The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius VI (1775-1799)
Consistory of June 1, 1778 (VIII)

(19) 1. DELGADO Y VENEGAS, Francisco Javier (1714-1781)

Birth. December 18, 1714, Villanueva del Ariscal, priorate nullius of San Marcos de León, Spain. Of a very distinguished family. Son of Juan Delgado de Luna and Catalina de Torres y Venegas. His middle name is also listed as Xavier.

Education. At a very young age was sent to Sevilla to study. Initially, he studied humanities; then, he attended Colegio Mayor Santo Tomás, University of Sevilla (philosophy and theology); later, he studied at Colegio Mayor de San Ildefonso, University of Alcalá, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in 1734.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Canon magistral of the cathedral chapter of Badajoz; and later, dean of the cathedral chapter of Córdoba, posts which he won by opposition. Did research in paleology while helping Father Enrique Flórez in the monumental work España Sagrada (1). Presented for the see of Canarias by King Carlos III of Spain on April 14, 1761.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Canarias, May 25, 1761. Consecrated, July 26, 1761, cathedral of Córdoba, by Martín Barcia Carrascal, bishop of Córdoba, assisted by Domingo Pérez Rivera, titular bishop of Gadara, auxiliary of Sevilla, and by Lucas Ramírez Galán, O.F.M., titular bishop of Tanis, auxiliary of Cartagena. Presented by King Carlos III for the see of Sigüenza. Transferred by the pope to the see of Sigüenza, December 19, 1768; took possession on March 11, 1769, by procurator Antonio Carrillo de Mendoza; entered the see on the following August 19, in the village of Atienza; the solemn entrance took place on September 24. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, May 20, 1776. Received the pallium on May 20, 1776. Presented by King Carlos III to the patriarchate of the West Indies, while retaining the archdiocese of Sevilla, August 6, 1777; promoted by the pope on March 30, 1778. Military vicar of Spain from August 26, 1777 until July 11, 1781.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 1, 1778; the red biretta was sent to him by papal brief of August 4, 1778, with Monsignor Girolamo Fabri Ganganelli, ablegato apostolic; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title.

Death. December 10, 1781, Madrid (2). Temporarily buried in a niche on the side of the Gospel of the main chapel of the Augustinian Recollect convent of Our Lady of Copacabana (or Copacacana), Madrid, while a mausoleum was being built in the metropolitan cathedral of that city (2). When French troops invaded Madrid in 1808, before he could be transferred to Sevilla, the remains of the cardinal were taken out of his tomb and thrown on the floor of the church getting mixed with many other remains that had also been dispersed (3).

Bibliography. Goñi Gaztambide, José. Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), suppl., 250-252; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 88, no. 390; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XIX, 219; 219; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 32, 144, 238, 244 and 374.

Link. His portrait and biographical entry, in Spanish, Sevilla TQ, el blog de una ciudad mágica; his portrait and biography, in Spanish, Hermandad de los Negritos; El príncipe Ariscaleño, in Spanish, La Sevilla que no vemos by Julio Domínguez Arjona; Arzobispado General Castrense, in Spanish; Episcopologio, in Spanish, Arzobispado Castrense de España; his biography, in Spanish, in Historia de la Diócesis de Sigúenza y de sus Obispos by Toribio Minguella, vol. III, 168-179; his arms, reproduced by Antonio Herrera Casado, in Heráldica seguntina, pp. 162-163; his engraving and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait, Fototeca de la Universidad de Sevilla; his portrait, Fototeca de la Universidad de Sevilla; his portrait, Galerma AntiQvaria; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; Familiares Umbreteños del Cardenal Delgado by Antonio Herrera García, in Spanish, La Revista Cultural de Umbrete; Retrato del cardenal Delgado y Venegas va a ser restaurado, ABC de Sevilla, 15/05/12-11:51h.

(1) The full title of the work is España Sagrada. Theatro geográphico-historico de la iglesia de España. Origen, divisiones, y términos de todas sus provincias. Antiguedad, traslaciones, y estado antiguo y presente de sus sillas, en todos los dominios de España, y Portugal.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, 32. Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867), p. 88, no. 390, says that he died on December 10, 1780.
(3) This is the text of the epitaph on his tomb, taken from his biography in Historia de la Diócesis de Sigúenza y de sus Obispos, vol. III, 178, linked above:

Aquí yace nuestro Hermano General,
el Eminentísimo y Excelentísimo
Sr. D. Francisco Xavier Delgado y Venegas,
Obispo de Canarias y Sigüenza,
Arzobispo de Sevilla, Patriarca de la Indias,
Limosnero y Procapellán mayor de S M.,
Vicario General de los Reales Ejércitos,
Caballero Gran Cruz y Gran Canciller de la Real y Distinguida
Orden española de Carlos III. y
Presbítero Cardenal de la Santa Iglesia Romana.
Conforme á su última voluntad
fue depositado aquí su cadáver interinamente
en 13 de Diciembre de 1781, con la solemnidad debida,
haciédole en su entierro honores de Capitán General.

(3) Although highly unlikely, the book by José Antequera Luengo Memorias sepulcrales de la catedral de Sevilla. Los manuscritos de Loaysa y González de León (Facediciones), p. 162, says that that he remains were transferred to his sepulchre in the cathedral of Sevilla (in spite of mentioning that they had been dispersed). The date of the transfer that the book mentions, 1810, is also questionable because it was in the middle of the war. There is a different version which indicates that in his sepulchre was buried a Capuchin lay brother, Sebastián de Jesús Sillero, who died in fame of holiness.

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(20) 2. LA ROCHEFOUCAULD, Dominique de (1712-1800)

Birth. September 26, 1712, Castle of Saint-Elpise, St. Chély d'Apcher, Lozère, diocese of Mende, France (1). He belonged to a minor and impoverished branch of that famous family and received the protection of Cardinal Frédéric-Jérôme de La Rochefoucauld de Roye (1747), through the intercession of Bishop Gabriel Florentine de Choiseul Beaupré of Mende, who had met Dominique in he village de Saint-Chely. He was the eighth of the eleven children of Jean-Antoine de La Rochefoucauld, seigneur of Saint-Ilpize de Cusson and of Rochegonde; and Marie-Madeleine de la Champ.The other children were Marie Simone, Jean Pierre Antoine, Georges Paulin, Jean Pierre, Jean Joseph, Mathieu, Antoinette, Jean Antoine, Françoise Marie (1718) and Françoise Marie (1720). He is also listed under Rochefoucauld.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Clermont; and at Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris, where he obtained a licentiate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained (no date found), Paris. Cardinal La Rochefoucauld de Roye called him to Bourges and named him vicar general. Abbot commendatario of the abbey of Grand Selve, 1735. Nominated by King Louis XV of France to the metropolitan see of Albi on May 1, 1747.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Albi, May 29, 1747; on that same day he was granted the pallium. Consecrated, June 29, 1747, in the chapel of the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, by Gabriel Florentine de Choiseul Beaupré, bishop of Mende, assisted by Pierre-Augustin de Fleury, bishop of Chartres, and by Charles de Grimaldi d'Antibes, bishop of Rodez; he took the oath of fidelity to King Louis XV on July 12, 1747. Soon after, he took possession of the see. Prior commendatario of La Charité sur Loire, diocese of Nevers, 1747; he ceased in this post when he was named abbot commendatario of Cluny in December 1757. Member of the Assemblies of the Clergy of 1750 and 1755. Resigned pastoral the government of the archdiocese of Albi on April 30, 1759. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Rouen, June 2, 1759; he took possession of the see on July 28, 1759; and installed on January 10, 1760. Member of the Assembly of the Clergy of 1765. He was elevated to the cardinalate at the request of King Louis XVI of France.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 1, 1778; the pope sent him the red biretta with Monsignor Romualdo Brachi with an apostolic brief dated October 1, 1778; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. he pope named him abbot commendatario of Fécamp on June 12, 1778. On June 28, 1780, he received, with great pomp, King Louis XVI in Rouen. King Louis XVI named him commander of the Order of Saint-Esprit in 1780. Presided over the Assemblies of the Clergy of 1780 and 1782; and the one celebrated in the General Estates of 1789, in which he unsuccessfully opposed the union of the three estates and, in general, all other revolutionary measures. On August 18, 1787, he was named president of the Provincial Assembly of the Généralité of Rouen. He was also member of the Assemblée Nationale Constituante. On January 4, 1791, he refused to take the oath of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, promulgated by decree the revolutionary government on July 12, 1790.; and enforced the following December 26. He was deprived of all his rents and benefices; he did not lose his serenity and remained in France until the Journée du 10 août 1792, when the royal palace of Tuileries was taken by the people of Paris; the cardinal left the country on September 20, 1792, and went to Maastricht, Holland; and then to Brussels, where he stayed until 1794, when the French republican army arrived in the city; later, from July 1794, he resided in Münster, Westphalia. As dean of the French episcopate, he was responsible for the direction of the émigré clergy; two thousand priests, 145 from the archdiocese of Rouen, had taken refuge in Münster; he had to house, feed and clothe them for six years. Did not participate in the conclave of 1799-1800, which elected Pope Pius VII. On September 20, 1800, after celebrating mass, he felt ill and his condition quickly worsened. On the following day, he received the last sacraments of the Church with great devotion.

Death. September 23, 1800, in Münster, Westphalia. The funeral, according to the wishes of the prince-bishop of Münster, Archduke Maximilian Francis von Austria, were magnificent, like one celebrated for a sovereign. The body of the cardinal, dressed in all the insignias of his rank, was exposed in a chapelle ardente, watched by his friends. A huge procession, consisting of the clergy, religious orders, magistrates, military, the nobility of Münster, the Norman émigrés priests and other immigrants, who came from neighboring towns, and a large part of the population, followed his remains to the cathedral. The requiem mass was sung with great pomp and all the cathedral chapter of Münster attended the solemn ceremony. After the absolution given by the prince-bishop and two French bishops, the cardinal's coffin was deposed in the chapel facing the altar where he usually celebrated mas. His tomb was covered with a marble slab. The news of his death arrived in Rouen in the following month of October. During a week, masses were said in private chapels of the city. And a solemn service was celebrated in the cathedral by priests who had taken the oath to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, as they recognized respectability and grandeur of the late cardinal. Abbé Pierre François Théophile Jarry, one of his biographers, pronounced the funeral oration on May 15, 1801 (2). In April 1876, his remains were transferred to Rouen and buried in the crypt of the archbishops in the metropolitan cathedral (3).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1467-1468; Chapeau, O.S.B. André Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 367-368; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LVIII, 84-85; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 32, 73 and 359.

Links. Monseigneur de la Rochefoucault by Thérèse Eude, in French, Groupe Histoire des Hôpitaux de Rouen séance du 21 octobre 1992; portrait and brief biographical data, in French, Wikipedia; his genealogy, in French, GeneaNet; his portrait by François-Hubert Drouais, Musée des Beaux Arts, Rouen, France; his portrait, attributed to François-Hubert Drouais, Auction.fr; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving by Claude Duflos, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving by an anonymous artist, Bibliothèque nationale de France; his engraving by Wilbrode-Magloire-Nicolas Courbe, Château de Versailles et de Trianon, Banque d'images, Centre Recherche et formation, Ressources documentaires; his engraving, Château de Versailles et de Trianon, Banque d'images, Centre Recherche et formation, Ressources documentaires; his engraving by Nicolas Dupin le Jeune, Château de Versailles et de Trianon, Banque d'images, Centre Recherche et formation, Ressources documentaires; his arms on a coin (jeton), Compagnie Generale de Bourse; his effigy and arms on a coin (jeton), Compagnie Generale de Bourse; Deux victims des Septembriseurs [Les Bienheureux Fréres La Rochefoucauld] by Louis Audiat, in French, Roger Peters' Home Page; .

(1) This is according to most of the sources consulted except Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1467, which says that he was born in 1713; and Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, p. 367-368, which says that he was born on September 26, 1713.
(2) This is the full bibliographic citation of the oration: Jarry, Pierre François Théophile (1764-1820). Oraison funèbre de S. É. Mgr le cardinal de La Rochefoucauld, archevêque de Rouen... prononcée, le 15 mai 1801, dans l'église des RR. PP. Récollets de Munster en Westphalie, par M. l'abbé Jarry [Texte imprimé]. Publication : Munster : impr. de A. G. Aschendorf, 1801. Description matérielle : In-8º, 51 p.
(3) This is a description of the event, taken from his biography by Eude, linked above: In 1875, Cardinal Henri-Marie-Gaston Boisnormand de Bonnechose, archbishop of Rouen, asked the German government permission to bring the remains of Cardinal La Richefoucauld to Rouen. The transfer was granted and it was held in the greatest simplicity; on Friday, October 15, 1875, the coffin was placed in a special sealed car. In Düsseldorf, there was a change of car, and very touching gesture the railroad workers placed on the coffin a wreath of ivy and laurel, final tribute of the German Catholics to the French cardinal. At the same time, the body of another archbishop of Rouen, François de Pierre de Bernis, who died suddenly in Paris in 1823 and had been deposited at Saint-Sulpice, was transferred together with Cardinal La Rochefoucauld. The convoy took charge and the two coffins were brought together to Rouen and into the crypt of the church of Saint-Godard. In a pastoral letter of March 4, 1876, Cardinal Bonnechose announced that the tribute to the cardinal and the archbishop by the clergy of Normandy, was going to be held in a grand ceremony set for April 20, 1876. The two coffins were exposed, covered with a velvet cloth of gold tears, in the choir of the church of Saint- Godard. The insignia of their respective dignity accompanied them. With the arrival of Cardinal Bonnechose, the prayers and the incessant process of people stopped, and the huge cortege headed by the civil and military authorities, the municipal council, the first president of the Court of Appeal, the prosecutor of the Republic, the councilors general, and the families of late prelates. Then came the priests, vicars and chaplains, curés and deans from Normandy and elsewhere; and, finally, the great dignitaries of the Church accompanied them. The crowd massed along the major routes of Rouen, the Hôtel de Ville, the Jeanne d'Arc Street and the street Gros Horloge. Then the two coffins arrived in front of the cathedral square, while all the bells sounded in the city. A rich catafalque was erected in the choir. The metropolitan church was full. The bishop of Bayeux celebrated the requiem mass; the "Introit" and "Dies Irae" from Mozart were sung, followed by "Pie Jesus" and "Agnus Dei" by Cherubini. The funeral oration was delivered by François-Nicolas-Xavier-Louis Besson, bishop of Nîmes. The final absolutions were imparted respectively by the bishops of Bayeux, Evreux, Coutances and Cardinal Bonnechose, archbishop of de Rouen. Then the remains were carried in procession to the chapel of the Virgin, accompanied by their families, archbishops and authorities. There "In paradisium" was sung. After the ritual prayers, the coffins were lowered into the crypt of the archbishops of Rouen. It should be noted that Eude, in her article, confuses Archbishop François de Pierre de Bernis of Rouen with Cardinal François Joachim de Pierre de Bernis, archbishop of Albi and bishop of Albano, who never was archbishop of Rouen.

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(21) 3. FRANKENBERG, Johann Heinrich von (1726-1804)

Birth. September 18, 1726, Groß-Glogau, diocese of Breslau, Lower Silesia. From an old Silesian noble family closely attached to the House of Hapsburg. Son of Count Otto Venantius von Franckenberg, baron of Schellendorf, and Countess Franziska Gaudentia von Khünburg. Baptized on that same day with the names Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Joseph Johann Nepomuk. He also had the title of baron of Schellendorf. His last name is also listed as Franckenberg.

Education. He was initially intended for an Austrian military career, but soon he felt attracted to the ecclesiastical life. He studied at the Jesuit gymnasium in Groß-Glogau, from 1736 to 1741; then, at the University of Breslau, directed by the Jesuits, where he studied philosophy. Received the insignias of the clerical character, and the minor orders on January 6, 1743; the subdiaconate on September 21, 1748; and the diaconate on September 21, 1748. Later, he attended the Pontifical Collegio Germanico, Rome, also directed by the Jesuits, where he obtained a doctorate in theology on September 4, 1749; and another doctorate in canon law; while he was still a young student, he was noticed because of his above-average performance, as well as for his theological homiletic talent; he was classmate of Christoph Anton Migazzi, future archbishop of Vienna and cardinal.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 10, 1749, Rome. On November 1, 1749, he had the great honor of holding the traditional Allerheiligenpredigt (All Saints' Day sermon) before Pope Benedict XIV, and the cardinals and the pontiff expressed great enthusiasm about Father Frankenberg. Returned to Austria and was, from 1750 to 1754, assistant to the apostolic vicar, later archbishop, of Gorizia, Count Karl Michael Attems. He was dean of the collegiate church of All Saints, in Prague, from 1754 until 1756; and dean of the church of Sts. Cosmas and Damian, in Alt-Bunzlau, Bohemia, from 1756 to 1759. Nominated to the episcopate by Empress Maria Theresia of Austria on March 13, 1759.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Mechlin and primate of the Austrian Netherlands, May 28, 1759; on that same date he was granted the pallium by the pope. Consecrated, July 15, 1759, in the chapel of the imperial palace of Schönbrunn, by Christoph Anton von Migazzi, archbishop of Vienna, assisted by Franz Xaver Anton Marxer, titular bishop of Crisopoli di Arabia, and by Ferdinand Michael von Hallweil, bishop of Wiener Neustadt. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1765.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 1, 1778; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated June 6, 1778; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Strongly and actively, yet diplomatically, defended the rights of the church and opposed "Josephinism", the politico-ecclesiastical system of Emperor Joseph II of Austria that gave the state absolute supremacy over the Church. In 1786, the emperor decided the erection of a general seminary at Louvain with a study plan that was not acceptable to the Church. For three years the cardinal disputed the government's decision, refusing to send his students to the seminary. Cardinal Frankenberg was summoned to Vienna and Emperor Joseph II tried unsuccessfully to convince the archbishop to accept his views. Returning to Mechlin, the cardinal, with the support of the other bishops, continued his opposition, condemning in a pastoral letter, the textbooks and the teaching of the professors as unorthodox. When a revolt against Austria succeeded in August 1789, the emperor was forced to accept the reestablishment of the episcopal seminaries. Simultaneously, the cardinal became a member of the States-General. Then, when a civil war broke out in October 1789, the cardinal had to flee to escape imprisonment. The political confrontation with the Church escalated still further when the States-General, chaired by the cardinal, declared the independence of the country and constituted the United Belgian States in December 1789. After the death of Emperor Joseph II in 1790, the cardinal returned to Mechlin. With his "Déclaration", written in French, which was published illegally in 1790, in Mechlin, the cardinal broke the secrecy imposed on him. The invasion of the Austrian Netherlands by the French revolutionary troops in forced the cardinal, who offered a brave resistance, to hide. In 1794, the French militarily annexed the province and the cardinal fled to the Netherlands, but could return to his see in 1795, after the fall of Robespierre, and was promised to have the confiscated church properties replaced, and, meanwhile, he was assigned an annual pension. Then, the French Republic demanded a personal declaration of loyalty to the Constitution and the cardinal refused. In 1797, he was the last bishop remaining in the Austrian Netherlands and was expelled to Emmerich, Lower Rhine, in the territory of the Duchy of Cleves, Prussia, residing for two years in the convent of the Tertiaries. Forced to leave Emmerich by the Prussians, he retired in May 1799 to Borken, Westphalia, in the bishopric of Münster. He was old, in bad health and had to depend on the charity of the faithful. Did not participate in the conclave of 1799-1800, which elected Pope Pius VII. Resigned pastoral government of the archdiocese on November 20, 1801 to facilitate the implementation of the 1801 Concordat between France and the Holy See. The request of going to reside in the Roman Curia was rejected, as was the prospect of returning to his former see. In July 1801, when the principality of Borken was suppressed, he went to reside in the apostolic vicariate of Breda, in the territory of the Batavian Republic.

Death. June 11, 1804, of a stroke, in Breda. He was buried in the church of the nearby village of Rijsbergen. In 1818, a cenotaph to his memory was erected in the metropolitan cathedral of Saint-Rombaut, Mechlin. In 1923, his remains were transferred to that cathedral and placed in the tomb which had been built already in 1818 for the tenth archbishop of Mechlin.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. ; Frankenberg, Johann Heinrich von. Observations sur la Déclaration de Son Eminence le cardinal archevêque de Malines : touchant l'enseignement du Séminaire général de Louvain, &c. : avec le texte de cette Déclaration, dans lesquelles on fait voir, par la Déclaration même, que l'enseignement de Louvain, bien loin d'être de quelque chef non orthodoxe, est tout-à-fait irrépréhensible. [Belgium? : s.n.], 1789; Maas, Ferdinand. "Frankenberg, Johann Heinrich." New Catholic Encyclopedia. 2d. edition. 15 vols. Detroit : Thomson/Gale, 2003, V, 913-914; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 32 and 283; Romberg, Winfried. Johann Ignaz von Felbinger und Kardinal Johann Heinrich von Franckenberg : Wege der religiösen Reform im 18. Jahrhundert. Sigmaringen : J. Thorbecke, 1999. (Arbeiten zur schlesischen Kirchengeschichte ; Bd. 8); Theiner, Augustin. Der Cardinal Johann Heinrich Gras von Frankenberg, und Sein Kampf für die Freiheit der Kirche und die bischöslichen seminarien. Freiberg : Herder, 1850; Theiner, Augustin. Jean Henri, comte de Frankenberg, cardinal archevêque de Malines, primat de Belgique, et sa lutte pour la liberté de l'Église et pour les séminaires épiscopaux, sous l'empereur Joseph II. Paris : Firmin Didot frères, 1852. Translation of : Der Kardinal Johann Heinrich Graf von Frankenberg, by Paul de Geslin; Verhaegen, Arthur Théodore. Le cardinal de Franckenberg, archévêque de Malines (1726-1804). Lille : Société de Saint-Augustin Desclée, de Brouwer et cie., 1889. Note: "Collection historique."

Links. Biography by Godefroid Kurth, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Heinrich Benedikt, in German, Neue Deutsche Biographie; biography by Wilhelm Bautz, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; his portrait and biography, in German, Wikipedia; his engraving and biography by Joachim Bahlcke, in German, Ostdeutsche Biographie; biography by Karl Theodor Wenzelburger, in German, Allgemeinen Deutschen Biographie (ADB), Wikipedia; Représentation de Son Eminence le Cardinal-Archevêque de Malines à Leurs Altesses Royales les Gouverneurs des Pays-Bas, sur la Dépêche du 17. Juillet 1788, in French, Europeana; Jean Henri comte de Frankenberg, cardinal archevêque de Malines, primat de Belgique et sa lutte pour la liberté de lÉglise et pour les séminaires episcopaux sour l'Empereur Joseph II by Augustin Theiner (Paris : Librairie de Firmin Didot, 1852); thirty two images concerning the cardinal, Institut royal du Patrimoine artistique, Bruxelles; his effigy on a medallion, Medieval and Modern Coin Search Engine; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his cenotaph in the metropolitan cathedral of Saint-Romuald, Mechlin, Bildarchiv Foto Marburg.

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(22) 4. BATTHYÁNY, József (1727-1799)

Birth. January 30, 1727, Vienna (Bécs), Austria. From a noble family, he had the title of count. He was the second of the five sons of Imperial Prince Lajos Batthyány and Theresa Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau, by whose influence he entered the priesthood. Baptized on that same day with the names József Félix János Nepomuk Ádám. The other children were Adam Wenzel, Michael, Theodor Franz Xaver Emmerich Felix Johann Nepomuk and Philipp Ulrich Josef Richard Nikolaus Tolentinus.

Education. He received his secondary education (gymnasium) in Köszegen; later, he studied law and theology at the University of Trnava. Received the insignias of the clerical character and the minor orders on January 31, 1751; the subdiaconate on May 3, 1751; and the diaconate on May 9, 1751.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1751. Named canon of the cathedral chapter of Esztergom by Archbishop primate Miklós Csáky in 1752. Auditor of causes and prefect of the Seminary of Tirnov. Provost in Pozsony (Bratislava) and archdeacon of Tekov, 1755. Named grand provost of the Major College of Szent Michael de Castro Ferreo, archdiocese of Esztergom, on May 6, 1753. Nominated to the episcopate by the queen of Hungary on May 13, 1759.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Erdély (Alba Iulia or Transylvania), July 13, 1759. Consecrated, December 12, 1759, by Christoph Anton von Migazzi, archbishop of Vienna. Nominated by Empress Maria Theresia to the metropolitan see of Kalocsa-Bács on May 22, 1760. Promoted by the pope to that metropolitan see, December 15, 1760; on that same date the pope granted him the pallium. Assessing the situation of the archdiocese in 1761, he realized that there were many towns and parishes without a priest, and to remedy the situation he organized in every village a Christian Education Society, which won the support of Empress Maria Theresia. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1765. He maintained close relations with scientists and literary men. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Esztergom, May 20, 1776; on that same date the pope granted him the pallium. As he had done in Kalocsa-Bács, he increased the number of parishes; also, he insured that the Church maintained its Hungarian character preaching only in Hungarian, and named as patrons of the new parishes the Virgin Mary, Szent Istvánt (St. Stephen) and Szent Lászlót (St. Ladislas). He demolished the episcopal palace in Bratislava and had Melchior Hefelével, a classicist late Baroque architect, built a new one between 1777 and 1781; the interior decoration of the palace was done by the most famous artists of Vienna; the chapel ceiling paintings, such as the Apotheosis of Szent Laszló, was done by Franz Anton Maulbertsch; and an altarpiece was painted by his assistant Andreas Matthias Zeilinger. He also built a wildlife park, Nyaralókastélyt, between 1779 and 1783, in which there was a hall with art collections.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 1, 1778; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief date June 6, 1778; received the red hat and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola in the consistory celebrated by Pope Pius VI in the imperial palace of Vienna on April 19, 1782. He mediated between the pope and Emperor Joseph II during the visit avoiding a rupture between the two. After the papal visit, it seemed that, even if briefly, the possibility of reconciliation had arisen. But soon the emperor took the administration of the Church from the bishops heading an institution called the Church Committee. The primate had to decide between two evils: either reject the measure and place the Church as an enemy of the government, or accept a provision that attacked the Church own legitimacy. After a serious mental agony , the cardinal made a compromise choice: issue a solemn protest against the new organization. The cardinal's decision was disapproved by Rome. Then, ignoring the protests of the cardinal, the emperor abolished new religious orders, and, in 1783, nationalized the seminaries. Soon, a ban followed on "unnecessary" and expensive processions and pilgrimages; and another one even limiting the length of sermons. While the imperial edict on seminaries affected the bishops who led a quiet resistance, the latter bans were rejected by the common people because those practices brought some color to their lives. The cardinal tried to mediate and to dampen the conflict, but it was in vain. Emperor Joseph II died on February 20, 1790, after withdrawing several of his regulations. On June 10, 1790, the parliament opened in Buda and Cardinal Joseph Batthyány greeted the new ruler of Hungary, King Leopold II. He crowned King Leopold II in Bratislava on November 15, 1790. He crowned Hungarian King Ferenc I in Buda on June 6, 1792. He built the primatial palace in Bratislava. Although he was mostly conciliatory toward the emperor, he protested decisively some of the measures of Josephinism, such as the dissolution of the Camaldolese Clarissan monastic order. He was the most significant Hungarian Baroque art patron.

Death. October 22, 1799, Bratislava (Pozsony). He died during the sede vacante of Pope Pius VI. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Szent Martin, Bratislava.

Bibliography. Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. ; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, IV, 201; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 32, 42, 173, 387 and 412; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), p. 208, 209, 267-272 and 328.

Links. Biography, in Hungarian, Magyar Elektronicus Könyutár; portrait and biography by Péter Hámori, in Hungarian, Sulinet; his statue and biography, in Hungarian, Wikipedia; biography, in Hungarian, Magyar Katolikus Lexikon (second on page); his genealogy, A1 B1 C1 D1 E3, Genealogy EU; his portrait, Museum of Cerveny Kamen castle, Slovakia; his engraving and biographical information, in Czech, Václav Petera, Centrální katolická knihovna; his engraving by J. Millitz (1793), Antique Portrait; his engraving by J. Millitz (1793), Magyar enetörténet; his engraving, Magyar Elektronikus Könyvtár; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

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(23) 5. GHILINI, Tommaso Maria (1718-1787)

Birth. August 5, 1718, Alessandria della Paglia, Piedmont. Of a decurionale (municipal senate) family. Youngest of the six children of Tommaso Ghilini, marquis of Sezzè and Gamalerio, and Francesca Botta-Adorno, noblewoman from Pavia. The other siblings were Gianambrogio, Angela, Vittorio Amedeo, Isabella, and Marianna (abbess of the monastery of the Annunziata).

Education. Initial studies at Collegio Clementino, Rome; then, he studied at the University of Turin, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on June 8, 1740; and later, from 1745, at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, where he studied diplomacy.

Early life. In 1724, he was ascribed to the Military Order of St. John of Jerusalem. He voluntarily entered the ecclesiastical state and received the ecclesiastical tonsure on July 3, 1727. Like his father, he frequented, as gentiluomo di camera, the court of King Vittorio Amedeo II of Savoy, and of his successor, King Carlo Emanuele III, while at the same time attending the University of Turin. He received ecclesiastical benefices in S. Pietro, in Acqui, in 1743; and later, in S. Marziano, in Tortona; and S. Giovanni del Cappuccio, in Alessandria. He went to Rome and after two years practicing law, he entered the prelature. Named referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace on June 8, 1747. Governor of the city of Todi, July 8, 1748 until 1751. Governor of the city of Oriveto, June 30, 1751 until 1753. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, December 1753. Relator of the Sacred Consulta, May 1754. Received the diaconate on December 22, 1759.

Priesthood. Ordained on March 22, 1760.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Roda, July 18, 1763. Consecrated, July 24, 1763, Rome, by Pope Clement XIII. Nuncio in the Austrian Low Countries, July 30, 1763 until September 20, 1775 (1). The nunciature had competence over the missions in Holland, England, Ireland and Scotland. He assumed the post on October 26, 1763. Abbot commendatario of S. Pietro di Molo, Tortona, March 1774; and of S. Giovanni del Capuccio, Alessandria, May 1775. Recalled to Rome by Pope Pius VI, who named him secretary of the Sacred Consulta, November 1775; occupied the post until 1778, when he was promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 1, 1778; received the red hat on June 4, 1778; and the title of S. Callisto, July 20, 1778. Ascribed to the SS.CC. of Propaganda Fide, Bishops and Regulars, Consistorial and Indulgences and Sacred Relics. Protector of the Maronite nation, December 1779; as well as of numerous cities, communities, archconfaternities and monasteries in Rome and in the Papal States, such as Todi, Bagnaia, Gualdo Tadino and Spoleto. Apostolic visitor of the monastery of SS. Concezione in Campo Marzo, Rome; and of the Archconfraternity of Ss. Qurico e Giulitta, Rome. Opted for the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, February 17, 1783. Abbot commendatario of S. Maria di Fornelli, Alba, January 1786. He prepared his testament in Turin in January 1787.

Death. April 3, 1787 (2), suddenly, of an apoplexy, in the convent of the Order of the Friars Minor Conventual, in Turin, which he had chosen as his residence, while preparing to go to Alessandria. Exposed and buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 245; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXX, 189; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCI. In Roma MDCCXCI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, presso la fine del Corso, p. 87; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 32, 43, 46 and 357; Santagostino, Tommaso. Tommaso Maria Ghilini. principe e nunzio di S. Romana Chiesa (con lettere inedite) ed altri scritti vari. Alessandria : Unione Tipografica O. Ferrari-Occella, 1941; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 593; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 324, 412 and 696; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), I, 641-642.

Links. Biography by Simona Feci, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 53 (2000), Treccani; his portrait by Domenico Porta, no. 37, Persée, Scientific Journals, Ministère de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherch; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Araldica Vatican.

(1) According to his biography by Feci, linked above, the reason for his nomination as nuncio in the Austrian Low Countries, which had been given as certain since 1759, worrying the then nuncio in office, may have been the close relationship which united Archbishop Ghilini, on his mother's side, to Marshal Antonio Botta Adorno, who between 1749 and 1753 had held in Brussels the office of minister plenipotentiary of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria. The relationship introduced the archbishop to the Flemish court with favorable credentials, interrupting the series of nuncios, which will resume after him - of born prelates chosen from among subjects of the empire.
(2) This is according to Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XXX, 189; and Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCI, p. 89. Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, 32, says that he died post mediam noctem diei 3 Apri. 1787, which seems to indicate that he died on April 4. Weber, Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie, II, 641, says that he died on April 4, 1787. His biography by Feci, linked above says that he died the night between April 3 and 4, 1787.

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(24) 6. FILIPPA DELLA MARTINIANA, Carlo Giuseppe (1724-1802)

Birth. June 19, 1724, Turin. Of a noble family from Piedmont. Only child of Carlo Baldassare Filippa, count della Martiniana and of San Michele, Prazzo and Ussolo, and his second wife, Bona Teresa Grimaldi. He had eight half-brothers and sisters from his father's third wife, Irene Petitti. The children were Lucia Giuliana Paolina, Orsola Gabriella, Giovanni Baldassarre, Cosimo Giuseppe, Irene Maddalena, Clara Caterina, Gabriella Filippa, and Carlotta. His first name is also listed as Carlo Giuseppe Filippo; as Carlo Giuseppe only; and as Charles Joseph Flipote; and his last name as Filippa di Martiniana. He was also called Cardinal della Martiniana.

Education. Studied at the Royal University of Turin, where he obtained a doctorate in theology on June 1, 1757.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 1, 1749. Spiritual director at the Royal University of Turin. Rector of Charity Hospital, Turin. Prior of Saint-Nicolas de Gerry, Genève. Nominated by Carlo Emanuele III, king of Sardinia, to the see of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne on May 25, 1757

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, May 25, 1757. Consecrated, August 7, 1757, at the metropolitan cathedral of Turin, by Cardinal Vittorio Amedeo delle Lanze, assisted by Giuseppe Maria Rotario, canon, and by Felice Flossesco, canon.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 1, 1778; with an apostolic brief dated June 6, 1778, the pope sent him the red biretta with Msgr. Cavalchini. Nominated to the see of Vercelli by Vittorio Amedeo III, king of Sardinia, on April 21, 1779. Transferred to the see of Vercelli, July 12, 1779. On June 23, 1799, while Pope Pius VI was in the house of the Oratorians, in the small city of Crescentino, diocese of Vercelli, on his way to exile in France, the cardinal went to visit him; he was the last cardinal the pope saw before his death in Valence, France, on August 29, 1799. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, which elected Pope Pius VII. Received the red hat on March 28, 1800; and the title of S. Callisto on April 2, 1800. Ascribed to the SS.CC. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, Rites, and Indulgences and Sacred Relics. A meeting he had with Napoléon Bonaparte in 1800 was the prelude to the new attitude of the French government toward the Church which resulted in the 1801 Concordat with the Holy See. Las abbot commendatario of S. Maria di Casanova, Carmagnola. He realized numerous pastoral visits in his two dioceses and wrote frequent pastoral letters; he was generous with the poor and charitable with the sick.

Death. December 7, 1802, in Vercelli. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of S. Eusebio of Vercelli.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLIII, 165-166; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 32, 281 and 38; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 40.

Links. His genealogy, Geneall; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; Cronotassi dei Vescovi , archdiocese of Vercelli.

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(25) 7. ROHAN-GUÉMÉNÉE, Louis-René-Édouard de (1734-1803)

Birth. September 25, 1734, Paris, France. Of an old Breton noble, opulent, and influential family, named after the town of Rohan, in Brittany; the family has five lines, including the line Rohan-Guémenée, to which belonged Cardinal Louis-René-Eduard. Third of the seven children of Hercule-Mériadec de Rohan, prince of Montbazon, and Louise-Gabrielle-Julie de Rohan. The other siblings were Jules Hercule Mériadec, Louis Armand Constantine, Ferdinand Maximilien Mériadec, Charlotte Louise, Geneviève Armande Elizabeth and Marie Louise. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Armand-Gaston-Maximilien de Rohan (1712), bishop of Strasbourg (1704-1749). Nephew of Cardinal Louis-César-Constantin de Rohan-Guéménée-Montbazon (1761), bishop of Strasbourg from 1757 to 1779. Cousin of Cardinal Armand de Rohan-Soubise-Ventadour (1747), bishop of Strasbourg from 1749 to 1756.

Early life. He was destined to the Church from birth. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Strasbourg on April 20, 1743, when he was nine years old. Prior commendataire of the monastery of Sauxillanges, Auvergne, in 1745, when he was eleven.

Education. Initial studies at the Jesuit school on rue de Saints-Jacques, Paris, where he received his first communion in Easter 1747; then, he attended Collège du Plessis, Paris; then, he studied at Saint-Magloire Seminary, Paris; and finally at La Sorbonne University, Paris, where he studied for five years, and earned a licentiate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. He was a condisciple of all the great prelates who participated in the government of France until the Revolution.

Priesthood. Ordained in 1756. Granted dispensation to be elected coadjutor bishop of Strasbourg in spite of being five years younger than the canonical age, June 22, 1759. In 1759, he received from King Louis XV of France, en commende abbeys of Chaise-Dieu, in Auvergne; and Montmajour, in Provence. Elected by the cathedral chapter of Strasbourg, November 22, 1759.

Episcopate. Preconized titular bishop of Canopus and appointed coadjutor of Strasbourg, with right of succession, March 24, 1760. Consecration, May 18, 1760, cathedral of Paris, by Christophe de Beaumont, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Jean-Georges Le Franc de Pompignan, bishop of Le Puy, and by Gilbert de May de Termont, bishop of Blois. Member of the Académie Française, April 27, 1761; he replaced Abbé Joseph Séguy; he was received into the academy on June 11, 1761, by the Duke de Nivernais. Abbot commendatario of Montmajour in 1761. French ambassador to Austria, 1771-1774; because of his luxury and frivolity he scandalized the Austrian court and Empress Maria Theresa demanded his recall in 1774. Grand almoner of France, 1778. He was provisor of La Sorbonne University, Paris. Administrator of Hôpital des Quince-Vignts. Promoted to the cardinalate at the request of King Stanisław August Poniatowski of Poland.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 1, 1778, with dispensation for having an uncle in the Sacred College of Cardinals; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated October 1, 1778; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Succeeded to the see of Strasbourg, March 11, 1779. Abbot commendatario of the abbey of Saint Waast, diocese of Arras. The cardinal, wishing to regain the favor of Queen Marie-Antoinette, who hardly appreciated him, was convinced by his confidant, the famous Italian adventurer Count Alessandro di Cagliostro, which was the alias of the occultist Giuseppe Balsamo, that he had returned to queen's grace and that she wanted him to buy on her behalf a costly diamond necklace. In 1784, the cardinal got involved, by the scheming Madame de la Motte-Valois, who called herself countess, in the famous and fraudulent "necklace affair". The jewel was never received by the queen, because the jeweler, Bvhmer & Bassenge, never received the first payment and the queen was made aware of the scandal; the cardinal had been shamefully duped. King Louis XVI, had him arrested in August 1785, in Versailles, in his pontifical habits and before the entire court; he was taken to the Bastille; the king assigned the introduction of a process to the Paris parliament ("parliament" in pre-revolutionary France was not the estates agency, but a higher court); Cagliostro and the Countess Lamotte were also imprisoned; in May 1786, Cardinal Rohan and Cagliostro were acquitted by the Parliament, but the king forced the Cardinal to surrender his estate and go in exile to the Abbey of Chaise-Dieu, in Auvergne; later he was allowed to go to the abbey of Marmoutier, near Tours; finally, the king allowed him to return to his diocese, where he lived in conformity to his ecclesiastical state. In the secret consistory of February 13, 1786, the pope published to the cardinals the decree suspending his cardinalate because of the politico-financial scandal of the necklace. In the secret consistory of September 18, 1786, the pope announced to the cardinals that he had given Cardinal Rohan six months to amend himself and that a prorogation of six months, starting September 4, 1786, had been granted to him. In the consistory of December 18, 1786, the pope reinstated him to the cardinalate. In 1789, the cardinal was elected to the Etats Généraux in Versailles, as representative in this body of the clergy of Haguenau. He was part of the Assemblée Constituante and since he proved to be a staunch opponent of the revolution, he had to flee in June 1790 to Ettenheim, which was part of his diocese in German territory, where he raised troops for the army of Condé. From there, he actively supported the "unsworn priests" in France, which were the clergy who refused to take the oath to the new constitution. Did not participate in the conclave of 1799-1800, which elected Pope Pius VII. To facilitate the implementation of the 1801 Concordat between France and the Holy See, resigned the government of his diocese, as requested by the pope, on November 29, 1801. He should be judged not only by his involvement in the "necklace affair" and the role of a somewhat frivolous courtier had played under the Ancien Régime, but also by his conduct in the hard times of the revolution, when he was a loyal churchman, whose efforts to assist the oppressed clergy deserve recognition. He built a monument in Strasbourg to the glory of Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, viscount de Turenne, marshal of France. He was a philosopher who wrote poetry, was a friend of Georges-Louis Leclerc, count de Buffon, a naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopedic author; and of Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert, a mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist; and frequented the salon of Marie Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin, one of the leading female figures in the French Enlightenment.

Death. February 16, 1803, surrounded by the domestics who had served him during his exile, in Ettenheim, Baden. Exposed and buried in the church of St. Bartholomäus in Ettenheim, near Lahr. He instituted his niece, Princess Charlotte Dorothée de Rohan Rochefort, the universal heir of his greatly diminished assets; on March 4, 1804, Princess Charlotte's husband, the Duke of Enghien, was assassinated by order of Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte. He also distributed several écud among his domestics.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 14701472; Chamier, Jacques Daniel. The dubious tale of the diamond necklace. London : E. Arnold & Company, 1939; Chapeau, O.S.B. André Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 471-472; Combes, Louis. Marie-Antoinette et l'intrigue du collier. Paris : G. Decaux, 1876; Ehrhard, Leo. L'ambassade du prince-coadjuteur Louis de Rohan a la cour de Vienne (1771-1774). Strasbourg : Impr. de L'Elsaesser, 1901; Fauveau, Jean-Claude. Le prince Louis, cardinal de Rohan-Guéméné, ou, Les diamants du roi. Paris, France : L'Harmattan, 2006. (Roman historique; Variation: Roman historique (Harmattan (Firm))); Haynin, Eric de. Louis de Rohan : le cardinal "collier". Paris : Perrin, 1997; Le Roy de Sainte-Croix, François Noël. Les quatre cardinaux de Rohan (évêques de Strasbourg) en Alsace. Strasbourg : Hagemann et cie, 1880. (Grande collection alsacienne), pp. 81-169; Martin, Étienne. Le goût chinois du cardinal Louis de Rohan : les collections extrême-orientales du Musée des arts décoratifs. Corporate author: Musée des arts décoratifs (Strasbourg, France) Strasbourg : Musées de la ville de Strasbourg, 2008. Descriptor: Porcelain, Chinese -- Ming-Qing dynasties, 1368-1912. Note: Catalog of an exhibition held Sept. 18, 2008-Jan. 4, 2009, Palais Rohan; Mathy, Helmut. Die Halsbandaffäre : Kardinal Rohan und der Mainzer Kurfürst. Mainz : P. von Zabern, 1989. (Aurea Moguntia ; Bd. 3; Variation: Aurea Moguntia ; Bd. 3); Muller, Claude. Le siècle des Rohan. Une dynastie de cardinaux en Alsace au XVIIIe siècle. Strasbourg : Éditions La Nuée Bleue, 2006, p. 309-426; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 32, 99 and 145; Sieger, Jörg. Kardinal im Schatten der Revolution : der letzte Fürstbischof von Strassburg in den Wirren der Französischen Revolution am Oberrhein. Kehl : Morstadt, 1986; Zorn von Bulach, Anton Joseph. L'ambassade du prince Louis de Rohan à la cour de Vienne 1771-1774. Notes écrites par un gentilhomme, officier supérieur attaché au prince Louis de Rohan, ambassadeur du roi. Strasbourg : Impr. Alsacienne anct., G. Fischbach, 1901. Note: Imprint covered by label of Schlesier & Schweikhardt, Strasbourg. Responsibility: et publiées par son arrière-petit-fils, le baron Zorn de Bulach.

Links. Biography, in English, Britannica; his portrait, engraving and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his portrait, engraving, arms and biography, in French, Wikipedia; his portrait, engraving, arms and biography, in Hungarian, Wikipedia; biography by Friedrich Wielgus, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; his engraving and biography, in French, Académie Française; his portrait and biography, in German, Internetangebot von Dr. Jörg Sieger; his portrait by Saverne; his portrait, abbey of Lichtenthal, Baden; his portrait (presumed), Musée des Ursulines, Mâcon; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving by Jean-Pierre-Julien Dupin (Dupin fils), Ministére des affaires étrangères et européennes; his engraving, Yale University Library; his engraving, Bibliothèque nationale de France; his engraving, châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, Versaille, Réunion de Musées Nationaux Grand Palais; his engraving, châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, Versaille, Réunion de Musées Nationaux Grand Palais; his bust, Museum of Ettenheim; his genealogy, B2, Genealogy EU; 102 bibliographical entries for "Rohan-Gueémené, Louis-René-Édouard", WorldCat; tombstone with epitaph, Feierabend AG; and his tomb, Jöerg Sieger.de.

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(26) 8. SOUSA E SILVA, Fernando de (1712-1786)

Birth. November 27, 1712, Lisbon, Portugal. From a noble family. Sixth of the twenty eight children of Aleixo de Sousa da Silva e Menezes, second count of Santiago de Beduído, and Leonor Maria de Menezes (1). He was baptized on December 5, 1712 (2).

Education. Studied at the University of Coimbra, where he obtained a licentiate in canon law. Received the insignias of the clerical character on April 13, 1721; the minor orders on September 17, 1734; and the diaconate on December 20, 1738.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 10, 1739. Primarius principalis of the patriarchate of Lisbon, July 31, 1755. Named vicar capitular of Lisbon at the suggestion of Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, marquis of Pombal, prime minister of Portugal, two days after the death of Cardinal Francisco de Saldanha da Gama, patriarch of Lisbon, on November 1, 1776. He fixed his residence in Palácio da Junqueira, Lisbon.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 1, 1778; with an apostolic brief dated September 11, 1778, the pope sent him the red biretta with ablegato apostolic Msgr. Francesco Serlupi, privy chamberlain supernumerary; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Nominated patriarch of Lisbon by Maria I, queen of Portugal, on August 14, 1778.

Episcopate. Elected fourth patriarch of Lisbon, March 1, 1779; on that same day he was granted the pallium. He wrote his first pastoral letter to the faithful of Lisbon on April 2, 1779, confessing his resistance to accept the nomination and the disquiet that struck him at the realization that it would be fruitless to refuse. Consecrated, May 30, 1779, in the chapel of Palácio da Junqueira. He made the solemn entrance in the city on the following June 1. In 1779, he instituted the feast of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, a particular devotion of Queen Maria I, with mass and office proper. He obtained from Queen Maria I the foundation of the Seminary of Santarém, in the former Jesuit house and church of Nossa Senhora da Conceição, on January 20, 1780. Also in 1780, he redistributed the parishes of Lisbon, a necessary measure after the devastating earthquake of November 1, 1755; and in 1781, he published the new statutes for the patriarchate. In 1783, he granted license to four nuns from the monastery of Louriçal to become the founding members of the Convent of Desagravo do Santissimo Sacramento, in Campo Santa Clara, established by Infanta Maria Ana in 1766. On March 14, 1785, he wrote his last pastoral letter dedicated mainly to regulating work done on Sundays and holidays.

Death. April 11, 1786, at 7 p.m., of an apoplexy, Lisbon. Buried, according to his will, in the church of Belem, in the monastery of the Jerónimos, Lisbon, without any formality. He was buried next to his predecessor Cardinal Francisco de Saldanha da Gama.

Bibliography. Costa Saldanha, Sandra. "D. Fernando de Sousa e Silva (1779-1786). Os patriarcas de Lisboa. Coordenação D. Carlos Azevedo, Sandra Costa Saldanha, António Pedro Boto de Oliveira. Palavra de apresentação do Cardeal Patriarca, D. José da Cruz Policarpo. Lisboa : Centro Cultural do Patriarcado de Lisboa; Alêtheia Editores, 2009, p. 49-55; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LXVII, 252; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCI. In Roma MDCCXCI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, presso la fine del Corso, p. 86; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 33 and 425.

Links. Brief biographical data in Os Cardeais Portugueses, in Portuguese, patriarcado de Lisboa; his engraving and biography, in Portuguese, Wikipedia; his genealogy, in Portuguese, GeneAll.net; his portrait, patriarchate of Lisbon.

(1) This is according to his genealogy, linked above. His second biography in Portuguese, Wikipedia, says that the parents had thirty two children.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, 425. Costa Saldanha, "D. Fernando de Sousa e Silva (1779-1786). Os patriarcas de Lisboa, p. 49; Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, LXVII, 252; and Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCI, 86, say that he was born on December 5, 1712.

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(27) 9. CORNARO, Giovanni (1720-1789)

Birth. June 30, 1720, Venice. Son of Niccolò Cornaro and Alba Giustiniani. Of the San Mauirizio branch of the family, different from that of the other Cornaro cardinals: Marco Cornaro (1500); Francesco Cornaro, seniore (1527); Andrea Cornaro (1544); Luigi Cornaro (1551); Federico Cornaro, seniore, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1585); Francesco Cornaro, iuniore (1596); Federico Cornaro, iuniore (1626); and Giorgio Cornaro (1697). His last name is also listed as Cornelius and as Corner.

Education. Percorsa la carriera degli studi ecclesiastici fu ammeso nella romana prelatura... (1)

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature. Protonotary apostolic participantium, April 12, 1742. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, January 24, 1743. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, September 1743. Vice-legate in Bologna, September 22, 1744 until 1747. Relator of the Sacred Consulta, April 1747. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 1750. Vicar of the basilica of S. Marco, Rome, and corrector of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, January 1754. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for the Republic of Venice, August 1758; took possession on March 21, 1759.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate on June 1, 1765. Abbot commendatario of Vangadizza, 1766; and of S. Benedetto di Vallalta, Bergamo. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, December 2, 1775 until June 1, 1778.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 1, 1778; received the red hat on June 4, 1778; and the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, July 20, 1778. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Council, Rites, Ceremonial and Apostolic Visit.

Priesthood. Ordained, February 27, 1779.

Death. March 29, 1789, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marco, Rome, where the funeral took place; his body was embalmed and encased into three coffins as it was customary; later, it was privately transported to and buried in his deaconry, S. Cesareo in Palatio. A marble slab with an inscription was placed on his tomb.

Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 119; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XVII, 146; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 33 and 50; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 160, 362 and 597.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving and tombstone, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XVII, 146: Having completed the career of ecclesiastical studies, he was admitted to the Roman prelature.

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(28) 10. GUIDI, Romoaldo (1722-1780)

Birth. February 5, 1722, Cesena. Eldest of the six children of Costantino Guidi, marquis of Montevecchio and count of Sambucheto, and Caterina di Pasio Belmonti, a noblewoman from Rimini. The other siblings were Rinaldo, Giacomo, Anna Dorotea and another two daughters.

Education. ... fatto i suoi studi convenienti alla nascita ... (1) and then entered the service of the Holy See.

Early life. He entered the Roman prelature and was named prelate of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's basilica and of the S.C. of the Council. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, May 1751. Relator of the S.C. of Religious Immunity, December 1753. Lieutenant of the Tribunal of the vicariate of Rome, December 1753; and simultaneously, voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, January 1756. Secretary of the S.C. of Good Government, September 26, 1766 to April 23, 1780. Preceptor general of the Hospital of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, November 1770; he reformed the administration, made several acquisitions and improved the discipline of the physicians, surgeons and assistants to benefit of the patients; and he also expanded the anatomical museum.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 1, 1778; received the red hat on June 4, 1778; and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, July 20, 1778. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Council, Ecclesiastical Immunity, Good Government, and Bishops and Regulars. Abbot commendatario of Ss. Giuliano e Gaudenzio, Rimini, July 1778. Protector of the University de' Cappellari of Ravenna and of S. Leo; of the Collegiate Church of S. Lucia in Savignano; and of the Confraternity of S. Maria Vergine Addolorata, erected in the parish church of terra di S. Marco.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate, March 22, 1779.

Death. April 23, 1780, after a brief illness, in Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marcello, Rome, where the funeral took place; the mass was sung by Cardinal Antonio Eugenio Visconti, camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, who also imparted the absolution; his body was privately transferred to and buried in his deaconry, S. Giorgio in Velabro. A marble slab with his arms and an inscription was placed on his tomb (2). His family celebrated a solemn funeral triduum in suffrage of his soul in the church of S. Michele Arcangelo, called la Casa di Dio. On June 10, 1780, Advocate Tommaso Lacchini, nobleman from Cesena and public professor at the local university, delivered the funeral oration, which was published by printer Gregorio Biasini.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXIII, 199; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 33 and 51; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 520.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni; his engraving; and portrait by Antonio Capellan and Giuseppe Milani, respectively, Araldica Vaticana; his engraving by Antonio Capellan, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his portrait, Hospital of Santo Spirito in Sassia, Rome, Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali; his portrait, Ostra, Marche, Sirpac sistema informativo Regione Marche; and his tomb in the church of S. Giorgio in Velabro, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XXXIII, 199: made his studies according to his birth.
(2) This is the text of the inscription, taken from Requiem Datenbank:

ROMUALDO GUIDIO CESENATI
DIACONO CARD · S · GEORGII AD
VELABRUM
OMNIBUS HONORIBUS ABSTINENTER
DIGNE FUNCTO
VIXIT AN · LVXIII · MENS · XI DIES · XIX
SEDIT IN AMPLISS · ORDINE AN · II
CESSIT IX · KAL · MAIAS AN · CIƆIƆCCLXXX
GREGORIUS BANDIUS ARCHIEP · EDESS ·
ADMINISTRATOR URBANI PATRIM ·
CIVI ET AMICO
CONST · GVIDIVS · MARCHIO · MON · RESTITVIT · MDCCCXX

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BROGLIE, Charles de (1733-1777)

Birth. November 18 (or 17), 1733, Broglie, diocese of Lisieux, France. Fourth of the six children of Duke Charles-François Broglie and Thérèse Locquet de Granville. The other siblings were Victor François, Charles, François, Marie Charlotte Thérèse and Marie Thérèse.

Education. Obtained a licentiate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, at the Faculty of Reims.

Priesthood. For five years he was general agent of for the affairs of the Gallican clergy. For more than seven years he was vicar general of Reims. Abbot of La Chalade, 1757 to May 22, 1766. Nominated for the see of Noyon by the king of France on March 30, 1766.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Noyon, June 2, 1766. Consecrated, June 22, 1766, church of Grands Augustins, Paris, by Charles-Antoine de La Roche Aymon, archbishop of Reims, assisted by Joseph de Broglie, bishop of Angoulême, and by Antoine de Juigné, bishop of Châlons. He had the title of count. Pair of France.

Cardinalate. He was going to be created cardinal in the consistory of June 1, 1778, at the request of the Polish crown, but he died before his promotion. Cardinal Louis-René-Eduard de Rohan-Guéménée was promoted in his place.

Death. September 20, 1777, château of Carlepont, residence of the bishops of Noyon. Buried three days later in the choir of the cathedral of Noyon. His funeral oration was delivered by Jean Baptiste Charles Marie de Beauvais, bishop of Sénez, on July 7, 1778, in the cathedral of Noyon.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 213-214; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 357.

Links. Portrait and biography, in French, Wikipedia; his genealogy, Première branche, XIII, last entry, Web.genealogie, Le site de la généalogie historique; another genealogy, A5 C3 D4, Genealogy. EU; his portrait (?), by an unknown artist, cathedral of Notre-Dame, Noyon, Ministère de la culture et de la communication de France; his portrait (wrongly identified), Retro de Chantereine; description of his portrait (not seen on the page), in which he is referred to as cardinal designé, in French, Patrimonie de France, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communicationde France; Oraison-funebre d'Illustrissime et Reverendissime Signeur Monseigneur Charles de Broglie, Évéque-Comte de Noyon, Pair de France, Designé Cardinal de la Sainte Église Romaine par Jean Baptiste Charles Marie de Beauvais, évêque de Sénez.

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