(5) 1. CASALI, Antonio (1715-1787)
Birth. May 25, 1715, Rome. Second of the seven children of Giovanni Battista Casali, marquis of Postina, and Maria Maddalena Millini. The other siblings were Alessandro, Lodovico (a Jesuit, rector of Collegio Romano), Faustina and another three girls. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Savo Millini (1681); and nephew of Cardinal Mario Millini (1747), on his mother's side. Great-great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Govanni Battista Casali del Drago (1899).
Education. Sent to study at Collegio dei Nobili di S. Carlo, Modena, 1725; later, returned to Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.
Early life. He was destined to the ecclesiastical career in order to reserve assets for the elder brother Alessandro. He was prepared accurately without having the vocation to the priesthood. He perfected his legal training and showed in several occasions his oratory abilities. His oration In festo Ascensionis Christi oratio habita in Basilica Lateranensi ad Sanctissimum D. N. Clementem XII... ab Antonio Casalio Patritio Romano, was published in Rome in 1738. Entered the Roman prelature as Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, August 9, 1742. Relator of the S.C. of the Good Government, September 1743. Prelate of the S.C. of the Council, 1744. President of the Apostolic Chamber, December 12, 1750. Cleric coadjutor of Monsignor Melchior Maggi, dean of the Apostolic Chamber, September 1751; cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, November 1751. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, 1752. Prefect of the Archives of the Apostolic Chamber, December 1753-1759; as such, he had jurisdiction over all the notaries and public archives of the states of the Church. Relator of the S.C. of the Council until 1760. President della Grascia, September 1759-1761, controlling with exceptional rigor and method the distribution of food to the poor. In 1760, he was proposed as nuncio in Paris, but refused on the grounds of not being in possession of a sufficient patrimony to pursue such a costly charge (even in the eighteenth century, papal diplomatic offices were not provided with sufficient rents); probably his reluctance was also due to the desire of not being compelled to take holy orders. Secretary of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, November 1761. Protonotary apostolic sopranumerario non participante. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, September 26, 1766; pro-governor from his promotion to the cardinalate until September 22, 1774; he succeeded Monsignor Enea Silvio Piccolomini, promoted to the cardinalate he reformed the court of the governor and by streamlining the procedural structures, but faced with the usual inertia of the judges, he had to resort to cash prizes to urge them; he also applied severe measures, including deposition, in case of serious non-compliance. Driven by the moralistic concern of not keeping the prisoners in idleness, he introduced in the women's prison in S. Michele a spinning of wool, hemp and flax. Founded the Conservatorio di San Pietro in Montorio for the poor, and established a bakery and factory for the production of other goods, which was later named the Conservatorio Pio in 1782 because of the support of Pope Pius VI.
Sacred orders. He never received any of the sacred orders.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of December 12, 1770; published in the consistory of March 15, 1773; received the red hat on March 18, 1773; and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, April 19, 1773. He was ascribed to the SS. CC. of Propaganda Fide, Sacred Consulta, Avignon and Lauretana. Protector, among others, of the Apostolic Hospice of San Michele; of the archconfraternity del Gonfalone; of the archconfraternity del SS. Crocefisso di San Marcello; and of the Conservatorio di San Pietro in Montorio, which he had founded; and of Collegio Germanico, formerly of the Society of Jesus. Prefect of the S.C. of Good Government, March 26, 1773 until his death. Member of the commission, presided by Cardinal Mario Marefoschi Compagnoni, that in 1773 executed the suppression of the Society of Jesus; regarded as too moderate, although absent because of illness during the crucial activities of the commission in September 1773, he was replaced through the intervention of the Spanish Minister in Rome, José Moñino, count of Floridablanca. Then, he went back to work in the congregation and, along with Cardinal Andrea Corsini and against Cardinals Francesco Xaverio Zelada, Mario Marefaschi and Francesco Carafa della Spina di Traetto, spared the Jesuits held prisoner in Castel Sant'Angelo from a harsh treatment. On the eve of the death of Clement XIV, judging that there could be disturbances of public order, Cardinal Casali ordered strict preventive measures taken, such as mobilizing all the forces of police and transferring to Castel Sant'Angelo the detainees who were in the prisons of Campidoglio and in the new jails. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI; on September 22, 1774, adducing that he could not, from within the conclave, provide effective surveillance of the public peace of Rome, in which there was considerable turmoil, he resigned from his position as pro-governor and was replaced by Monsignor Giovanni Potenziani. In August 1775, as prefect of the S.C. of Good Government, he realized the apostolic visitation to the community of Frascati, requested by some of its neighbors; among other things, he reformed the statutes dell'Annona and of Monte di pietà, and the conditions for contracts and leases of the community, measures taken to extinguish the debts of the University dei bovattieri; also, he ordered an investigation into the capital of the community and the preparation of an exact inventory of all assets owned by the community. The following year, he joined the particular congregation established by Pius VI with the motu proprio of July 27, 1776, to review the tax reform plan already prepared some years earlier by the pontiff when he was treasurer general. Cardinal Casalli was essentially in favor of the project, suggesting amendments that were accepted. The special congregation concluded its work on January 7, 1777, approving almost completely the proposed plan. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria ad Martyres, February 17, 1777. On the following December 15, the cardinal emanated the Editto sopra la formazione del catasto e allibrazione universale del terratico, which requested the formation of a congregation in every that would determine the ownership of land, their extension and their value; the operations lasted until February 1786. He was named protector of the Società georgica of Montecchio, founded in 1778, and he urged the states to specially address the practical education of the peasantry. Cardinal Casali paid special attention, for the promotion of trade, to roads, the administration of which depended on the S.C. of Good Government. There were created the new road from Velletri to Terracina (completed in 1786); and one from Frosinone to Piperno; were improved the one of Cassia between Viterbo and Ronciglione; the Lauretana (near Pedaso); and the Clementina. The bridges of Ceprano over the river Liri; and of Benevento sul Calore, were built; and the castle of Grottamare was rebuilt. As administrator of Terracina il Casali, the cardinal expanded the city and improve the port; he also gave new impetus to the thermal baths of Nocera Umbra and Viterbo. Knowledgeable about antiquarian culture, and assisted by a secretary, Angelo Comolli, connoisseur of the arts, Cardinal Casali was also passionate about archaeological excavations. Already in 1772, he had found and given Pope Clement XIV the ara di Vulcano (known as ara Casali), described in a publication by the antiquarian Horace Orlandi; in November 1777, the cardinal donated to Pope Pius VI, for the Pio Clementino Museum, the statues of Endimione and Niobide. For several years he suffered from gout.
Death. January 14, 1787, shortly before 6 p.m., Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Agostino, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in his family's tomb in the chapel of S. Pietro Apostolo in that same church. Monsignor Cesare Brancadoro, future cardinal, published Elogio storico per onorare la memoria dell' emin. Signor Card. Antonio Casali, Macerata, 1787.
Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 298-299; Casali, Antonio. Area sepulchralis anaglyptica, ex marmore Pario, apud E.D. Antonium Casalium cardinalem ... effossa ad viam Appiam, intra Portam Capenam ... Rome, 1790s; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 118; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, X, p. 137; Orlandi, Orazio. Ragionamento Di Orazio Orlandi Romano Sopra Una Ara Antica Posseduta Da Monsignore Antonio Casali Governatore Di Roma. In Roma: Per Arcangelo Casaletti Stampatore Alle Terme Neroniane Il Di Primo Agosto M DCC LXXII. Con Licenza De' Superiori. Notes: The work describes a rectangular, marble altar, dedicated by 'Ti. Claudius Faventinus', carrying bas-reliefs on all four sides. The frontispiece is a view of two sides of the altar; the plate facing page 3 shows the side carrying the dedicatory inscription; the headpieces and one tailpiece show the several bas-reliefs carried on the other sides. The bas-reliefs on one side of the altar represent myths related to Romulus and Remus; those on the other sides represent myths connected with the Trojan War. The title-page vignette shows Roma seated among trophies of arms, the Pantheon and a ruined temple. Responsibility Note: The frontispiece and the plate facing page 3 are signed as engraved by Carlo Antonini. The title-page vignette is signed as designed and drawn by Fran. Smuglewicz Polonus and engraved by Carolus Antonini. The nine headpieces and one tailpiece are unsigned. The publication is dedicated by 'Antonius Casalius Praefectus Urbis' to Pope Clement XIV; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 27 and 51; Santolini Giordani, Rita. Antichit` Casali : la collezione di Villa Casali a Roma. Roma : "L'Erma" di Bretschneider, 1989. (Studi miscellanei ; 27; Variation: Studi miscellanei ; 27); Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 199; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 362 and 557; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 522; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 521, no. 750.
Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; his portrait, Palazzo Tozzoni, Imola; his portrait by Gian Domenico Porta, Fondazione Collegio San Carlo di Modena; his portrait, School of Carlo Labruzzi, Christies; his engraving by Domenico Cunego, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio.
(6) 2. ACQUAVIVA D'ARAGONA, Pasquale (1718-1788)
Birth. November 3, 1718, Naples. Neapolitan patrician. Second of th eight children of Giulio Antonio Acquaviva d'Aragona, eleventh duke of Nardò, and Maria Spinelli, of the princes of Tarsia. The other children were Giovanni Girolamo, Carlo, Eleonora, Caterina, Francesca, Anna and Giuseppe. Nephew of Cardinal Troiano Acquaviva d'Aragona (1732). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Francesco Acquaviva d'Aragona (1706). Other cardinals of the family were Giovanni Vincenzo Acquaviva d'Aragona (1542); Giulio Acquaviva d'Aragona (1570); Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona, seniore (1591); and Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona, iuniore (1654). His last names are also listed as Aquaviva and d'Aragonia.
Education. (No information found).
Early life. Knight the Sovereign Order of Malta. He entered the ecclesiastical state and enjoyed the support of his uncle Cardinal Troiano. Privy chamberlain d'onore of His Holiness, May 1739. Named protonotary apostolic participantium, October 18, 1739; residing in Rome from 1740. Ablegato apostolic to bring the Golden Rose to Queen Maria Amalia of Naples on November 24, 1740. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, September 7, 1741. Abbot commendatario of S. Leonardo, Puglia, 1743. Pro-legate in Avignon, 1743-1753. Vice-legate in Avignon, April 16, 1744 until July 28, 1754. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, December 1753-1759. Prefect of Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome, December 1753-1766; he occupied the post after returning from Avignon. Commissary general del mare, December 1753-1767; he occupied the post after returning from Avignon. Pro-commissary dell'Armi, May to August 1756; and July to October 1766. President of Urbino from October 7, 1766; pro-president after his promotion to the cardinalate was published in 1773; he kept the post until 1775.
Sacred orders. Ordained (no information found).
Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of December 12, 1770; published in the consistory of March 15, 1773. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Sacred Consulta; Good Government, Avignon, Loreto and Fabric of St. Peter's basilica. Protector of Collegio and Confraternity of SS. Nome dio Dio of Pesaro; and of the Venerable Congregation of the Ascension, of Città Castello. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. Received the red hat on March 18, 1773; and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, April 3, 1775. Abbot commendatario of the abbey of San Leonardo di Siponto, Manfredonia, 1779-1788. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, December 13, 1779. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, September 27, 1780. During his last years, he played a prominet role in the intellectual life of Rome; and from 1781 until his death, he resided in Villa Malta in that city.
Death. February 29, 1788, Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Cecilia, Rome, in the tomb of his ancestors, with the other cardinals of his family (1).
Bibliography. Forcella, Vincenzo. Iscrizioni delle chiese e d'altri edificii di Roma dal secolo XI fino ai giorni nostri. 14 v. in 7. Roma : Tip. delle scienze matematiche e fisiche, 1869-1884. Note: Imprints vary: v. 2-7, "Tip. dei fratelli Bencini"; v. 8-13, "Coi tipi di L. Cecchini"; v. 14, "Roma, Firenze, Torino, E. Loescher & Cie."/ Vol. 14 contains indices to the whole work. Responsibility: raccolte e pubblicate da Vincenzo Forcella, II, 45, no. 133; Mastronardi, Maria A. ; De Santis, Carmela. Pasquale Acquaviva D'Aragona : un prelato del settecento ad Avignone. Galatina (Lecce) : Congedo editore., 1987. (Biblioteca di cultura pugliese ; serie seconda, 36; Variation: Biblioteca di cultura pugliese ; ser. 2, 36). Responsibility: Maria A. Mastronardi ; con appendice di Carmela de Santis; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, X, p. 74; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCI. In Roma MDCCXCI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, presso la fine del Corso, p. 88, no. 48; Notizie per l'anno MDCCLXXIX. In Roma MDCCLXXIX : Nella Stamperia Cracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, p. 119; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, VI, 27, and 51; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 21; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 135, 420 and 440; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 387; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 521, no. 751.
Webgraphy. Biography, in French, Wikipedia; his genealogy, GeneAll; his genealogy, A4, B1, C4, D1, E1, F1, G2, H1, I6, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; The Acquaviva cardinals by Thomas Shahan, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; Acquaviva dAragona, arms and genealogy, in Italian, Storia e genealogia della Famiglia d'Alena; his portrait, Museo Civico di Pesaro, Sirpac sistema informativo Regione Marche; his engraving by Antonio Capella, Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; another engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his tomb, in the church of S. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; and another view of his tomb, The Australian National University.
(1) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from Forcella, Iscrizioni delle chiese e d'altri edificii di Roma dal secolo XI fino ai giorni nostri, II, 45, no. 133:
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