso Ruffo, who was ill with malaria. Returned to Rome in 1730 and was named relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta in that same year; occupied the post until 1739.

Sacred orders. Received the minor orders, August 7, 1739; the subdiaconate, August 9, 1739; and the diaconate, August 16, 1739.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 30, 1739.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea, September 30, 1739. Consecrated, October 4, 1739, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Antonio Guadagni, O.C.D., assisted by Carlo Alberto Guidobono Cavalchini, titular archbishop of Filippi, and by Ferdinando Maria de Rossi, titular archbishop of Tarso. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, October 1, 1739. Nuncio in Cologne, October 5, 1739. Nuncio in Flanders, with the charge of superior of the mission of Holland, March 26, 1744. Nuncio in Austria, December 17, 1753.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1759; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated September 28, 1750; his nephew Carlo, as papal ablegato, brought him the biretta to Vienna; he left Vienna in July 1760 and after a stop in Milan, arrived in Rome; received the red hat on August 13, 1762; and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, August 17, 1761. He was ascribed to the SS. CC. of Propaganda Fide, Sacra Consulta, Ecclesiastic Immunity, and delle Acque. Legate in Romagna, August 17, 1761 until December 1, 1766; Monsignor Ferrao took possession for him on November 1, 1761; he arrived in Ravenna on December 28, 1761; he left Ravenna on April 30, 1767. He returned to Rome and then went to Milan. Abbot commendatario of S. Abbondio, Como, January 1764. In 1767, Empress Maria Theresa named him protector of Collegio Ghislieri of Pavia; he delegated the charge to Michele Daverio, royal economous.

Death. February 29, 1768, in the evening, in the house of his brother, Count Stefano Gaetano, in Milan (1). His body was transferred to and exposed in the parish church of S. Maria della Porta, where the funeral took place; he was buried in his family's chapel in that church, with an honorable inscription placed by his brother. He named Monsignor Carlo Crivelli, his nephew, his universal heir.

Bibliography. Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 241; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XVIII, 222; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 21, 42 and 137; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 507-509; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 171-173 Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 322; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 254, 372 and 606 Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 577.

Links. Biography by Marta Pieroni Francini, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 31 (1985), Treccani; his portrait, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, p. 21 and 42; and Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 241. Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 507, indicates that he died on February 28, 1768; the same source, on p. 508, says that he died on February 29, 1768. His biography by Pieroni Francini, linked above, says that he died on February 28, 1768 28 as evidenced by the sources cited in Hierarchia Catholica. And adds that a commemorative plaque in the church where he was buried gives as the date of death March 7, 1768.

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(6) 3. MERLINI, Ludovico (1690-1762)

Birth. November 12, 1690, Forlì. Of a noble family. Younger of the two children of Simone Merlini and his second wife, Chiara Fachinei. The other child was Antonio Guido. He is also listed as Ludovicus Merlinus; and his first name as Lodovico.

Education. When he was an adolescent, he was sent to Rome to Collegio Nazareno, where he studied letters; later, he studied law.

Early life, After graduating, he practiced law in Rome. He entered the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace on July 21, 1729. Shortly after, he obtained a seat in the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace; and became one of the twelve voters of that tribunal. Ordinary judge of S. Michele. Secretary of the Apostolic Hospice. Relator of the S.C. of the Ecclesiastical Immunity. Canonist of the Apostolic Penitentiary. Pro-auditor Santissimo, between August and October 1740, until the arrival from Bologna of Monsignor Giovanni Giacomo Millo, vicar general of that see while Cardinal Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini, the new Pope Benedict XIV, was the archbishop, and who had been named auditor Santissimo.

Priesthood. Ordained (no date found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Atena, October 27, 1740. Consecrated, December 8, 1740, chapel of S. Sisto, Quirinale palace, Rome, by Pope Benedict XIV, assisted by Joseph Guyon de Crochans, bishop of Cavaillon, and by Paul Alpheran de Bussan, bishop of Malta. In the same ceremony was consecrated Giorgio Doria, titular archbishop of Calcedonia, future cardinal. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 11, 1740. Procurator of the Holy See to solve the controversy with the curia of Savoy, January 11, 1741. Nuncio in Sardinia and in Savoy, January 27, 1741 until December 1753; due to a disagreement between the court of Sardinia and the Holy See concerning the level of the nunciature, he was recalled to Rome. At his return from Savoy, he reassumed his post of canonist of the Apostolic Penitentiary. President of the State Urbino, with faculties of legate a latere, September 20, 1756 until December 10, 1759. Named one of the superintendents of Ospizio Apostolic dell'Invalidi.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1759; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of September 28, 1759, with his nephew Monsignor Girolamo Merlini; the biretta was imposed on him by Cardinal Henry Benedict Mary Clement Stuart of York, who was in a rest house in Frolì at the time; received the red hat on May 13, 1760; and the title of S. Prisca, July 21, 1760. He was ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Tridentine Council, Bishops and Regulars, Examination of Bishops, Sacred Consulta, Fabric of Saint Peter's, the State of Avignon, and Loreto. Consultor of the special congregations to solve the discrepancies between the Holy See and the king of Portugal; and the one concerning the Republic of Genoa and the apostolic visitation to Corsica. Fue Abbot commendatario of Ss. Severo, Martino y Niccolò del Monte, Orvieto, August 1761; prior commendatario of S. Salvatore, Ascoli, Agosto 1761. Opted for the title of S. Marcello, April 12, 1762.

Death. November 12, 1762, of a cold and fever, in Rome, the day of his seventy second birthday, after receiving the Sacraments of the Church. Exposed in the church of S. Marco, Rome, where the funeral took place in the presence of the pope and the Sacred College of Cardinals; buried in front of the chapel della Vergine de Sette Dolori, in that church, without any funeral memorial.

Bibliography. Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 250; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 21, 45, 48 and 104; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 435-437; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 621; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 420 and 779.

Links. His portrait and engraving, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait, Sirpac sistema informativo Regione Marche; his portrait, Istituto per i beni artistici culturali e naturali della Regione Emilia-Romagna; his portrait, Europeana; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy.

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(7) 4. ACCIAIOLI, Filippo (1700-1766)

Birth. March 12, 1700, Rome. Of a family from Florence. Third of the six children of Ottaviano Acciaoili, marquis of Novi and conservatore of Rome, and Mariana Torriglioni, from Ancona. The other children were Antonfrancesco, Anna, Angelo, Faustina and Neri. He was baptized in the parish church of S. Maria in Via Lata, Rome; his godfather was Michelangelo Conti, titular archbishop of Tarso, future Pope Innocent XIII; and his godmother was Duchess Emilia Caraffa di Madaloni. Nephew of Cardinal Niccolò Acciaiuoli (1669). Another cardinal of the family was Angelo Acciaioli (1384). His last name is also listed as Acciaiuoli and as Acciaiolus; and as Acciajuoli.

Education. Initial education at home in Florence; then, he was sent to Collegio Romano, of the Jesuit Fathers; and later, he studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on August 13, 1722.

Early Life. Entered the Roman prelature as protonotary apostolic participantium, January 30, 1723; with dispensation of age for being younger than twenty five years as mandated by an apostolic constitution. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Grace and of Justice, February 11, 1723. Vice-legate in Romagna, 1724 until 1728. Governor of Città di Castello, July 10, 1728 until June 1729. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, 1730-1739. President of the Apostolic Chamber, March 1737. Relator of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity in 1737. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, September 1739; as such, gevernor of Cesi, 1739; later, dean of the same. Secretary of the Congregation delle Acque, 1743. Secretary of the Congregation delle Ripa, September 1743. Vicar of S. Maria in Via Lata and governor of Montone, 1743.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate on November 24, 1743.

Priesthood. Ordained on December 8, 1743.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Petra, December 2, 1743. Consecrated, December 21, 1743, Quirinale palace, Rome, by Pope Benedict XIV, assisted by Gioacchino Saporiti, titular archbishop of Anazarbo, and by Michele Maria Vincentini, titular archbishop of Teodosia. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 22, 1743. Nuncio in Switzerland, January 22, 1744 until April 21, 1754. Nuncio in Portugal, January 28, 1754 until October 22, 1760; he was in Lisbon during the earthquake of November 1, 1755, which completely devastated the city. He was involved in the struggle for the expulsion of the Jesuits from Portugal. Initially, the nuncio took a very cautious and moderate attitude towards the Portuguese government, but his actions in defense of the Society of Jesus became much stronger since July of 1758, when Pope Benedict XIV was succeeded by Pope Clement XIII.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1759; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of October 2, 1759. Expelled from Portugal with military force by Prime Minister Sebastián José de Carvalho e Mello, marquis of Pombal, because of his intervention on behalf of the Jesuits, who had been falsely accused of executing the attempt on the life of the king of Portugal, June 15, 1760; he arrived in Rome toward the end of that year. Received the red hat on March 13, 1761; and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, April 6, 1761. He was ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Sacred Consulta, Ecclesiastical Immunity, Consistorial, and delle Acque. Transferred to the see of Ancona, with personal title of archbishop, January 24, 1763.

Death. July 24, 1766, Ancona. Exposed in the cathedral of S. Ciriaco, Ancona; and buried in Capella della Madonna, in that cathedral (1). The cathedral was damaged in 1915; later, by bombings during the Second World War; and in 1972 by a severe earthquake. The floor of the chapel was renewed after the war; the works of restoration were completed in 1977. The remains were placed in a grave in an altar situated in the corner behind the canons' choir. The niche is closed with a simple rectangular marble top, which bears the same inscription.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 173, no. 517; Fink, Urban. Die Luzerner Nuntiatur 1586-1873 : zur Behördengeschichte und Quellenkunde der päpstlichen Diplomatie in der Schweiz. Luzern : Rex Verlag, 1997; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p.229; Marchesi Buonaccorsi, Giorgio Viviano. Antichità ed eccellenza del Protonotariato appostolico partecipante, colle più scelte notizie de' santi, sommi pontefici, cardinali, e prelati che ne sono stati insigniti sino al presente, opera di Monsignor Giorgio Viviano Marchesi Buonaccorsi forlivese. Faenza : pel Benedetti, 1751. Note: Book; Computer File; Internet Resource, p. 505-507; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, I, 57; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 21, 45, 82 and 334-335; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 473-479; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 10; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 210, 370, and 438; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), I, 383.

Links. Biography by Guido Pampaloni, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 1 (1960), Treccani; biographical entry, in Italian, Dizionario storico della Svizzera; funeral information, in German and Italian, Requiem Datenbank; his genealogy, A3 H3 L6 M3, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; The Acciajuoli Cardinals by John Joseph A'Becket, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, composed by Fr. Giovanni Luigi Guidini, Scolapini, taken from Requien Datenbank:

D.     O.     M.
PHILIPPUS ACCIAIOLIS
S.R.E. PRESB. CARD. PATRITIUS FLORENTINUS
EPISCOPUS ANCONITANUS
IX. KAL. SEXT.
MDCCLXVI
OBIT.

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(8) 5. GUALTERIO, Luigi (1706-1761)

Birth. October 12 (or 14), 1706, Orvieto. Of a patrician family related to Pope Innocent X. Son of Giovanni Battista Gualterio, marquis of Corgnolo, and his first wife, Giulia Staccoli. He is also listed as Ludovicus Gualterius; his first name is also listed as Ludovico; and his last name as Gualtieri. Great-grand-nephew of Cardinal Carlo Gualterio (1654). Nephew of Cardinal Filippo Antonio Gualterio (1706). His first name is also listed as Ludovico; and his last name as Gualtieri.

Education. Initial studies at home; then, sent to Rome to study at the Somaschan Collegio Clementino; later, he studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in 1730.

Early life. In 1726, he was sent as papal ablegato to Paris to bring the red biretta to the new Cardinal André-Hercule de Fleury, French prime minister. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature, January 1730. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Vice-legate in Ferrara, February 1731. Governor of Spoleto, March 28, 1735. Apostolic commissary of Benevento, December 1735 to 1738. Inquisitor of the Island of Malta, April 9, 1739-1743.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 30, 1742.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Mira, December 16, 1743. Consecrated, January 19, 1744, Quirinale palace, Rome, by Pope Benedict XIV, assisted by Martino Caracciolo, titular archbishop of Calcedonia, and by Enrique Enriquez, titular archbishop of Nazianzo. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, January 19, 1744. Nuncio in Naples, March 21, 1744. Nuncio in France, March 2, 1754.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1759; with an apostolic brief of September 28, 1759, the pope sent him the red biretta; he received the red biretta at the cathedral of Orvieto from the papal ablegato Monsignor Giuseppe Maria Contesini, privy chamberlain and coppiere of His Holiness; received the red hat on January 30, 1760; and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, March 24, 1760. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Propaganda Fide, Bishops and Religious, Avignon, and delle Acque. Legate in Romandiola for a triennium, July 13, 1761; he never took possession of his legation.

Death. July 24, 1761, campo Borghesiano, commonly known as Villa Taverna, near Frascati, where he had gone to recover his health; after receiving the sacraments of the Church. Transferred to Rome, the funeral took place in the Theatine church of S. Andrea delle Valle, according to his will; the pope and the Sacred College of Cardinals attended the funeral; his body was buried in the front chapel, on the side of the Epistle, in the church of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, his title, with a simple inscription as he had requested (1).

Bibliography. Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 246; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 21, 44 and 299; Schiavo, Armando. "Il cardinale Luigi Gualtieri." Studi Romani, XXVII (1978), 215-219; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 422-425; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 509; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 144, 254, 372, 389 and 716; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 664-665.

Links. Biography by Valentina Gallo, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 60 (2003), Treccani; his portrait, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his tomb in S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; Correspondence of Cardinals Gualterio in the British Library, London, England (type "Gualterio" in "Name").

(1) This is the simple inscription on his tomb taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D.     O.     M.
OSSA
CARDINALIS LVDOUICI GUALTERJ
ORATE PRO EO

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(9) 6. SPINOLA, Girolamo (1713-1784)

Birth. October 15, 1713, Genoa. Second of the five children of Niccolò Spinola, doge of Genoa, and Maddalena Doria. The other siblings were Pasquale, Francesco and two other children. He is also listed as Hieronymus Spinula, Other cardinals of the various branches of the Spinola family were Agostino Spinola (1527); Filippo Spinola (1583); Orazio Spinola (1606); Agustín Spínola (1621); Giandomenico Spinola (1626); Giulio Spinola (1666); Giambattista Spinola, seniore (1681); Giambattista Spinola, iuniore (1695); Niccolò Spinola (1715); Giorgio Spinola (1719); Giovanni Battista Spinola (1733); Ugo Pietro Spinola (1831).

Education. Studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on November 23, 1736.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, December 20, 1736. Named vice-legate in Bologna in 1738; documented in the city from March 11 until October 10, 1740. Relator supernumerario of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, April 1741; relator de numero, January 1742-1743.

Sacred orders. Received the minor orders, March 15, 1744; the subdiaconate, March 19, 1744; and the diaconate, March 22, 1744.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 25, 1744.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Laodicea, April 13, 1744. Consecrated, April 19, 1744, church of S. Maria degli Angeli, Rome, by Pope Benedict XIV, assisted by Giuseppe Saporiti, titular archbishop of Anazarbo, and by Nicola Antonio Caraffa, titular archbishop of Filippi. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, April 19, 1744. Nuncio in Cologne, April 23, 1744; arrived on the following August 28. Nuncio in Switzerland, January 22, 1754. Nuncio in Spain, November 8, 1754.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1759; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated September 28, 1759; papal ablegato Monsignor Viviani brought the biretta to Madrid; received the red hat on December 11, 1760; and the title of S. Balbina, December 15, 1760. Ascribed the SS. CC. of Bishops and Regulars, Sacred Consulta, Ceremonial and delle Acque. Legate in Bologna, July 13, 1761. Legate before Maria Giuseppa, future queen of Naples, September 28, 1767. Legate in Bologna, July 13, 1761; took possession by procurator on November 1, 1761; entered the legation, November 30, 1761; left the city, April 25, 1768. He was protector of the Genoese Church and Nation in Rome, November 1764. Prior commendatario of S. Salvatore, Fermo, December 1767. Legate in Ferrara, January 25, 1768. Legate before Maria Carolina, future queen of Naples, March 14, 1768. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, March 13, 1775. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, retaining the title of S. Cecilia in commendam, April 3, 1775. He realized the pastoral visit of the diocese and embellished the cathedral. He was protector of the monastery of S. Cecilia; of the Benedictine Congregation of Birsfelden, Germany; of Collegio de' Barbieri of Lugo; and of Accademia degli Intrepidi of Collegio Clementino.

Death. July 22, 1784, of a high and pernicious fever, after receiving the apostolic blessing in articolo mortis, in Rome. Exposed in his house, where masses were celebrated in three privileged altars, by the pastors of the parishes of S. Maria in Campitelli and S. Cecilia; the body was transferred with the usual pomp to the church of S. Cecilia, where the funeral was celebrated by Cardinal Leonardo Antonelli, as camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, with the participation of twelve other cardinals; and buried in that same church according to his will (1). In his testament, he left 100 scudi to the poor of the diocese of Palestrina; and another 100 to the poor of the parish of S. Cecilia. His heir usufrttuario was his brother Marquis Pasquale; and his universal heir was his nephew Marchis Paolino Spinola.

Bibliography. Forcella, Vincenzo. Iscrizioni delle chiese e d'altri edificii di Roma dal secolo XI fino ai giorni nostri. 14 v. in 7. Roma : Tip. delle scienze matematiche e fisiche, 1869-1884, II, 43, no. 129; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 262; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LXVIII, 298-299; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 21, Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 924; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 160, 161, 255, and 929; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 924-925.

Links. His engraving and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait by Tommaso Sciacca, Galleria Nazionale di Palazzo Spinola, first picture from the left; complte view of the same image placing the mouse over it; his portrait by Domenico Corvi, Arladica Vaticana; his portrait by Pompeo Batoni, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali, Italy; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his tomb in the church of S. Cecilia, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D    ·    0    ·    M    ·
HIERONYMO · S · R · E · CARDINALI · SPINOLA ·
EPISCOPO · PRAENESTINO ·
S · CÆCELIÆ · COMMENDATARIO ·
PATRICIO · GENVENSI ·
JVSTITIA · MORVM · INTEGRITATE ·
ANIMI · INGENVITATE · SPECTATISSIMO ·
MONVMENTVM ·
OBIIT · XI · KAL · AVG · MDCCLXXXIV ·
VIXIT · ANN · LXX · MENS · IX · D · VII ·

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(10) 7. ERBA-ODESCALCHI, Antonio Maria (1712-1762)

Birth. January 21, 1712, Milan. Of a senatorial family. Eldest of the eleven children of Alessandro Erba, marquis of Modonico, and Apollonia Trotti. The other siblings were Luigi, Benedetto and another eight children who died without descendants. He is also listed as Antonio Maria Erba only. By disposition of Prince Livio Odescalchi, the family inherited the name and patrimony of the Odescalchi family. He was received like in his own home at the house of Duke Baldassare Erba Odescalchi, his uncle, who was the one who received the inheritance from Prince Livio. Great-grand-nephew of Pope Innocent XI. Nephew of Cardinal Benedetto Erba-Odescalchi (1713). Uncle of Cardinal Carlo Odescalchi, S.J. (1823).

Education. Studied at the University of Milan, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on February 10, 1733. He went to Rome and learned the pratice of law in the Roman Curia.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 22, 1736. Entered the Roman prelature as protonotary apostolic de numero participantium on August 18, 1737 (1); later he became the dean of their collegio. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Grace and of Justice, December 12, 1739. Secretary of the S.C. of Indulgences and Sacred Relics in 1740; occupied the post until October 1754. Prelate adjunct of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council for the examination of the reports of their dioceses presented by the bishops to the Holy See. Preceptor of the archhospital of S. Sprito in Sassia, Rome, October 1754. Master of chamber of His Holiness, July 1758. Abbot in commendam Ss. Pietro e Paolo, Viboldone, October 1758.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1759; received the red hat on September 27, 1759; and the title of S. Marcello, November 19, 1759. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Holy Office, Tridentine Council, Examination of Bishops, Discipline of the Regulars, and Indulgences and Sacred Relics.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicea, September 24, 1759. Named vicar general of His Holiness for Rome and its district on September 28, 1759, after the death of Cardinal Giovanni Antonio Guadagni, O.C.D., occurred on January 15, 1759; the vicariate had been occupied temporarily since January by Ferdinando Maria de Rossi, titular patriarch of Constantinople and vice-gerent of Rome, future cardinal. Consecrated, October 14, 1759, church of S. Tommaso, Castelgandolfo, by Pope Clement XIII, assisted by Cardinal Camillo Paolucci, bishop of Frascati, and by Cardinal Carlo Alberto Guidobono Cavalchini, bishop of Albano. In the same ceremony was consecrated Cardinal Ludovico Valenti, bishop of Rimini. Prefect of the S.C. of the Residence of Bishops. He was protector of the Theological Academy; of the congregation of the Benefratelli; of the Order of the Piarists; of the Eremites of Porta Angelica; of the Jesuit Seminario Romano; of the Somaschan Collegio Nazareno; of the Archconfraternity of the Christian Doctrine; of the monastery delle Scalette; of the conservatory of S. Pasquale; della Assunta; of the Mendicanti; of S. Maria del Refugio in S. Onofrio; of the Archconfraternity delle Stimmate; of S. Lorenzo in Lucina; of SS. Cuore di Gesù; of SS. Sagramento in S. Niocla in Arcione; of Gesù e Maria; and of the University de' Cappellari. Commendatore of the Archhospital of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome.

Death. March 28, 1762, of a sudden and violent pain of the lower abdomen, after receiving the sacraments of the Church, without being able to make his will, in Rome. Exposed in his title, S. Marcello, where the funeral took place; in the evening of March 31, the body was transferred to the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, of the Friars Minor Conventual; and buried in the tomb of the Odescalchi family, dedicated to S. Antonio di Padova, in that basilica, without any external memory.

Bibliography. Marchesi Buonaccorsi, Giorgio Viviano. Antichità ed eccellenza del Protonotariato appostolico partecipante, colle più scelte notizie de' santi, sommi pontefici, cardinali, e prelati che ne sono stati insigniti sino al presente, opera di Monsignor Giorgio Viviano Marchesi Buonaccorsi forlivese. Faenza : pel Benedetti, 1751. Note: Book; Computer File; Internet Resource, p. 531-533; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLVIII, 260-261; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 21, 45 and 398; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 431-432; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 677.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, archhospital of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, , Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his arms, archhospital of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, Europeana; .

(1) This is according to Marchesi, Antichità ed eccellenza del Protonotariato appostolico partecipante, p. 531. Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 431, says that he was named on December 18, 1739.

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(11) 8. VERONESE, Sante (1684-1767)

Birth. July 12, 1684, Venice (1). Of a patrician family. Son of Giulio Veronese and Anna Vendramina (2).

Education. Initial studies at home; then, he was sent to the Somaschan Collegio Nazareno in Rome, where he studied philosophy and theology; later, he studied at the University of Padua, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on December 30, 1709.

Early life. After finishing his studies in Padua, he went to Rome to perfect his studies. Named canon of the cathedral chapter of Padua by Cardinal Giorgio Cornaro, archbishop-bishop of Padua, in 1708; he later became canon treasurer.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 4, 1709. Cardinal Cornaro, named him vicar general of Padua; he kept the post under Bishops Giovanni Minotto and Carlo Rezzonico, future Pope Clement XIII. Pope Benedict XIV wanted to name him titular archbishop of Famagusta; and later bishop of Treviso, but he humbly declined. The new Pope Clement XIII, when elected to the papacy, named him administrator of the see of Padua.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Padua, September 11, 1758. Consecrated (no date or place found), by Cardinal Antonio Marino Priuli, bishop of Vicenza, assisted by Paolo Francesco Giustiniani, bishop of Treviso, and by Niccolo Antonio Giustiniani, bishop of Torcello. He took possession of the see on November 19, 1758.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1759; the pope sent him the red biretta with papal ablegato Monsignor Francesco Fantini, privy chamberlain participant; in a solemn ceremony, Cardinal Marino Priuli, bishop of Vicenza, imposed on him the biretta; because of his age and poor health, he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title.

Death. February 1, 1767, Padua (3). Exposed in the cathedral of Padua, where the solemn funeral took place on the following February 3; and buried in that same cathedral with an eulogy sculpted in marble. The funeral oration was delivered by Monsignor Gaetano Cognolato, rector of the seminary of Padua; it was printed in 1767, with a brief biography of the late cardinal. He wrote multiple pastoral letters which were printed. In 1783 Bishop Giovanni Nani of Brescia, had Cardinal Veronese's work De necessaria fidelium communione cum Apostolica Sede printed.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XCV, 43-44; Notizie per l'anno1766. In Roma MDCCLXVI : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, p. 104; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 21 and 330 ; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 484-485; Veronese, Sante. Pastoral letters issued by Sante Veronese, Bishop of Padua. Tom. 1. Corporate author: Catholic Church. Diocese of Padua (Italy). Bishop (1758-1767 : Veronese) ; Henry Charles Lea Library (University of Pennsylvania). Padua : [s.n.], 1733-1766. Description: 44 pieces ; 23-40 cm. Contents: [Ms. index] -- [Ms. document in Italian headed "Originale, e di mano propria dell' Autore, che sue il Card. Veronese"] -- Dissertatio de optione [ms.] -- Ex registro ducalium existente [ms.] / Marinus Grimani ... Dux Venetiarum -- Nota di quanto esborsano -- [Ms. document in Italian] (1733) -- Per divertive i flagelli [ms.] (1733) -- Ricorrendo il tempo di riassumere (1734) -- Non possiamo non compia [ms.] (1734) -- [Ms. document in Italian] (1734) -- Sommario della bolla del giubileo universale [ms.] / Giovanni Arcivescovo Vescovo di Pad[u]a (1735) -- L'opportunità che a noi si presenta (1736) -- La religione Cristiana / Giovanni Arcivescovo Minotto-Otthoboni (1736) -- S. Lorenzo Giustiniani / (1737) -- Il ferio riflesso (1737) -- Ci avviciniamo a que' giorni calamitosi (1741) -- La santa chiesa nostra amorosissma madre (1742) -- Quanto disdicevole non solo (1742) -- Fra tutte le cose da Dio gradite (1742) -- Lo stato deplorabile (1743) -- Il riflettere che noi tutti [ms.] / C. Card. Rezzonico (1743) -- Documenti spettanti alla pubblicazione del giubbileo nella citt` e diocesi di Padova per l' anno MDCCLI / [Benedict XIV ; Carlo Rezzonico] (1751) -- La pietà dell' eminentissimo Sig. Cardinale nostro zelantissimo (1751) -- Inscrutabilis Dei sapientia (1758) -- Quanto costanti sieno i sentimenti di zelo (1759) -- Dovremmo credere (1759) -- Quantunque il lungo servizio di molti anni (1759) -- Non v' ha circostanza di tempo (1759) -- La facoltà di dare la benedizione [ms.] (1759) -- [Ms. document in Italian] (1759) -- Se tutti li sacerdoti seriamente -- Fra tutte quelle solennit` (1760) -- L'onnipotente e sempre ammirabile provvidenza (1761) -- Ci andiamo accostando (1761) -- Cadendo in quest' anno (1761) -- [Ms. document in Italian] (1761) -- Fra li punti piy importanti (1761) -- Quanto grande sia stata la beneficenza (1761) -- Le serie riflessioni (1762) -- La vita dell' uomo (1762) -- Approssimandosi que' felicissimi giorni (1763) -- Ricorrendo il tempo delle sacrosante osservanze Quaresimali (1764) -- Abbiamo più volte desiderato (1764) -- [Ms. document in Italian] (1766). Abstract: Collection of 44 printed and ms. pastoral letters and documents issued primarily by Sante Veronese during his tenure first as Vicar-General and then as Bishop of Padua (a few by his predecessors Giovanni Minotto Otthoboni and Carlo della Torre Rezzonico, later Pope Clement XIII). The individual documents are mostly arranged in chronological order. Most of the ms. documents appear to be transcriptions. A few of the printed ones are broadsides; some have engraved or woodcut vignettes of Veronese's episcopal arms and woodcut initials, head- and/or tail-pieces. All are bound together (some folded) in a vol. measuring 32 cm. in height.Notes: Collection title devised by cataloger./ Binding: Paper boards with ms. author and title ("Santi Card. Veronese Predica MS. e Lettere Pastorali T. I.") and shelf mark on spine and with Henry Charles Lea's bookplate on front pastedown and his autograph (1876) on front free endpaper; housed in a red cloth portfolio with remains of red ties and red morocco spine label stamped in gold ("Santi Veronese. Predica e Lettere Pastorali Tom. I")./ Bio/History: Sante Veronese (b. Mar. 4, 1684; d. Feb. 1, 1767) was appointed Bishop of Padua on 11 Sept. 1758. General information: Formerly owned by Henry Charles Lea (bookplate front pastedown). Organization: Items are arranged chronologically. Other title: Predica e lettere pastorali Tom. 1; Veronese, Sante. Pastoral letters issued by Sante Veronese, Bishop of Padua. Tom. 2. Corporate author: Catholic Church. Diocese of Padua (Italy). Bishop (1758-1767 : Veronese) ; Henry Charles Lea Library (University of Pennsylvania) Padua : [s.n.], 1748-1766. Description: 30 pieces ; 28-70 cm. Contents: [Ms. index] -- Dopo aver noi con altra nostra lettera pastorale / Carlo ... Cardinale Rezzonico (1748) -- Quella religiosissima invariabile pietà (1749) -- Quantunque i giorni tutti (1750) -- Aeterni illius divini pastoris (1750) -- Avvicinandosi il giorno solenne (1758) -- Non possiamo certamente credere (1758) -- Essendo per leggi inviolabili (1759) -- Il pensiero più importante (1759) -- La santità di N.S. Papa Clemente XIII volendo prendere (1759) -- Il governo di questa illustre chiesa (1759) -- Fra tutte quelle solennità (1750) -- Il paterno distinto affetto (1760) -- Nella ricorrenza de' due anniversari (1760) -- La festività imminente dell' Assunzione (1760) -- Invito all' orazione delle quarant' ore da farsi nella chiesa parrocchiale di S. Giacomo Appostolo (176-) -- Il sacramento della cresima (1761) -- Quanto al signor sia grata (1761) -- Piace a Dio Signore tenerci mortificati (1762) -- La santità di nostro signore felicimente regnante (1762) -- Desiderosi noi di accorrere (1763) -- Non possiamo leggere senza tenerezza (1763) -- Nell' atto di trasmettervi le pagine dei casi (1763) -- Mossi dai pastorali doveri del nostro zelo (1764) -- Accostandosi la solennità della felicissima Assunzione (1764) -- Nell' atto di trasmettervi la pagina de' casi (1764) -- L' istituzione santissima delle Quaresimali (1764) -- Nei molti nojosi emergenti (1765) -- Nell' ingresso delle sacrosante ferie Quaresimali (1766) -- Accostandosi la solenne festa della Assunzione (1766). Abstract: Collection of 29 printed letters and documents issued primarily by Sante Veronese during his tenure first as Vicar-General and then as Bishop of Padua (1 by his predecessor Carlo della Torre Rezzonico, later Pope Clement XIII), with 1 ms. index. The individual documents are arranged in chronological order. All of the printed documents are broadsides printed by the Fratelli Conzatti of Padua; most have woodcut vignettes (usually in red and black) of Veronese's episcopal arms and woodcut initials. Some documents have ms. inscriptions on versos; "L' istituzione santissima delle Quaresimali," dated 1764, has ms. correction to 1765. All are folded and bound together in a vol. measuring 32 cm. in height. Notes: Collection title devised by cataloger./ Binding: Paper boards with ms. author and title ("Santi Veronese Card. Lettere Pastoral. T. II.") on spine and with Henry Charles Lea's bookplate on front pastedown and his autograph (1876) on front free endpaper; housed in a red cloth portfolio with red ties and red morocco spine label stamped in gold ("Santi Veronese. Predica e Lettere Pastorali Tom. II")./ Bio/History: Sante Veronese (b. Mar. 4, 1684; d. Feb. 1, 1767) was appointed Bishop of Padua on 11 Sept. 1758. General Info: Formerly owned by Henry Charles Lea (bookplate front pastedown). Organization: Items are arranged chronologically. Other title: Predica e lettere pastorali Tom. 2; Veronese, Sante. Resolutiones theologicae in quattuor Sententiarum libros chronol. historicae et polemicae adversus haereses ... Roma : [s.n.] 1701; Veronese, Sante ; Cognolato, Gaetano. Sanctis Veronesii Espiscopi Patavini Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Presbyteri Cardinalis Opvs Postvmvm De Necessaria Fidelivm Commvnione Cum Apostolica Sede. Dedicatee Jacopo Leonardis. Brixiae : Ex Typographio Danielis Berlendis, 1783. Note: Fingerprint nach dem Ex. der FB Gotha. Other title: De necessaria fidelivm commvnione cvm apostolica sede; Opus Postumum De Necessaria Fidelium Communione Cum Apostolica Sede; Opvs postvmvm de necessaria fidelivm commvnione cvm apostolica sede.

Links. His portrait by Maria Domenica Scanferla, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Istituto per i beni artistici culturali e naturali della Regione Emilia-Romagna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

(1) This is according to Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XCV, 43; Notizie per l'anno1766, p. 104; and Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 484. Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, p. 330, says that he was born on March 4, 1684.
(2) This is according to Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 484. Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XCV, 43, says that his mother was Daria Colomba.
(3) This is according to Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XCV, 44; and Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, 21. Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 484 and 485; and Gazzetta di Bologna , say that he died on January 31, 1767.

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(12) 9. VALENTI, Ludovico (1695-1763)

Birth. April 27, 1695, Trevi, diocese of Spoleto. Of the counts of Riosecco. Eldest of the three children of Captain Alessandro Valenti, iuniore, and Paolina Venturelli. The other siblings were Gaetano and Gaetana. He is also listed as Ludovicus Valentibus. Another cardinal of the family was Erminio Valenti (1604).

Education. Studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on March 20, 1719.

Early life. Consistorial advocate coadjutor of his uncle, Ferdinando Valenti, consistorial advocate and fiscal of the Apostolic Chamber, in 1721. Cardinal Anibale Albani named him commissary of the conclave of 1721. Coadjutor of his uncle as fiscal advocate of the Apostolic Chamber in the pontificate of Pope Innocent XIII. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Grace and of Justice, December 7, 1730. Domestic prelate of His Holiness and voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, 1734-1751. Promotor of the Faith in March 1734. Consultor of the SS. CC. of the Holy Office and of Rites. Protonotary Apostolic supernumerary participante in June 1736.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 31, 1736. rector of La Sapienza University, November 22, 1737 to August 1741. Prelate of the Reverend Fabric of Saint Peter's basilica. Examiner of the prelates promoted to the episcopacy. Secretary of the Congregation of the Reform of the Breviary, 1741-1747. Assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, July 7, 1754. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, June 1754.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1759; received the red hat on September 27, 1759; and the title of S. Susanna, November 19, 1759. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Tridentine Council, Examination of Bishops, Rites, Bishops and Regulars, and Indulgences and Sacred Relics. Protector of Narni and of the chapter of that cathedral; of his homeland, Trevi; and of the church of Ss. Benedetto e Scolastica di Norcia, in Rome

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rimini, September 24, 1759. Consecrated, October 14, 1759, church of S. Tommaso, Castelgandolfo, by Pope Clement XIII, assisted by Cardinal Camillo Paolucci, bishop of Frascati, and by Cardinal Carlo Alberto Guidobono Cavalchini, bishop of Albano. In the same ceremony was consecrated Cardinal Antonio Maria Erba-Odescalchi, titular archbishop of Nicea. Abbot commendatario of S.Eutizio, Norcia, August 1761. Opted for the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, December 20, 1762. Resigned his see of Rimini in September 1763.

Death. October 18, 1763, after a long illness; when the fever was very high, fearing for his life, he sent his master of chamber to Castelgandolfo to ask Pope Clement XIII for the apostolic blessing, in the Roman residence of his brother in law, Niccolò Maria de Vecchi, dean of the consistorial advocates, in Via della Catena di Borghese. Exposed in the house where he died, where two privileged altars were erected for the celebration of funeral masses; and later transported to the church of S. Andrea delle Fratte, where the funeral took place with the usual pomp and solemnity; the requiem mass was celebrated by Antonio Andrea Galli, Can. Reg. del Ssmo. Salvatore Lat., camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, who also imparted the final absolution; at the end of the ceremony, the body was placed in a triple coffin and transported to be buried in his title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (1). His heart was deposited in the church of S. Andrea delle Fratte, under a marble slab with his cardinalitial arms, near its main entrance.

Bibliography. Marchesi Buonaccorsi, Giorgio Viviano. Antichità ed eccellenza del Protonotariato appostolico partecipante, colle più scelte notizie de' santi, sommi pontefici, cardinali, e prelati che ne sono stati insigniti sino al presente, opera di Monsignor Giorgio Viviano Marchesi Buonaccorsi forlivese. Faenza : pel Benedetti, 1751. Note: Book; Computer File; Internet Resource, p. 530-531; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LXXXVII, 244-246; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 21, 43, 49 and 100; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 447-450; Valenti, Maria Virginia Maneschi Prosperi. "Il Cardinale Lodovico Valenti." Bolettino Storico della città di Foligno, XIII (1980), 261-284; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 954; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 960.

Links. His portrait, Museo e Biblioteca "F. Renzi", Borghi, Istituto per i beni artistici culturali e naturali della Regione Emilia-Romagna; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his arms, piazza Mazzini, Trevi, Chieracostui; his tomb in the church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D.      O.      M.
LUDOVICVS

HVIVS . BASILICAE
S. CRVCIS . IN . HIERVSALEM
PRESBITER . CARDINALIS
DE . VALENTIBVS
S. ECCLESIAE . ARIMINENSIS
EPISCOPUS
SITIENS . AD . DEVM
QVI . NON . DESERIT . SPERANTES . IN . SE
SIBI . VIVENS . POSVIT
REBIAE . NATVS
An . SAL . MDCVC . V KAL . MAII
DECESSIT . IN . PACE
XV . KALENDAS . NOVEMBRIS
MDCCLXIII

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(13) 10. CASTELLI, Giuseppe Maria (1705-1780)

Birth. October 4, 1705, Milan. Of a noble family. Third child of Marquis Francesco Castelli and Lodovica Messerati. The other siblings were Giovanni Francesco, Carlo and Camillo.

Education. Studied at Collegio San Carlo, Modena, 1715; and at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, 1724.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace end domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 26, 1739. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, 1741-1744. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice from October 1744. Prelae of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council and relator of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, December 1751. Consultor of the S.C. of the Index, September 1753; and of the Holy Office, December 1754. Preceptor general of the archhospital of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, July 1758-1759.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1759; received the red hat on September 27, 1759; and the title of S. Alessio, November 19, 1759. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Holy Office, Tridentine Council, Propaganda Fide, Examination of Bishops, Index and Discipline of the Regulars. Apostolic visitor of Montis Pietatis of Rome, April 24, 1760. Abbot commendatario of Ss. Pietro e Paolo, Viboldone, June 1762. Prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, April 26, 1763 until his death. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 27, 1766 until February 16, 1767. Prefect of studies of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide from October 1767. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. He was a friend of St. Alfonso Maria de' Liguori. He was protector of Collegio Apostolico de' Sacerdoti a Ponte Sisto; of the national church and confraternity of Ss. Carlo e Ambrogio of the Milanese; of the Theological Academy, Rome; of the cities of Narni, Piperno, and Civita Castellana; and of the ospedali of Perugia, Spoleto, Narni and Viterbo.

Death. April 9, 1780, Rome. According to his will, he was exposed in the church of Ss. Ambrogio e Carlo al Corso, where the funeral took place on the following April 12; and buried in that same church, according to his will (1).

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 158, no. 407; Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 294-295; Martinelli, Raffaello. Le Lapidi di San Carlo al Corso : catechesi in immagini. Roma : Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo, 2007. (Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo; Variation: Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo), p. 87; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, X, 211; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 21 and 41; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 202; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 524.

Links. His portrait by Gian Domenico Porta, Fondazione Collegio San Carlo, Modena; his portrait, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbak, linked above:

HIC JACENT CINERES
JOSEPHI MARIAE
PRESB . CARD . CASTELLI MEDIOLANENSIS
OBIJT DIE IX . APRILIS
MDCCLXXX .
VIXIT ANNOS LXIV . MENSES VI . DIES V .

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(14) 11. BUSSI, Pietro Francesco (1684-1765)

Birth. July 28, 1684, Rome. From a family originally from Viterbo. Second of the thirteen children of Count Giulio Bussi, from Viterbo, and Cecilia Maidalchini. The other siblings were Raniero, Papirio, Benedetto (bishop of Recanati e Loreto), Francesca, Teresa, Dorotea, Olimpia, Domenico, Alberto, Innocenzo, Ludovico and Alessandra Felice. He was related to the families of Popes Innocent X (Pamphilj); and Alexander VII (Chigi). His first name is also listed as Pier Francesco and Pierfrancesco. Nephew of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Bussi (1712). Uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Bussi (1824).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, April 30, 1713 until 1743. Chamberlain of honor of His Holiness. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature and domestic prelate of His Holiness, December 16, 1721. Judge of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's basilica, 1731. Elected auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota (or auditors of causes at the Apostolic Palace), December 1733; took possession, June 1734; became its dean, January 1757.

Priesthood. Ordained, February 1, 1734. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites. Regent of the Apostolic Penitentiary, July 1755. Consultor of the Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office, January 1757.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1759; received the red hat on September 27, 1759; and the title of S. Maria in Via, November 19, 1759. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Tridentine Council, Good Government, Ceremonial, and the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace.

Death. September 10, 1765, at 11 p.m., of an apoplexy and renal complications, after receiving the sacraments of the Church, in Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marcello, where the funeral took place, in the presence of the Sacred College of Cardinals and the Roman prelature; the requiem mass was celebrated by Cardinal Ferdinando Maria de Rossi, camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, who also imparted the final absolution; in the early evening of June 13, the body was transported to and buried in the right side of the Bussi chapel (chapel of S. Francesca Romana), which is the first chapel to the right, in his titular church (1). His praecordia was placed in the tomb of his ancestors in the basilica of S. Maria in Trastevere.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 127, no. 325; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VI, 173; Notizie per l'anno1766. In Roma MDCCLXVI : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, p. 140; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 21 and 47; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 470-473; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 157; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 485; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 516, no. 724.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his tomb in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome, Requiem Datenbak.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from the image of his tomb, linked above:

D.     O.     M.
PIETRO FRANCISCO BVSSIO ROMANO
CAVSAR. S. P. A. XII VIRO DECANO
TIT. S. MARIAE IN VIA
S. R. E. PRESBYTERO CARD.
VIRO INTEGERRIMO
PIETATIS RELIGIONISQ.
CVLTORI PRAECIPVO
PAVPERVM QVOS
HAEREDES EX ASSE RELIQVIT
PATRONO MVNIFICENTISSIMO
VIXIT A. LXXXI. M. I. D. XIII.
OBIIT IV. ID. SEPTEM. A. MDCCLXV.
DOMINCVS BVSSIVS MIL. HIEROSOLYM.
HAERES FIDVCIARIVS
FRATRI PIENTISSIMO
M.     P.

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(15) 12. FANTUZZI, Gaetano (1708-1778)

Birth. August 1, 1708, Gualdo, archdiocese of Ravenna. Of a patrician and noble family from Ravenna and Ferrara. Son of Count Giacomo Fantuzzi and Laura Gottifredi, Roman noblewoman. Baptized in San Giovanni in Compito, on April 6, 1709. He is also listed as Caietanus Elephantutius; his first name as Francesco Gaetano; and as Caietano; and his last name as Elefantucci; and as Elephantutio. Great-grand nephew, on his mother's side, of Father Alessandro Gottifredi, superior general of the Society of Jesus.

Education. Studied human letters and philosophy at Collegio San Carlo, Modena, from 1719; then, at the University of Pisa; and later at the University of Ravenna, where he earned a doctorate in law in November 1730; and also studied mathematics.

Early life. Entered the ecclesiastical state in 1730 and went to Rome. Member of the study of Monsignor Peralta, Spanish auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota; and later, his secretary. In the pontificate of Pope Benedict XIV, he was named chamberlain of honor. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, September 1741. Prelate referendary. In 1743, he became auditor of Cardinal Annibale Albani, camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church; he did not occupy the post because he was named auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota on September 9, 1743.

Priesthood. Ordained, ca. 1745. Auditor of the causes of the Apostolic Palace. Regent of the Apostolic Penitentiary. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites, January 1757. Pope Benedict XIV planned to elevate him to the cardinalate but died before he could promote him. Instead, he was created cardinal by Pope Clement XIII.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1759; received the red hat on September 27, 1759; and the title of S. Agostino, November 19, 1759. Prefect of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Examination of Bishops, Tridentine Council, Good Government, Consistorial Discipline of the Religious, Index, Apostolic Visitation, and Correction of the Books of the Oriental Church. Prefect of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, August 1761. Protector of the Order Camaldolese, July 12, 1763. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 16, 1767 until January 25, 1768. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, April 6, 1767. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. He was protector of the Filippini of Montefalco; of the city of Ravenna; of the commune of Zelada; of Castel Bolognese; of Savignara; of the Confraternity of S. Girolamo, Amelia; and of the University dei droghieri, Rome. In his house, he established an academy in which erudite legal dissertations were presented. He formed a collection of paintings, which later was transported to Gualdo, his native city. Abbot commendatario of Ss. Bartolomeo e Niccolo, Ferrara; and Ss. Fidenzio e Terenzio, Todi.

Death. October 1, 1778, Rome. Exposed and buried in his title, with an honorable inscription (1). His funeral oration, Elogio funebre pel cardinal Gaetano Fantuzzi, was published in Fermo, in 1781.

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 291-293; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 22, 42, 48 and 56; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 157; IV, 626; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 602; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 725, no. 516.

Links. Biography by Guido Fagioli Vercellone, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 44 (1994), Treccani; his portrait, by Andrea Barbiani, 1760, Biblioteca Classense, via Baccarini, 3, Ravenna, Italy, Istituto per i beni artistici culturali e naturali della Regione Emilia-Romagna; his portrait by Sebastiano Ceccarini, Fondazione Collegio San Carlo, Modena; his portrait by David Loreti, Pinacoteca Francesco Podesti, Ancona, Sirpac sistema informativo Regione Marche; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his bust, Museo d'Arte della Città di Ravenna, Istituto per i beni artistici culturali e naturali della Regione Emilia-Romagna; his tomb, in the church of S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

CAIETANO . ELEPHANTVTIO
TIT . HVIVS . ECCLESAE . S . PIETRI . AD . VINCVLA
PRESBITERO . CARDINALI
PATRICIO . RAVENNATI
STIRPIS . SENATORIAE . BONONIENSIS
OB . SVMMAM . DIVINI . HVMSNIQ . IVRIS . PERITIAM
IN . COLL . XII . VIR . STLITIBVS . IVDICANDIS . COOPTATO
MORVM . INNOCENTIA . ANIMIQ . MODERATIONE
SPECTATISSIMO
TERRENA . QVI . TERRIS . RELIQVIT
ANIMA . AD . AVCTOREM . REMEANTE
KAL . OCTOB A . D . MDCCLXXVII .
AETATIS . SVAE . LXX . M . I . D . XX .
MARCVS . COMES . PRIMARII
FERDINANDVS . VTR . SIGN . REF . CENTVM. CELL . GVBERNATOR
ET . IOSEPH . APVD . HISPANIARVM . REGEM
PRAETORIAE . COHORTIS . DECVRIO
FRATRIS . FILII
M . P

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(16) 13. ORSI, O.P., Giuseppe Agostino (1692-1761)

Birth. May 9, 1692, Florence. Of an aristocratic family. His baptismal name was Agostino Francesco.

Education. Initial education at home; later, he studied grammar, rhetoric and philosophy in the Jesuit school in Florence. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans), in the convent of S. Domenico, in Fiesole, February 21, 1708; at his profession he took the name Giuseppe Agostino; there he studied philosophy and theology then, he was sent to the convent of Florence, where he continued his Scholastic theological studies as well as those in the Fathers of the Church, and ecclesiastical writers, both ancient and modern; he cultivated the belle lettere, the languages, Latin and Greek, and became an elegant Italian writer.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). He was master of studies for some time at the convent of San Marco, Florence. Called to Rome in 1732, he became professor of theology and prior at Collegio S. Tommaso d'Aquino until 1734. Theologian of Cardinal Neri Corsini, nephew of Pope Clement XII, 1734-1738. Professor of theology at La Sapienza University, Rome. He was consulted by the pope and cardinals about delicate and important matter concerning the Apostolic See. Secretary of the S.C. of the Index, December 1738. Named master of the Sacred Palace (papal theologian, post traditionally occupied by a Dominican friar), in June 1749, after the death of Master Luigi Nicola Ridolfi.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1759; received the red hat on September 27, 1759; and the title of S. Sisto, November 19, 1759. His patron, Cardinal Neri Corsini, provided him the necessary funds to cover the expenses of the promotion. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Holy Office, Propaganda Fide, Index, and Correction of Books of the Oriental Church. He was a noted theologian, and ecclesiastical historian, he wrote profusely on dogmatics, apologetics, and church history. Because of his poor health, he moved from the Dominican convent of S. Maria sopra Minerva to Palazzo Caffarelli, seeking to improve his condition, suffering from continuous stomach pain.

Death. June 13, 1761, around 12:30 a.m., suffering for four days of inflammation of the intestines, after receiving the sacraments of the Church, in Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, where the funeral took place; his body was privately transferred to and buried in his title, the Dominican church of S. Sisto (1). Monsignor Fabroni wrote his biography and registered some of his most important works (2).

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLIX, 144-145; Olivieri, Samuele. "Orsi, Giuseppe Agostino." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Prepared by an editorial staff at the Catholic University of America. 19 vols. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1967-1996, X, 786; Prandi, Alfonso. "La 'Istoria Ecclesiastica" di p. G.A. Orsi". Rivista di storia della Chiesa in Italia, XXXIV (1980), 430-450; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 22 and 49; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 406-409; Walz, Angelus. I Cardinali Domenicani : note bio-bibliografiche. Firenze : Convento S. Maria Novella, 1940. Note : Extract from Memorie domenicane, fasc. maggio-giugno 1939; gennaio-febbraio e marzo-aprile 1940, p. 46.

Links. Biography by Johann Peter Kirsch, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; bibliography and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; bibliography, 309 entries, WorldCat: The World's Largest Library Catalog; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; two engravings, the first one by Antonio Capellan, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his tomb, basilica of S. Sisto, Requiem Datenbank; and another image of his tomb in the basilica of S. Sisto Vecchio, iccd immagini, Fototeca Nazionale, Rome.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D  ·      O  ·     M  ·
IOSEPH AUGUSTINUS URSIUS
FLORENTINUS
ORDINIS PRAEDICATORUM
S · R · E · PRESB · CARDINALIS TIT · S · SIXTI
INTERGRITATE MORUS CONSPICUUS
ET EDITIS SCRIPTIS PRAECLARUS
HIC REQUIESCIT IN PACE PX
VIXIT ANN· LXIX· M· I· D· III·
OBIIT EIDIB· IUNIIS A · S · MDCCLXI ·


(2) These are the titles of some of the works, taken from Morone, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XLIX, 145: Dissertazione dommatica e morale contro l'uso materiale delle parole, Roma 1727; Dissertatio apoIogetica pro ss. Perpetuae, Felicite et soclorum martyrum ortodoxia, adversus Samuelen Basnagium, Florentiae 1728; Dimostrazione teologica, colla quale si prova, che ad effetto di conciliare i diritti della veracità colle obbligazioni del segreto, nè si può, nè si deve ricorrere ad alcuna di quelle leggi, che alcuni moderni teologi alla romana repubblica attribuiscono, Milano 1729; Dissertatio historica, que ostenditur catholicam Ecclesiam tribus prioribus saeculis capitalium criminum reis paceni et absolutionem neutiquam denegasse, Milano, 1730; Dissertatio theologica de invocatione Spiritus Sancto in liturgiis graccorum et orientalium, Milano, 1731; De concordia gratiae et liberi arbitri, cum Ruardo Tappero epistolari disputatine. Liber apologeticus, quo Scoti doctrina a recentis historici censuris adscritur, Romae 1734; Dissertatio duae baptismo in nomine Jesu Christi, et de chrismate confirmationis, Milan 1733; Vindiciae dissertatio de batismo in nomine Jesu Christi a Sorbonici doctoris objectis, Florentiae 1735; De irreformabili romani Pontificis in definiendis fidei controversiis judicio, Romae 1739; De romani Pontificis in synodos aecumenicos et eorumque canones potestae, Romae 1740; Del origine del dominio e della sovranità temporale de' romani Pontifici, Romae 1742; Storia ecclesiastica, Romae, 1747-1761. Of this last work, he published twenty volumes, covering until the 6th century. Father Filippo Angelico Becchetti, O.P., future bishop of Città della Pieve, continued and completed it. Among the complete editions of Cardinal Orsi's work there is the one published in Venice in 1822, in forty two volumes, under the care of Giuseppe Battaggia.

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(17) 14. GUGLIELMI, Pietro Girolamo (1694-1773)

Birth. December 4, 1694, Jesi. Third of the four children of Giovanni Lodovico Guglielmi, famous jurisconsult, and Camilla de' Galvani. The other siblings were Antonio, Gaetano and Giuseppe. His first name is also listed as Pier Girolamo. Great-grand uncle of Pope Pius IX.

Education. Initial education at home; later, influenced by his father, he studied law and obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Cleric of Jesi. Auditor of the nunciature in Naples. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature and domestic prelate of His Holiness, January 9, 1726. Auditor of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, July 1730. Second lieutenant of the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, March 1733. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, March 1734. Assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, September 1743. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, January 6, 1745.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate on April 17, 1745; and the diaconate on June 12, 1745. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Religious, November 26, 1753. Consultor of the SS.CC. of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, and Rites, December 1753.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1759; received the red hat on September 27, 1759; and the title of Ss. Trinità al Monte Pincio, November 19, 1759. Ascribed to the SS. CC of Bishops and Regulars, Ecclesiastical Immunity, Apostolic Visitation, Fabric of Saint Peter's basilica, and the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace. He was protector of several congregations and sodalities, among them, the Congregation of the Clerics of S. Ippolito della Carità, in México; and the Confraternity of the Madonna della Misericordia e di S. Pietro, Jesi. Prefect of the S.C. of the Discipline of the Regulars, December 1759. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 25, 1768 until January 29, 1770. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. The several illnesses that he suffered during the course of his life had debilitated his mind to a serious condition (1).

Death. November 15, 1773, near 2 p.m., after suffering from a high fever and catarrh, for a few days, in Rome. Exposed in the Dominican church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, where the funeral took place in the morning of November 17, in the presence of Pope Clement XIV; Cardinal Giovanni Carlo Boschi, camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, celebrated the requiem mass; and buried in his title, Ss. Trinità al Monte Pincio (2). He did not prepare a formal will but left a handwritten document to his close friend, Giorgio Lascario, titular patriarch of Jerusalem, in which he designated his brother Gaetano as heir ab intestato. He left his servants 2000 scudi to be distributed according to their rank. His brother Gaetano erected a marble monument, with his portrait and an inscription, in his honor in the chapel of the family Balleani, in the cathedral of Jesi, while the cardinals was still alive. The chapter of that cathedral placed his effigy painted in cloth in the capitular hall, among those of other cardinals and bishops, next to the one of his brother Antonio, archbishop of Urbino, with an analogous honorable inscription.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 138, no. 353; Forcella, Vincenzo. Iscrizioni delle chiese e d'altri edificii di Roma dal secolo XI fino ai giorni nostri. 14 v. in 7. Roma : Tip. delle scienze matematiche e fisiche, 1869-1884, XII, 405, no. 971; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXIII, 188-189; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 22 and 49; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 562-564; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 518; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 666.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Antonio Zaballi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna.

(1) This is how Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 563, describes his condition: "le gravi continue applicazioni sofferte per tuto il corso della sua vita, avevano di molto debilitata sua sanità a segno, che il più delle volte, era totalmente incomodato da debolezza di testa, che faceva dubitare dovesee cadere in una totale imbecilità." His long time auditor, Domenico Priuli, assisted him carrying on his duties.
(2) This is the text of the inscriotion in his tomb, taken from Forcella, Iscrizioni delle chiese e d'altri edificii di Roma dal secolo XI fino ai giorni nostri, XII, 405, no. 971:

D . O . M.
PETRO HIERONYMO GVGLIELMIO
ÆSINO DE PATRITIA GENTE SENENSI
S. R. E. CARDINALI
AMPLISSIMIS MVNERIBVS FVNCTO
CAIENTANVS FRATER
MŒRENS POSVIT AN. 1774.
VIXIT AN. LXXIX MENS XI DIES XI
OBIIT DIE XV NOV. MDCCLXXIII

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(18) 15. FURIETTI, Giuseppe Alessandro (1685-1764)

Birth. January 24, 1685, parish of S. Andrea, Bergamo, Republic of Venice (1). Of an ancient and patrician family. Son of Giovanni Furietti, prince of Valenzano, and Catarina Terzi.

Education. He completed his studies in grammar in Bergamo; then, studied rhetoric and philosophy at Collegio Elvetico, founded by S. Carlo Borromeo, Milan; then, went to Collegio Borromeo, Pavia, where he studied theology and mathematics; and finally, studied at the University of Pavia, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, around 1705; he studied law to please his family, but his principal inclination was erudition.

Priesthood. Ordained (no date found), probably in Bergamo.

Early life. He went to Rome in 1709 and there he worked to enrich his erudition, particularly in history, chronology and Roman antiquity. In 1710, he was admitted in Arcadia under the name Entesto Calameo. The purpose of his transfer to Rome was also to work papal curia, therefore, he directed his effort to the practice of the courts. He was aiutante di studio of Monsignor Giovanni Francesco Barbarigo, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for Venice. He had demonstrated such talent, that in 1715, he was charged, by the Venetian ambassador, Nicola Duodo, and the pope, Clement XI, with the delicate diplomatic mission of traveling to Malta to ask the grand master of the order for the ships needed to defend against the Turks, some of the sites Republic of Venice in Morea. Even if the aid came too late and Morea was abandoned, the conduct of Furietti was approved, and helped him get from Pope Innocent XIII, on January 19 (or 29), 1722, the admission to the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. In 1725, he was named civil lieutenant of the cardinal vicar of Rome, after the death of Monsignor Filippo Cesarini. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government in 1726. He was civil lieutenant of the auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber from October 8, 1732 until September 17, 1743. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace. Secretary of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, 1743 until his promotion to the cardinalate; besides, he was also secretary of the S.C. of the Residence of the Bishops. At this time, he published in Rome the works of two famous compatriots, Gasparino Barziza and his son Guiniforte; the publications received the praise of the critics; he also published the poetic works of another compatriot, Publio Fontana, of whom, like of Barziza, he wrote his biography. Examiner of the candidates for promotion to the episcopate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1759; received the red hat on September 27, 1759; and the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, November 19, 1759. He was ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Tridentine Council, Ecclesiastical Immunity, Discipline of the Regulars, and the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace. Protector of the nation and Church of Bergamo; and of the collegiate church and chapter of Argenta. He was a recognized philologist, historian, archeologist, and collector of ancient art and books. Promoted the excavations of Villa Adriana, Tivoli (2). His book on mosaics, De Musivis, became a classic on the subject; it was published in Rome in 1752; he dedicated it to Pope Benedict XIV (3). Abbot commendatario of the abbeys of Ss. Simone e Giuda (also called della Magione); and of S. Maria e di Tutti i Santi del Galgario, both in Bergamo; and of a S. Eufemia, Treviso; of S. Maria, Savologna; and of Ss. Filippo e Giacomo, also in Bergamo. He was affected by a severe illness (probably an advanced form of atherosclerosis) that affected both his mental and physical conditions and eventually caused his death.

Death. January 14, 1764, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, where the funeral took place; and privately transported to and buried in the church of Ss. Bartolomeo ed Alessandro dei Bergamaschi, also called S. Maria della Pietà, Rome, where in 1772, a monument with his image in a mosaic was erected. From the cardinal's heirs, In his will, dated February 28, 1760, he named as his heirs his nephews Giovan Battista, Pietro and Antonio Lanfranco, sons of his brother Francesco Luigi. The heirs sold to Pope Clement XIII, the famous pieces of excavation for the sum of 14,000 scudi. He left his personal library to his native city, with the mandatory requirement that within five years it was open to the public. This happened on time in 1768, so in a room of city hall was formed the nucleus of the city library, the current Mai Library. The legacy comprised 36 cases, and consisted of 1,363 volumes and manuscripts of the cardinal. He also left 3000 scudi to his servants.

Bibliography. Dentella, Lorenzo. I vescovi di Bergamo. (Notizie storica). Bergamo : Editrice Sant'Alessandro, 1939, p. 434-438; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXVIII, 75-77; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 22 and 48; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 454-456; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 18; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 626.

Links. His portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography by Guido Fagioli Vercellone, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 50 (1998), Treccani; his portrait, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his bust, Biblioteca Mai, Bergamo, Regione Lombardia - Università degli Studi di Pavia; his efiggy on a medal, La Numismatica di Brescia; his tomb, church of Ss. Bartolomeo ed Alessandro dei Bergamaschi, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, 22. Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 454; his biography in Italian by Fagioli Vercellone, linked above; and Dentella, I vescovi di Bergamo, p. 434, indicate that he was born on January 23, 1684.
(2) It is said that Pope Benedict XIV offered him the cardinalate in exchange for two centaurs found in the excavations in 1737, but that he refused and the pope never promoted him. They were the work of Aristea and Papia, Greek sculptors. The pope wanted the centaurs as a contribution to the magnificence of Rome and the Campidoglio. The real reason for not elevating him to the cardinalate was of a very different nature. In those years came to the end the crisis of the age-old dispute between Venice and Austria concerning the jurisdiction of the patriarchate of Aquileia, which ended in 1751 with the abolition of the ancient see. Monsignor Furietti, as a loyal subject, had actively collaborated with the Venetian ambassador A. Capello to support with his legal doctrine the claims of Venice in harsh opposition to the court of Vienna, to which, he became persona non grata; therefore, the pope thought that it was inappropriate to exacerbate the tensions by granting the purple to Monsignor Furietti at the time.
(3) The work is divided into six parts and deals with the etymology of the name, origin and the various kinds of mosaics, their history, and how they were used by the different peoples from ancient Rome to the 18th century.

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(19) 16. CONTI, Pietro Paolo (1689-1770)

Birth. February 24, 1689, Camerino. Of a noble family. He is also listed as Petrus Paulus de Comitibus.

Education. Initial studies at home; later, at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome.

Early life. Entered the ecclesiastical state, went to Rome and became auditor of Cardinal Neri Maria Corsini. First collateral of the Campidoglio, 1735. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, September 15, 1740. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace. Auditor of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, August 1740. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government. Consultor of the S.C. of the Holy Office. Prelate of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity. Secretary of the S.C. of Good Government, January 1742. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, January 31, 1745. Pro-canonist of the Apostolic Penitentiary, March 1754.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1759; received the red hat on September 27, 1759; and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, November 19, 1759. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Good Government, Ecclesiastical Immunity, delle Acque, delle Ripe, and Tevere. Protector of the Camerinese church of Ss. Venanzio ed Ansuino, Rome. Opted for the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, March 21, 1763. In 1763, he was named visitor delle acque of the Three Legations; his report to the pope, at the end of his charge, was published in Rome. When he learned that in the consistory for the creation of cardinals of September 26, 1763, Monsignor Mario Marefoschi, secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, was not going to be one of the prelates promoted, Cardinal Conti wrote to the pope offering to resign his cardinalate in favor of Monsignor Marefoschi; the pope did not accept. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. His multiple writings were placed in the archive of the tribunal of the S.C. of Good Government.

Death. December 14, 1770, after the multiple illnesses that he had suffered throughout his life worsened and made him lose his mind, in Rome. His body was embalmed and exposed in one of the chambers of his palace; later, it was transported to the church of S. Andrea delle Fratte, Rome, where the funeral took place on December 17, in the presence of Pope Clement XIV, who arrived in a carriage with two cardinals, presided over the ceremony from a throne, and who imparted the final absolution; the Sacred College of Cardinals was also in attendance; after the funeral, the body was transferred privately to and buried in the Camerinese church of Ss. Venanzio ed Ansuino, Rome, according to his will. In his testament, he named his brother as universal heir. He left 1300 scudi to be distributed to his servants. Father Tommaso Conti, O.P., his brother, placed the inscription in his tomb (1).

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XVII, 88-89; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 22, 43 and 49; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 538-540; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 588-589.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 540:

D.     O.     M.
PETRO PAULO DE COMITIBUS
PATRITIO CAMERTI
TITULI S. STEPHANI IN MONTE COELIO
S.R.E. PRESBITERO CARDINALI
VIRO INTEGERRIM0
HUMANI DIVINIQUE IURIS
PERITISSIMO
VIXIT ANN. LXXX MENS. IX D. XX
OBIIT POSTRIDIE ID. DECEMBRIS
MDCCLXX
FRA. THOMAS DE COMITIBUS
ORD. PRAEDIC.
GERMANUS FRATER
M.P.

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(20) 17. ANTONELLI, Niccolò Maria (1698-1767)

Birth. July 8, 1698, Pergola, diocese of Senigallia, dukedom of Urbino. From a family originally from Gubbio, which had been inscribed in 1622 in the register of the noble families of Senigallia. Second of the three children of Count Francesco Antonelli, governor of the fortress of Pergola, and Lucrezia Tafani. His first name is also listed as Nicola and as Nicolao. The other siblings were Filippo, iuniore, and Bonaventura. Uncle of Cardinal Leonardo Antonelli (1775).

Education. Intern at Collegio dei Nobili in Urbino, of the Fathers Scoloppini; he then studied at Collegio Nazareno, Rome, directed by the same priests, where he perfectly learned Greek and Latin; then, he passed to the study of Cardinal Carlo Agostino Fabroni, known as an excellent professor, under whom he studied law and theology in order to enter the service of the Apostolic See; later, he was secretary and aiutante di studio of Monsignor von Harrach, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for Germany. He also distinguished himself as a profound scholar of Oriental civilizations, especially Chaldean and Hebrew.

Early life. Privy chamberlain of Pope Clement XII. In 1730 he was appointed superintendent of the library of Collegio Urbano. Named by Monsignor Monti, secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide; director of the printing office of that congregation in May 1730; and of the printing of texts in the Oriental languages. Named prefect of the secret Vatican archives and of the archives of Castel S. Angelo in March 1733. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness Pope Benedict XIV, who appointed him secretary of the Accademia dei Concili, instituted by that pope. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. Secretary of the S.C. for the Correction of Oriental Books, 1741. At the end of 1741, he was named member of the commission charged with the preparation of the work for the reform of the breviary, in which he labored for many years. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1743. Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial and of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 3, 1744 until 1757. In 1744, he was named one of three commissioners to study the Lectionary. Consultor of the S.C. of the Index, September 1753. Regent of the Apostolic Penitentiary, December 1753. Secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, March 1757-1759. He always stood out at the papal court and the Roman Curia, for his vast culture, his knowledge, and his brilliant intellectual activity.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1759; received the red hat on September 27, 1759; and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, November 19, 1759. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Propaganda Fide, Tridentine Council, Index, and delle Acque. Prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Sacred Relics, 1760. Prefect of the S.C. for the Corrections of Books of the Oriental Church, 1761. Protector of the Maronite and Armenian nations. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs, August 5, 1761, after the death of Cardinal Domenico Silvio Passionei, occurred on July 5, 1761. Protector of the Order of the Eremites of Saint Augustine, April 29, 1763. Prefect of studies of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide and its printing office, 1763. He was a learned canonist, ecclesiastical historian, and Orientalist. (1)

Death. September 25, 1767, in the evening, after a brief illness caused by fever and inflammation of the internal organs which caused a severe gangrene, having received the sacraments of the Church with great resignation and peace, in Rome. Exposed in the Servite church of S. Marcello, Rome, where the solemn funeral mass took place on September 27 in the morning, in the presence of Pope Clement XIII, the Sacred College of Cardinals, and the Roman prelature; the mass was sung by Cardinal Gaetano Fantuzzi, camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals; according to his will, his body was buried among the canons of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome (2). In his will, he named beneficiaries the ospedali of Pergola and Senigallia; and left 2000 scudi to his domestics.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, II, 217; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 22 and 47; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 497-501; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 55; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 417.

Links. Brief biographical entry by Thomas Shahan, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Elvira Gencarelli, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 3 (1961), Treccani; his portrait by Domenico Corvi, Biblioteca Antonelliana, Senigallia; same portrait, Sirpac sistema informativo Regione Marche; his portrait, Ostra (Ancona), Sirpac sistema informativo Regione Marche; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engravingby Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his effigy in his tomb in the Lateran Basilica, Rome, The Australian National University; and more images of his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) Among his works are De Titulis Quos S. Evaristus Presbyteris Romanis Distribuit, published in Rome in 1725; Ragioni della Sede Apostolica sopra il ducato di Parma e Piacenza esposte a' Sovrani e Principi cattolic d'Europa, published in Rome, in 1741; a commentary of St. Athanasius on the Psalms, which he edited and defended, published in Rome in 1746; Compendium Summae S. Thomae, for the students of Collegio di Propaganda; Vetus Missale Romanum Monasticum Lateranense, which he published under the pseudonym Emanuele de Azevedo, S.J., in Rome, in 1752; and Sancti patris nostri Jacobi episcopi Nisibeni Sermones cum prefatione, notis & dissertatione de ascetis quae omnis nunc primum in lucem prodeunt, in Armenian and Latin, published in Rome in 1756.
(2) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D .     O .     M .
NICOLAO ANTONELLO SS . NEREI ET ARCHILLEI PRESB . CARD.
CLEMENTIS PP . XIII . A BREVIBVS EPISTOLARIS
VIRO MORIBVS ET VITA INTEGERRIMO
DOCTISSIMIS EDITIS VOLVMINIBVS CLARO
MVLTIS AC MAXIMIS MVNERIBVS EGREGJE FVNCTO
OBIIT VIII . KALENDAS OCTOB . AN . MDCCLXVII.
PVPILLORVM ATQVE AEGROTORVM DOMIBVS
QVAS VIVENS VEL DITAVERAT VEL FVNDAVERAT HEREDITATEM
LEONARDVS S . SABINAE PR. CARD. ANGELVS BERNARDINVS FR. F. F.
M . P . P.

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(21) 18. GANGANELLI, O.F.M. Conv., Lorenzo (1705-1774)

Birth. October 31, 1705, Sant' Arcangelo di Romagna, diocese of Rimini. Second child of Lorenzo Ganganelli, a medical doctor, and Angela Serafina Maria Mazza; her last name is also listed as Macci and Mazzi. He was baptized on November 2, 1705, in the parish of Sant'Agata. The other children were Tommaso, Alessandra and Vittioria (Porzia).

Education. Initial studies in Verucchio; then, with the Jesuits of Rimini, from 1717; and later, with the Piarist Fathers of Urbino. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor Conventuals, May 15, 1723, Mondaino, Forlì; changed his baptismal name Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio to Lorenzo, his father's name; did his novitiate in Urbino, where a cousin, Vincenzo, was a friar; professed, May 18, 1724; from 1724 to 1728, he was sent to the convents of Pesaro, Fano and Recanati, where he did his theological studies influenced by Scotism, as was the tradition of the Order; from 1728 until 1731, he continued and perfected his studies at Collegio S. Bonaventura, Rome, under the guidance of Father Antonio Lucci, O.F.M.Conv., future bishop of Bovino; there, he obtained a doctorate in theology in 1731.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). For nearly a decade, he taught philosophy and theology in convents of the Order in Ascoli, Bologna, Milan and again in Bologna. In 1740, he returned to Rome as regent of Collegio S. Bonaventura. Definitor general of his order, 1741. In 1743, he dedicated his Diatriba theologica to St. Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus. In 1745, e was named coadjutor of Father Balestracci, O.F.M.Conv., consultor of the Holy Office; and the following year, he was named consultor in the post reserved in the congregation for his Order. In the general chapters of his order celebrated in 1753 and in 1756, he declined the generalship of his order (some authors say because of desire for higher office). He was an accomplished theologian, and loved music, poetry and horse riding.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1759; received the red hat on September 27, 1759; and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, November 19, 1759. It is said that he was created cardinal at the instance of Father Lorenzo Ricci, the superior general of the Society of Jesus (1). He was ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Index, Propaganda Fide, Correction of Oriental Books, and Rites. Opted for the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, March 29, 1762. In 1768, he was named "ponens" of the cause of the beatification of the Venerable Bishop Juan de Palafox y Mendoza, which successful outcome was particularly important to the Bourbon Spanish court; his personal friendship with the Spanish ambassador in Rome, Manuel de Roda, a declared enemy of the Jesuits; and negotiations, which were true and genuine political and diplomatic pressures, with strong anti-Jesuitic connotation, in relation to this episode, no doubt helped mature in Cardinal Ganganelli a certain detachment from the main guiding policies of the last years of the pontificate of Pope Clement XIII. Until then, he had been regarded as a friend of the Jesuits, but now he distanced himself from them; and also from Pope Clement XIII's inflexible opposition to the Bourbons. Participated in the conclave of 1769 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope unanimously on May 19, 1769; took the name Clement XIV.

Episcopate. Consecrated bishop of Rome, May 28, 1769, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Federico Marcello Lante, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Cardinals Giovanni Francesco Albano, bishop of Sabina, and Henry Benedict Mary Stuart, duke of York, bishop of Frascati. Crowned, June 4, 1769, by Cardinal Alessandro Albani, protodeacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. He was reserved and insecure and afraid of being influenced, he preferred to work alone and allowed the cardinals little participation in his decisions. Immediately after becoming pope, he tried to conciliate the Bourbon monarchs, but only two months after his election, on July 22, 1769, the monarchs told him that they wanted the abolition of the Society of Jesus. After ten years' break he restored relations with Portugal, but they were reestablished at a high cost after a decade of suspension: sending a complaisant nuncio; elevating to the cardinalate the brother of Portuguese Prime Minister Sebastiâo José de Carvalho e Melo, marquis of Pombal (a totally unqualified man); and confirming the prime minister's nominees to the episcopate. In 1770, he was very celebrated when he suspended the reading of the bull In coena Domini, because the document contained controversial anathemas, which, when used by Pope Clement XIII against Parma in 1768, had precipitated a Bourbons' ultimatum. Pope Clement XIV was able to delay definitive action on the suppression of the Society, in the hope of reaching a milder course of action, like reforming the order profoundly or banning new novices so that the order would eventually disappear. But the Catholic powers were not satisfied with any thing less than the total suppression of the Society. In the spring of 1773, the Bourbon states threatened that they were prepared for a complete break with Rome if the pope did not take decisive and radical action. At the same time, Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, who had had a pro-Jesuit position until then, declared her neutrality on the matter. The draft of a bull of abolition had already been worked out in consultation with the Spanish embassy; on August 16, 1773, Pope Clement XIV published it as the papal bull Dominus ac Redemptor, dated July 21, 1773. In reality, Pope Clement XIV had little option but to issue this momentous brief; it was saluted as a victory for enlightenment, although it produced the elimination of the Jesuits everywhere except in Prussia and Russia, whose sovereigns, King Frederick II the Great and Czarina Catherine I the Great, prohibited its promulgation. The negative impact on the Catholic education in Europe and on the missionary work all over the world was immense. During his pontificate, Avignon and Venaissin, which had been occupied by France in protest against the policies of Pope Clement XIII, were returned to the Holy See; the Bourbon king of Naples returned Benevento and Pontecorvo to the Holy See, although belatedly and with humiliating conditions. The pope's efforts to try to prevent the first partition of Poland were unsuccessful because Prussia, Russia, and Austria took over large sections of Poland in February and August 1772. He improved relations with England when he cordially received, during the year 1772 to 1774, members of the British royal family in Rome; and by notably decreasing the papal support for the exiled royal branch of the Stuarts. The pope's plans for improving the finances of the Papal States by developing industry and agriculture, were a failure, although in Rome, he was able to increase the papal collections. He started the Museo Pio-Clementino. In his final years, he was affected by depression and was very afraid of assassination. He created sixteen cardinals in twelve consistories.

Death. September 22, 1774, in Rome; the rapid decomposition of his body produced speculations of poisoning; but his autopsy proved that they were untrue. Exposed and buried, on September 27, 1774, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. At his funeral the usual eulogies did not make any reference to the suppression of the Society of Jesus. On January 21, 1802, his remains were transferred to the Franciscan Conventual basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome; and buried in a marble mausoleum sculpted by Antonio Canova (2).

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B., André and Charles N. Bransom. "Franciscan bishops." Franciscan Studies, XLVIII (1988), 335; Del Re, Niccolò. "Clemente XIV." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 298-299; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 299-301; Rosa, Mario. "Clemente XIV." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 475-492; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 572-619; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 572.

Links. Biography by Joseph Wilhelm, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Mario Rosa, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; biography by Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; Clement XIV. (1769-1774) in Ludwig von Pastor, "The history of the popes, from the close of the middle ages : drawn from the secret Archives of the Vatican and other original sources", vol XXXVIII; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his portrait, Museo Storico de Sant'Arcangelo di Romagna; his portrait, Museo del Palazzo Ducale di Urbania, Sirpac sistema informativo Regione Marche; his portrait, Musei Civici di Pesaro; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; three portraits, Musée des beaux-arts, Chambéry, Ministère de la Culture, base Joconde; his portrait by Vincenzo Milione, Pietro Metastasio, poeta dell'Unità Europea; his portrait, Museo Storico di Sant'Arcangelo, Ufficio IAT Santarcangelo - Associazione Pro Loco di Santarcangelo; eleven engravings, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving by Angelo Campanella, Istituto per i beni artistici, culturali en naturali della Regione Emilia-Romagna; his engraving by Carlo Antonini, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his bust in Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Rome, Australian National University; his bust by Christopher Hewetson, Victoria and Albert Museum, London; his bust by Christopher Hewetson, Altomani & Sons, Gallery in Milan and Pesaro; his statue by Pantanelli, Sant'Angelo in Vado, Altomani & Sons; twenty four medals, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; seven coins, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; postal stamps, third on page, Jesuit Stamps; his tomb, arms and portrait, Requiem Datenbank; and his tomb by Antonio Canova in SS. XII Apostoli, Rome, Australian National University.

(1) When the Society of Jesus was suppressed, Fr. Ricci was arrested in Castel Sant'Angelo, Rome, and died there before his trial ended. He proclaimed his innocence and that of the Society to his last moment. His companions were set free in the pontificate of Pope Pius VI, their judges having found them "not guilty".
(2) This is inscription beside his marble mausoleum, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta :

HEIC IN PACE CHRISTI
QVIESCIT
CLEMENS XIV PONT MAX
EX ORD. F. M. CONV.
XXXI X MDCCV     XXI IX MDCCLXXIV

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(22) 19. CARACCIOLO, Giovanni Costanzo (1715-1780)

Birth. December 19, 1715, at sea, while his parents were traveling to Cartagena de Indias; his mother died giving birth. Of a noble family. Belonged to the Santobono branch of the family. Fourteenth child of Carmine Niccolò Caracciolo, prince of Santobono, viceroy of Perú, and Costanza Ruffo, of the dukes of Bagnara. By his siblings marriages, he became related to the houses of Boncompagni-Ludovisi, Colonna di Stigliano, and Piccolomini d'Aragona. Nephew of Cardinal Antonio Maria Ruffo (1743), on his mother's side. Uncle of Cardinal Nicola Colonna di Stigliano (1785), on his mother's side. Other cardinals of the family were Marino Ascanio Caracciolo (1535); Innico Caracciolo, seniore (1666); Innico Caracciolo, iuniore (1715); Niccolò Caracciolo (1715); Diego Innico Caracciolo (1800); and Filippo Giudice Caracciolo, Orat. (1833).

Education. Studied in Naples.

Early life. Returned with his father to Spain and lived there until the latter's death in 1726. Papal ablegato in 1736 to bring the red biretta to Cardinal Luis Antonio Jaime de Borbón y Farnesio. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1736. Prelate of the S. C. Consistorial. Secretary of the Congregation of the Fabric of St. Peter's basilica, December 1740. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, January 26, 1741. Vicar of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, 1741. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1742-1753. President delle Acque, September 1743-1747; and delle Ripe, December 1743-1747. Commissary general Marittimae, April 1747; took possession in May 1748; occupied the post until 1753. Governor of Castel Sant'Angelo, Rome, 1752. Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, November 26, 1753, replacing Monsignor Flavio Chigi, promoted to the cardinalate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 24, 1759; received the red hat on September 27, 1759; and the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, November 19, 1759. Received the minor orders on April 20, 1760; the subdiaconate on April 27, 1760; and the diaconate on May 25, 1760. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace from May 1765 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, December 12, 1770. Member of the SS. CC. of the Sacred Consulta, Bishops and Regulars, Tridentine Council, Good Government, Ecclesiastical Immunity, Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's basilica, Avignon and Lauretana. Protector of the Order of the Most Holy Trinity, July 23, 1760; of the Order of Preachers (Dominicans), December 22, 1770; of the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles; of the Congregations Urbana of S. Ivo; of several archconfaternities; of the city of Ascoli; and of several places in the Papal States. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. He replaced, temporarily, Cardinal Francesco Carafa della Spina di Traetto as prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars when the latter he was named legate in Ferrara in 1778.

Death. September 22, 1780, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome, where the funeral took place; and transferred privately to and buried in his deaconry, S. Eustachio.

Bibliography. Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. XV; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, IX, 234-235; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 22 and 51; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), I, 511; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 516, no. 726.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his genealogy, in Italian, GeneAll; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

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(23) 20. PERELLI, Niccolò (1696-1772)

Birth. October 22, 1696, Naples. Of a noble family from L'Aquila. Of the dukes of Monte Staraccio. Son of Domenico Perelli, a financier, and Angela Farina, from Naples. His first name is also listed as Nicola and as Nicolaus; and his last name as Perella and as Perrelli.

Education. Studied at Collegio de' Nobili, Naples; and later, at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, 1718.

Sacred orders. Decided to enter the ecclesiastical state and received the sacred orders after finishing his stuides.

Early life. Protonotary apostolic participanti. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, March 5, 1722. Governor of Rieti, October 17, 1722 until 1727. President of the Apostolic Chamber, May 1728. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, January 2, 1730, replacing Monsignor Antonio Annibaldensi de Molaria. Vicar of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, February 1730. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, 1730. President delle Carceri, 1731. Superintendent of Collescipoli, 1733-1734. Governor of Cesi and Terre Arnolfe, 1735, Vicar of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, 1739. President delle Grascia, August 18, 1740. Commissary of the Congregation of Accounts, September 1743. Prefect dell'Annona, July 5, 1747 until December 31, 1753. Dean of the clerics of the Apostolic Chamber, 1751 until 1755. Commissary delle Armi, 1752 until 1755. President ad interim delle Acque. Dean and pro-president delle Ripe, July 1753. Treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber, November 1753 until 1759.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 24, 1759; received the red hat on September 27, 1759; and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, November 19, 1759. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Sacred Consulta, Good Government, Index, delle Acque, delle Ripe, and Tevere. Superintendent of the port of Anzio, which was in need of repair. Protector of the Order of Saint Basil, May 11, 1765. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV.

Death. February 24, 1772, near 8 p.m., of dropsy of the chest, after receiving the sacraments of the Church, Rome. Exposed in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, where the solemn funeral took place with the attendance of the pope, the Sacred College of Cardinals and the duke of Gloucester, brother of the king of England, who was visiting Rome; the body was transferred privately to and buried in the church of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Rome, according to his will (1).The executor of his testament was Domenico Giordani, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, vice-gerent of Rome.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 173, no. 520; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LII, 89-90; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 22 and 51; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 174; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 345 and 834; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 809.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait by Pompeo Girolamo Batoni, his portrait, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, Europeana, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his tomb, church of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbankk, linked above:

H · S · E
NICOLAUS PERELLIUS NEAPOLITANUS
E . DUBIUS MONTIS STARACIS
QUI CAMERF APOSTOLICF MAGISTRATIBUS
PRFCLARE GESTIS
IN SACRUM PURPURATORUM COLLEGIUM
A CLEMENTE XIII P . M.
VIII. KAL . OCTOBRIS M . DCCLIX COOPTATUS
EST, CUIUS EXIMIUM ERGA REMP. MERITUM
QUOD SUA CURA, PORTU ANCONITANO
JACCTIS IN ALTUM MOLIBUS
ATQUE AGGERIBUS MUNITO
PONTIFICF DITIONIS COMMERCIUM
AMPLIFICAVIT
VIXIT ANNOS LXXV MENSES IV . DIES IV
OBIIT VI KAL . MAR:
M . DCCLXXII

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(24) 21. COLONNA, iuniore, Marcantonio (1724-1793)

Birth. August 16, 1724, Rome. Fourth of the fifteen children of Fabrizio Colonna, prince of Paliano, grand connestabile of the Kingdom of Naples, and Caterina Zefirina Salviati. The other siblings were Maria Vittoria, Filippo, Lorenzo, Pietro Pamphili, Francesco Giuseppe, Giovanni Battista, Maria Isabella, Pamphilio, Maria Felice, Maria Teresa, Lucrezia, Agata, Federico and Chiara. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Carlo Colonna (1706), and brother of Cardinal Pietro Colonna Pamphilj (1766). Cousin of Cardinal Scipione Borghese (1770). Other members of the family who were elevated to the cardinalate were Giovanni di San Paolo Colonna (1193); Giovanni Colonna (1212); Giacomo Colonna (1278); Pietro Colonna (1288); Giovanni Colonna (1327); Agapito Colonna (1378); Stefano Colonna (1378); Oddone Colonna (1405; later Pope Martin V); Prospero Colonna (1426); Giovanni Colonna (1480); Pompeo Colonna (1517); Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore (1565); Ascanio Colonna (1586); Girolamo Colonna (1627); Prospero Colonna (1739); Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Prospero Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Pietro Colonna (1766), who took the last name Pamphili.

Education. On September 22, 1745, he obtained doctorates in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, and in theology, discussing his thesis in the presence of Pope Benedict XIV; the thesis was published in Rome in that same year.

Early life. Protonotary apostolic numerario participante, August 30, 1744. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, January 7, 1747. Abbot in commendam of the abbey of S. Paolo, Albano, from March 1747; and of the abbeys of S. Vincenzo al Volturno S. Lazaro di Capua; and S. Pietro in Ciamprisco. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites, from April 1747. Prefect of the Sacred Apostolic Palace, 1743, when his uncle Girolamo was promoted to the cardinalate; Cardinal Girolamo kept the jurisdiction of the post until September 1756, when he was named camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church; and Monsignor Marcantonio the honorific title.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 24, 1759; received the red hat on September 27, 1759; and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, November 19, 1759. Received the minor orders on February 11, 1760; and the diaconate on March 9, 1760.

Priesthood. Ordained, February 1, 1761. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Maria della Pace, April 19, 1762.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Corinto, April 19, 1762. Vicar general of His Holiness for the city of Rome, April 20, 1762. Consecrated, April 25, 1762, in the Pauline Chapel of the Apostolic Palace of the Quirinale, Rome, by Pope Clement XIII, assisted by Cardinal Giovanni Francesco Albani, bishop of Sabina, and by Cardinal Henry Benedict Maria Clement Stuart, duke of York, bishop of Frascati. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, January 1763. Prefect of the S.C. for the Residence of Bishops, 1763. In 1763, he was named member of the SS. CC. of Rites, Tridentine Council, Fabric of Saint Peter's, Ecclesiastical Immunity, Holy Office, and Indulgences and Sacred Relics. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 20, 1770 until March 4, 1771. Prefect of the spiritual of Collegio e Seminario Romani, November 1773. In 1774, he opposed the provisional closing of the Seminario Romano, directed by the Jesuits Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. Named legate a latere for the opening and closing of the Holy Door for the 1775 Jubilar Year, at the patriarchal Liberian basilica, November 13, 1775. Prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars. Prefect of the spiritual formation of Collegio Romano. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, June 25, 1784. Cardinal protoprete. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, September 20, 1784. His main interest was the diocesan seminary, to which he left at his death a very rich endowment. Protector of the Silvestrine Congregation; of the Pauline chapel in the patriarchal Liberian basilica; of the Congregation of the Regular Clerics (Theatines); of the Congregation of the Piarists (Scoloppini); of Collegio Nazareno, Rome; of the Congregation of the Benefratelli; of the Order Camaldolese; and of the several establishments and sodalities. He was very munificent and protector of the poor.

Death. December 4, 1793, Rome. Exposed in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, his parish, where the funeral took place; and buried in that same church, according to his will (1).

Bibliography. Colonna, Prospero. I Colonna. Dalle origini all'inizio del secolo XIX. Sunto di ricordi storici raccolti per cura di Prospero Colonna. Roma : Istituto Nazionale Medico Farmacologico "Serono", 1927, p. 304; Marchesi Buonaccorsi, Giorgio Viviano. Antichità ed eccellenza del Protonotariato appostolico partecipante, colle più scelte notizie de' santi, sommi pontefici, cardinali, e prelati che ne sono stati insigniti sino al presente, opera di Monsignor Giorgio Viviano Marchesi Buonaccorsi forlivese. Faenza : pel Benedetti, 1751. Note: Book; Computer File; Internet Resource, p. 548; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XIV, 307-308; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 22, 40, 45, 46, 51 and 183; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 246; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 556.

Links. Biography by Irene Cotta Stumpo, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 27 (1982), Treccani; his portrait by Vincenzo Milione, Europeana, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; same portrait, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his arms and his epitaph in his tomb in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Branson, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; and his genealogy, K4, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

A     XP     Ω
CINERIBUS · ET · MEMORIAE
MARCI · ANTONII · COLVMNAE
VIRI · EMMINENTISSIMI
EPISCOPI · PRAENEST · PRAEPOST · BASIL · LIBERIANAE
DE · RE · SACRA · URBIS · AC · DE · CIVIBVS · SVIS · OPT · MERITI
QVI · PONTIFICE · MAX · BENEDICTO XIV
PRAEFECTURA · SACRI · PALATII · IN · EXEMPLUM · GESTA
A · CLEM · XIII · INTER · PP · CARDINALES · ADLECTVS
ET · OB · EXIMIAM · RELIGIONIS · AC · DOCTRINAE · LAVDEM
VICE · SACRA · ANTISTES · IN · VRBE · CONSTITUTUS
ANNOS · XXXIII · CONTINENTER · MAGNO · CVM · REI · CHRIST · BONO
TRIBUS · PONTIFICIBVS · MAXIMIS · ADFVIT
ET · ECCLESIAM · VRBANAM · ETIAM · IN · PROFLIGATA · VALETVDINE
SANCTE · AC · NAVITER · ADMINISTRAVIT
HVNC · ROMANVS · CLERVS · SPLENDORIS · SVI · AVCTOREM
INOPES · EGESTATIS· ALTOREM · AGNOSCVNT
QVI · LARGITATEM · EIVS
FVNERI · ETIAM · SVPERSTITEM · EXPERTI · SVNT
VIXIT · CARVS · OMNIB · ANNOS · LXIX · MENS · III · DIES · XVIII
DECESSIT · ANNO · MDCCXCIII · PRID · NON · DEC
PHILIPPVS · FRATIS · F · DVX · PALIANENSIVM
MAGNVS · COMESTABILIS · REGNI NEAPOLITANI
PATRVO · PINETISS · B · N · CVM · LACRIMIS

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(25) 22. CORSINI, Andrea (1735-1795)

Birth. June 11, 1735, Florence. Fifth of the seven children of Prince Filippo Corsini, captain general of the Noble Guard, and Ottavia Strozzi. Great-great-grand nephew of Cardinal Neri Corsini (1664). Great-grand-nephew of Pope Clement XII. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Neri Maria Corsini (1730).

Education. After receiving the religious and literary education proportionate to the position of his family from Monsignor Giovanni Gaetano Bottari, erudite of Jansenist fame, he decided to enter the ecclesiastical state then, he continued his education under the guidance of his grand-uncle Neri Maria Corsini, Monsignor Bottari and Pietro Francesco Foggini. From familiarity with these clerics, rather than from theological studies that he quite neglected, were born in him the propensity for the Jansenist rigor and the aversion for the moral of the Jesuits.

Early life. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. In 1756-1757, he traveled widely. Named ablegato apostolic to bring the red biretta to new Cardinal Francisco de Saldanha da Gama in Lisbon; he left Rome in May 1756; he spent fifteen days at the Spanish court in Aranjuez; then, he went to Madrid in June-July; and on to Lisbon on July 25, 1756; he found the city shocked by the disastrous earthquake of November 1, 1755, and still plagued by telluric episodes; having completed his mission, Monsignor Corsini went to Compostela and Valladolid; and on December 5, he arrived in Paris, where he was the guest of the Portuguese ambassador he left Paris on March 11, 1757; he went to Lyon, Turin, Milan, Venice, Padua (where he visited Cardinal Carlo Rezzonico) and Bologna; and from there, he returned to Rome. Named referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace on August 24, 1758. Vicar of the cardinal archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica in October 1758. Protonotary apostolic supernumerario in 1758. He was promoted to the cardinalate by Pope Clement XIII in gratitude for the support to his election by Cardinal Neri Maria Corsini.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 24, 1759; received the red hat on September 27, 1759; and the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, November 19, 1759. Received the minor orders, March 25, 1760. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Rites, Ecclesiastical Immunity, Consistorial, and delle Acque. Protector of the Benedictine Congregation of Vallombrosa, December 10, 1768.

Priesthood. Ordained, February 2, 1769. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, July 1769. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Matteo in Via Merulana, September 11, 1769. Protector of the Order of the Servants of Mary (Servites), December 22, 1770. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 4, 1771 until January 27, 1772. Protector of the Kingdom of England, March 12, 1773; and of the Venerable English College of Rome. Protector of the Order of Our Lady of the Mount Carmel (Carmelites), April 21, 1773. In June 1773, he refused the appointment as visitor of the Roman novitiate of the Jesuits. Prefect of the special congregation "Pro exsequendo brevi suppressionis Societatis Jesu", to execute the suppression of the Society of Jesus, officially established on August 13, 1773 (1). The congregation published the bull of suppression, Dominus ac Redemptor, dated July 21, 1773, on August 19; the congregation was given very ample powers; among other things, Cardinal Corsini was forced, to avoid action contrary to the pope's decision, to take restrictive measures against the freedom of the Superior General and other leading Jesuit theologians, who were imprisoned in Castel Sant'Angelo. The congregation also had to deal with the destination of the goods of the suppressed Society; with the the replacement of teachers in chairs already occupied by the Jesuits; with the Order's survival in those states - like Russia and Prussia - that did not recognize the validity of the brief of suppression; and with the episodes of bigotry, which reached a peak in the prophecies of Anna Teresa Poli and Bernardina Benzi about the certain divine punishment against the perpetrators of the anti-Jesuitic "conspiracy"; Cardinal Corsini was accused of excessive harshness by the philo-Jesuitic publicists (2); in July 1775, Cardinal Corsini, concerned about the health of Father Ricci affected by the harsh prison conditions, and wrote to Pope Pius VI about it; he resigned the congregation in February 1776. Prefect of the Economy of Collegio Romano, November 1773. Prefect of the S.C. of the Residence of Bishops. In April 1776, he was named member of the congregation charged with the apostolic visitation to the convent della Chiesa Nuova, where a circle accused of Jansenism had been constituted.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, July 15, 1776. Consecrated, July 21, 1776, cathedral of S. Liberato of Frascati, by Cardinal Henry Benedict Mary Stuart, bishop of Frascati, duke of York, assisted by Orazio Mattei, titular archbishop of Colosso, and by Stefano Evodio Assemani, titular archbishop of Apamea. He immediately devoted himself with great zeal and moral rigor to pastoral work, starting in the same year the visitation of the diocese, which he interrurpted to educate the people through missions and prepare the ecclesiastical organization for this operation. Meanwhile, took care of the seminary, entrusting the supervision to the Foggini. Finally, in May of 1779, he restarted the visitation, which was long and very accurate and completed in 1783, covering the sixty parishes of the diocese which had more than 30,000 souls, 329 churches, 22 monasteries, 6 hospitals, 16 nursing homes, 3 Monti di pietà and ca. 259 confraternities. A report of the visit was sent in 1784 to the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, which praised it. A second visitation was made by Cardinal Corsini between 1785 and 1790. In 1792, the state of war between revolutionary France and the States of the Church was declared. Cardinal Corsini was repeatedly asked by the Tuscan government to intervene in the Roman Curia to promote contact between the two parties, but the intervention of the cardinal did not produce any results. Vicar general of His Holiness for the city of Rome and its district, December 10, 1793. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, December 1793. Prefect of the spiritual of Seminario e Colegio Romani. Protector of the cities of Camerino, Cingoli, Toscanella, Bagnorea, Cori, and others; of the months of the Sette Dolori; of the Camaldolese monks; and of the Paolette monks. He actively supported and promoted the suppression of the Society of Jesus although his conduct was very cautious and guided to the design of avoiding a too open involvement.

Death. January 18 (or 19), 1795, at 7 p.m., Rome. Exposed in the basilica of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome, where the funeral took place on June 19, 1795; and buried in the Corsini Chapel, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome (3). Marco Faustino Gagliuffi wrote De laudibus Andreae Corsinii Cardinalis, oratio, Romae, Typis Salomonianis, 1796.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XVII, 286-287; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 22, 41, 47, 50 and 56; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 302; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 570.

Links. Biography by Giuseppe Pignatelli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 29 (1983), Treccani; his portrait, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait by Vincenzo Milione, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his sepulchral monument, Corsini Chapel, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, iccd immagini, Fototeca Nazionale, Beni Culturali; and detail of his tomb and his epitaph, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) The other members of the special congregation were Cardinals Francesco Carafa della Spina di Traetto, Antonio Casali, Mario Marefoschi and Francesco Saverio de Zelada; prelates Onofrio Alfani, protonoatry apostolic and voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, and Vincenzo Macedonio, secretary of Pope Clement XIV; and theologians Cristoforo da Casale and Thomas Maria Mamachi, O.P., master of the Apostolic Palace
(2) The lack of documentation available, does not allow to clarify the exact responsibilities of each individual; it allows, however, to affirm that the instruction of the process, as far as establishing the penal treatment of strict segregation with respect to Father Lorenzo Ricci, superior general of the Society, and his fellow prisoners, were the key directives and were issued directly by Pope Clement XIV first, and by Pope Pius VI later, on whom the diplomats of the courts were pressing strongly, especially the Spanish one.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

MEMORIAE AETERNAE
ANDREAE CORSINI S·R·E· CARDINALIS
EPISCOPI SABINENSIS
SINATVRAE JVSTITIAE PRAEFECTI
PII VI · P · M · IN URBE VICARII
LIBERIANAE BASILICAE ARCHIPRESBITERI
DECESSIT
XV · KAL · FEBR · ANN · MDCCLXXXXV

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