The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Clement XIII (1758-1769)
Consistory of September 26, 1766 (VII)


(40) 1. CALINI, Ludovico (1696-1782)

Birth. January 9, 1696, Calino, fief of his family, diocese of Brescia (1). Fifth of the eight children of Count Vincenzo and Teodora Gonzaga Martinengo (2). The other children were Rutilio, Matteo, Giuseppe Camillo, Muzio, Gezio, Giovanni and Teofilo. He was baptized on January 18, 1696, in the church of Calino. His last name is also listed as Calino.

Education. Initial studies in Brescia; then, he decided to enter the ecclesiastical state, went to Rome and studied at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, from 1721; obtained the doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, June 5, 1725.

Early life. Destined to the ecclesiastical state, he received the diaconate and was named canon of the cathedral chapter of Brescia in 1717.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1718. He was a distinguished orator who in 1720 delivered the Oratio pro Francisco Barbadico, ad cardinalatum evecto, which was published in Brescia. In 1721, he traveled to Rome, where he established long lasting friendship with the notable erudite Domenico Giorgi, with whom he maintained a correspondence centered on historico-erudite matters. The new bishop of Brescia, Angelo Maria Quirini, O.S.B.Cas., named in 1727, appointed him synodal examiner and superintendent of the construction of the new cathedral.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Crema, September 11, 1730. Consecrated, September 21, 1730, church of S. Marco, Rome, by Cardinal Angelo Maria Quirini, O.S.B.Cas., bishop of Brescia, assisted by Antonio Pallavicini, titular archbishop of Lepanto, and by Giustino Fontanini, titular archbishop of Ancira. In 1737, he convoked a diocesan synod, the first since 1609, which dispositions were published in Synodus diocesana Cremensis habita ab ill.mo et r.mo L.C. ... in Cathedrali Cremae die 29 Aprilis et duobus sequentibus anno 1737 (Brescia, 1737). From 1732 until his resignation in 1751, he was involved in the "controversia di Crema", concerning the divine right of the people to receive communion during the mass; the controversy agitated the entire Italian ecclesiastical world. Because of rough disagreements with the Griffani family, one of the most powerful of Crema, he had to leave the diocese and go to Rome, where he submitted his resignation on January 27, 1751. Promoted to the titular patriarchate of Antioch, February 1, 1751. He was named president of the Christian doctrine, deputy of the monasteries of monks, and examiner of sacred canons. Abbot commedatario of Palazzola, Brescia, August 1758. Commendatore of the archhospital of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, September 28, 1759. He was a close advisor of Pope Clement XIII and shared with him the benign attitude toward the Jesuits; for this, he was the object of attacks of the enemies of the Society of Jesus, who tried to detract him with several libelli.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 26, 1766; received the red hat on September 30, 1766; and the title of S. Anastasia, December 1, 1766. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Bishops and Regulars, Ecclesiastical Immunity, Reverend Fabric of Saint Peter's, Apostolic Visit, and Rites. Protector of the monastery of S. Marta; and of the Brescian church and nation in Rome. Abbot commendatario of S. Maria della Giara, Verona, February 1767. Prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Sacred Relics from October 1767 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. He opposed the election of Pope Clement XIV and did not have any relevant part during his pontificate. Opted for the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, March 4, 1771. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 28, 1774 until January 29, 1776. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. As a member of the S.C. of Rites, he spoke in general of the congregation of January 20, 1777 and voted against the beatification of Bishop Juan de Palafox y Mendoza of Osma, Spain; his vote caused a great sensation and helped not a little to scuttle the process that was so dear to the court of Madrid; Cardinal Calini, analyzing especially the famous letter of Bishop Palafox to Pope Innocent X against the Society of Jesus, put into question the holiness of the bishop, who had had no restraint to hurl vile slanders against the Jesuits (3). In 1780, he retired to Brescia, but before leaving Rome, he had a colloquy with Pope Pius VI on April 1, in which Cardinal Calini urged the pontiff to restore the Society of Jesus or at least to not allow its reorganization in Russia, as sought by the Bourbons; the cardinal pointed out that the Society had been unjustly destroyed by a band of four or five ministers, arguing the thesis that the madness of Pope Clement XIV had decreed its suppression; the pope gave the cardinal the assurance that everything possible would be done (4).

Death. December 9, 1782, Brescia. Exposed and buried in the church of Ss. Faustino e Giovita (5).

Bibliography. Calini, Ludovico. Sacra rituum congregatione eminentissimo, & reverendissimo domino cardinali Calino Brixien. beatificationis, & canonizationis ven. servae Dei Mariae Magdalenae Martinengo a Barco monialis professae capuccinae in monasterio S. Mariae ad Nives civitatis Brixiae. Responsio ad novissimas animadversiones R. P. D. fidei promotoris super dubio [.] : An constet de virtutibus theologalibus , fide, spe, & charitate erga Deum, & proximum, nec non de cardinalibus prudentia, justitia, fortitudine, ac temperantia, earumque adnexis in gradu heroico, in casu, & ad effectum, de quo agitur. Romae MDCCLXXVII. Ex Typographia reverendae Camerae apostolicae, 1777. Note: Vignette au titre et lettrines gr. sur bois./ Réunit : " Factum concordatum" par Ludovico Calini ; " Novissimae animadversiones R. P. fidei promotoris super dubio [.] An constet de virtutibus theologalibus..." par Dominicus de Sancto Petro ; "Responsio ad novissimas animadversiones R. P. promotoris fidei super dubio [.] An constet de virtutibus theologalibus..." par Girolamo Colmeta; Elli, Pietro. La partecipazione di benedettini cassinesi alla controversia di Crema (1732-1752). Montecassino : [s.n.], 1993; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VI, 261; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCI. In Roma MDCCXCI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, presso la fine del Corso, p. 83-84; Novaes, Giuseppe de. Elementi della storia de' sommi pontefici da S. Pietro sino al felicemente regnante Pio Papa VI. ed a la Santità sua dedicati per l'uso della giuventù studiosa. Raccolti da Giuseppe Novaes Patrizio Portoghese e Canonico de la metropolitana de Siena. Seconda edizione corretta e ampliata. 5 vols. In Siena, MDCCCVII. Nella Stamperia del Magistrato Civico per Francesco Rossi e figlio. Con approvazione. Other titles: Storia de' pontefici; Storia de sommi pontefici. Responsibility: dal abate Giuseppe de Novaes, p. 110; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 24, 42, 49, 87 and 186; Volpi, Benedetto, S.J., Le P. Storia della celebre controversia di Crema sopra il pubblico divin diritto alla comunione eucaristica nella messa, con una dissertazione sullo stesso argomento dell'abate D. Benedetto Volpi. Venezia : stamp. di A. Curti Q. Giacomo, 1790. Note: D'après Sommervogel, VIII, col. 896, cette controverse eut lieu entre Louis Calini, évêque de Crema et l'abbé Jos. Guerrieri; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 165.

Links. Biography by Giuseppe Pignatelli, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; La nuova Piazza Card. Ludovico Calini by Celeste Ferrari, Parrocchia di San Michele Arcangelo in Calino; his portrait by Lodovico Gallina, diocese of Brescia; his portrait, Archhospital S. Spirto in Sassia, Rome, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; Elementi della storia de' sommi pontefici da S. Pietro sino al felicemente regnante Pio Papa VI by Giuseppe Novaes, p. 110; his slab on the floor of the church of Ss. Faustino e Giovita, Brescia; church of Ss. Faustino e Giovita, Brescia; and his engraving, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to his biography in Italian by Pignatelli, linked above; and Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, 87. Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCI, p. 83, says that he was born on January 18, 1696. The photographs of his tombstone, linked above, indicates that he lived LXXXVI years and XI months; and since he died on December 9, 1782, it menas that he was born on January 9, 696. The site "La nuova Piazza Card. Ludovico Calini", linked above, says that he was born on January 9, 1696 and baptized the following January 18.
(2) This is according to Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, III, 165. The site "La nuova Piazza Card. Ludovico Calini", linked above, says that he was the twelfth of the fourteen children of the family.
(3) Bishop Juan de Palafox y Mendoza of Osma was finally beatified on June 5, 2011.
(4) The Relazione autentica del colloquio tenuto dal Cardinal Calino col S. Padre Pio VI il dl 1º aprile 1780 was published by Giuseppe Boero in Osservazioni sopra L'istoria del pontificato di Clemente XIV scritta dal P.A. Theiner, prete dell' Oratorio (2 v. in 1. 2. ed./ accresciuta notabilmente dall' autore. Monza : Istituto dei Paolini, 1854), p. 254-260.
(5) This is according to his biography in Italian by Pignatelli, linked above; and, says that he was buried in the church of S. Faustino Maggiore, Brescia.Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCI, p. 84, says that he was buried in the catheral of Brescia. In the site of the church of Ss. Faustino e Giovita, in the section "Battistero", it indicates that the tombstone of Cardinal Calini is in the pavement, in front of it.

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(41) 2. SERRA, Niccolò (1706-1767)

Birth. November 17, 1706, Genoa. Second of the three children of Francesco Maria Serra, senator of the Republic of Genoa, and Laura Negroni. The other siblings were Geronimo and Giuseppe. He was destined by his parents to the ecclesiastical state. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Giacomo Serra (1611). Related to Cardinal Giovanni Battista Spinola (1733), on his mother's side. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Francesco Serra (1831).

Education. He was sent to Rome to study at the Somaschan Collegio Clementino; later, he attended La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on March 23, 1730. He studied under the tutelage of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Spinola.

Early life. He entered the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of of Grace on December 14 (or 17), 1730. Vice-legate in the city of Urbino, 1731. Governor of Camerino, July 28, 1732, Governor of Ancona, September 4, 1734; Governor of Viterbo, January 7, 1741. Governor of Perugia, August 12, 1741. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, October 1743. Governor of Castelnuovo and Montone, 1744-1746. Relator of the Congregation of Spoliorum et Computorum. President delle Zecche (Currency), 1745-1746; and again in September 1749. President delle Carceri, 1747-1749. President delle Strade, 1751-1753. Received the minor orders, December 8, 1753; subdiaconate, December 16, 1753; diaconate, December 21, 1753. Auditor of the Apostolic Chamber .

Priesthood. Ordained, December 28, 1753.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Mitilene, January 14, 1754. Consecrated, January 20, 1754, church of S. Ignazio, Rome, by Cardinal Giuseppe Maria Feroni, assisted by Niccolò Maria Santamaria, titular bishop of Cirene, and by Giorgio Maria Lascaris, titular bishop of Zenopoli. Nuncio in Poland, February 9, 1754; returned from Poland in June 1760. Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, in September 1759; occupied the position on November 17, 1760.Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, November 8, 1760.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 26, 1766; received the red hat on September 30, 1766; and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, December 1, 1766. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Propaganda Fide, Consistorial, Ecclesiastical Immunity, Sacred Consulta, and Ceremonial. Legate in Ferrara for a triennium, December 1, 1766.

Death. December 14, 1767, after suffering for two months the painful symptoms of an attaco di petto, in Ferrara. Exposed in the archiepiscopal cathedral of Ferrara, where the solemn funeral took place; and buried in the chapel of S. Giorgio in that cathedral.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LXIV, 187; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 24, 43 and 292; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 505-507; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 118, 176, 255, 334, 419, 434 and 911; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 897-898; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 518-519, no. 737.

Links. His genealogy, A2, Genealogy EU; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; and his engraving, Araldica Vaticana.

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(42) 3. ODDI, S.J., Niccolò (1715-1767)

Birth. September 26, 1715, Perugia. Eldest of the five children of Marcantonio Oddi, count of Schifanoia, and Countess Altavilla Ranieri. The other siblings were Ercole, Enrico, Lodovico, Giulio, and a girl who became an Augustinian nun. His first name is also listed as Nicolaus; and his last name as Oddis; as Oddus; and as degli Oddi. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Antonio Banchieri (1726). Nephew of Cardinal Giacomo Oddi (1743).

Education. Under the direction of his uncle the cardinal, he received a civil, moral and literary education appropriate to his status. Later, he studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on November 16, 1746.

Early life. He went to reside with his grandfather in Venice, where his uncle was nuncio; later, while his uncle was bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella, he resided in the episcopal palace; it was then when he decided to enter the ecclesiastical state and went to Rome. Entered the prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace on December 15, 1746. Vice-legate in Romagna, Abril 1747-1750; until December 1751. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1751. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, December 1751 until1753. Received the minor orders on December 26, 1753; the subdiaconate on December 28, 1753; and the diaconate on December 30, 1753.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 1, 1754.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Trajanopoli, January 14, 1754. Consecrated, January 20, 1754, cathedral of Viterbo, by Cardinal Giacomo Oddi, assisted by Giacintoe Silvestri, bishop of Nepi e Sutri, and by Santo Lanucci, bishop of Ortona. Nuncio in Cologne, February 12, 1754; he arrived in his nunciature on the following August 9; his auditor was Giambattista Donati; and his secretary, Filippo Evangelisti. Nuncio in Lucerne, Switzerland, December 4, 1759; he left for his nunciature on August 16, 1760. Extraordinary nuncio to the Diet of Frankfurt that elected Archduke Joseph of Austria king of the Romans, January 21, 1764; in that occasion, he was able to restore several rights and privileges of the Roman Church such as that of the precedence and first post in the diplomatic corps enjoyed by the apostolic nuncios in that Diet; he strongly opposed the schismatic machinations later manifested in the conciliabulum of Ems. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Ravenna, February 20, 1764.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 26, 1766, with dispensation for having an uncle in the Sacred College of Cardinals; received the red hat on September 30, 1766; and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, December 1, 1766. He was ascribed to the SS. CC. Consistorial, Propaganda Fide, Ecclesiastical Immunity, and Ceremonial. Legate in Romandiola, December 1, 1766; in March 1767, he started for his legation but before going to Ravenna, he went to Perugia, where he felt ill; trying to improve his health, he went to Arezzo, accompanied by his brother Count Lodovico, placing himself under the care of Doctor Lorenzino Bresciani, a well known and respected physician; he arrived on May 12 and stayed at the convent of the Capuchin friars; then, he was transferred to a Jesuit house of recovery in the campagna; but his illness was so advanced that he died there before going to his legation. Superintendent delle Acque in Romagna, May 8, 1767. Shortly before his death, he had done his solemn profession in the Society of Jesus, as he did before while in Lucerne, when he became seriously ill.

Death. May 25, 1767, at 1 p.m., after receiving the the sacraments of the Church, in the Jesuit house of recovery in Arezzo, while he was traveling. Exposed in the Jesuit church of Arezzo, where the funeral took place; and buried in that church.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLVIII, 259-260; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 24, 46, 353 and 412; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 494-496; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 670; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 371, 372 and 619; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 770; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 519, no. 738.

Links. His portrait, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Istituto per i beni artistici, culturali e naturali ella Regione Emilia-Romagna.

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(43) 4. BRANCIFORTE COLONNA, Antonio (1711-1786)

Birth. January 28, 1711, Palermo, Sicily. From a noble family. Son of Giuseppe Branciforte, prince of Scordia, and Anna Maria Naselli e Fiorito, of the princes of Aragona. He was destined by his family to the ecclesiastical state and sent to Rome. In Rome, he was hosted by the rich Sicilian family Colonna di Borgo, of which he became heir in the middle of the century, adding the last name Colonna to his own; and acquiring a large fortune that he soon largely squandered. His last name is also listed as Branciforti; and as Colonna Branciforte.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, from 1730; then, at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on February 1, 1736.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, November 21, 1737. Regent of the Apostolic Chancellery, 1751. In 1752, he was named extraordinary nuncio to France to bring to the newborn eldest son of the Dauphin and Maria Josephine of Saxony, Louis, duke of Burgundy, the blessed fascie. the extraordinary nuncio arrived in France in July 1752; he remained there for over a year, having been received with much sympathy in the Bourbon court; because of an illness of the child, the ceremony of the fascie could only take place June 19, 1753. While in France, Monsignor Branciforte hoped to obtain the ordinary nunciature in Paris after the departure of Nuncio Carlo Francesco Durini in 1753; he tried to demonstrate his skills as a diplomat in his dispatches reporting to the Secretary of State political and military news which he was able to learn; but his expectations were disappointed because while returning to Italy, he found out that Pope Benedict XIV had decided to appoint him nuncio to Venice. Received the last two minor orders, December 21, 1753; subdiaconate, December 23, 1753; diaconate, January 1, 1754.

Priesthood. Ordained, February 2, 1754.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tessalonica, February 11, 1754. Consecrated, February 17, 1754, church of S. Ignazio, Rome, by Cardinal Joaquín Fernando Portocarrero, assisted by Giorgio Maria Lascaris, titular bishop of Zenopoli, and by Giovanni Girolamo Gravina, bishop of Patti. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, February 27, 1754. Nuncio in Venice, April 2, 1754. Before leaving for Venice he was named abbot commendatario of the abbey of SS. Trinità della Magione, in Palermo. On September 7, 1754, the Venetian senate approved a decree concerning the ecclesiastical jurisdiction which created a crisis in the relations between the republic and the Holy See; during the crisis, which lasted four years, the cardinal showed himself as a mediocre officer with little preparation on the political level; the crisis was finally resolved by Pope Clement XIII, a Venetian. President of the State of Urbino, December 10, 1759; he left Venice at the end of February 1760; occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 26, 1766; with an apostolic brief date October 3, 1766, the pope sent him the red biretta to Urbino with Monsignor Sersale, apostolic ablegato, and received on October 13; received the red hat on April 2, 1767; and the title of S. Maria in Via on April 6, 1767. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Sacred Consulta, Rites, Regular Discipline, and delle Acque. Since he did not enjoy much favor with Pope Clement XIII, he preferred to retire to Sicily, where on April 10, 1768, he was celebrated by the clergy and the nobility of Palermo. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Legate in Bologna for a triennium, June 26, 1769; took possession through a procurator, while in Rome, November 17, 1769; made his solemn entrance in the city on the following December 3; his legation was extended for another triennium on March 13, 1775 (1); he performed most of the representative tasks, leaving the weight of the administration to the vice-legate Ignazio Gaetano Boncompagni-Ludovisi, who later succeeded him; last documented presence in the legation, July 17, 1777. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. Confirmed in the legation for another triennium, March 13, 1775. Presented for the see of Agrigento, Sicily, by King Ferdinando IV of Naples on February 25, 1766; preconized by Pope Pius VI, with personal title of archbishop, on April 15, 1776. After a long stay in Naples, which lasted for most of 1777, he went to Sicily, entering his diocese in 1778. But he rarely resided in his diocese, preferring to stay for long periods in Palermo with the prince of Scordia, his brother, in order to maintain friendly contacts with the viceroy to benefit the Holy See in the jurisdictional controversy; on this ground, the cardinal, while professing a sincere submission to papal authority, showed himself willing to accept some instances of the government in favor of the enlargement of judicial powers of the episcopate; his position was considered excessive and not justified in Rome.

Death. July 31, 1786, Agrigento. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Agrigento.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XIV, 308-309; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 24, 47, 71, 404; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 161, 420 and 524; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 476; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 519, no. 739.

Links. Biography by Giuseppe Pignatelli, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; his portrait, church of SS.Trinità basilica La Magione; his portrait Sanigallia, Sirpac sistema informativo Regione Marche; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, 24. Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 161, says that his legation was prorogued for another triennium on March 27, 1775.

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(44) 5. PALLAVICINI, Lazzaro Opizio (1719-1785)

Birth. October 30, 1719, Genoa. Of a noble family. Youngest of the three children of Senator Paologirolamo Pallavicini and Giovanna Serra. The other siblings were Gianfrancesco and Giancarlo. Nephew of Quasi-cardinal Lazzaro Pallavicini (1740). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Opizio Pallavicini (1686).

Education. Studied at Collegio Clementino, Rome, from 1732; and later at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Abbreviator de parco maiori, 1741. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, May 6, 1745. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, 1746. Ablegato apostolic to bring the red biretta to new Cardinal Johann Theodor von Bayern in 1746. Provincial governor of Marche Anconitana, November 8, 1751. Received the minor orders on February 17, 1754; the subdiaconate on February 24, 1751; and the diaconate on March 10, 1754.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 19, 1754.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Lepanto, April 1, 1754. Consecrated, April 7, 1754, church of S. Teresa , Rome, by Cardinal Federico Marcello Lante, assisted by Antonio Branciforte Colonna, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, and by Bruno Ballyet, O.C.D., bishop of Babylonia. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, April 16, 1754. Nuncio in Naples, May 21, 1754. Abbot commendatario of the abbey of S. Sofia, Benevento, May 1756. Nuncio in Spain, February 9, 1760; although he ceased as nuncio in 1767, a grave illness impeded him from returning to Rome until the following year.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 26, 1766; received the red hat on May 19, 1768; and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, June 20, 1768. Legate in Bologna, December 1, 1766; the nomination never took effect; named again on May 21, 1768; took possession in absentia, while in Rome, November 17, 1768; arrived privately in Bologna on October 28, 1768; made the solemn entrance on November 3, 1768; left Bologna to attend the conclave on March 9, 1769. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Named secretary of State, May 19, 1769; confirmed by Pope Pius VI in 1775; occupied the post until his death. Protector of the Celestine monks in March 1774. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. From 1775 to 1784, he was acting prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council substituting for Cardinal Carlo Vittorio Amedeo delle Lanze, who was habitually absent in Piedmont; and at the death of the cardinal on January 23, 1784, he was named pro-prefect of that congregation. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 29, 1776 until February 17, 1777. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, December 14, 1778. Protector of the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) in January 1781. Ambassador plenipotentiary to conclude the treaty with Venice, October 3, 1783.

Death. February 23, 1785, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, where the funeral took place; and buried in the middle axis, directly in front of the chancel steps, in the church of S. Nicola da Tolentino, according to his will (1); that church was annexed to the monastery of the nuns of S. Giovanni Battista (Battistine).

Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. La Curia romana : lineamenti storico giuridici. 4th ed. aggiornata ed accresciuta. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 89; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 254; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LI, 52-53; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 24, 47, 48 and 302; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 705; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 161, 291 and 818; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 787-788; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 519, no. 740.

Links. His portrait, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his tomb, in the church of S. Nicola da Tolentino, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; Church of S. Nicola da Tolentino, Rome, in Italian, Wikipedia.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

OSSA
CARDINALIS LAZARI
OPITII PALLAVICNI
OBIIT XXIII FEBRUARII
MDCCLXXXV
ORATE PRO EO

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(45) 6. BORROMEO, Vitaliano (1720-1793)

Birth. March 3, 1720, at 3 p.m., in the parish of S. Maria Podone, Milan. Third child of Giovanni Benedetto Borromeo, count of Arona, and Clelia del Grillo, of the marquises of Chiarofonte. The other siblings were Renato, Giulia, Maria, Francesco and Giustina. He was baptized at home by the provost of the parish as soon as he was born; later, on January 8, 1729, he was baptized in the church; received the name Vitaliano Carlo Filippo. Uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Archinto (1776), on his mother's side. Great-grand-nephew of Cardinal Giberto Borromeo, seniore (1652). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Giberto Bartolomeo Borromeo (1717). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Edoardo Borromeo (1868). Other cardinals of the family were Carlo Borromeo (1560); Federico Borromeo, seniore (1587); and Federico Borromeo, iuniore (1670).

Education. In February 1733, he entered Collegio dei Nobili, Milan; later, in 1735, he went to Rome to study at the Jesuit Collegio Romano; finally, he studied at the University of Pavia, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on October 20, 1745; during his stuided in Pavia, he resided at Collegio Borromeo.

Early life. After finishing his studies, he went to Venice in 1744. Then, he went to Rome to follow the prelatic career. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, September 2, 1745. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1745. Vice-legate in Bologna, April 10, 1747 until February 1754. In 1747, he did spiritual exercisas to prepare himself fot the priesthood.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 1747. Named consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition and of the S.C. Rites in December 1753. From 1754 to 1756, he was vicar of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tebe, February 16, 1756. Consecrated, February 22, 1756, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Giorgio Doria, assisted by Niccolo Lercari, titular archbishop of Rodi, and by Giovanni Battista Giampe, titular bishop of Filippopoli. Named nuncio in Tuscany on March 16, 1756; arrived in Florence on April 29, 1756. In September 1759, he was informed of his transfer to the nunciature in Vienna. Named nuncio in Austria, December 10, 1759. After a long stay in Milan, Nuncio Borromeo arrived in Vienna on August 24, 1760; and was received in the imperial court on the following October 2. Abbot commendatario of Ss. Ippolito e Gabriele in Trigoli; of Ss. Pietro e Paolo e Calogero, Civate, October 1758; and of Chiaravalle, January 1764 to 1775.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 26, 1766; with an apostolic brief dated October 1, 1766, the pope sent him the red biretta to Vienna; he left Vienna in September 1767; he stayed in Milan for a period of rest and returned to Rome in the fall of 1768; received the red hat on November 17, 1768; and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, December 19, 1768. Legate in Romagna, December 19, 1768, for a triennium; took possession in absentia on January 1, 1769; arrived on July 4, 1769; confirmed for another triennium on March 13, 1775; left Ravenna on July 5, 1778; after a brief stay in Milan, he returned definitively to Rome. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. Prefect of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, Julio 1781. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, December 15, 1783. Abbot commendatario of Dulzago, 1787?. Member of the SS. CC. of the Holy Office, Tridentine Council, Indulgences and Sacred Relics, and delle Acque. Deputy for the correction of Oriental books. After the Revolution broke out in France, he was asked to join, along with Cardinals Gian Francesco Albani, Leonardo Antonelli, Filippo Campanelli, Guglielmo Pallotta and Gregorio Salviati, the Congregation for the Affairs of France, which was to examine the situation that followed the promulgation of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy; and oriented the hard decisions of the pope. Protector of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins, September 17, 1790. Protector of letters and literary men; of the convittrici de Bambino Gesù; and of several churches and sodalities. Protector of the church of S. Carlo dei Milanesi, Rome. His secretary for twenty seven years until his death was Father Giovanni Mugnozzi.

Death. June 7, 1793, at 10 p.m., of a very high fever, with symptoms indicative of an acute inflammation of the lungs, Rome. Exposed and buried in his title, S. Prassede, where the funeral also took place. In his will, dated May 25, 1788, he named as universal heir the Istituto delle Povere Figlie delle Scuole della Divina Carità, Rome; and in case it would not observe the norms that he had established, the Osppedale Maggiore of Milan.

Bibliography. Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 235; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VI, 60; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 24, 46, 48 and 400; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 174-176; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 131; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 797; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 100, 372 and 520; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 519, no. 741.

Links. Biography by Giuseppe Pignatelli, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; biography, in Italian, Magazzeno Storico Verbanese; his portrait by Giovanni Battista Perabò, Ospedale Maggiore, Università degli Studi di Pavia; his portrait, Accademia etrusca di Cortona, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; and his tomb in the church of S. Prassede, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

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(46) 7. COLONNA PAMPHILI, Pietro (1725-1780)

Birth. December 7, 1725, Rome. Fifth of the sixteen children of Prince Fabrizio II Colonna, duke of Paliano, and Caterina Zefirina Salviati. The other siblings were Maria Vittoria Giuseppa, Filippo, Lorenzo II, Marcantonio (cardinal), Giovanni Battista, Francesco Giuseppe, Isabella (Discalced Carmelite nun), Pamfilo, Felice, Maria Teresa, Lucrezia (Discalced Carmelite nun), Agata (nun), Federico, Chiara (Discalced Carmelite nun) and Ippolita (Discalced Carmelite nun). He was a Roman noble, a Neapolitan patrician and Venetian patrician. He assumed the name Pamphilj, adding it to his own last name Colonna, when he became a cardinal (1). His last name is also listed as Pamphilj; as Pamfili; as Pamphily; and as Colonna-Pamphili. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Carlo Colonna (1706). Brother of Cardinal Marcantonio Colonna, iuniore (1759). Cousin of Cardinal Scipione Borghese (1770). Other members of the family who were elevated to the cardinalate were Giovanni di San Paolo Colonna (1193); Giovanni Colonna (1212); Giacomo Colonna (1278); Pietro Colonna (1288); Giovanni Colonna (1327); Agapito Colonna (1378); Stefano Colonna (1378); Oddone Colonna (1405; later Pope Martin V); Prospero Colonna (1426); Giovanni Colonna (1480); Pompeo Colonna (1517); Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore (1565); Ascanio Colonna (1586); Girolamo Colonna (1627); Prospero Colonna (1739); Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra (1743); and Prospero Colonna di Sciarra (1743).

Education. Studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on July 9, 1750.

Early life. Abbreviatore apostolic, February 18, 1748. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber before July 1750. Protonotary apostolic de numero participantium July 17, 1750 until 1761; he received the corresponding insignias from Monsignor Antonio Maria Erba-Odescalchi, dean of the College of Protonotaries apostolic, future cardinal, on the following July 19. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, July 23, 1750. Relator of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, December 1751. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, end of November 1753; and simultaneously, president and secretary delle Ripe; and president delle Acque, 1753-1759. On July 24, 1754, he received the citizenship of the Kingdom of Naples. Commissary general delle Armi, ca. 1759/1760. During the course of his duties, he had managed to create a reputation as a shrewd and prudent person. Also, he did not take a position on the delicate question of the Jesuits. Received the minor orders on November 25, 1759; the subdiaconate on November 30, 1759; and the diaconate on December 22, 1759.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 27, 1760.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Colosso, January 28, 1760. Consecrated, February 16, 1760, Quirinale palace, Rome, by Pope Clement XIII, assisted by Filippo Caucci, titular patriarch of Constantinople, and by Giuseppe Locatelli, titular archbishop of Cartago. In the same ceremony were consecrated Francesco Carafa della Spina di Traetto, titular archbishop of Patras, future cardinal; and Antonio Eugenio Visconti, titular archbishop of Efeso, also future cardinal. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, February 20, 1760. Nuncio in France, March 4, 1760. During his nunciature of six years, occurred the expulsion from the kingdom of the Society of Jesus as a result of the act of detention of the Parliament of Paris on August 6, 1762.Shortly before leaving Paris, he wrote in March 1766, at the request of the Secretariat of State, Breve e succinta Istruzzione per il Nunzio apostolico di Francia (2). His actions in Paris were always approved by Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 26, 1766; with dispensation for having a brother in the Sacred College of Cardinals; the pope sent him the red biretta to Paris with an apostolic brief of October 3, 1766, with Monsignor Cerri, canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica; received the red hat on November 27, 1766; and the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, December 1, 1768. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Propaganda Fide, Tridentine Council, Ceremonial, Avignon, Loreto, delle Acque, Ecclesiastical Immunity, and Bishops and Regulars. Protector of the church of S. Agnese in Piazza Navona, Rome; of Collegio Greco; of the Armenian church of S. Maria Egiziaca; of the church of S. Gregorio Illuminatore, of the Armenian monks of S. Antonio abbate; of Collegio Salviati; of the Pious Huse degli Orfani; and of the monastery of Ss. Quattro Coronati. In April 1767, he received, in commendam, the abbey of Tre Fontane, near Rome. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. In 1772, the pope charged him with the visitation of the diocese of Nepi e Sutri, which he conducted for two years with great zeal. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. Named protector of the Order of the Eremites of Saint Augustine, February 13, 1776. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 17, 1777 until March 30, 1778.

Death. December 4, 1780, Verona, where he was to accompany the nuptial cortege of his nephew, Prince Filippo Colonna and Caterina Luisa di Savoia Carignano. Exposed and buried, temporarily, in the cathedral of Verona (3). Later, his remains were transported to the tomb of his ancestor in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Colonna, Prospero, I Colonna dalle origini all'inizio del secolo XIX : sunto di ricordi storici raccolti. Roma : Istituto Nazionale Medico Farmacologico "Serono", 1927, p. 304; Marchesi Buonaccorsi, Giorgio Viviano. Antichità ed eccellenza del Protonotariato appostolico partecipante, colle più scelte notizie de' santi, sommi pontefici, cardinali, e prelati che ne sono stati insigniti sino al presente, opera di Monsignor Giorgio Viviano Marchesi Buonaccorsi forlivese. Faenza : pel Benedetti, 1751. Note: Book; Computer File; Internet Resource, p. 555-556; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XIV, 308-309; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 24, 47 and 174; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 791; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 519, no. 742.

Links. Biography by I. Cotta Stumpo, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; his genealogy, K5, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his monument, cathedral of Verona, Chiesa Cattolica Italiana.

(1) In 1747, Prince Camillo Pamphili Aldobrandini directed in his will the assignation of a lump sum of 150,000 scudi to establish a prelature in favor of members of the Colonna house descendants of Prince Fabrizio, the latter being the son of Princess Olimpia Pamphili, with the obligation for the holder of the prelature of taking the name of the Pamphili family. Cardinal Pietro , who was the first holder of the prelature, then added to his name that of Pamphili.
(2) The Istruzzione was divided into four parts for a total of sixty pages: the first was a description of the court and government of France; while the second concerned the French clergy, regular and secular; the third summarized the most important business in course; and the last was a sort of real practical guide on the personal conduct of the nuncio. The diplomatic skill and prudence of the conduct of Nuncio Colonna toward the French court, government and clergy, emerged clearly from reading his dispatches.
(3) This is the inscription of the memorial tablet in the cathedral of Verona, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London:

PETRO · COLUMNAE · PAM
PHILIO · CARDINALI · VE
RONAE · DUM · AD · URBEM
REDIRET · EXINCTO · VI
RO · EXIMIIS · ANIMI · IN
GENIIQUE · DOTIBUS · OR
NATO · DE · APOSTOLICA
SEDE · OPTIME · MERITO
ET · QUAE · PRAECPIUA · LA
US · EST · INSIGNI · PIETATE
VITAEQ · INNOCENTIA
PHILLIPUS · ET · FABRITI
US · FRATRES · INFAUSTI
ITINERIS · COMITES · PA
TRUO · AMANTISS · M · PP
ANNO · C I Ɔ · I ƆCCLXXX
VIXIT · ANNOS · LV

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(47) 8. SIMONETTI, Giuseppe (1709-1767)

Birth. September 23, 1709, Castelnuovo di Farfa, abbey nullius of Farfa, province of Sabina, where his family possessed a signorie, a fiefdom and a palace. Of the Simonetti and Corradini families. Of the marquises of Simonetti. Roman noble.

Education. Initial education at home; then, he was sent to Rome to study at the Jesuit Collegio Romano; under the direction Cardinal Francesco Barberini, abbot commendatario of Farfa, applied himself to the legal studies at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on June 16, 1735. Feeling inclined to the clerical vocation, he entered the service of the Holy See.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 26, 1735. He entered the Roman prelature as abbreviatore di parco maggiore of the presidency of the Apostolic Chancery on March 8, 1736. Referendary of the Supreme Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, March 8, 1736. Named relator of the S.C. of Good Government in November 1738; occupied the post until 1742. Civil lieutenant of the Tribunal of the Vicariate of Rome in December 1742. Lieutenant of the civil tribunal of the Apostolic Chamber, December 1753 until September 1759. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, September 1759. Secretary of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, September 1759. Voter of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, 1759. Examiner of the prelates promoted to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Petra in Palestina, May 25, 1761. Consecrated, June 7, 1761, church of S. Silvestro in Capite, Rome, by Cardinal Ferdinando Maria Rossi, prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, assisted by Domenico Giordani, ttular archbishop of Nicomedia, and by Giovanni Lercari, titular archbishop of Adrainopoli. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, July 16, 1761. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, July 1763.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 26, 1766; received the red hat on September 30, 1766; and the title of S. Marcello, December 1, 1766. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Tridentine Council, Bishops and Regulars, Examination of Bishops, and Index of prohibited books.

Death. January 4, 1767, after five days of a grave illness, of a brain hemorrhage, having received the sacraments of the Church and the papal blessing in articulo mortis, in Rome. Exposed and buried in his title, S. Marcello, opposite to his own palace, where the funeral also took place in the presence of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LXVI, 164-165; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 24, 45 and 335; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 482-483; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 905.

Link. His portrait, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; description of his portrait by Gian Domenico Porta, in Milanges de archeologie et histoire, Volume 80 (1968), p. 312; the portrait of the cardinal is on p. 313, no. 10; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; House of Simonetti, in Italian, Wikipedia (his engraving is at the bottom of the page).

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(48) 9. PARACCIANI, Urbano (1715-1777)

Birth. February 8, 1715, Rome. Of a noble family. Eldest of the six children of Rutilio Paracciani and Chiara Maddalena Vitelleschi. The other children were Pietro, Anna Maria, Maria Colomba, Angelo and Margherita. His last name is also listed as Parracciani; and as Paracciani Rutili. He was baptized on the same day of his birth. Nephew of Cardinal Giandomenico Paracciani (1706). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Niccola Paracciani Clarelli (1844). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Salvatore Nobili Vitelleschi (1875), on his mother's side. Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Francesco Ricci Paracciani (1880).

Education. Studied at Collegio di Prato; and then, at Collegio di S. Carlo, Modena, from 1732. Later he studied at the Jesuit Collegio Romano, under the discipline and guidance of his maternal uncle, Father Giulio Vitelleschi, S.J. Obtained a doctorate in theology. He then attended Collegio dei Avvocati of Modena, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. He also studied law under the celebrate advocate Angervilliers. He maintained a close friendship and familiarity with the Jesuits throughout his life.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate on March 9, 1738; and the diaconate on March 16, 1738.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 23, 1738. Chamberlain of honor of Pope Benedict XIV on January 26, 1741. Prior of Collegio of S. Maria in Via Lata, Rome, in 1741. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, September 1743; its auditor in 1744. Prelate of the S.C. of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's. Civil lieutenant of the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, November 1749. Named auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, replacing Monsignor Luigi Mattei, who had been promoted to the cardinalate; his appointment was contested by several auditors for he had said some ungrateful things of the Rota, but Pope Benedict XIV strongly supported him and gave two letters from the family to the dean of the Rota; took the oath, June 26, 1754; its dean, February 14,1761 until July 9, 1764; he remained in the Rota until the following August 3. Dean of the auditors of causes of the Apostolic Palace. Canonist of the Apostolic Penitentiary, January 1761. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition; and of the S.C. of Rites. Voter of the Congregation of Fermo.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Fermo, July 9, 1764; as such, he was prince of Fermo. Consecrated, July 25, 1764, Pauline chapel of the Qurinale palace, Rome, by Pope Clement XIII, assisted by Giovanni Ottavio Bufalini, titular archbishop of Calcedonia, and by Giovanni Carlo Boschi, titular archbishop of Ahens. In the same ceremony was consecrated Luigi Valenti Gonzaga, titular archbishop of Cesarea, future cardinal. He was granted the pallium on August 20, 1764.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 26, 1766; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated September 27, 1766; received the red hat on June 11, 1767; and the title of S. Callisto, June 15, 1767. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Bishops and Regulars, Tridentine Council, Apostolic Visit, and Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's basilica. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. In 1772, he obtained from Pope Clement XIV the edification of Castel Clementino, with the collegiate church of S. Marco in place of the formerly called Servigliano. He celebrated a diocesan synod on May 23 to 25, 1773. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. Abbot commendatario of Campo Fellone, in the Marches, March 1775.

Death. January 2, 1777, in the early morning, of an apoplexy; after receiving the sacraments of the Church with great lucidity and devotion, in Fermo. Exposed in the cathedral of Fermo, where the funeral took place with the participation of the chapter and the clergy; and buried in that cathedral, among his predecessors in that see. The funeral eulogy was delivered by Father Nicolò Pietra, professor of eloquence at the University of Fermo. The eulogy was printed in Fermo. His brother, Giovanni Francesco, erected a monument to his memory in the cathedral of Fermo.

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 296-298; Cerchiari, Emmanuele. Capellani papae et apostolicae sedis auditores causarum sacri palatii apostolici seu sacra Romana Rota ab origine ad diem usque 20 septembris 1870. Relatio historica-iuridica SSMO D.N. Benedicto Papae XV dicata ... . 4 vols. Romae : typis Polyglottis Vaticanis, 1919-1921. Contents: v.I. Relatio.--v. II. Synataxis Capellanorum auditorum.--v. III. Documenta.--v. IV. Formae et indices, II, 243, no. 579; Mora, Vincenzo. Orazione in lode dell'Eminentissimo e Reverendissimo Signore il Signor Cardinale Urbano Paracciani, Arcivescovo e Principe di Fermo. Fermo, 1766; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LI, 155-156; Orazione in lode dell' illustriss, e Reverendiss : Monsignore Urbano Paracciani. In Venezia : Presso Gaspare Storti, 1765; Paracciani, Urbano.Synodus dioecesana. Firmi : Apud Philippum & Fabium Mariam Lazzarini, 1773. Responsibility: ab ... Urbano ... Cardinali Paracciani, Archiepiscopo ... Firmano, celebrata in ecclesia metropolitana, diebus 23, 24, & 25 maii Anno Dqi MDCCLXXIII; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 24, 43 and 216; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 654-657; Spinucci, Giuseppe. Cantata a due voci pel solenne faustissimo ingresso dell'illustrissimo... Monsignore Urbano Paracciani, arcivescovo e principe... di Fermo, che con pubblica accademia de'signori Erranti già Raffrontati, al suo degnissimo prelato fà plauso. Fermo : per D. A. Bolis e frat., 1764. Note : Par le Cte Giuseppe Spinucci, d'après la mention faite au vº du titre; Spinucci, Giuseppe. Cantata a due voci per la promozione alla sacra porpora dell'eminentissimo... signor cardinale Urbano Paracciani,... arcivescovo e principe... di Fermo, colla quale il senato Fermano nella publica accademia de'signori Erranti gi` Raffrontati al suo eminentissimo pastore... fà plauso e dimostranza. Fermo : stamp. di A. Bolis, 1766. Note: Au vº du titre : "Poesia del conte Giuseppe Spinucci"; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 716; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 794.

Links. His portrait, Fondazione Collegio San Carlo di Modena; his portrait, Palazzo dei Priori, Fermo, Sirpac sistema informativo Regione Marche; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

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(49) 10. PIRELLI, Filippo Maria (1708-1771)

Birth. April 29, 1708, Ariano. Neapolitan patrician. Son of Domenico Pirelli, prince of Teora, and Camilla Miranda. The father had established the family in Naples, where he practiced as an advocate; and had changed his last name Perrella to Pirelli for an unknown reason.

Education. Initial studies at home under expert tutors who taught him the scienze minori and philosophy; after entering the ecclesiastical state on November 12, 1729, later, he studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on May 18, 1739.

Early life. When the theological canonship of the cathedral chapter of Ariano vacated because of the death of his uncle Nicola Pirelli, he took the examination for the post, but because he did not have the favor of the local bishop, he was excluded. He returned to Naples and continued his studies cultivating the Latin and Italian belle lettere, in which he excelled. He became friend of a nephew of Cardinal Marcello Passeri and went with him to Rome to meet the uncle; the cardinal received him with great solicitude and esteem and introduced him to Clemente Argenvilliers, advocate and future cardinal, who took Filippo Maria as his aiuto di studio. Pope Clement XIII named him privy chamberlain. In 1741, Pope Benedict XIV named him domestic prelate; and consistorial advocate for Naples. In September 1743, he was ablegato apostolic to bring the red biretta to new Cardinals Francesco Landi, archbishop of Benevento, and Domenico Orsini d'Aragona. Judge at Monte Citorio. Civil auditor of Consistorial Advocate Met; as such, he composed the famous cause of Prince Doria, from whom he received a gift of 10,000 scudi, which Monsignor Pirelli gave to the nephew of Pope Clement XIII, Cardinal Carlo Rezzonico. Civil auditor of the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber in November 1749. Examiner of Bishops. Auditor of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice in December 1753; later, one of his voters. Civil lieutenant of the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber in September 1759. Abbot commendatario of S. Cipriano, Tarento, June 1762; and of Maria del Carrà, Calabria, in 1763. Secretary of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council and of the Residence of Bishops in July 1763.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 4, 1764.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Damasco, February 4, 1765. Consecrated, February 10, 1765, Rome, by Pope Clement XIII.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 26, 1766; received the red hat on September 30, 1766; and the title of S. Crisogono, December 1, 1766. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Tridentine Council, Examination of Bishops, Apostolic Visit, and Index. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV; and was the author of a Diario about that election.

Death. January 10, 1771, after a brief episode of violent fever, in Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, of the Filippini fathers, where the funeral also took place; the mass was sung by Cardinal Pietro Colonna Pamphili; and Pope Clement XIV imparted the final absolution; he was buried, according to his will, in the chapel of S. Filippo, in that church (1).

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LIII, 250; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 24, 43 and 191; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 541-543; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 821-822.

Links. His portrait by Pompeo Gerolamo Batoni, Arte Antica EU; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his tomb in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D. O. M.
PHILIPPVS . TIT . S. CHRYSOGONI
PRESBYT . CARDINALS . PIRELLIVS NEAPOLIT.
OB . PERPETVAM . IN . PHILIPPVM . NERIVM
DOMESTICVM . AC . PRAESENTEM . DIVVM
PIETATEM
HIC . MORIENS . TESTAMENTO . CONDI . IVSSIT.
VIXIT . AN . LXII . M . IX . D . II
ADQVIEVIT . IIII . EID . IAN.
AN . MDCCLXXI.
NICOLAVS . PATRIC . TRANENS
FERDINANDI . IIII . NEAP. REGIS
A . SANCTIORIBVS . CONSILIIS
FRATRI . AMATISSIMO
P. C.

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(50) 11. PICCOLOMINI, Enea Silvio (1709-1768)

Birth. August 22, 1709, Siena. Second of the eight children of Ranieri Piccolomini, knight and commander of the Order of S. Stefano Papa e Martire, and Camilla (Paola) Franceschi. The other siblings were Roberto, Tommaso, Anton Paolo, and eight other children. His family gave the Church Popes Pius II and Pius III; as well as Cardinals Giovanni Piccolomini (1517); Celio Piccolomini (1664); and Giacomo Piccolomini (1844).

Education. Initial education at home; later, he studied at the University of Siena; he became eloquent and profound in the elegance of the Latin language as he demonstrated in the orations that he recited in diverse academies.

Early life. In 1729, he went to the Roman court to find honorable establishment. Since his family did not have the necessary wealth to support him in Rome, he found the favor of several people, among them Cardinal Álvaro Cienfuegos Villazón, S.J., and Monsignor Nicola Casoni, cleric of the Apostolic Chamber. In December 1730, he was named papal chamberlain of honor and sent to Vienna as ablegato apostolic to bring the red biretta to new Cardinal Girolamo Grimaldi. Coadjutor of Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica and Corrector of the Apostolic Penitentiary Giovanni Iacopo Fattinelli. Shortly after, Pope Clement XII named him privy chamberlain participante and secretary of Latin letters. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, January 3, 1738. At the death of that pope, the Sacred College of Cardinals asked him to pronounce the funeral oration. The new pope confirmed him in his posts. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites, September 1743. President of the Apostolic Chamber, March 1745. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, April 1747; as such, he became governor of Castelnuovo and Montone; prefect degli Archvi, May 1750; president della Grascia, December 1753; commissary general delle Armi, September 1759; he also became dean of the Apostolic Chamber. Superintendent degli Ergastoli. Canon of the chapter of the Liberian patriarchal basilica. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, November 27, 1761 until September 26, 1766.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 26, 1766; received the red hat on September 30, 1766; and the deaconry of S. Adriano, December 1, 1766. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Tridentine Council, Sacred Consulta, Index of prohibited books, and delle Acque. Abbot commendatario of S. Maria di Galeata, December 1766); of S. Maria dell'Acque, Bologna, April 1767; and of S. Orsola di Cesena, October Octubre 1767. Protector of the Benedictine Congregation of Vallombrosa, January 16, 1768. Legate in Romagna, January 25, 1768.

Death. November 18, 1768, near 2 p.m., of oppressione di stomaco e convulsioni con dolore, after receiving the sacraments of the Church from Bishop Francesco Castellini of Rimini, in the monastery of S. Marina, in that city, while traveling to his legation. His body was embalmed and dressed with the cardinalitial habits and taken to the cathedral in the evening of November 19; in the following morning, the body was exposed wearing the diaconal dalmatic; the funeral was celebrated by the local bishop, with the participation of the clergy and magistrates of the city; and buried at 10 p.m. in that cathedral. He was not able to make his will.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 155, no. 401; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 118; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LII, 294; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 24 and 50; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 515-521; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 772; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 362, 372 and 841-842; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 815; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 519, no. 743.

Links. His portrait by Gian Domenico Porta, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

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(51) 12. CANALI, Saverio (1695-1773)

Birth. February 15, 1695, Terni. The family, of ancient nobility, derived its name from the castle Canale, located near Amelia; from 1449, the family resided in Terni, and had been added to the patriciate of the city. Son of Giovanni Maria Canali, count of Varolengo, and Caterina Gregori. He had a younger brother, Filippo, who became a Capuchin friar and took the name Filippo d'Amelia. His first name is also listed as Xaverio; and his last name as Canale and Canalibus.

Education. In 1710, he went to Rome to study at Collegio Ghislieri, and very soon he manifested his intention of following the ecclesiastical career.

Early life. In 1729, he entered the service of Cardinal Francesco Antonio Finy. He was also very close to Cardinal Troiano Acquaviva, protector of the Kingdom of Naples, who gathered in his palace one of the circles of the elite of Rome. Secretary of Monsignor Tommaso Ratto, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for a brief period. Auditor of the nunciature in Spain in 1731; then, he was named auditor of the nunciature in Portugal, but because of the conflict between that court and the Holy See, he could not enter the country; he stayed in the convent of the Friars Minor Observant in Badajoz waiting for the decision of the pope, which taking a long time, he decided to return to Rome. Knight of the Sovereign Order of Malta; in 1732, he became censore di giustizia in the Order. Prelate of the S.C. Consistorial. Protonotary apostolic participante, July 31, 1734. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, 1737-1744. In 1738, he obtained the contract for the apostolic printing house, which he held for twenty seven years, during which oversaw, among other things, publication of the decisions of the Sacred Roman Rota. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, September 1743. Governor of Cesi and Terre Arnolfe, 1744. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, July 11, 1745. Governor of Collescipoli, 1746. President della Zecca, April 1747. Prefect of the Archives, May 1747-1750. President della Grascia, May 1750 until 1753. Prefect della Annona, January 1, 1754 to September 24, 1759. In 1755, he ordered the construction of a chapel dedicated to S. Isidoro, near the granaries of the Terme di Diocleziano; and on the occasion, he wrote an hagiographic operetta, Vita di s. Isidoro agricoltore (Roma 1756). Treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber, September 1759. Although lacking the talent needed to tackle the serious problems arising from the financial crisis, in 1760 he was made treasurer general of the Papal States. This high office placed in his hands a treasury that was exhausted. Despite this, he appropriated funds to complete the port of Civitavecchia. Following the directives of the pope, he also had to deal with the famine of 1763. The state coffers being depleted, he drew 500,000 scudi from the treasure of Castel Sant'Angelo to buy grain from France. Pope Clement XIII later authorized his treasurer, in 1763, to give permission to the Monte dell Abbondanza to give new loans to the community for purchases of wheat. Always following the will of the pope Monsignor Canali organized in Rome a number of shelters to accommodate the crowd of six thousand immigrants who had to take refuge in the city because of the famine, and opened at the Terme di Diocleziano deposits of grain and oil. These extraordinary expenses, already in a difficult financial situation, forced him in 1764 to conduct a fiscal tightening, which did little to overcome the crisis. He was discharged in good terms and replaced by Monsignor Giovanni Angelo Braschi.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 26, 1766; received the red hat on September 30, 1766; and the deaconry of S. Maria della Scala, December 1, 1766. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Good Government, Ecclesiastical Immunity, delle Acque, and Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's Basilica. Abbot commendatario of Subiaco from 1766 until his death; he modified the administrative structure of the abbey, which caused great discontent in the population; he occupied the post until his death; Monsignor Giovanni Angelo Braschi, his successor, future cardinal and Pope Pius VI, was forced to restore the previous arrangement. Protector of the Order of the Bethlemites in the West Indies, April 14, 1767. Protector of the city of Terni. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. He spent his last years between Rome and Terni, where he had collected a rich library in his palace.

Death. March 20, 1773, of a very high fever with epileptic convulsions, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marcello, Rome, where the funeral took place in the presence of the pope and the Sacred College of Cardinals; and buried, temporarily, in that church (1). His remains were transferred to the church he built in Piedimonte, three miles from Terni, and buried there according to his will. He declared his universal heir a trust established in favor of his nephew, Count Paolo Canali. In his will, he asked that 2000 masses be celebrated for the eternal repose of his soul.

Bibliography. De Camillis, Mario. "Il cardinal Saverio Canali", in L'Osservatore romano, LXXXII, no. 61, March 14, 1942, p. 2; Marchesi Buonaccorsi, Giorgio Viviano. Antichità ed eccellenza del Protonotariato appostolico partecipante, colle più scelte notizie de' santi, sommi pontefici, cardinali, e prelati che ne sono stati insigniti sino al presente, opera di Monsignor Giorgio Viviano Marchesi Buonaccorsi forlivese. Faenza : pel Benedetti, 1751. Note: Book; Computer File; Internet Resource, p. 525; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VII, 151; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 24 and 52; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 560-562; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) p. 541; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 499-500.

Links. Biography by Mirella Giansante, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 17 (1974), Treccani; his engraving by Pietro Antonio Pazzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D.     O.     M.
SAVERIO S.R.E. DIACONO
CARD CANALE
PATRUO
OPTIMO AC BENEMERENTI
PAULUS COMES CANALE
EX TESTAMENTO HÆRES
L   L   Q   M   P
VIXIT ANNOS LXXVIII. M. I. D. V.
OBIIT ANNO M.DCCLXXIII. XIII KAL. APRIL.

He asked his heir to place this simple inscription in his tomb in the church of Piedimonte:

Hic iacet Xaverius Cardinalis Canale, orate pro eo

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(52) 13. VETERANI, Benedetto (1703-1776)

Birth. October 18, 1703, Urbino. Of a patrician family of the counts of Montecalvo. Eldest of the six children of Count Antonio Veterani and Countess Lisabetta Boni. The other siblings were Crescenzio (priest), Vittoria, Francesco, Lavinia and Camilla (nun).

Education. Initial studies at home; later, the father sent him, together with his two brothers, to the celebre school of the Piarists in Urbino, where he distinguished himself in the study of Latin; then, he studied philosophy and theology; and earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, at the University of Urbino.

Sacred orders. After finishing his studies, he received the sacred orders and went to Rome

Early life. In Rome, he obtained a place at Collegio Piceno, where he could live and continue his legal studies. He obtained the charge of secretary of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, which carried a small emolument of twenty four scudi a year. He became aiuto di studio of Advocate Guerra; and later of Monsignor Xaverio Giustiniani, sub-datary. Cardinal Domenico Rivera, his relative, named him his auditor in 1733 and was his conclavist in the papal election of 1740; in that occasion he met and became a good friend of Cardinal Pierre-Guérin de Tencin, who recommended him to the new Pope Benedict XIV. Agent of the city of Fabriano in Rome, 1741. Privy chamberlain participante of His Holiness. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, September 21, 1743. In 1753, he was ablegato apostolic to bring the red biretta to new Cardinal Giovanni Francesco Stoppani, president of Urbino, in Pesaro. Promotor of the faith and coadjutor of Consistorial Advocate Giuseppe Ascevolini, from Bertinoro, July 1754. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, September 24, 1755. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace. He had always felt a great affection and admiration for the Society of Jesus, and hoping that the Jesuits could help in the advancement of his career, he became an assiduous visitor to Father General, Lorenzo Ricci. With the election of Cardinal Carlo Rezzonico, seniore, to the papacy as Pope Clement XIII, who was very close with the Jesuits, Monsignor Veterani saw his fortune improved. He was named assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, at the end of September 1759. Soon after, he was decorated with the cross of grace of the Sovereign Order of Malta. He was promoted to the cardinalate with the support of the Society of Jesus; Monsignor Mario Compagnoni Marefoschi, secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, who had always clearly opposed politics, was excluded from this promotion; the city of Rome expressed its strong disapproval for the respective promotion and exclusion; Cardinal Pietro Paolo Conti, from his sickbed, wrote to the pope saying that he would have willingly resigned his cardinalate in favor of Monsignor Marefoschi.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 26, 1766; received the red hat on September 30, 1766; and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, December 1, 1766. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Tridentine Council, Rites, Index of prohibited books, Avignon, and Loreto. Protector of Mondolfo, a commune near Urbino. Abbot commendatario of S. Nicola di Ferrara, January 1767. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, April 1767. Abbot commendatario of S. Sisto, Iesi, and of S. Pietro in Vincoli, Ravenna, April 1767. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. At this time in his life, he had almost totally lost his sight. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. Because of his infirmities and weakness of mind, he was not allowed to take part in the consistories and congregations, becoming a recluse in his room. He was famous for the solidity of his doctrine and his assistance to the poor.

Death. August 12, 1776, at 9 p.m., of a high fever and dysentery, after receiving the sacraments of the Church, in Rome. The body was embalmed, dressed with the cardinalitial habit and exposed in the ancient chamber of the palace where he lived; three altars were erected in the chamber for the celebration of funeral masses; his body was transported in a carriage, accompanied by the curate of S. Biagio della Pagnotta, his parish, to the Filippini church of S. Maria in Vallicella, where the funeral also took place, in the presence of the pope, who imparted the final absolution; and the Sacred College of Cardinals; the body, dressed with the diaconial vestments, was placed in a high bed surrounded by one hundred wax candles and four torches of yellow wax. The funeral mass was celebrated by Cardinal Leonardo Antonelli. The body of the late cardinal was placed into the three customary coffins and buried, according to his will, in that same church (1). In his will, he ordered the celebration of 1000 masses for the repose of his soul.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, CLVI, 274-275; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 24 and 51; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 648-651; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 950; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 971; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 520, no. 744.

Links. His portrait by Sebastiano Ceccarini, Arte Antica, EU; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his tomb in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

OSSA BENEDICTI
SANCTÆ ROMANA ECCLESIA
DIACONI CARDINALIS
VETERANI
ORATE PRO EO


Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, CLVI, 275, transcribed the same text. And on p. 274, says: ""Il suo cadaver aperto e imbalsamato, cogli abiti cardinalizi paonazzi fu esposto in un' antica camera del palazzo da lui abitato, dove furono eretti 3 altari per la celebrazione de'suffragi. Quindi in carrozza e accompagnato dal curato di s. Biagio della Pagnotta, sua parrocchia, fu portato nella chiesa di s. Maria in Vallicella de'filippini, a tal effetto nobilmente apparata a lutto con l'ornato di moltissime trine d'oro e vestito de'sagi abiti diaconiali col cappello cardinalizio a'piedi, fu collocato e da 4 torcie di cera gialla. Alla cappella papale, oltre il sagro collegio, la numerosa prelatura, i capi degli ordini regolari e gli altri che vi hanno luogo, vi si recò ad assistere alla solenne messa, cantata dal cardinal Antonelli, per distinzione lo stesso Pio VI in forma pubblica, avendo in carrozza i cardinali Archinto e Albani, ed in fine fece le solennni assoluzioni. Terminato il funerale, il di lui corpo alla presenza della sua corte fu collocato nelle 3 consuete casse, e sepolto nell'istessa chiesa, a tenore della disposizione testamentaria del defunto [ ... ]" .

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