The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius VI (1775-1799)
Consistory of June 23, 1777 (VII)


(11) 1. HONORATI, Bernardino (1724-1807)

Birth. July 17, 1724, Jesi, near Ancona. Baptized on that same day. Second of the ten children of Marquis Giuseppe Honorati, a patrician from Jesi, and Marianna Cima, a noblewoman from Rimini. The other siblings were Antonio Maria, Filippo (canon of the Vatican basilica), Maria Gentilina, Lorenzo, Giovanni Battista (canon of the basilica of Jesi), two nuns and two children who died in infancy. His last name is also listed as Onorati.

Education. Studied at Collegio Nazareno, Rome; and later, at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on February 10, 1749; in February 1744, he pronounced an oration before the pope and the Sacred College of Cardinals in occasion of the feast of the Chair of St. Peter, which was later published (1).

Early life. Since he had not yet obtained the doctorate, he became a consistorial advocate and for four years was the secretary of the dean of the auditors of the Sacred Roman Rota, Monsignor Mellini, gaining experience in many important causes and earning recognition. In 1747, he was sent to Paris as ablegato apostolic, together with his brother Antonio Maria, to bring the red biretta to new Cardinal François-Armand-Auguste de Rohan-Soubise-Ventadour. He availed himself of the opportunity to take a broad tour of education, which led him to London, Brussels, The Hague, Luneville, Cologne, Hanover and Frankfurt; and on the way back, to Trent, Verona, Padua and Venice; he returned to Jesi in the summer of 1748. After obtaining his doctorate, he was named referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, July 10, 1749. Chamberlain of honor of His Holiness, December 23, 1746. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, November 26, 1750. Shortly after, he was acting protector of Collegio Piceno, Rome, in place of Cardinal Domenico Riviera. Vice-legate in Romagna, January 13, 1755 (2) until October 1756. Relator of the Sacred Consulta, September 1756; took possession after his return from Ravenna. Commissary of the Santa Casa and governor of Loreto, January 28, 1758 until December 19, 1759. During the vacant see of 1758, he had the opportunity of hosting Cardinal Carlo Rezzonico, future Pope Clement XIII, while traveling to the conclave.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 31, 1759.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Side, January 28, 1760. Consecrated, February 25, 1760, Santa Casa of Loreto, by Giovanni Antonio Bacchettoni, bishop of Loreto and Recanati (3). Nuncio in Florence, April 24, 1760; he made his solemn entrance in the city on the following August 16. He wrote and published Relazione della nunziatura di Firenze. Nuncio in Venice, November 20, 1766. On August 13, 1767, Archbishop Honorati and his family were ascribed to the patriciate of the Republic of San Marino. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, September 30, 1775. Abbot commendatario of S. Sisto, Iesi, August 1776.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 23, 1777; received the red hat on June 26, 1777; and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, July 28, 1777. Ascribed to the SS.CC. of Bishops and Regulars, Discipline, Indulgences and Sacred Relics, and Lauretana. Transferred to the see of Senigallia, with personal title of archbishop, July 28, 1777. The see also carried the title of count. He took possession of the diocese by procurator the following August 3; and made the solemn entrance in October. In the cathedral of Jesi, he erected a sumptuous chapel dedicated to S. Lorenzo martyr, with beautiful marbles and excellent paintings, placing on the side the sepulchral monument of his ancestors; a monument with an inscription honoring the cardinal was erected in that chapel in 1779. On March 3, 1782, he hosted Pope Pius VI in his journey to Vienna; and on his return on the following June 4. He celebrated a diocesan synod in May 1791. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, which elected Pope Pius VII. He hosted the new pope in Senigallia on his way to Rome from Venice. He rebuilt the cathedral (consecrated on June 4, 1790) and the episcopal palace with large personal contributions; reopened and activated the seminary; established a primary school at the port for sailors; established an orphanage; founded a hospital in Mondavio; and a Monte di pietà (savings and loan agencies originally formed in Italian cities in the mid-15th century) in Montemarciano. He was a member and patron of Società georgica di Treia (formerly Accademia dei Sollevati). He did much for agriculture, providing farmers with livestock, tools and best houses; and founding in Corinaldo an academy which was to bring together farmers and land owners. Sometimes he was sharply criticized for enforcing too strictly church norms; he had made enemies in some parts of the local clergy, because he had fought against many abuses and ignorance, and had reduced the number of religious holidays. Very appreciated by the people was his intervention in favor of the resumption of the famous fair of Senigallia (temporarily suspended because of an epidemic), which was strongly opposed by the people of Ancona. Protector of Collegio S. Bonaventura; of the Sistine chapel in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome; of the land of Saltana; and co-protector of the city Corinaldo. He wrote Bernardini cardinalis Honorati commentaris de rebus suis, published in Senigallia by Lazzarini.

Death. August 12, 1807, Senigallia. Exposed in the cathedral of Senigallia; and buried in the chapel of the Sacrament in that cathedral. He had prepared his will on September 30, 1795.

Bibliography. Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 253; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXIII, 252-254; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 32, 45, 376 and 379; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 526; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 283, 372 and 721.

Link. Biography by Guido Gregorio Fagioli Vercellone, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 61 (2004), Treccani; his portrait, Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali; his portrait, Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali; his portrait, Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali; his portrait, Sirpac sistema informativo Regione Marche; his portrait, Araldica Vaticana; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

(1) De Romana s. Petri cathedra. Oratio habita in basilica Vaticana XV Kal. februarii 1744, Romae 1744.
(2) This is according to Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 372. But Gazzetta di Bologna announced his nomination on December 4, 1753, in a news release dated in Rome on November 28 of that year. It is probable that he took possession of the post in January 1754 and not in 1755. Diario Romano, December 1, 1753, confirms the appointment and indicates that he ceased as relator of the S.C. of Good Government and was replaced by Vincenzo Ranuzzi.
(3) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, 379. His biography in Italian, linked above, says that he was consecrated on February 28, 1760.

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(12) 2. MARCOLINI, Marcantonio (1721-1782)

Birth. November 22, 1721, Fano. Of an illustrious ancient and noble family. Second of the three children of Count Pietro Paolo Marcolini and Ana Maria Francesca Ferretti, of the counts of Castel Ferretto (1). The other siblings were Giuseppe and Giovanna. Baptized on that same day. His first name is also listed as Marc'Antonio.

Education. Studied at Collegio di San Carlo, Modena, October 22, 1732; later, at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles (diplomacy), 1740; and finally, at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, July 3, 1742.

Early life. He went to Rome to enter the service of the Holy See. Privy chamberlain supernumerary of Pope Benedict XIV. Sent to Paris as ablegato apostolic in 1743 to bring the red biretta to new Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi, nuncio in France. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, 1744. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, August 28, 1747. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, July 1748. He traveled to Germany and Saxony in 1751. Judge of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's basilica, November 1752; its economous and secretary in December 1756. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, April 1754. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice in December 1755.

Priesthood. Ordained, February 27, 1768.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tessalonica, June 12, 1769. Consecrated, June 25, 1769, Frascati, by Cardinal Henry Benedict Mary Stuart, duke of York, assisted by Stefano Evodio Assemani, titular archbishop of Apamea, and by Francesco Maria Piccolomini, bishop of Pienza. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, 1769; he was the first bishop named as such by Pope Clement XIV. Nuncio in Florence, August 23, 1769. Secretary of the Sacred Consulta, February 16, 1771. Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, May 18, 1773. President of Urbino, May 2, 1775; pro-president after his promotion to the cardinalate; occupied the post until June 1778.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 23, 1777; received the red hat on June 26, 1777; and the title of S. Onofrio, July 28, 1777. Assigned to the SS.CC. of the Council, Indulgences and Sacred Relics, Fabric of St. Peter's basilica and Consistorial.Abbot commendatario of S. Croce in Monte Fabali, diocese of Pesaro; of S. Benedetto, Assisi; and of S. Elena, Camerino, July 1777. Protector of Fano; of the confraternity of S. Pietro, Pesaro; of S. Spirito of Fano; and of the maestre pie of Bastia, Assisi. While visiting Fano, he suffered and apoplexy on May 1, 1782, from which he never recovered.

Death. June 18, 1782, Fano, possibly poisoned. Exposed in the cathedral of Fano, where the funeral took place; and buried in his family's chapel in the church of the Fathers Filippini, in Fano.

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, p. 301; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 249; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LX, 223; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 32, and 404; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 675; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 420 and 759

Links. His portrait by Angelo Crescimbeni, Fondazione Collegio San Carlo, Modena; his portrait (?), by Carolus Maria Angeletti, Casa d'Aste Babuino; his portrait by Sebastiano Ceccarini, private collection, Rome, Sirpac sistema informativo Regione Marche; his portrait, Arte Antica; his portrait by Giuseppe Ceccarini, Palazzo Malatestiano, Fano, Sirpac sistema informativo Regione Marche; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Bologna.

(1) Before his marriage, he had been canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica; referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace (September 10, 1716); and privy chamberlain di spada e cappa.

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(13) 3. PALLOTTA, Guglielmo (1727-1795)

Birth. November 13, 1727, Macerata. Of the ancient family of the counts della Rocca from Messina. Eldest of the three children of Paride Pallotta and Countess Angela Baldinucci, Florentine noblewoman. The other siblings were Giammario and Evangelista. Uncle of Cardinal Antonio Pallotta (1823). Other members of the family promoted to the cardinalate were Giovanni Evangelista Pallotta (1587); and Giovanni Battista Maria Pallotta (1629).

Education. Attended Collegio Nazareno, Rome; studied hydraulics; and later, studied law in Rome. He distinguished himself in the recitation of discourses and dissertations.

Early life. Auditor of Cardinal Carlo Rezzonico, iuniore, nephew of Pope Clement XIII. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, May 1764. Judge of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's, June 1769. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, July 1769. Domestic prelate and altarista. In the pontificate of Pope Clement XIV, he was economous of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's. Secretary of the S.C. of Good Government, November 1770. Treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber from May 1773; confirmed by Pope Pius VI; after his promotion to the cardinalate, he became pro-treasurer general until February 1785.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 23, 1777; received the red hat on June 26, 1777; and the title of S. Eusebio, July 28, 1777. Abbot commendatario of Ss. Clemente e Pancrazio, Rome; of S.Bartolomeo di Campofilone, Fermo; of S Pietro in Vincoli, Ravenna; and of Ss. Rufino e Vitale di Amandola, Fermo, July 1777. Ascribed to the SS.CC. of the Holy Office, Examination of Bishops, Fabric of St. Peter's basilica, Good Government, Discipline of the Regulars, delle Acque, Avignon and Loreto. Protector of numerous churches, confraternities, cities and universities. Prefect delle Acque (of Waters, Fountains and Canals) from December 1779. Opted for the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, September 23, 1782. From May 1784 until February 1785, he was commissary general del Mare and superintendent of Castel Sant'Angelo. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, July 1, 1785 to September 21, 1795. Abbot commendatario of Fossanova in 1785. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 29, 1787 until March 10, 1788. After the Revolution broke out in France, he was asked to join, along with Cardinals Gian Francesco Albani, Vitaliano Borromeo, Leonardo Antonelli, Filippo Campanelli and Gregorio Salviati, the Congregation for the Affairs of France, which was to examine the situation that followed the promulgation of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy; and orient the hard decisions to be taken by the pope.

Death. September 21, 1795, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Portico, Rome, where the funeral took place; and buried in that same church, according to his will (1).

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LI, 66; Re, Nicola del. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 130-131; Notizie per l'anno MDCCLXXV. In Roma MDCCLXXV : Nella Stamperia Cracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, p. 12-13; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 32, 43, 45 and 56; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 707.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait by Gian Domenico Porta, Pinacoteca di Macerata, Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali; his portrait by Gian Domenico Porta, Pinacoteca di Macerata, Sirpac sistema informativo Regione Marche; his portrait, Pinacoteca di Treia, Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali; his portrait, Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali; his portrait, Pinacoteca di Treia, Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali; his engraving, Araldica Vaticana; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his tomb in the church of S. Maria in Portico (Campitelli), Rome, The Australian National University.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, taken from the photograph of the same linked above:

GVILLELMVS · PALLOTTA · PICENVS
S . R . E . TIT . S . MARIAE · IN · THERM . DIOCLET . PR . CARD .
HEIC · IN · XP · IACET
QVI · PRAEF . AQV . PVBL . ET · S . CONS . TRIDENTINIS · DECR . INTERPRE
DECESSIT · XI · KAL . OCT . A . MDCCXVV · AN . AG . LVIII
SVBSTANTIA · SVA · EGENIS · TRANSMISSA

LAPIDEM · PSVERE · CVRATORES · TEST . DATI
RENOV . CVM · PAVIMENTO · CVRAT . ECCL . A . D. MDCCCLVII

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(14) 4. SALVIATI, Gregorio (1722-1794)

Birth. December 12, 1722, Rome. Of a noble family from Florence. Second of the six children of Giovanni Vincenzo Salviati, duke of Giuliano, and Anna Maria Boncompagni Ludovisi. The other siblings were Averardo, Antonio, Laura, Ippolita Virginia (sister in law of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Caprara (1792)) and Caterina (a nun). His baptismal name was Gregorio Antonio Maria. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Giacomo Boncompagni (1695), on his mother's side. Brother-in-law of Cardinals Alessandro Lante (1816); Troiano Acquaviva d'Aragona (1732); and Giovanni Battista Caprara (1792). Other cardinals of the family were Giovanni Salviati (1517); Bernardo Salviati, O. S. Io.Hier. (1561); Antonmaria Salviati (1583); and Alamanno Salviati (1730).

Education. "Educato e instruito nelle scienze qual si conveniva all'elevata sua condizione ... " (1)

Early life. Inclined to enter the service of the Holy See, he was admitted to the Roman prelature. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 1745. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, May 22, 1749. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 1749. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, July 1749. Apostolic visitor of jails. Prelate of the S.C. of the Council. Inquisitor in Malta, January 1754-1759. Vice-legate in Avignon, December 5, 1759-1766. Commissary general delle Armi, October 1766. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1766; its auditor general, April 1775. Vicar of S. Maria in Cosmedin. Abbot commendatario of S. Salvatore di Arezzo, December 1772. Abbot commendatario of S. Maria delle Macchie, Camerino, August 1776.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 23, 1777; received the red hat on June 26, 1777; and the deaconry of S. Maria della Scala, July 28, 1777. Ascribed to the SS.CC. of the Council, Bishops and Regulars, Propaganda Fide, Rites, Ecclesiastical Immunity, Good Government, Fabric of St, Peter's basilica, Avignon, Loreto, Sacred Consulta Ceremonial and Discipline of the Regulars. Abbot commendatario of S. Andrea d'Ardenza; of S. Clemente di Orticamo, Pisa; and of S. Maria delle Casse, Florence, July 1777. Protector of the kingdom of Ireland and of Collegio Irlandese in Rome, January 1781; of the Order of the Friars Minor Conventuals, August 1783; of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, February 1787; of the Holy Land, December 1788; as well as of numerous churches, confraternities, religious institutions seven lands of the Holy See and four universities. Granted dispensation to be a cardinal deacon without receiving the minor orders, the subdiaconate, and the diaconate, August 27, 1777; dispensation extended for a triennium, April 21, 1780. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, September 27, 1780. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, November 10, 1780. Dispensation extended for another triennium, June 27, 1783; and May 12, 1786. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, November 29, 1790. Cardinal protodeacon. After the Revolution broke out in France, he was asked to join, along with Cardinals Gian Francesco Albani, Vitaliano Borromeo, Leonardo Antonelli, Filippo Campanelli and Guglielmo Pallotta, the Congregation for the Affairs of France, which was to examine the situation that followed the promulgation of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy; and oriented the hard decisions of the pope. Cardinal protodeacon. Dispensation extended, January 24, 1792. He was praised for his piety and religious zeal as well as for his generosity with the poor.

Death. August 5, 1794, after suffering from serious illnesses for six months, in palazzo Salviati, Rome, having received the sacraments of the Church and the apostolic blessing. Exposed in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, where the funeral took place, celebrated by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Caprara; the body was placed into three coffins and buried in the tomb of his family in the chapel of S. Antonino, archbishop of Florence, in that same church.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LXI, 13-14; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCI. Rome : Nella Stamperia Cracas, 1791, p. 65-66; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCV. Rome : Nella Stamperia Cracas, 1795, p. 37-38; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 32, 51 and 52; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 841; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 135 and 889.

Links. His portrait, Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; and his arms as legate of Avignon, Enluminures, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, France.

(1) Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, LXI, 13: "Educated and trained in the sciences which befitted his high status."

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(15) 5. GIOANNETTI, O.S.B.Cam., Andrea (1722-1800)

Birth. January 6, 1722, Bologna. From a noble family. Son of Baldassarre Francesco Gioannetti and Pellegrina Zanoni. His last name is also listed as Giovannetti and as Ioannettius.

Education. At a young age manifested inclination for the religious state and entered the Order of Saint Benedict, Camaldolese, in the monastery of S. Apollinare in Classe, near Ravenna, 1739; he received the religious habit and changed his baptismal name Melchiorre Benedetto Lucidoro to Andrea on June 29, 1739. He pursued further studies in Betinoro and in Rome, where he studied antiquities and learned Greek; he also became magister in philosophy and in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 19, 1744. Further studies in Betinoro and in Rome. He returned to Betinoro to teach and to exercise the priesthood, he distinguished himself for the diligence in the confession, catechesis and caring for the sick, for which he found himself at risk of death. Returned to the monastery of Classe and became lector of philosophy, December 19, 1748. Theologian of the archbishop of Ravenna, Ferdinando Romoaldo Guiccioli, June 15, 1753 until 1763; the archbishop had been the abbot of the monastery of Classe when Father Gioannetti entered the religious life. Perpetual dean of his order in Romandiola, May 29, 1759. In 1763, he became procurator and economous of the monastery of Classe; and shortly after, its abbot until 1770; as abbot, he increased library and physical-numismatic museum; continued the remediation of the monastery grounds; and, with donations of grain and money, helped the victims of the famine of the years 1764-1766; in recognition, he was ascribed to the nobility of San Marino; he showed openness to cultural the trends of the century and deep pastoral zeal; he was rigorous concerning religious discipline and Augustinian theologically; he led the monastery with a steady hand. Three years later, in 1773, he became lector of theology and abbot of the monastery of S. Gregorio al Monte Celio, Rome. He took a middle position in disputes between the Jesuits and the varied reformist fronts in which operated the moderates inspired by the Muratorians and the Italian Jansenists, which reached a climax with the suppression of the Society of Jesus. The capacities shown by Abbot Gioannetti in directing the monastery signaled him to Cardinal Giovanni Angelo Braschi, abbot commendatario of S. Gregorio al Monte Celio, who became Pope Pius VI in February 1775.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Emeria (Imeria) and appointed administrator of Bologna, January 29, 1776; Cardinal Vincenzo Malvezzi, archbishop of Bologna had died on December 3, 1775. Consecrated, February 4, 1776, church of San Gregorio in Monte Celio, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Francesco Albani, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Giovanni Francesco Guidi di Bagno, titular archbishop of Mira, and by Giovanni Francesco Gallarati, titular bishop of Paro. He arrived in Bologna on the following March 5. Three months later he began a careful pastoral visit, in which he placed the emphasis on the understanding of the inner spiritual message.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of June 23, 1777; published in the consistory of December 15, 1777; received the red hat on December 18, 1777; and the title of S. Pudenziana, March 30, 1778. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bologna, December 15, 1777. Ascribed to the SS.CC. of the Holy Office, Index, Regular Discipline and Apostolic Visit. Protector of the monastery of S. Chiara della Terra di Arpino, diocese of Camerino. Received the pallium on March 30, 1778. In 1782, he hosted Pope Pius VI in Bologna during his journey to Vienna; and on his return, he accompanied the pontiff to Imola attending the consecration of the cathedral. In 1790, he realized another pastoral visit. The revolution that broke out in France by the end of 1792, generated a stream of emigration to the Papal States. The archdiocese of Bologna was on the middle of the way leading from northern Italy to Rome and the southern part of the Papal States, so Cardinal Gioannetti had to face the problems associated with the influx of refractory priests. His pastoral writings and those of the emigrant priests spread the image of the Revolution as divine retribution against the indifferent faithful and as a new Calvary for the Church, which through penance and pain, would find again its former grandeur. In 1794, he published the Italian translation of the condemnation of the Synod of Pistoia in the papal bull Auctorem Fidei, accompanying it with a pastoral letter dated October 30, 1794 and published in Bologna in 1795 (1). The arrival of the French troops in Bologna in June 1796, presented the cardinal with problem of relations with the Senate, which Napoléon Bonaparte had returned to power after the departure of the Cardinal Giovanni Andrea Archetti, legate in Bologna. The assurances given by Bonaparte, made the cardinal recognize the new authorities. Soon, however, the obvious intention of the new government not to recognize in the new constitution Catholicism as the state religion and the initiatives against the immigrant priests and regulars, undermined relations between the cardinal and the Senate. At first Cardinal Gioannetti limited himself to only sending signals in the pastoral letters of the necessity that the state coexisting with the Catholic religion. But at the beginning of 1797, measures for the expulsion and confiscation of assets of the regulars, and the abolition of the ecclesiastical immunity and the forfeiture of most of the church property led him to break through the inertia and contact all citizens senators of Bologna with a tough pastoral letter, dated January 9, 1797, which claimed the autonomous authority of the Church received from Christ, and his authority to also regulate the actions of man in society. The Senate, he stated, could not legislate on ecclesiastical matters, having only temporal authority over political and secular things, not sacred ones such as the life and property of the Church, which were outside the jurisdiction of governments. The text ended with an appeal to Bonaparte, a Catholic, should want to observe the commands and rules of the Church. The letter to the Senate essentially closed the long series of documents written or inspired by Cardinal Gioannetti in the exercise of the episcopal office. The Cispadana constitution of March 1797, at the behest of Bonaparte, declared Catholicism the state religion; but the situation changed after a few months with the union of the Cispadana to the Cisalpine, in July 1797, which constitution provided for freedom of worship. The cardinal then kept silent while staying out of the debate, which opened in Bologna on the relationship between Church and State in the new democratic regime. The following year, 1798, he received Pope Pius VI, on the road to exile in France; the pontiff was for some time hosted in Collegio di Spagna, as it was done in 1782, during the journey to Vienna to meet with Emperor Joseph II. In March 1799, Bologna, was occupied by the Austro-Russians, and Cardinal Gioannetti took control the printing and publishing; punished the priests pertinaci nell'errore e nello scandalo; and tried to curb the excesses of the reactionaries. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, which elected Pope Pius VII. The cardinal returned to Bologna on March 29, 1800; a week later, he became ill and died shortly after.

Death. April 8, 1800, Bologna. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna, where the funeral took place the following April 17, celebrated by Cardinal Alessandro Mattei, archbishop of Ferrara, in the presence of the bishops of Modena, Reggio, Carpi, and Ippona in partibus infidelium; and buried in that metropolitan cathedral (2). The see of Bologna remained vacant for two years.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXX, 279-280; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975. (Collana Storico-Ecclesiastica, 3), pp. 488-494; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 32, 48, 126 and 236.

Links. Biography by Simone Bonechi, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 55 (2001), Treccani; brief biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Bologna; his portrait, Università di Bologna; his portrait, Archivio Storico, Università di Bologna; his portrait by Antonio Tamburini, Biblioteca Classense, Ravenna, Istituto per i beni artistici culturali e naturali della Regione Emilia-Romagna; his portrait by Gian Domenico Porta, Biblioteca Classense, Ravenna, Istituto per i beni artistici culturali e naturali della Regione Emilia-Romagna; his portrait, Biblioteca Casanatense; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; three engravings, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; and his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

(1) The Synod of Pistoia was a diocesan synod held in 1786 under the presidency of Scipione de' Ricci, bishop of Pistoia, and the patronage of Grand dike Leopold of Tuscany, with a view to preparing the ground for a national council and a reform of the Church in Tuscany.
(2) In the south side, by the second pillar of the nave on its east side, in front of the chapel of S. Apollinare, to the west of the tomb slab of Cardinal Vincenzo Malvezzi Bonfioli (1753); the memorial tablet is on the floor; the ends of some lines of the inscription are obscured by the confessional box which has been placed next to the pillar. This is the text of the inscription, provided by Mr. Mark West, London, England:

ANDREAS IOANNETIVS
[CA]MALDOLENSIUM CONGREGATIONIS ABBA[ ]
QUEM PIVS VI PONT.MAX.
EPISCOPUM HIMERIAE [FACTUM]
ANNO MDCCLXXXVI
BONONIENSIS ECCLESIAE ADMINISTRANDA
PRAEFECIT
EIVSDEM ARCHIEPISCOPUM
ET S.R.E. CARDINALEM
ANNO MDCCLXXVIII
CREAVIT
DIVINARUM HUMANARUMQUE. [PER M] SCIENTI
TEMPLI CULTU
[LIBE]RATIONE IN PAUPERE
CONSTANTIA IN ADVERSIS
LIBERALITATE ET MODESTIA VITAE
CONSPICUUM VIRTUTIS EXEMPLAR[ ]
OBIIT VI ID. APRILIS. MDCCC
ANOS NATUS LXXVIII


There are then four lines of text in smaller letters dealing presumably with the tomb, but the letters are badly worn away and very difficult to read apart from the last line:

IIII NON. DECEMBRES. A.D. MDCCCLII. TRANSLATUS EST]

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(16) 6. GERDIL, C.R.S.P., Hyacinthe Sigismond (1718-1802)

Birth. June 23, 1718, Samoëns, diocese of Genève, Switzerland; the see of the diocese of Genève at that time was in Annency, Savoy, and he was Savoyan. Son of Pierre Gerdil, a notary, and Françoise Perrier, from Taninges.

Education. He received his initial education in Bonneville and in Thonon; then, he was entrusted by his uncle Jean Gerdil, a mathematician and employee of the duke of Savoia, to the Barnabites of Annecy, to instruct him in rhetoric and philosophy in their local school. Later, in 1734, he entered the Congregation of the Clerics Regular of Saint Paul (Barnabites) in the novitiate of Bonneville; changed his baptismal name Jean-François to Giacinto-Sigismondo; and took the solemn vows on September 25, 1735. He was sent to Bologna to study philosophy. At the school of Salvatore Corticelli he obtained a good command of Italian, while the teaching of Francesco Maria Zanotti and Eustachio and Gabriel Manfredi inclined him to the study philosophy and experimental observation. The acumen of the young Barnabite called the attention of the archbishop of Bologna, Cardinal Prospero Lambertini, who utilized his knowledge for a more secure understanding of the French texts used in the composition of his legal and liturgical works. Received the minor orders from Cardinal Lambertini on May 27, 1736 and April 11, 1737. Received the subdiaconate on May 27, 1741; and the diaconate on June 4, 1741. As soon as he completed his three years in Bologna, he was charged with teaching philosophy first at the Barnabite school in Macerata, from October 1738 to September 1739; and later, at the Royal School of Casale Monferrato, from 1739 to 1748, where he also was prefect of studies.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 11, 1741, in Casale Monferrato. The resonance of his works earned him appointment as a member of the Istituto delle scienze di Bologna on March 13, 1749; of the Royal Society of London; of the Arcadia di Roma; and of other literary and scientific institutions. On September 15, 1749, he was named professor of practical philosophy at the University of Turin; on September 26, 1754, he was named professor of moral theology, succeeding Theatine Father Michele Casati, who had been appointed bishop of Mondovì; more absorbed in practical responsibilities, in 1759 he left his teaching at the university. Nominated member of Accademia della Crusca on September 3, 1755. In 1755, he took part in the diocesan synod of Turin as synodal examiner. Named preceptor of the prince-heir of Piedmont, later Charles Emmanuel IV, on September 21, 1758; and subsequently, on July 31, 1768, of the future Victor Emmanuel I and of Maurizio, duke di Monferrato. Provincial superior of his order in Savoy and Piedmont, 1764; reelected, 1767. In 1768, he took part in the general chapter of his order and was considered for superior general. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition in August 1775. He was called to Rome by Pope Pius VI in March 1776; the following month, he established his domicile next to the general house of the Barnabites in S. Carlo ai Catinari.The king of Sardinia named him abbot commendatario of the abbey of S. Michele della Chiusa in January 1777; and of the abbey of Muleggio in 1781; from Rome he took pastoral care of the distant abbeys by writing pastoral letters and devoting much of the benefices to help the poor.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Dibona, February 17, 1777. Consecrated, March 2, 1777, in the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, by Cardinal Marcantonio Colonna, vicar of Rome, assisted by Orazio Mattei, titular archbishop of Colosso, and by Francesco Antonio Marcucci, bishop of Montalto, and vicegerent of Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of June 23, 1777; published in the consistory of December 15, 1777; received the red hat on December 18, 1777; and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, March 30, 1778 (1). Ascribed to the SS.CC. of Rites, Council, Examination of Bishops, Discipline of the Regulars, and Correction of Books of the Oriental Church. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, February 1779. Abbot commendatario of S. Alberto di Butrio and of S. Michele di Sommaripa, December 1782. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, September 20, 1784. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 13, 1786 until January 29, 1787. Together with Cardinal Gian Francesco Albani, Leonardo Antonelli, Filippo Campanelli and Francesco Saverio de Zelada, he was member of the cardinalitial commission which examined and refined the text of the response against the puntuazione di Ems (2). From 1790 to 1794, he was member of the cardinalitial commission which prepared the definitive text of the bull Auctorem fidei, dated August 28, 1794, which condemned the propositions of the Synod of Pistoia (3). During those four years, he was also president of the particular congregation charged with the preparation of the papal documents which condemned the French Civil Constitution of the Clergy, the Civic Oath imposed to the French clergy in 1798, and other acts imposed to ecclesiastics by revolutionary France (4). Prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, February 27, 1795 until his death. Given the financial difficulties caused by the war against France, the cardinal found himself without great revenues in Rome and had to sell books of his library as well as other objects of possession. Despite the extreme instability of the Piedmont, King Victor Amadeus III intervened by granting Cardinal Gerdil, in December 1795, the revenues of the abbey of S. Stefano d'Ivrea. On February 10, 1798 the French troops occupied Rome; on the 20th, Pope Pius VI left for Siena; Cardinal Gerdil left for Piedmont on the following March 21; in Siena, he received from the pope extraordinary faculties concerning ecclesiastical discipline; he was able to continue his journey thanks to the assistance provided by Cardinals Francisco Antonio Lorenzana y Butrón, archbishop of Toledo, and Antonio Despuig y Dameto, archbishop of Sevilla. Arriving in Turin on April 23, he was received by the king and former pupil Carlo Emanuele IV; he resided at first in S. Filippo, of the Oratorians; and later, at S. Dalmazzo, of the Barnabites. When King Carlo Emanuele IV was pressured to resign the crown and had to leave his kingdom, the cardinal retired to the Seminary of Giaveno, in the territory of the abbey of S. Michele della Chiusa. Isolated as he was, believing it to be unwise to make decisions concerning the matters of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, in May 1798, he asked Cardinal Stefano Borgia, prefect of the S.C. of the Index, who fled to Padua, to replace him in the office of prefect, along with Archbishop Caesar Brancadoro, secretary of the congregation, and to take responsibility to answer to questions that came from the most diverse regions in the world. When Pope Pius VI died in France on August 29, 1799, he left for Venice for the conclave. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, which elected Pope Pius VII; Cardinal Franziskus Herzan von Harras manifested the dislike of Holy Roman Emperor Franz II against the election of Cardinal Gerdil on December 6, 1799. Accompanied Pope Pius VII to Rome after the pope's election in 1800, leaving Venice on August 23; and arriving in Rome on the following September 12. In December 1800, he resumed his leadership of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide while relying on Cardinal Borgia and Archbishop Brancadoro. At the same time, together with the Cardinals Leonardo Antonelli and Filippo Carandini, he was deputed by the pope to follow the preparatory consultations for the Napoleonic Concordat. Even though he was older than eighty, he continued to enjoy good health and mental clarity working on writings which were published. A scholar of vast knowledge and a prolific writer, his works, written in Latin, Italian, and French, include subjects such as dogmatic and moral theology, canon law, philosophy, pedagogy, history, physical and natural sciences, and form twenty volumes in quarto edited in Rome, between 1806 and 1821.

Death. August 12, 1802, after a very brief illness, in the Barnabite house of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, where the funeral took place, in the presence of Pope Pius VII and twenty five cardinals; the mass was celebrated by Cardinal Giuseppe Firrao, camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals; and burial was in that same church, according to his will.

Bibliography. Burkle-Young, Francis A. Papal elections in the age of transition, 1878-1922. Lanham, MD : Lexington Books, 2000, p. 10; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXIX, 85; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 32, 42, 44, 56 and 195.

Links. Biography by George Sauvage, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; extensive bibliography and biography by Pietro Stella, in Italian, Dizionario biografico degli italiani - Volume 53 (2000), Treccani; Appunti per una biografia di Giacinto Sigismond Gerdil by Pietro Stella, in Italian, Centro Studi Storici dei PP. Barnabiti; biography by James Guillaume, in French, Institut français de l'Éducation; his portrait and biography, in French, Wikipedia; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr, in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his portrait by P. Fariano (1783), Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali; his portrait, Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali; his portrait by Michele Cusa (1840), Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali; his portrait (19th century), Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali; his portrait, Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali; his bust by Carlo Canigia (1834), Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali; his bust by an anonymous artist, Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali; his arms, engraving, portrait and biographical information, in Italian, Araldica Vaticana; five engravings, Mémoire at Actualité en Rhône-Alpes; his engraving by Luigi Barocci, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engravingby Bartolomeo Pinelli, Istituto per la storia del Risorgimento italiano; his engraving by G. A. Sasso, Istituto per la storia del Risorgimento italiano; his engraving by Cesare Liberali, Istituto per la storia del Risorgimento italiano; his engraving by Paolo Caronni, Istituto per la storia del Risorgimento italiano; his engraving by Johann Wolmar, Istituto per la storia del Risorgimento italiano; his engraving by an anonymous artist, Istituto per la storia del Risorgimento italiano; his effigy on a medal by Mercandetti (1802), Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Cezch Republic; and his funeral monument, church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali.

(1) His biography by Pietro Stella, linked above, indicates that he had been created cardinal and reserved in pectore by Pope Clement XIV in the consistory of April 26, 1773; and that Archbishop Angelo Maria Durini, sent as president and deputy of the legation of Avignon and of the Comtat Venaissin, passing through Turin, gave the news to Father Gerdil.
(2) This was a Febronian and episcopalist document redacted in 1786 by the Austrian reformer bishops which was dismissed by Rome with an official rebuttal redacted by Cardinal Giuseppe Garampi, Francesco Antonio Zaccaria, M. Monsagrati and others. The papal response was published in Rome in 1790 under the title Sanctissimi domini nostri Pii papae sexti responsio ad metropolitanos Moguntinum, Trevirensem, Coloniensem et Salisburgensem super nunciaturis apostolicis.
(3) The Synod of Pistoia was a diocesan synod held in 1786 under the presidency of Scipione de' Ricci bishop of that see, and the patronage of Leopold, grand-duke of Tuscany, with a view to preparing the ground for a national council and a reform of the Tuscan Church.
(4) The particular commission became the Congregatio super negotiis ecclesiasticis Regni Galliarum, formals established on May 28, 1793.

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(17) 7. MANCIFORTE SPERELLI, Giovanni Ottavio (1730-1781)

Birth. February 22, 1730, Assisi (1). Third of the nine children of Marquis Marcantonio Manciforte, governor of the army of Marca Anconitana, and Flavia Sperelli. The other siblings were Sperello, Lodovica, Elisabetta,Giulio (a professed knight of Malta), Domenico (a Jesuit and bishop of Faenza), Pietro, Alessandro (a canon) and Francesco. Patrician from Ancona. His last name is also listed as Manciforte only; and as Sperelli only.

Education. Studied at Collegio Campana, Osimo; and later, at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on November 26, 1754.

Early life. Since he was very young, he demonstrated inclination for the ecclesiastical state, which he embraced after going to Rome. Pope Benedict XIV, who had known the family since he was bishop of Ancona, named him canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica on March 25, 1751; occupied the post until 1766. Shortly after, he entered the Roman prelature. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, December 19, 1754.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 7, 1755. Consultor of the Holy Office. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, April 1757-1766. Inquisitor and apostolic visitor in Malta, 1766-1771; although the Jesuits were banished by Grandmaster of the Order of Malta Manuel Pinto da Fonseca, the inquisitor defended them strenuously, though to no avail.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Teodosia, June 17, 1771. Consecrated, June 23, 1771, at the cathedral of Frascati, by Cardinal Henry Benedict Mary Stuart, duke of York. Nuncio in Florence, June 27, 1771 until December 1775. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, September 1775; took possession on January 4, 1776. President delle Ripe and delle Acque, 1776. Papal majordome and prefect of the Apostolic Palace, May 24, 1776. Prior commendatario of S. Croce di Montesanto, Fermo, January 1777.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of June 23, 1777; published in the consistory of December 11, 1780; received the red hat on December 14, 1780; and the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, April 2, 1781. Ascribed to the SS.CC. of Bishops and Regulars, Council, Fabric of St. Peter's basilica, Avignon and Loreto. Abbot commendatario of Rambona, S.Severino; of Ss. Vito e Modesto, Perugia; and of S. Pietro, Assisi, April 1781. Protector of the church of S. Lorenzo in Miranda; and of Collegio degli Speziali, Rome.

Death. June 5, 1781, of a grave and sudden illness, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, his title, where the funeral took place; the solemn mass was sung by Cardinal Scipione Borghese, in place of Cardinal Bernardino Giraud, camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals; and buried, according to his will, in that same church (2).

Bibliography. Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 249; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLII, 100-101; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 33, 47 and 402; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 586; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 710-711.

Links. Brief biography, in German, Wikipedia; his tomb in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Requiem Datenbank; his engraving by Carlo Antonini, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his portrait and engraving, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XLII, 100; and Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, 410. Weber, Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie, III, 710, says that he was born on March 22, 1730.
(2) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank:

HIC IACET IOANNES OCTAVIVS
TIT. S. MARIAE FONTIS OLEI
S. R. E . PRESBYTER
CARDINALS MANCIFORTE SPERELLI
ANCONITANVS
ORDIVNVS ASSISIENSIS
OBIIT NONIS IVLII MDCCLXXXI
AET. AN. LI. M. III D. XIV ORATE PRO EO

PHIL. CANON. MANCIFORTE SPERELLI ET IVL. MARCH. MANCIFORTE SERAFINI
PATRVI MAGNI MEMORIAM IN PAVIMENTI INSTAVRATIONE RENOVANDAM CVRAVERUNT

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(18) 8. ALTIERI, Vincenzo Maria (1724-1800)

Birth. November 27, 1724, Rome. Third of the eight children of Girolamo Altieri, prince of Oriolo, and Maria Maddalena Borromeo. The other siblings were Maria Caterina, Emilio Carlo, Maria Teresa, Angelo, Maria Luisa, Carlo and Maria Camilla. Uncle of Cardinals Alessandro Mattei (1779); and Lorenzo Girolamo Mattei (1833). Nephew of Cardinals Lorenzo Altieri (1690); and Giambattista Altieri, iuniore (1724). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni (1664). His last name is also listed as Altièri.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic participante, October 3, 1743; took possession, August 24, 1747. Entered the Roman prelature. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature, August 24, 1747. Prelate of the S.C. of the Council. Vice-legate in Urbino, December 1753. Vice-legate in Romagna, November 11, 1756. Governor of Ancona, January 1758. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, June 1764; took possession, January 1765. President delle Carceri, January 1765. President of the Zecca, October 1765-1766. Member of the Accademia liturgica, where in 1766, he pronounced a discourse on the Origine istituzione e congruenza della festività del Corpus Domini. President delle Acque e delle Ripe, January 1767-1775; as such, in 1771, commissioned by Pope Clement XIV, he provided supplies to Rome, which was seriously threatened by the shortage of wheat. President della Grascia, an office in the Apostolic Chamber, April 1775. Prefect of the Papal Household, May 1776. Abbot commendatario of S. Girolamo di Ferrara, December 1776; and of S. Benedetto di Gualdo, December 1779.

Sacred orders. Ordained (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of June 23, 1777; published in the consistory of December 11, 1780; received the red hat on December 14, 1780; and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, April 2, 1781. Ascribed to the SS.CC. of Bishops and Regulars, Council, Acque and Good Government. Protector of the Order of the Clerics Regular Minor in January 1783, as well as of numerous, monasteries, cities, churches, archconfaternities, universities and collegios. Pope Pius VI named him abbot commendatario of the abbeys of Ss. Fidezio e Terenzio; and of S. Illuminata, in the diocese of Todi; of Nicola, in Ferrara; and of S. Agata, in Lugo. In 1784, he was named member of the commission of cardinals for the flood damages of Nera and Velino. Opted for the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, April 23, 1787. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, March 10, 1788. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, September 12, 1794. Cardinal protodeacon. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 29, 1798 until his resignation from the cardinalate. Rome was occupied in February 1798 y the French troops, which installed the Roman Republic. Pope Pius VI was sent to France as a prisoner. Cardinal Altieri was very seriously ill, bordering death. Under strong pressure, threatened with imprisonment with other cardinals in the old monastery delle Convertiti, and with deportation, he was forced to resign the cardinalate as Cardinal Tommaso Antici had done. On March 12, 1798, he wrote to the pope, who was in Siena, resigning the cardinalate, after having consulted theologians Father Flaminio da Latera, O.F.M.Conv. and Father Agostino Carabelloni, O.E.S.A., who expressed a favorable opinion. After trying in vain to dissuade the cardinal from his intention, the pope, reluctantly, followed the advice of Cardinal Leonardo Antonelli and other cardinals, and with a brief dated September 7, 1798, accepted the resignation. Still in serious health conditions and remorseful for his weakness, on February 8, 1800, during the vacancy of the Apostolic See, he sent the retraction of his resignation to the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, but he died two days later.

Death. February 10, 1800, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome; and buried in the Altieri chapel in that church.

Bibliography. Altieri, Vincenzo Maria. Ritrattazione di S. E. il signor D. Vincenzo Maria Altieri, gia cardinale del Sagro Collegio, morto in Roma il dl 10 febrajo 1800. Texte imprimé. In Roma, presso i Giunchi, 1800; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, I, 287; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCV. In Roma MDCCXCV : Nella Stamperia Cracas, presso la fine del Corso, p. 20; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 33, 50, 51, 52 and 56; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 44; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 118, 372, 20 and 454; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), I, 403.

Links. Biography by Romualdo Paolucci, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 2 (1960), Treccani; his portrait by Pompeo Girolamo Batoni, Christie's; his portrait by Pompeo Girolamo Batoni, MutualArt Services, Inc.; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

Note. The pope created and reserved in pectore in this consistory two more cardinals but he never published their names.

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