(3) 1. BORGHESE, Scipione (1734-1782)
Birth. April 1, 1734, Rome. Sixth of the ten children of Camillo Borghese, fourth prince of Sulmona, fifth prince of Vivaro, and Agnese Colonna, of the princes and dukes of Paliano. The other siblings were Eleonora; Maria Vittoria; Marcantonio III; Livia; Paolo Aldobrandini; Ippolito (died in infancy); Giovanni Battista (died in infancy); Orazio; and Giacomo (died in infancy). Nephew of Cardinal Francesco Borghese (1729). Nephew of Cardinal Girolamo Colonna Sciarra (1743), on his mother's side. Cousin of Cardinals Marcantonio Colonna, iuniore and Pietro Colonna Pamphili. Other cardinals of the family were Camillo Borghese (1596), future Pope Paul V; Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese (1605); Pietro Maria Borghese (1624). His last name is also listed as Borghesi and as Burghesius.
Education. Destined to the ecclesiastical state, he studied theology at Collegio Tolomei , Siena; and later, at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on April 27, 1756.
Early life. He entered the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta in July 1735. With the protection of his uncle Cardinal Colonna, he started his curial career. Vicar of the patriarchal Liberin basilica from January 1756. Protonotary apostolic de numero participantium, May 1756-1765. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Signature of Justice and of Grace, June 1756.
Priesthood. Ordained, September 22, 1759. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites, December 1759; its secretary, April 1762.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Teodosia, June 5, 1765. Consecrated, June 9, 1765, Pauline chapel, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Marcantonio Colonna, assisted by Domenico Giordani, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, and by Giovanni Lercari, titular archbishop of Adrianopolis. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, July 16, 1765. Prefect of the Cubiculi of His Holiness, July 23, 1766; confirmed in that post by the new Pope Clement XIV, July 4, 1769. He was one of the closest collaborators of Pope Clement XIII in the dramatic events of the last part of his pontificate, engaged in a desperate defense of the Society of Jesus. He had to quickly adapt to the changing climate in the pontificate of Pope Clement XIV, who eventually suppressed the Society in 1773.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 10, 1770; received the red hat, September 13, 1770; and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, December 12, 1770. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Rites, Insurgencies and Sacred Relics, Consistorial, delle Acque e Strade, Tribunal of the Signature of Grace and Fabric of St. Peter's basilica. Protector of Collegio Clementino, Rome; of the Church and Nation Sanese; f the Archconfaternity of the Most Holy Sacrament of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome; and of the Commune of Filo di Cento. Legate in Ferrara, December 16, 1771, succeeding Cardinal Girolamo Spinola; arrived in his legation, June 11, 1772; he was frequently absent, preferring to entrust the government to Vice-legate Francesco Pignatelli; he reorganized the university of Ferrara, according to the directives issued by Pope Clement XIV on April 3, 1771, supporting the work of the Committee in charge of the reform, chaired by the dean of the Sacred Rota, the Ferrarese Giammaria Riminaldi; he worked to adjust the thorny issue of the Jesuit according to the drastic intentions of Pope Clement XIV; he was appointed, on June 17, 1773, to provide for the closing of the Jesuit colleges, the dispersion of the Jesuits and the freezing of assets of the Society; Cardinal Borghese carried out the papal directives with the speed and power needed, so that there were no incidents in the quick operation, of the part of the Jesuits or the population, as the pope had so feared; the cardinal then entrusted the Jesuit schools to the Congregation of Clerics Regular Somaschi; confirmed for a triennium, March 13, 1775; left, April 5, 1778. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 1, 1779 until March 20, 1780. Protector of the Congregation of the Clerics Regular Minor Observant, December 29, 1779.
Death. December 26, 1782, around 8 a.m., Rome. Exposed in his title, where the funeral took place; and buried in the Borghese Chapel, in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome. He left all his possessions to his brother Marcantonio.
Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VI, p. 45; Notizie per l'anno MDCCLXXIX. In Roma MDCCLXXIX : Nella Stamperia Cracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, p. 101; Reinhardt, Volker. Kardinal Scipione Borghese (1605-1633) : Vermögen, Finanzen und sozialer Aufstieg eines Papstnepoten. Tübingen : M. Niemeyer, 1984. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom; Bd. 58; Variation: Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom ; Bd. 58); Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 26, 46, 56 and 402; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 125; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 255 and 517; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), p. II, 483.
Links. Biography by G. De Caro, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani; his genealogy, A1, B4, C1, D2, E6, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; his portrait, attributed to Pietro Longhi, Bonhams; his engraving by Domenico Cunego, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna.
(4) 2. REZZONICO, Giovanni Battista (1729-1783)
Birth. June 1, 1740, Venice (1). Fourth of the five children of Aurelio Rezzonico and Anna Giustiniani. Brother of Cardinal Carlo Rezzonico, iuniore (1758). The other three siblings were Quintilia, Lodovico and Abbondio. Nephew of Pope Clement XIII (1758-1769).
Education. Under the direction of his uncle Cardinal Carlo Rezzonico, he studied at the Jesuit Collegio Romano.
Early life. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, July 1, 1760. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, July 10, 1761. Received the insignias of the clerical character from Pope Clement XIII, July 16, 1760. Protonotary apostolic ad honorem. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber. Commissary general dell'Armi, November 27, 1761-1766. Abbot commmendatario of S. Croce di Sassovivo, diocese of Foligno, August 1761; and of Folina, diocese of Friuli, February 1766. Grand prior of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta in Rome, January 1763. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace (Maggiordomo), July 21, 1766; confirmed in the post by Pope Clement XIV.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 10, 1770; received the red hat, September 13, 1770; and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, December 12, 1770. Received a dispensation for having a brother in the Sacred College of Cardinals. Granted a dispensation to be a cardinal deacon without receiving the minor orders, September 24, 1771. Received the minor orders, September 21, 1773. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. Pro-secretary of Memoriali, February 25, 1775. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Sacred Consulta; Consistorial; Indulgencies and Sacred Relics; Ecclesiastical Immunity; Fabric of Saint Peter's basilica; Avignon; Loreto; and delle Acque. Protector of the Canons Regular Lateranense, March 2, 1775. Protector of the Friars Minor Conventual, March 20, 1775. Protector of the Pii Operai della Divina Pietà; of the city of Sinigaglia; of the church and archhospital of S. Giacomo degli Incurabili; of diverse cities and communities of the Papal States; of collegi, opere pie, confraternities, monasteries and chapters. He was a patron of the arts, letters and sciences. He was the supporter of erudites and artists who dedicated their works to him.
Death. July 21, 1783, suddenly, of an apoplexy, while leaving his Roman palace. Exposed in the hall of the senatorial palace of Campidoglio, where he and his brother the senator lived; the funeral took place in the church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome, where the funeral took place; and buried in his deaconry, S. Nicola in Carcere, where his brothers the cardinal and the senator had a tomb sculpted by Irish artist Christopher Heweston, with his bust, emblems and the epitaph composed by Morcelli.
Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 160, no. 414; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LVII, 166-167; Notizie per l'anno MDCCLXXIX. In Roma MDCCLXXIX : Nella Stamperia Cracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, p. 117-119; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 26 and 52; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 800; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 842.
Link. His tomb, church of S. Nicola in Carcere, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; his engraving by Domenico Cunego, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his portrait, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is according to Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, LVII, 166; and Notizie per l'anno MDCCLXXIX, p. 117. Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, II, 800, indicates that he was born in 1729.
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