The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Clement XIII (1758-1769)
Consistory of November 23, 1761 (IV)


(26) 1. CÓRDOBA ESPÍNOLA DE LA CERDA, Buenaventura de (1724-1777)

Birth. March 23, 1724, Madrid, archdiocese of Toledo, Spain. Fifth of the seven children of Nicolás Fernández de Córdoba Figueroa y Aguilar, count of Villafranca, duke of Medinacelli, and Jerónima Maria Spinola y de la Cerda, of the marquises of Los Balbases. His baptismal name was Buenaventura Francisco de Sales Antonio Ramón Pascual Pío Bibiano María de la Soledad Juan de Mata Luis Alfonso de la Concepción Policarpo Venancio Diego José Francisco de Asís. The other siblings were Luis Antonio, Felipe, Joaquín Diego, Juan de Mata Antonio, Maria Felicia and Teresa Francisca. He is also listed as Ventura Córdoba y la Cerda; as Buenaventura Córdoba Espinosa de la Cerda; and as Buenaventura Fernández de Córdoba Espinosa de la Cerda.

Education. His parents provided him the best education with excellent tutors; he studied letters and languages; later, he studied theology and sacred canons and obtained a doctorate in theology.

Sacred orders. After receiving all the sacred orders, he was named (by King Carlos III of Spain) his chaplain and grand almoner. Archdeacon of Talavera. Abbot of Rute and Oñate.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Neocesarea and named patriarch of the West Indies, April 6, 1761. Consecrated, June 28, 1761, in the Royal Church of San Jerónimo, Madrid, by Manuel Quintano Bonifaz, titular archbishop of Farsalo, Inquisitor general for Spain, assisted by Manuel Murillo y Argáiz, bishop of Segovia, and by Andrés Cano y Junquera, titular bishop of Arad. Vicario castrense (military vicar) of Spain, 1762 until his death. Judge of the Royal Chapel. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of King Carlos III.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 23, 1761; the pope sent him the red biretta with papal ablegato Monsignor Antonio Palafox, with an apostolic brief dated November 27, 1761; King Carlos III imposed the red biretta on the new cardinal in a solemn ceremony. Abbot nullius of Alcalá la Real from 1761. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Received the red hat on June 22, 1769; and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, June 26, 1769. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Propaganda Fide, Apostolic Visit, and Discipline of the Regulars. A year after returning to Spain from Rome, he suffered an apoplectic attack which left him very limited in his activities; similar attacks occurred with frequency. Chancellor and principal minister of the Order of Carlos III, called of the Immaculate Conception, when it was instituted in 1771. Member of the Royal Council. Did not participate in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. He enjoyed the confidence of King Carlos III, who consulted him in all delicate and difficult religious and political affairs of the kingdom.

Death. May 6, 1777, suddenly, in Madrid (1). Buried in the middle of the church of the Dominican Colegio Santo Tomás, Madrid. The king ordered that he receive the funeral honors of captain general. The funeral was presided over by the inquisitor general of Spain, Manuel Quintano Bonifaz, titular archbishop of Farsalia. In his will, he ordered that his wealth be used to found a school for orphan boys and girls.

Bibliography. Goñi Gaztambide, José. Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), suppl., 229; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 88, no. 389; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XVII, 117; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 22, 45, 244 and 305; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 665-668; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 916; V, 291; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 516-517, no. 729.

Links. His engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his genealogy, X. 7., Grandes de España.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 666, which says that he died on May 8, 1777. The same source, on p. 665, says that he died on May 6, 1777

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(27) 2. MIGAZZI, Christoph Anton von (1714-1803)

Birth. October 20, 1714, Trent (1). From an impoverished noble family. Son of Count Vincenz von Migazzi and Countess Therese Aurelia Melchiori. He was baptized with the names Christoph Bartholomäus Anton. He had the title of imperial count. He is also listed as Christoph Migazzi; Christoph Graf Migazzi; and his last name is also listed as Migazzi von Waal und Sonnenthurn.

Education. He was sent to study at the school for pages at the residence of Cardinal Joseph Dominicus von Lamberg, prince bishop of Passau, 1723; later, from 1732 to 1736, he attended the Jesuit Collegio Germanico, Rome, where he studied theology; finally, he studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on July 29, 1736.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Trent in 1732. Prior commendatario of S. Leonardo de Borghetto in 1735. Prior commendatario of Egidio de Valsugana.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 7, 1738. Conclavist of Cardinal Lamberg in the conclave of 1740. Canon of the cathedral chapters of Brixen and Olomouc. Named auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for the German nation in1745. He enjoyed the total confidence of Empress Maria Theresa, who sent him to several diplomatic missions, among them to obtain the recognition of Francis I as emperor.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cartago and appointed coadjutor of Mechlin, with right of succession, September 20, 1751. Consecrated, October 10, 1751, church of S. Apollinare, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Antonio Guadagni, O.C.D., assisted by Ferdinando Maria de Rossi, titular patriarch of Constantinople, and by Luigi Calini, titular patriarch of Antioch. Named Austrian ambassador in Spain in 1752. On March 22, 1756, he was named coadjutor of Vácz; when the bishop died in June 1756, he was recalled from his ambassadorial post in Madrid on September 20, 1756. He had resigned from coadjutorship of Mechlin on July 18, 1756. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Vienna, March 23, 1757. President of the academic commission to reform education, 1760; he tried to avoid the state monopoly in education and also to protect the Jesuits.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 23, 1761; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated November 27, 1761. Administrator of Vácz, April 19, 1762. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefanin 1765. Did not participate in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Protector of the Order of Saint Paul, December 16, 1769. When Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Society of Jesus in 1773, he tried to save that order in Austria; and twenty years later, he unsuccessfully begged Emperor Francis II to reestablish the order. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. Received the red hat on March 16, 1775; and the title of Ss. Quattri Coronati, April 3, 1775. Resigned the administration of Vácz on January 9, 1786 because of his disagreements with Emperor Joseph II. Did not participate in the conclave of 1799-1800, which elected Pope Pius VII.

Death. April 14, 1803, Vienna. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Sankt Stephan, Vienna. Last surviving cardinal of Pope Clement XIII. In 1894, Migazziplatz, in the 12th district of Vienna, was named after him.

Bibliography. Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1648 bis 1803 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Stephan M. Janker. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1990, p. 311; Fonzi, Fausto. "Migazzi, Christoph Anton von." Enciclopedia Cattolica, 12 vols. Città del Vaticano : Ente per l'Enciclopedia cattolica e per il Libro cattolico, 1948-54, IX, 983-984; Kovács, Elisabeth. Ultramontanismus und Staatskirchentum im theresianisch-josephinischen Staat : der Kampf d. Kardinäle Migazzi u. Franckenberg gegen den Wiener Professor d. Kirchengeschichte Ferdinand Stöger. Wien : Wiener Dom-Verlag, 1975. (Wiener Beiträge zur Theologie ; Bd. 51; Variation: Wiener Beiträge zur Theologie ; Bd. 51); Maass, Ferdinand. "Migazzi, Christoph Anton." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Prepared by an editorial staff at the Catholic University of America. 19 vols. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1967-1996, 9, 826-827; Notizie per l'anno 1806. In Roma MDCCCVI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, p. 45; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 23, 25, 43, 149, 282, 429 and 441; Wolfsgrüber, Cölestin. Christoph Anton Kardinal Migazzi : Fürsterzbischof von Wien. Saulgau (Wüttemberg) : H. Kitz, 1890.

Links. Biography by Cölestin Wolfsgrüber, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biographical entry, in English, aeiou project, Encyclopedia of Austria; biography, in German, Wikipedia; biography by Peter Hersche, in German, Neue Deutsche Biographie; biography, in German, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie & Neue deutsche Biographie (Digitale Register); his portrait, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait and biography, in Hungarian, Keresztény Értelmiségiek Szövetsége; his portrait by Pietro Longhi, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck, Tiroler Portraits; his portrait by an anonymous artist, Priesterseminar Brixen, Tiroloer Portraits; his portrait, muvtor.btk.ppke.hu; his engraving by F. J. Gleich, Getty Images; his engraving, muvtor.btk.ppke.hu; his engraving by Johann Gottfried Haid, Wolfenbüttler Digitale Bibliothek; his engraving by Johann Gottfried Haid, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, 282; Notizie per l'anno 1806, p. 45; and his biography in German by Peter Hersche, linked above. His biographical entry in English, linked above; and his biography in German from Wikipedia, also linked above, say that he was born on October 14, 1714. His biography in German from Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, linked above, says that he was born on November 13, 1714, in Innsbruck; and that he died on April 15, 1803, in Vienna. Maass, "Migazzi, Christoph Anton." New Catholic Encyclopedia, 9, 826; and Fonzi, "Migazzi, Christoph Anton von." Enciclopedia Cattolica, IX, 983, indicate tha he was born on November 23, 1714, in Innsbruck; and died Vienna, on September 15, 1803.

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(28) 3. CHOISEUL DE BEAUPRÉ, Antoine Clériadus de (1706-1774)

Birth. September 28, 1707, castle of Daillecourt, diocese of Langres, France (1). Of the family of the counts of Angers. Son of Antoine Clériadus, count of Choiseul, seigneur of Daillecourt and Anne Françoise de Barillon de Morangis. His first name is also listed as Antoine Clairiard; Antonius Clairiardus; as Antonio Clairaldo; and as Antonio Clairado; and his last name as Choiseul-Beaupré.

Education. Initial education at home under excellent tutors provided by his parents; then, he studied at the Faculty of Theology of Paris, at La Sorbonne University, where he obtained a doctorate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Vicar general of the diocese of Mende. He was promoted to the episcopate through the influence of his relative, the duke of Choiseul-Stainville.

Episcopate. Nominated archbishop of Besançon, November 17, 1754, by the king of France. Preconized by the pope, March 17, 1755; received the pallium on that same day. Consecrated, May 25, 1755, cathedral of Mende, by his uncle Gabriel-Florent de Choiseul, bishop of Mende, assisted by Louis François de Vivet de Montelus, bishop of Alès, and by Claude-Antoine de Choiseul-Beaupré, bishop of Châlons. Prince of the Sacred Roman Empire. He was created cardinal at the instance of King Louis XV, by the nomination ceded by James III, pretender of the British throne.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 23, 1761; the red biretta was sent to him by papal brief of November 27, 1761; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. From 1764, he was chaplain of Stanisław Leszczyński, duke of Lorraine, former the king of Poland. Did not participate in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Abbot commendatario of the royal Benedictine abbey of Saint-Bertin, diocese of Saint-Omer. Prior of the Benedictine priorate of Morteaux, archdiocese of Besançon.

Death. January 7, 1774, castle of Gy, where he had gone to try to improve his health, Besançon. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Besançon; and buried in the tomb of the archbishops in that cathedral.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 237-238; Notizie per l'anno MDCCLXXV. In Roma MDCCLXXV : Nella Stamperia Cracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, p. 124; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 23, 25 and 123; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 565-566.

Links. His portrait by an anonymous artist, Musée des beaux-arts de Dôle, Ministère de la Culture et la Communication, France; his portrait and biography, Miles Barton, Period Paintings, London; his portrait, Musée de Besançon, Ministère de la Culture et la Communication, France; his engravingby Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

(1) This is according to Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973, p.237-238; Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, 123, note 4, which says that he was forty eight years old when he was promoted to the episcopate in 1755. Notizie per l'anno MDCCLXXV, p. 124; and Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 564, say that he was born on September 28, 1706.

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(29) 4. ROCHECHOUART DE FAUDOAS, Jean-François-Joseph (1708-1777)

Birth. January 28 (or 27), 1708, Toulouse, France. Of a celebre and noble family. Fifth of the eleven children of Charles de Rochechuart, count of Clermont, and his first wife, Françoise de Montesquiou. His first name is also listed as Giovanni Francesco Giuseppe.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice; and then at the Theological Faculty of Paris, La Sorbonne University, where he obtained a licentiate in theology in 1741.

Early life. He decided to entered the ecclesiastical state when he was very young and received several benefices: prior of Saint-Étiene-de-Châtillon, diocese of Carcassone in 1724; abbot commendatario of the abbey of Saint-Serge, diocese of Angers, in November 1732; and abbot commendatario of Madeleine-de-Catheaudun, of the order of Saint Augustine, diocese of Chartres, August 16, 1731 to 1733.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Vicar general of the archdiocese of Rouen, 1734; occupied the post until May 1741. Nominated for the see of Laon by King Louis XV of France.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Laon, June 25, 1741; preconized by the pope, September 18, 1741. Consecrated, October 15, 1741, in the chapel of the castle of Gaillon, Eure, by Nicolas-Charles de Saulx-Tavannes, archbishop of Rouen, assisted by Pierre-Jules-César de Rochechouard-Montigny, bishop of Évreux, and by François de Fitz-James, bishop of Soissons. Ecclesiastical pair of France. Superior of Collège de Navarre. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Oyen, archdiocese of Rouen. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Rémi, archdiocese of Reims, April 20, 1745. Abbot commendatario of Signy. French ambassador to the Holy See from April 1757; entered the position on March 13, 1758; occupied the post until until September 13, 1762; at the death of Pope Benedict XIV on May 3, 1758, he presented his credentials as ambassador to the Sacred College of Cardinals on July 2, 1758; he was named ambassador extraordinary to present the condolences of King Louis XV of France to the Sacred College of Cardinals; and when Pope Clement XIII was elected, he presented the congratulations of the king to the new pope; he expressed to the French cardinals the intention of the French king to veto the election of Cardinal Carlo Alberto Guidobono Cavalchini (1); after his promotion to the cardinalate, he continued to represent France with the title of plenipotentiary minister, proper of a cardinal. Promoted to the cardinalate at the request of the king of France, by the nomination ceded by the king of Poland.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 23, 1761; received the red hat on November 26, 1761; and the title of S. Eusebio on January 25, 1762. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Propaganda Fide, Bishops and Regulars, Indulgences and Sacred Relics, and Regular Discipline. On May 30, 1762, the king of France sent him the Cordon Bleue, the blue ribbon of the Order of the Knights of the Holy Spirit, which was imposed by Cardinal Antonio Maria Erba-Odescalchi, vicar of His Holiness. Grand almoner of the queen of France, Marie Leczinska, on June 21, 1762. Named abbot commendatrio of the rich abbey of Saint-Ouen, archdiocese of Rouen, on May 19, 1764. Did not participate in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI.

Death. March 20, 1777, in the morning, of an apoplexy, while preparing to celebrate mass in the chapel of his palace in Paris, and then go to the court. His body was transported to the cathedral of Laon, where the solemn funeral took place; and buried in that same cathedral (2).

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 469-470; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LVIII, 81; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 23, 24 and 255; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 663-665; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 517, no. 731.

Link. His portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his portrait and biography, in French, Wikipedia; his biography, in French, no. 32, Les Abbés de la Madeleine de Châteaud, Les Chroniques Paroissiales - Eure-et-Loir - Sarthe; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

(1) Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, LVIII, 81, says that when Cardinal Giovanni Antonio Guadagni, O.C.D., sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, was informed of the French veto against the election of Cardinal Cavalchini, exclaimed: "Nescio gallice loqui: Dico autem quod vos Spiritui sancto resistitis."
(2) Some sources say that he was buried in the church of Sainte-Geneviève, in Anizy-le-Château, near Laon, which was destroyed during the First World War.

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(30) 5. HUTTEN, Franz Christoph von (1706-1770)

Birth. March 6, 1706, castle of Stolzenfels (or Steinbach), parish of Wiesenfeld, diocese of Würzburg, Germany. Of an ancient and noble family. Second child of Franz Ludwig von Hutten and Johanna Juliana von Bicken. His last name is also listed as Hutten zu Stolzenfels. He was baptized on March 8, 1706. He is also listed as Francesco Cristofano de Hutten; and Francesco Cristofano de Huten de Stolzemberg.

Education. Initial studies at home under the discipline of excellent tutors. Decided to enter the ecclesiastical state and received the tonsure on November 18, 1716. From 1716 to 1723, as an aristocratic pupil, he studied at the Julianeum (Seminarium Nobilium) in Würzburg, which Febronianist Caspar Barthel led as regent; then, studied theology at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, from 1727; while in Rome, he attended lectures given by Monsignor Prospero Lambertini, future Pope Benedict XIV; he also studied law at the University of Siena. Received the subdiaconate in Würzburg on June 11, 1729.

Early life. Canon and prebendary of the collegiate church of Sankt Alban, diocese of Mainz; and of Sankt Nicholas in Comburg. Canon and prebendary of the collegiate church of Homburg, diocese of Würzburg. Domizellar in Speyer; and, in 1730, domkapitular; he was the youngest member of the cathedral chapter.

Episcopate. Elected unanimously bishop of Speyer by its cathedral chapter, November 14, 1743. Received the diaconate in 1743. Preconized by the pope, February 3, 1744, retaining his benefices and with dispensation for not having yet received priestly ordination; granted permission to receive the episcopal consecration from a bishop and two abbots, February 7, 1744. He was prince of the Sacred Roman Empire.

Priesthood. Ordained on January 1, 1744. Received the episcopal consecration on May 17, 1744, in Bruchsal, from Christoph Nebel, titular bishop of Capharnaum, suffragan of Mainz, assisted by Engelbert, abbot of Amorbach, and by Bernhard, abbot of Schwazbach. He completed the church of St. Peter in Bruchsal as the resting place of the prince bishops of Speyer. He, like his predecessor, strove for the implementation of the Tridentine reform in his diocese. In 1748, he had published a new edition of the Speyerer ritual and in 1768, a new Hymnal; furthermore, he urged that the pastors of his diocese be selected only from the graduates of its seminary for priests; in 1753, he attached a high school led by the Jesuits to the seminary; he determined that the best four seminarians were trained at the University of Würzburg. In 1755, Palatine Prince Karl Theoder recommended him to the emperor for promotion to the cardinalate, with the support of the queen of Hungary, Empress Maria Theresa.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 23, 1761; the red biretta was sent to him by papal brief of November 27, 1761, with ablegato apostolic Monsignor Pietro Mantica, privy chamberlain participantium; Emperor Franz I imposed the red biretta on him; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. The cathedral chapter frequently criticized his fiscal policies of the principality. His efforts to obtain the diocese of Worms failed both in 1763 and in 1768 because of the other interests of the Viennese court. In 1763, he became provost of Bruchsal-Odenheim; and since 1766, provost of Sankt Viktor in Mainz (by papal commission). Did not participate in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV, because of his bad health and suffering from epilepsy. He was a pious man with an Enlightenment affinity. He was a lively Rococo lord, who loved the art, a magnificent court and hunting.

Death. April 20, 1770, of an apoplexy, at the episcopal palace of Speyer. The solemn exequies took place in the cathedral of Speyer. Buried in the middle niche of the vault of the princes, church of St. Peter, Bruchsal, on May 10, 1770. His heart was deposited before the altar of Our Lady in the church of of the monastery of Waghäusel.

Bibliography. Ammerich, Hans. "Hutten, Franz Christoph Reichsfreiherr von." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches 1648 bis 1803 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz unter Mitwirkung von Stephan M. Janker. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1990, p. 199-200; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LXX, 90; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 23 and 385; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 533.

Links. His chronology, in German, Jubiläumsausstellung Bruchsal 2006; his portrait, Castle of Bruchsal, Jubiläumsausstellung Bruchsal 2006; brief biographical data, in English, with his portrait, Schlösser Baden-Württemberg; his portraits and biography, in German, Wikipedia; his portrait, Castle of Birkenau, Pfarrei St. Peter, Bruchsal; fresco of his enthronement, dome of Bruchsal Castle, flickr; his engravingby Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his arms, on a medal VIOSYS Kundenserver; inscription on the opposite side of the same medal, VIOSYS Kundenserver; five coins, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his efiggy on a medal, The Medieval and Modern Coin Search Engine; his funeral monument, Pfarrei St. Peter, Bruchsal.

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(31) 6. NATTA, O.P., Enrichetto Virginio (1701-1768)

Birth. January 10, 1701, Casale Montferrato, Lombardy. Second of the ten children of Palatine Count Gerolamo III Natta and Luciana (or Luisa) Matilde Ignazia Pelletta Mesturelli. The other siblings were Vincenzo, Maria Teresa, Giuseppe, Vittoria, Giorgio, Maria Maddalena, Ignazio, Francesca Violante and Luigi Neri. After his wife died, Count Girolamo entered the Order of Preachers. His brother Luigi Neri (Fr. Ignazio Maria), was also a Dominican friar and died in Florence in 1766 in odor of sanctity. His first name is also listed as Enrietto and as Enrico.

Education. Initial education at home. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans); changed his baptismal name Raffale Francesco to Enrichetto Virginio. Obtained the title of magister in theology on March 9, 1747.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 15, 1726. Theologian consultor of the Inquisition in Modena, January 15, 1732. Lector of philosophy and theology in Dominican houses of study. Professor of theology at the University of Turinin 1739. The master general of his order, Antonius Bremond, wanted to name him assistant for Italy, but Father Natta declined. Provincial of his order in Lombardy. Promoted to the episcopate at the request of King Carlo Emmanuel III of Sardinia.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Alba, Moferrato, kingdom of Sardinia, July 22, 1750. Consecrated, July 25, 1750, church of Ss, Domenico e Sisto, Rome, by Cardinal Carlo Alberto Guidoboni Cavalchini, assisted by Umberto Radicati, bishop of Pesaro, and by Antonio Cantoni, bishop of Faenza.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 23, 1761; the pope sent him the red biretta by papal brief of November 27, 1761, with papal ablegato Marquis Ortensio Ceva; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. The king wanted to promote him to the metropolitan see of Turin after the death of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Rovero on October 9, 1766, but he declined. With his personal funds, he rebuilt the chapel of the Most Blessed Sacrament, in the cathedral; as well as the new sacristy for the chapter.

Death. June 29 (or 26), 1768, at night, after a brief illness, in Alba. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Alba.

Links. His engravingby Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLVII, 245; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 23 and 73; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 509-511; Walz, Angelus. I Cardinali Domenicani : note bio-bibliografiche. Firenze : Convento S. Maria Novella, 1940, p. 47; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 701.

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(32) 7. MOLINO, Giovanni (1705-1773)

Birth. April 25 (or 16), 1705, Venice. Of an ancient and patrician family, of which, one of its members, Francesco Molino, was doge of Venice in 1645.

Education. Initial studies at home under the discipline of excellent teachers; then, studied at the University of Padua, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on March 14, 1729. Received the insignias of the clerical character and the minor orders on December 23, 1725; the subdiaconate on June 15, 1726; and the diaconate on June 7, 1727.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 22, 1728. Went to Rome and entered the prelature as protonotary apostolic. Named auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for the Republic of Venice in October 1738; took possession on June 2, 1739; the position had been vacated by the promotion to the cardinalate of Monsignor Carlo Rezzonico, future Pope Clement XIII; exercised the charge until 1755; his Decisioni were printed in four volumes.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Brescia, February 17, 1755. Consecrated, April 1, 1755, church of S. Marco, Rome, by Cardinal Joaquín Fernando Portocarrero, assisted by Giorgio Lascaris, titular archbishop of Teodosia, and by Alessandro Fe, titular bishop of Metone. Promoted to the cardinalate at the request of the Republic of Venice.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 23, 1761; the pope sent him the red biretta to Venice with an apostolic brief date November 27, 1761, with papal ablegato Monsignor Giuseppe de Renaldis, privy chamberlain participantium. The municipality of Brescia elected him protector of the Biblioteca Quriniana. The controversies between Rome and the Republic of Venice affected him very much and because of his loyalty to the Holy See, he left the diocese because he could not obey the las of the Venetian Senate concerning the regulars; he retire to the Benedictine monastery of Ferrara; he was deprived of his rents and possessions except the furnishings of his room, his carriage and horses; Pope Clement XIII generously assisted him. The anguish his situation caused affected his health and he became almost totally blind. Abbot commendatrio of the abbey of Ss. Simone e Giuda, Bergamo, February 1764. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Received the red hat on June 22, 1769; and the title of S. Sisto, June 26, 1769. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Bishops and Regulars, Apostolic Visit, Index, and Indulgences and Sacred Relics. After the conclave, the new pope helped him regain the favor of the Republic of Venice; the pope imposed on the cardinal the acceptance of the laws of the republic, for which the pontiff was very criticized. In the tragic disaster that affected the city of Brescia in the early morning of August 18, 1769, he exercised and extraordinary solicitude for the thousands of people affected. He governed the diocese with great zeal caring for the discipline of the clergy and the ecclesiastical immunity; he visited the diocese; instituted a school for the formation of the youth; and increased the number of professors and students in the seminary of the diocese.

Death. March 14, 1773, of a high fever and other health problems, in Brescia. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Brescia, where the solemn funeral also took place (1).

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLVI, 34-35; Raccolta di componimenti recitati in una pubblica accademia per la promozione alla sagra porpora di sua eminenza il signor cardinale Giovanni Molino. In Brescia : dalle stampe di Giammaria Rizzardi, 1762; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 23, 25, 49 and 131; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 558-559.

Links. His portrait by Domenico Cagnoni, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving by Domenico Cancogni, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

IOANNES MOLINVS
S. R. E. CARDINALIS
EPISCOPVS BRIXIAE
HIC IACET
VIXIT A. LXVIII
OBIIT PR. IDVS MARTII
A.D. MDCCLXXIII.

CONGREGATIO APOSTOLICA
HAERES
PATRI PAVPERVM
M. P.

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(33) 8. ROHAN-GUÉMÉNÉE-MONTBAZON, Louis-César-Constantin de (1697-1779)

Birth. March 24, 1697, Paris, France. Seventh of the thirteen children of Charles III de Rohan, fifth duke of Montbazon, and his second wife, Charlotte Elizabeth de Cochefilet. The other siblings were Louis Henri, François, Louis Charles Casimir, Hercule Mériadec, Charles, Armand Jules, Charlotte, Anne Therese, Marie Anne Benigne, Marie Anne, Angelique Eleonore and Charlotte Julie. Nephew of Cardinal Armand-Gaston-Maximilien de Rohan (1712), bishop of Strasbourg from 1704 to 1749. Distant cousin of Cardinal Armand de Rohan-Soubise-Ventadour (1747), bishop of Strasbourg from 1749 to 1756. Uncle of Cardinal Louis-René-Édouard de Rohan-Guéménée (1778), bishop of Strasbourg from 1779 to 1801.

Early life. Knight of the Sovereign Order of Malta. Entered the Navy in 1713; ensign in 1714; and then lieutenant in 1716; promoted to captain in 1720; retired in 1723.

Education. Studied at the Theological Faculty of Paris, La Sorbonne University, where he obtained a licentiate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Canon of the cathedral chapter of Strasbourg in 1732. Provost major and canon of the cathedral chapter of Strasbourg. Major almoner of King Louis XV of France. Abbot of Lire; and later, of Saint-Epure.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Strasbourg by its cathedral chapter, September 23, 1756; the election was confirmed by King Louis XV of France on September 27, 1756. Preconized by the pope, January 3, 1757. Consecrated, March 16, 1757, chapel of the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, by Cardinal Frédéric-Jérôme de la Rochefoucauld de Roye, archbishop of Bourges, assisted by Louis-Sextius de Jarente de la Bruyère, bishop of Digne, and by François de Brunes de Montlouet, bishop of Saint-Omer.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 23, 1761; the red biretta was sent to him by papal brief of November 27, 1761; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Did not participate in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI.

Death. March 11, 1779, at 4 a.m., after an agony of sixty hours without much suffering, in his residence in rue de Varenne, Paris. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Strasbourg, where the funeral also took place celebrated by Ferdinand de Rohan, archbishop of Bordeaux, nephew of the cardinal (1).

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 471-472; Le Roy de Sainte-Croix, François Noël. Les quatre cardinaux de Rohan (évêques de Strasbourg) en Alsace. Strasbourg : Hagemann et cie, 1880. (Grande collection alsacienne), pp. 65-79; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LVIII, 97; Muller, Claude. Le siècle des Rohan. Une dynastie de cardinaux en Alsace au XVIIIe siècle. Strasbourg : Éditions La Nuée Bleue, 2006, p. 253-308; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 23, 25 and 99.

Links. His engraving, arms and biographHis engraving, arms and biography, in German, Wikipedia; biography, in French, Wikipedia; his genealogy, Nebesky; his genealogy, A7, Genealogy EU; his portrait, his engraving by Christophe Guérin, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving by Domenico Cunego, from the same source; his effigy and arms on a coin, Numisalsace; his effigy and arms on a coin, Monnaies; Maison de Rohan, in French, Wikipedia; Maison de Rohan - Arms. the cardinal's arms are the 17th down the page, Héraldique européenne; La Casa de Rohan, in Spanish, Noble y Real.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, 23. Muller, Le siècle des Rohan, p. 305, says that he was buried in the church of the Feuillants (Cistercians), in rue Saint-Honoré, in Paris

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(34) 9. CENCI, iuniore, Baldassare (1710-1763)

Birth. November 1, 1710, Rome. Of one of the most ancient and distinguished families of the city. Fifth of the seven children of Tiberio Cenci and Eleonora (Maddalena) Costaguti. The other siblings were Porzia, Filippo, Virginio, Maria Isabella , Giovanni Battista and Mario. His first name is also listed as Baldassarre. Great-grand-nephew of Cardinals Vincenzo Costaguti (1643); and Giovanni Battista Costaguti (1690), on his mother's side. Nephew of Cardinal Baldassare Cenci, seniore (1695). Other cardinals of the family were Tiberio Cenci (1645) and Serafino Cenci (1734).

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, from 1727; he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Sacred orders. Ordained (no information found). Named canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and chamberlain of honor August 20, 1730. Papal ablegato in 1733 to bring the red biretta to Cardinal Serafino Cenci, archbishop of Benevento. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace and domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 2, 1735. Governor of the city of Benevento September 13, 1737 until June 1739. Recalled to Rome, he was named relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta in 1739; replacing Monsignor Alberico Archinto, who had been named nuncio in Tuscany; occupied the post until 1742. Auditor of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature in January 1742. Second lieutenant of the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber in September 1753; occupied the post for eight years. Secretary of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, November 26, 1753.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 23, 1761; received the red hat on November 26, 1761; and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, January 25, 1762. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Tridentine Council, Sacred Consulta, Ecclesiastical Immunity, Index and Reverend Fabric of Saint Peter's basilica. Pope Clement XIII named him Apostolic delegate and commissary, with absolute powers, for the draining of the Pontine marshes; the project was conceived and prepared by the governor of Marittima e Campagna, Emerico Bolognini, and the surveyor, Angelo Sani (1). In December 1762, he went to Sezze, Piperno and near by places to exercise his commission; at the end of February 1763, he went to Nettuno, where Cardinal Neri Corsini, his friend and former protector had one his villas. In the evening of March 1, looking in very good health, he retired to rest and was found dead the following morning (2).

Death. March 2, 1763, of an apoplexy, in Nettuno. Exposed in the collegiate church of Nettuno, where the funeral took place; and buried temporarily in the chapel of the patrons Evangelisti and Fontana, dedicated to the Immaculate Conception, in that church. Transferred to Rome on February 16, 1764, near midnight, and buried in the chapel of S. Didaco, of his family, in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, his title. At his death, the cardinal had a debt of 22000 scudi, so that the fifteen months of cardinalate had brought his family nothing but ruin.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 155, no. 400; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XI, 71-72; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 23 and 46; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 440-443; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 219; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 144 and 568; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 548-549; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. p. 518, no. 734.

Links. His engravingby Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

(1) The project was published as Memorie dell' antico e presente Stato delle paludi Pontine: e de' rimedi e mezzi per dissecarle, Roma 1759.
(2) This is according to Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 441. Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XI, 71-72, says that he went to Terracina and from that city he went to live in the palace of Cardinal Alessandro Albani in the port of Anzio, where he stricken by an accident (colpito da un accidente) and died on March 2, 1763.

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(35) 10. CAPRARA, Cornelio (1703-1765)

Birth. August 16, 1703, Bologna. Of a noble patrician family. Third child of Marchis Francesco Monti Bendini, senator of Bologna, and Marchioness Valeria Beroaldi. Brother of the marquis de Monti. The other children were Teresa, Ferdinando (senator), Luigi (Pietro Innocenzo, marquis and senator), Carlo Amando (lieutenant general of the French Navy), Giuseppe (marchis and senator) and several nuns. Nephew of Cardinal Filippo Maria de Monti (1743). The family possessed the prelature Caprara. He is also listed as Cornelio Monti Caprara and as Cornelio, detto Caprara.

Education. Initial studies in Bologna; later, he studied law at the University of Pisa.

Early life. After finishing his studies, he went to Rome and entered the prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace on July 15, 1725, with dispensation for not having yet reached the age of twenty five as it was required to become a prelate; at this time he took the name Caprara. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Relator of the S.C. of the Reverend Fabric of Saint Peter's basilica. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice in September 1733; he occupied the post for ten years. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota on September 9, 1743; took possession in April 1744. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, September 10, 1756 until November 23, 1761.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 23, 1761; received the red hat on November 26, 1761; and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, January 25, 1762. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Sacred Consulta, Tridentine Council, Rites, Apostolic Visit, Avignon and Lauretana. Received the subdiaconate, November 7, 1762; diaconate, November 14, 1762. A few months after his promotion to the cardinalate, he suffered a serious illness and went to Bologna to recover his health; and then, he returned to Rome.

Death. Good Friday April 5, 1765, of an apoplexy, while he was adoring the Most Blessed Sacrament in the Paolina chapel, at the Vatican palace; he died in the arms of his domestics in the Sala Reggia, as he was going to go to the Sistine chapel for the religious offices of Holy Week; his body was kept in a room contiguous to the Sala the rest of the day; and that night, it was transferred in a carriage to his palace; on Saturday April 6, after having being embalmed, the body was exposed in the noble antechamber of his palace for four days; on April 10, the funeral was celebrated in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, in the presence of the pope, the Sacred College of Cardinals and the Roman prelature; the requiem mass was celebrated by Cardinal Ferdinando Maria de Rossi, camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals; and then his body was transported to and buried in his deaconry, Ss. Cosma e Damiano.

Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 117; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLVI, 252-253, under Monti Caprara, Cornelio; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 23 and 51; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 462-462; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 633, tav. Monti (Bologna); Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 362 and 547; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 506.

Links. His engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his sepulchral monument, Europeana, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; another view of his sepulcral monument, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; Famiglia Caprara, in Italian, Archivio di Stato di Bologna.

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