(38) 1. BUFALINI, Giovanni Ottavio (1709-1782)
Birth. January 17, 1709, Città di Castello (1). Of a noble family. Youngest of the three children of Marquis Filippo Bufalini and Marchioness Ana Maria Sorbelli. The other siblings were Niccolò and Giovanni Battista. His first name is also listed as Giovanniottavio; and his last name as Buffalini and as Bufalinus.
Education. Studied at Collegio dei Nobili di S. Carlo, Modena, 1723; and later, at the University of Macerata, where he studied law under the guidance of Tommaso Conti and Monsignor Turietti, obtaining a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on January 5, 1740.
Early life. He went to Spain in the entourage of Cardinal Silvio Valenti Gonzaga, who later was secretary of State and notably favored Giovanni Ottavio's career. Returned to Rome and started the ecclesiastical career. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Grace and of Justice, September 1, 1740. Governor of the city of Benevento, January 7, 1741. Governor of the cities of Loreto, November 16, 1743 until 1747; in 1746, during the Austrian Succession War, Austrian forces first, and Neapolitan later, passed through the city and tried to enlist its citizens, something that the governor opposed and even asked to be able to use force to impede it. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, April 1747. President della Zecca, 1748-1749. Preceptor general of the archhospital of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, September 1749 to October 1754. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, December 8, 1753 until January 17, 1755. Received the subdiaconate, March 30, 1754. Until 1754, he was a prelate of the Congregations of Loreto and Avignon, as well as protonotary apostolic supernumerary non-participant.
Priesthood. Ordained, November 17, 1754.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Calcedonia, 1754. Consecrated, December 21, 1754, church of S. Ignazio, Rome, by Cardinal Joaquín Fernández de Portocarrero, assisted by Giorgio Maria Lascaris, titular archbishop of Teodosia, and by Niccolo Saverio Santamaria, titular bishop of Cirene. Nuncio in Switzerland, December 21, 1754. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, January 23, 1755. Named prefect of the Apostolic Palace, October 2, 1759, by the support of Cardinal Luigi Maria Torrigiani, to whom Archbishop Bufalini always remained loyal. Abbot commendatario of S. Benedetto, Rmmini, January 1764.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 21, 1766; received the red hat on July 24, 1766; and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, August 6, 1766. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Tridentine Council, Ecclesiastical Immunity, Consistorial, Avignon and Loreto. Protector of Collegio dell'Umbria, Rome. Transferred to the see of Ancona, with personal title of archbishop, December 1, 1766; he entered the diocese on April 5, 1767; this was one of the richest sees of the Papal States. The new bishop did not limit his work to the ecclesiastical field, but intervened in economic and administrative activities of the territory anconitano, often usurping the powers of the governor, a circumstance that occurred not infrequently given the confused administration of the state. In addition to the religious situation, Cardinal Bufalini turned his care especially to agricultural problems because Ancona, besides the business of the port, drew its livelihoods from agriculture and it was the sustenance of most of the population who were sharecroppers and laborers. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Uncompromisingly opposed to the election of Cardinal Ganganelli, during his papacy, he remained decidedly in obscurity. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. On July 18, 1779, he convoked a diocesan synod; the synodal decisions were published on May 1, 1780; they contained a Codice di leggi della città di Ancona. In June 1782, he received in Ancona Pope Pius VI, who was returning from Vienna. Besides the norms for the ecclesiastical discipline of the clergy and religious institutions, which were based on the usual rigor, he took significant steps aimed at preventing the spread of Enlightenment or heterodox works and ideas, which resulted also in preventing relations with the schismatics, heretics, infidels and the Jews who lived in Ancona; the latter were also forbidden to leave the ghetto from sunset to dawn. In addition to these repressive measures, Cardinal Bufalini improved education, especially at the seminary where the laity also studied; and subjected private schools to special monitoring.
Death. August 3, 1782, Montesicuro, diocese of Ancona. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Ancona.
Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 295-296; Fink, Urban. Die Luzerner Nuntiatur 1586-1873 : zur Behördengeschichte und Quellenkunde der päpstlichen Diplomatie in der Schweiz. Luzern : Rex Verlag, 1997; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 235; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VI, 154-155; Pignatelli, G. "Bufalini, Giovanni Ottavio." Dizionario biografico degli Italiani. 65 vols. Direttore, Alberto M. Ghisalberti. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 1960-1982, XIV, 795-797; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 142; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 144, 283 and 527-528; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 479-480.
Webgraphy. Biography by G. Pignatelli, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; biographical entry, in Italian, Dizionario storico della Svizzera; same biographical entry, in German, Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz; same biographical entry, in French, Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse; his portrait by an anonymous artist, Fondazione Collegio San Carlo, Modena; his portrait by Pietro Labruzzi, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, Archhospital of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, ARTPAST, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait by Gian Domenico Porta, AskART The Artists' Bluebook; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.
(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, VI, 154, which says that he was born on January 15, 1710.
(39) 2. BOSCHI, Giovanni Carlo (1715-1788)
Birth. April 9, 1715, Faenza. Of a noble and patrician family. Son of Count Pietro Antonio Boschi. Baptized on the same day of his birth. His first name is also listed as Giancarlo; and as Ioannes Carolus.
Education. Initial studies under his uncle, Giovanni Boschi, canon and archpriest of the cathedral chapter of Faenza; then, he was sent to Rome in 1725 and studied at Collegio Clementino from 1725 until 1732; later, he studied at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, from 1732 until 1737, to obtain the necessary preparation for the career as a prelate; and finally, at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on June 20, 1746.
Early life. In 1740, he delivered the orations "De apostolica B. Petri cathedra", at the patriarchal Vatican basilica in the presence of Pope Clement XII; and "In funere Caroli VI Romanorum regis", on November 26, 1740, at the chapel of the Quirinale palace, in the presence of Pope Benedict XIV; both orations were later published. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, October 1740. Named member of the Accademia di storia ecclesiastica by Pope Benedict XIV. Auditor of the secretary of Memoriali, Monsignor Giuseppe Livizzani, in February 1742. In January 1744, he became abbreviatore of the Roman Curia. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites, September 1743. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, October 11, 1744. Received the minor orders, February 7, 1745.
Priesthood. Ordained, March 5, 1746. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Grace and of Justice, June 23, 1746. Prefect of chamber of Pope Benedict XIV. Secretary of Memoriali, March 1754. Prelate of the S.C. Consistorial, 1757. Secretary of the Cipher, July 1758. Domestic prelate. Protonotary apostolic. Named prefect of the Papal Household in September 1759.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Atena, September 22, 1760. Consecrated, October 5, 1760 (1), Castelgandolfo, by Pope Clement XIII, assisted by Lodovico Calini, titular patriarch of Antioch, and by Giovanni Ottavio Bufalini, titular archbishop of Calcedonia. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, October 31, 1760.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 21, 1766; received the red hat on July 24, 1766; and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, August 6, 1766. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Holy Office, Propaganda Fide, Rites, Consistorial, Index, and Examination of Bishops. Protector of the Holy Land and of several monasteries and religious institutions. Grand penitentiary, September 1, 1767 until his death. Prefect of the Congregation for the correction of the books of the Oriental Church, October 1767. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. He kept a low profile during the pontificate of Pope Clement XIV. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 8, 1773 to February 28, 1774. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI; the Bourbon courts opposed his election to the papacy considering him a philo-Jesuit. In 1776, he was charged with the negotiations between the Holy See and the government of Modena for the modification of the Code of 1771, which was considered detrimental to the ecclesiastical immunity; the death of Duke Francesco III of Modena and the accession of Duke Ercole III in 1780 made the negotiations fail. In 1778, he censured the catechisms of Vienna of 1773 and 1776; and of Milan, prepared by Cardinal Giuseppe Pozzobenelli, because of their discordance in some point with the Roman Catechism. Pro-prefect of the S.C. of the Discipline of the Regulars, January 1774 to November 1787. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, September 20, 1784. Cardinal protoprete.
Death. September 6, 1788, Rome. Exposed and buried in his title, S. Lorenzo in Lucina (2). A chronicle of his funeral was published by Vincenzo Zucchini, Pe' solenni funerali de sua eminenza il Cardinale G. C. Boschi patrizio faentino, Faenza 1788.
Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VI, 64; Pignatelli, G. "Boschi, Giovanni Carlo." Dizionario biografico degli Italiani. 65 vols. Direttore, Alberto M. Ghisalberti. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 1960-1982, XIII, 194-195; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 23, 44, 56 and 105; Strocchi, Andrea. Memorie istoriche del Duomo di Faenza e de'personaggi illustri di quel capitolo, esposte dal canonico Andrea Strocchi, Faentino, corredate di XIV tavole incise. Faenza: Tipografia Montanari e Marabini, 1838, pp. 173-175; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 471.
Webgraphy. Biography by G. Pignatelli, in Italian, Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his portrait and biography by Marcel Boschi, in French, GeneaNet; his engraving, GeneaNet; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his engraving Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his bust by Ignazio Benedetti, GeneaNet; and his portrait, Korcula Town Museum, Croatia; his tombstone Europeana, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy.
(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 105; and Pignatelli, Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, XIII, 195; Strocchi, Memorie istoriche del Duomo di Faenza e de'personaggi illustri di quel capitolo, p. 174, indicates that he was consecrated on October 31, 1760.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Strocchi, Memorie istoriche del Duomo di Faenza e de'personaggi illustri di quel capitolo, p. 175:
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