The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius VI (1775-1799)
Consistory of February 14, 1785 (XIII)


(35) 1. GARAMPI, Giuseppe (1725-1792)

Birth. October 29, 1725, Rimini. Second child of Count Lorenzo Garampi and Marchioness Diamante Belmonti.

Education. He received a thorough education and among his first teachers was a fellow countryman, Giovanni Bianchi (Janus Plancus), who was a physician and scientist,and was versed in antiquaries; under his guidance, Giuseppe was initiated in the study of the natural sciences, but his preferences went to study law, history and antiquity. From an early age he came into contact with various scholars, like Paolo Maria Paciaudi, Giovanni Lami, Raimondo Adami and, above all, with Annibale degli Abbati Olivieri-Giordani, who provided him with books and with whom he corresponded for 45 years. In Modena, he met Ludovico A. Muratori, and was named vice-custodian of the Gambalunghiana Library; there he started studying ancient codices; returned to Rimini in 1745.

Early life. In 1745, he became the youngest member of the newly established Accademia dei Lincei, re-founded that year in Rimini by Bianchi. At the end of 1746 he chose the ecclesiastical career and received the minor orders in Rimini, leaving soon after for Rome. In September 1747, he received the subdiaconate and the diaconate. In Rome, he studied jurisprudence, as a requirement to be a good antiquarian; and also studied ecclesiastical history in the Domenican Accademia Ecclesiastica, under the guidance of Father Tommaso Maria Mamachi, O.P. He established relations with a group of erudites who were working for the reform of the Church along more rigorist and anti-Jesuitic lines, and who were members of the Circolo dell'Archetto di palazzo Corsini. In 1748, he became a member of the Accademia di storia ecclesiastica, founded by Benedict XIV. He dedicated his first book, De nummo argenteo Benedicti III pont. max. Dissertatio in qua plura ad pontificiam historiam illustrandam, et Johannae papissae fabulam refellendam proferuntur (Rome, 1749), to that pope (1). Even before his first appointment as archivist, he had visited several local archives to collect information and documents relating to the feudal possessions of the Holy See.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 31, 1749. Named coadjutor with right of succession of the prefect of the Vatican Archives, Father Filippo Antonio Ronconi, in 1749; succeeded as prefect on July 19, 1751. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in November 1751. Named prefect of the archives of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in March 1752. Named prefect of the archives of Castel Sant'Angelo, Rome, in September1759. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness. A recognized scholar, he undertook the systematic listing of the extensive holdings of both archives and produced a 124-volume index that is still fundamental for archival research. With notable European scholars worked on the 22-volume Orbis christianus, a history of all the dioceses of the Catholic Church which unfortunately remained unfinished and unpublished. In June 1761, he was named apostolic visitor to the Cistercian monastery of Salem, diocese of Konstanz, with the secret charge of looking after the interests of the Holy See at the peace conference of Augsburg, which tried to put an end to the Seven Years' War. He left in August, accompanied by Secretary Callisto Marini; from Salem, he undertook numerous trips to visit archives and libraries of the German and Swiss monasteries and to establish relationships and contacts with local scholars. At the same time, the trips provided excellent coverage of erudition and diplomatic contacts to gather information useful to the Holy See. In July of 1762, he undertook a long tour for the German electorate, whose stages were Rastatt, Baden-Baden, Karlsruhe - where he admired the peaceful and tolerant coexistence of Lutherans, Calvinists, Catholics and Jews - Mannheim, where he established a friendship with the Elector Palatine Karl Theodor - Mainz, Frankfurt, Koblenz, Bonn, and Cologne. Hence, in September 1762, he went to Holland, where he visited the major cities, major libraries and scholars, not without taking information on the situation of Catholics and, in particular, the presence of the Jansenists. From the United Provinces he went to Austrian Netherlands: Antwerp, where he met the Bollandists, and then visited Malines, Brussels and the University of Leuven. Finally, he went to the Prince-Bishopric of Liege; and then to France, arriving in Paris in December of that year. In the French capital, where he stayed for a month, Monsignor Garampi undertook research in numerous libraries and initiated contacts with many scholars. He returned to Germany to decide the issue which took place between Rome and the bishop of Augsburg; in March 1763, he began the return journey to Italy, stopping in Salzburg and Vienna, where he stayed a month visiting the University, the Imperial Library and Archives; on April 3, he was presented to Empress Maria Theresa by the papal nuncio, Vitaliano Borromeo. In late May, he returned to Rome after an absence of twenty-two months. Nearly six months after his return, Monsignor Garampi left again on a new mission in northern Europe to accompany the nuncio in Lucerne, Niccolò Oddi, to Frankfurt for the coronation of Joseph II as king of the Romans. During another trip, which began in January 1764, he was entrusted with the delicate mission of bringing resolution to the conflict that arose between the cathedral chapter of Speyer, and its dean, Count August von Limburg-Stirum, that threatened to affect relations between Rome and the German electorate and that he solved with skill. Also this time he took advantage of his stay in Germany for his contacts with scholars and above all to undertake a new series of journeys that took him even to the United Provinces, Austrian Netherlands and the Principality of Liège. In Germany he read the book De statu Ecclesiae et legitima potestate pontificis Romans, published in Frankfurt in 1763 under the name of Justin Febronio, but actually from the pen of a suffragan bishop of Trier, Nikolaus von Hontheim, whose episcopalist theories he disapproved. He returned to Rome in December 1764. Named secretary of the Secret Cipher, September 1766. In March 1769, during the visit to Rome of Emperor Joseph II and his brother, Grand Duke Peter Leopold of Tuscany, Monsignor Garampi again had the occasion to meet with the emperor and discuss at length the most pressing political issues, producing an excellent impression in the monarch. The new Pope Clement XIV confirmed him in his office, and then on January 16, 1772, awarded him, with a papal rescript, the doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, from La Sapienza University of Rome.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Berito, January 27, 1772. Consecrated, February 9, 1772, Rome, by Cardinal Lazzaro Opizio Pallavicino. Nuncio in Poland, March 20, 1772. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, April 19, 1772. Nuncio Garampi arrived in Warsaw, after a long stay in Vienna, at the end of summer. He had the first audience with the king of Poland, Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, on September 6, 1772, finding a difficult situation because in August had taken place the first partition of Poland between Prussia, Austria and Russia, which had been established by the Treaty of St. Petersburg of February 17, 1772. The following year, 1773, the suppression of the Society of Jesus, that threatened to disrupt the whole Polish system of teaching, entailed serious risks in religious matters. The skills the nuncio displayed during those years, managing to retain control over the schools by former Jesuit schools as secular priests, won him the nomination by the new pope, Pius VI, to the more prestigious post of nuncio in Austria and in Hungary and Bohemia on March 16, 1776; and, shortly afterwards, as bishop of Montefiascone e Corneto, with personal title of archbishop, on May 20, 1776. He arrived in Vienna in June 1776, after a long journey, full of contacts and information, through Poland, Silesia, Prussia, Saxony and Bohemia. In Vienna, the nuncio worked against ecclesiastical policies of Josephinism with the help of personages loyal to Rome and the papacy, among them the archbishop of Vienna, Cardinal Christoph Anton von Migazzi. The nuncio's relations with the Austrian government became more and more tense and as he started on a more radical way, he gained fame as an intransigent zealous fanatic, worsening the relations between Vienna and Rome. During the trip to Vienna of Pope Pius VI, the nuncio was constantly beside the pontiff and was an advisor in negotiations with Emperor Joseph II.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 14, 1785; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated February 25, 1785; received the red hat on December 22, 1785; and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo on April 3, 1786. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Propaganda Fide, Bishops and Regulars, Ecclesiastical Immunity and Indulgences and Sacred Relics. Named protector of Collegio Germano-Ungarico in 1790. Afflicted by rheumatism and dropsy, he spent the last years of his life traveling between Rome and Montefiascone and trying to recover in healthy places. He endowed the seminary of his diocese of Montefiascone e Corneto with a rich library of 30,000 volumes; he also took care of the training of clergy in the diocesan seminaries; and also fostered the improvement of agriculture, protecting the Società geórgica of Corneto; and supporting the work of spinning and founding local charities; he also resumed his academic activities at the discovery in Corneto (now Tarquinia) of an Etruscan tomb with frescoes, called the "Tomba del Cardinale," whose detailed description and interpretation, he redacted. In spite of his stay in his diocese and his illnesses, Cardinal Garampi played an important role advising in delicate political matters and mediating between the Holy See and other countries; he had a part in drafting the official rebuttal, published in Rome in 1789, with the collaboration of the former Jesuit Francesco Antonio Zaccaria, of the Puntuazioni Ems, a febronian-episcopalist document drawn up in 1786 by Austrian reformer bishops; in the disputes relating to the newly created nunciature of Münich; in condemning the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1791); and in the Roman reaction to the French Revolution.

Death. May 4, 1792, at Collegio Germano-Ungarico, Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Apollinare, Rome, where the funeral also took place. Transferred and buried definitively in his title, Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, November 16, 1792. He left the nucleus of his personal collection, 86 codices and 27 incunabuli, to the Gambalunghiana Library. After his death, about half of the personal library - 30000 to 40000 volumes- was put up for sale and the catalog published in five volumes from the bookseller, M. De Romans, was divided into many areas (theology, law, philosophy, literature and history) and included to the works of Catholic and Protestant writers as well as those of the publicist of the Enlightenment, the Encyclopédie and the works of Jean Jacques Rousseau, François-Marie Arouet de Voltaire, Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu, and Guillaume Thomas François Raynal.

Bibliography. Dell' Orte, Umberto; Metzler, Josef. La Nunziatura a Vienna di Giuseppe Garampi 1776-1785. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995. (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani ; 39; Variation: Collectanea Archivi Vaticani ; 39); Garampi, Giuseppe. Viaggio in Germania, Baviera, Svizzera, Olanda e Francia, compiuto negli anni 1761-1763 : diario del cardinale Giuseppe Garampi.. Edited by Gregorio Palmieri. Roma : Tip. vaticana, 1889; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXVIII, 169-172; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 34, ; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 197-201; Vanysacker, Dries. Cardinal Giuseppe Garampi, 1725-1792 : an enlightened ultramontane. Bruxelles : Institut historique belge de Rome ; Turnhout : Brepols Publishers [distributor], 1995. (Bibliothèque / Institut historique belge de Rome; Bibliotheek / Belgisch Historisch Instituut te Rome ; 33; Variation: Bibliothèque de l'Institut historique belge de Rome ; fasc. 33); Vanysacker, Dries. The Garampi correspondence : a chronological list of the private correspondence of Cardinal Giuseppe Garampi (1741-1792). Leuven : Bibliotheek van de Faculteit Godgeleerdheid, 1997. (Instrumenta theologica ; 19; Variation: Instrumenta theologica ; 19); Walsh, Michael J. The cardinals : thirteen centuries of the men behind the papal throne. Grand Rapids, Mich. : William B. Eerdmans Pub., 2011, ©2010, p. 89-92.

Links. Biography by Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; biography by Marina Caffiero, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 52 (1999), Treccani; his engraving and biography, in English, Vatican Archives; Giuseppe Garampi, tra i Grandi della politica from Lumi di Romagna", pp. 26-33, in Italian, Riministoria, Antonio Montanari, Rimini; brief biographical data, in Italian, Comune di Rimini; and his tomb in Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Rome, Australian National University.

(1) Other published works by Cardinal Garampi were Memorie ecclesiastiche appartenenti all'istoria e al culto della b. Chiara di Rimini (Rome 1755, also dedicated to Pope Benedict XIV); Notizie, regole, e orazioni in onore de' ss. martiri della ss. basilica vaticana per l'esercizio divoto solito praticarsi in tempo che sta ivi esposta la loro sacra coltre (published anonymously in 1756); Memorie della Congregazione delle santuccie e dei monasteri alla medesima soggetti estratte dall'archivio del ven. monastero di S. Anna di Roma gi` capo della medesima (1757); Illustrazione di un antico sigillo della Garfagnana (Roma 1759); Del stato della religione in codesti parti della Germania (1764), in which he drew a pessimistic picture of the local religious situation in Germany because everywhere, even in the Catholic principalities, dominated the ideas of the Enlightenment and anti-ecclesiastical sentiments; Saggi di osservazioni sul valore delle antiche monete pontificie (1765-1766).

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(36) 2. DORIA PAMPHILJ, Giuseppe Maria (1751-1816)

Birth. November 11, 1751, Genoa. Of the noble family of the dukes of Melfi. Third son of Prince Giovanni Andrea IV Doria Pamphilj Landi and Eleonora Carafa della Stadera. Brother of Cardinal Antonio Maria Doria Pamphilj (1785), and uncle of Cardinal Giorgio Doria Pamphilj (1816). Other cardinals of the Doria family were Girolamo Doria (1529); Giovanni Doria (1604); Giorgio Doria (1743); and Sinibaldo Doria (1731). Related to Pope Innocent X. Other cardinals of the Pamphilj family were Girolamo Pamphilj (1604); Camillo Francesco Maria Pamphilj (1644); and Benedetto Pamphilj, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1681). His last name is also listed as Doria Pamphili Landi.

Education. He spent his infancy in the palace of Fassolo, Genoa, where he was educated by private tutors until the transfer of the family to Rome in May 1761; then, he studied, together with his brother Antonio Maria, at the Jesuit Collegio de' Nobili, Rome; then, at the Somaschan Collegio Clementino, from May 1767; and finally, at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in May 1771.

Early life. He devoted himself to the ecclesiastical state at a young age. Went to Rome with his family in May 1761 and pursued his studies in that city together with his brother Antonio Giuseppe. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure on April 21, 1768 and the benefice of the Abbey of S. Fruttuoso from his brother. Honorary chamberlain in abito paonazzo of Pope Clement XIV, in 1771. Entered the Roman prelature as protonotary apostolic participantium, and later as named referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace on June 27, 1771. Received the insignias of the clerical character, April 21, 1768; minor orders, July 2, 1773; subdiaconate, July 4, 1773; diaconate, July 11, 1773. Ablegato to Madrid to bring the fascie benedette to the Prince of Asturias, son of King Carlos III of Spain; he remained in the court from December 1772 until October 1773.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 18, 1773.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Seleucia, February 27, 1773. Consecrated, August 22, 1773, in the collegiate church of San Ildefonso at the royal residence at La Granja, Segovia, Spain, by Cardinal Buenaventura de Córdoba Espínola de la Cerda, titular archbishop of Neocesarea and patriarch of the West Indies, assisted by Manuel Ferrer y Figueredo, titular archbishop of Edessa in Osrhoëne, and by Joaquín Eleta, titular archbishop of Tebe. Nuncio in France, September 6, 1773; remained in the post until his promotion to the cardinalate. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, September 8, 1773.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 14, 1785; by papal post the news of his promotion and the red berrettino was sent to Paris by Monsignor Vincenzo Catenacci; then, the new cardinal went to Viterbo, where the pope sent him the red biretta with Ablegato Ercole Dandini with an apostolic brief dated February 25, 1785; received the red hat on April 7, 1785; and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, April 11, 1785. Legate in Urbino for a triennium, December 19, 1785; his legation was extended until March 1794. Secretary of State, March 16, 1797; he exercised the post in practice until the French occupation of Rome on February 17, 1798; in principle, he was secretary until the death of the pope on August 29, 1799. Prefect of the Sacred Consulta, of the S.C. of Loreto, and member of the S.C. of the Holy Office before April 1, 1797. Arrested by the French authorities on March 8, 1798, he was imprisoned in the convent of the Convertites; later, in Civitavecchia; and finally, he was expelled from the territory of the Roman Republic. Accompanied Pope Pius VI to Sienna on April 13, 1798, the exile decreed by Napoléon; he then went to Genoa. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, which elected Pope Pius VII. Entered Rome with the new Pope Pius VII on July 3, 1800. Secretary of Memorandums, August 11, 1800. Named pro-secretary of State during the brief absence of Cardinal Ercole Consalvi, who went to Paris for the negotiations of the concordat from June 6 to July 31, 1801. Pro-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, November 13, 1801; occupied the post until his expulsion from Rome by the French in the Spring of 1808. Named protector of the Order of the Servants of Mary and of the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) on May 4, 1802. He was also protector of the Canons Regular of SS. Salvatore; of the Archconfraternity of S. Girolamo della Carità; of the monasteries of S. Cecilia and Ss. Giacomo e Maddalena alla Lungara; of Collegio Ibernese; and of several cities like Macerata, Pergola, Fossombrone, Alatri and Urbania. He was member of the SS. CC. of the Holy Office, Council, Propaganda Fide, Consistorial, and others. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, September 20, 1802. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, retaining in commendam the title of S. Cecilia, September 26, 1803. Pro-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, November 10, 1801 to May 19, 1814. After the occupation of Rome by the French troops of General Miollis on February 2, 1808 and the resignation of the Cardinal Secretary of State Filippo Casoni, he was named again pro-secretary of State in the first days of February 1808; a short time later, on March 23, 1808, he was one of the fourteen cardinals expelled from Rome by the French; he went to Parma and then to Genoa and Pegli; transferred to Paris by order of Napoléon I Bonaparte in September 1809; he attended the wedding of Napoléon and Marie-Louise of Austria in Paris on April 2, 1810; all the eleven cardinals who assisted were called "red cardinals". In 1811, he was designated by Napoléon, as sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, to be part of a group of five cardinals sent to Savone to obtain from Pope Pius VII, who was a prisoner in that city, the approval of the decisions of a national council celebrated in Paris from September 3 to 20, 1811. In 1813, Napoléon made him intermediary to negotiate the Concordat of Fontainbleau. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, retaining the title of S. Cecilia in commendam, and officially recognized as sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, September 26, 1814.

Death. February 10, 1816, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, where the funeral took place, in the presence of Pope Pius VII; and buried in the church of S. Cecilia, Rome.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 371-372; Del Re, Niccolò. La Curia romana : lineamenti storico giuridici. 4th ed. aggiornata ed accresciuta. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 90; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XX, 219-220; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 34, 48 and 374; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 38, 39 and 40; Walsh, Michael J. The cardinals : thirteen centuries of the men behind the papal throne. Grand Rapids, Mich. : William B. Eerdmans Pub., 2011, ©2010, p. 171-174.

Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succcession in the Roman Catholic Church; his portrait by Vincenzo Milione, convent of S. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, iccd immagini, Fototeca Nazionale; another portrait, Galleria Doria Pamphilj, Rome, iccd immagini, Fototeca Nazionale; and his tombstone in the basilica of S. Cecilia, Rome, iccd immagini, Fototeca Nazionale.

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(37) 3. RANUZZI, Vincenzo (1726-1800)

Birth. October 1, 1726, Bologna. Of the senatorial family of the counts of Porretta. Second of the five children of Senator Count Marcantonio Ranuzzi and Maria Bergonzi Parmigiana. The other siblings were Giovanni Carlo (died in his youth), Dorotea, Camilla and Girolamo. Great-grand nephew of Cardinal Angelo Ranuzzi (1686).

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, from 1746; and at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on April 5, 1753.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 5, 1760. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government. Relator of the Sacred Consulta. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Lateran basilica.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tiro, September 11, 1775. Consecrated, September 17, 1775, church of S. Agnese fuori le mura, Rome, by Cardinal Carlo Vittorio Amedeo delle Lanze, assisted by Nicolo Saverio Santamaria, titular bishop of Cirene, and by Giuseppe Aluffi, bishop of Bagnoregio. Nuncio in the Republic of Venice, September 18, 1775. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, September 22, 1775. Nuncio in Portugal, February 26, 1782.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 14, 1785; the news of his promotion and the cardinalitial berrettino were sent to Lisbon with papal courier Ambrogio Faini; the pope sent him the red biretta with Ablegato Luigi Gregori di Foligno, with a papal brief dated February 25, 1785; King Pedro III of Portugal imposed on him the red biretta in a solemn ceremony before the royal court; received the red hat on April 26, 1787; and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, September 20, 1787. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Bishops and Regulars, Ecclesiastical Immunity, Council, and Indulgences and Sacred Relics. Transferred to the see of Ancona e Umana, with personal title of archbishop, February 14, 1785. During the French Revolution, he welcomed several prelates escaping from France. After the French occupation, he had to take the oath of fidelity to the French Republic and to democracy. He refused to leave Ancona when the Austrian army was planning to put the city under siege during the Napoleonic wars. Did not participate in the conclave of 1799-1800, celebrated in Venice, which elected Pope Pius VII, for health reasons. He hosted the new pope, who was on his way to Rome, in his place in Ancona on June 21, 1800.

Death. October 27, 1800, in the evening, Ancona. Exposed and buried in Ancona.

Bibliography. Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 257; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LVI, 166-167; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 34, 46, 82 and 424; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 798.

Link. His engraving and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia.

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(38) 4. BELLISOMI, Carlo (1736-1808)

Birth. July 30, 1736, Pavia. Of a noble and patrician family. Son of Marquis Gaetano Annibale Bellisome and Teresa Marianna La Corcelle de Percy, from a noble French family.

Education. At a very young age, he was sent to Rome to study at Collegio Clementino; in 1755, as was the annual custom at the Clementino, he was chosen to compose and recite before Pope Benedict XIV an oration entitled De ineffabili Trinitatis mysterio, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica (his arguments were so bright that the work was printed); in 1756, because of the death of his father, he returned to Pavia and studied at its university, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in that same year; successively, he was ascribed to the Collegio Dottorale; he then returned to Rome in 1759 and attended the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles studying diplomacy; he befriended several Somaschan priests who had Jansenist leaning but he did not adhere to their doctrine.

Early life. He went back to Rome and entered the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, September 9, 1762.

Priesthood. Ordained on May 29, 1763, in Rome, by Cardinal Marcantonio Colonna. Deputy of the hospital of Camerino. Named governor of the city of San Severino, January 4, 1765; he stayed in the post until 1775.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tiana, September 11, 1775. Consecrated, September 24, 1775, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Pope Pius VI, assisted by Carlo Crivelli, titular archbishop of Patrasso, and by Giovanni Andrea Archetti, titular archbishop of Calcedonia; the pope delivered a most eloquent homily, published by the printing press of the Apostolic Chamber. Named nuncio in Cologne on September 20, 1775; he arrived in Cologne on January 4, 1776; his mission was to obtain a retraction from Bishop Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim, suffragan of Trier, who, under the pseudonym Iustinus Febronius, had published the book De statu Ecclesiae, which forcefully attacked the prerogative of the Roman Pontiff, denying his jurisdictional primacy over the Universal Church and insisting in the power of the bishops as derived from the "individual" universal jurisdiction of the Apostles; after consultations and arduous negotiations, Bishop von Hontheim retracted on November 19, 1778 and Nuncio Bellisomi brought his mission to a successful end; he was also papal representative at the end of the establishment of the new nunciature in Münich, Bavaria; he was succeeded in the nunciature in Cologne by Bartolomeo Pacca, titular archbishop of Damietta, future cardinal; he remained in Cologne until June 19, 1786.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 14, 1785. Named nuncio in Portugal, May 7, 1785; arrived in Lisbon in August 1785. Of particular concern was the condition of the religious orders, especially in Brazil, which because of their decadence, required a thorough reform; the nuncio obtained an apostolic brief from Pope Pius VI, dated November 3, 1789, establishing a council charged with the reorganization of the orders; the nuncio followed very closely the work of the council which in time produced the desired results. The nuncio was active, in harmony with the directives given to him by the Secretariat of State, in directing the foreign policy of Portugal against the French and counter-revolutionary; first inducing Portugal to protest vigorously to Paris against the annexation of Avignon; and then pushing the queen of Portugal against those in France who promoted "dangerous novelties". In November 1792, Nuncio Bellisomi made contact with the British charge d'affaires Mr. Osterwald, handing him a memorandum that called for the protection by the English fleet to the coasts of the Papal States. Nuncio Bellisomi had a great collaborator in the fight against Jansenism in Portugal in the person of Cardinal José Francisco Miguel António de Mendoça, patriarch of Lisbon. Published in the consistory of February 21, 1794; with an apostolic brief of February 25, 1794, the pope sent him the red biretta; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Pace, December 18, 1795. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Propaganda Fide, Bishops and Regulars, Ecclesiastical Immunity, and Consistorial. Protector of Terra di Montefiore. Solemn celebrations were held in Pavia on the occasion of his promotion to the cardinalate, including those of the Accademia degli Affidati with discourses and poetry, which were later published in a volume by Elia Giardini with the collaboration of Gian Paolo Dolfin, bishop of Bergamo, and Pio Bellisomi, brother of the new cardinal. Transferred to the see of Cesena, with personal title of archbishop, September 22, 1795. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, celebrated in Venice, which elected Pope Pius VII; Cardinal Franziskus Herzan von Harras expressed the displeasure of Holy Roman Emperor Franz II against his election to the papacy. In 1801 presided, at the request of Napoléon Bonaparte, an ecclesiastical committee that prepared the Organic Law of the Italian Clergy (1802), a legislation similar to the French Concordat of 1801. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, September 18, 1807; he was absent from Rome and was represented by Cardinal Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphilj through a brief to His Holiness, dated September 15, 1807.

Death. August 9, 1808, Cesena. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Cesena.

Bibliography. Camilles, Mario di. "Carlo Bellisomi, porpore fulgente." L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, XCVIII, n. 157 (July 9, 1958), p. 2; Giardini, Elia. Elogio dell' eminenissimo cardinale Carlo Bellisomi patrizio pavese : recitato nella pubblica adunanza degli affidati per la di lui promozione alla sagra porpora. Pavia : B. Comino, 1794. Note: "Poetici encomj fatti nella stressa occasione all' eminentissimo porporato"; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 233; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, IV, 297; Notizie per l'anno 1806. In Roma MDCCCVI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, p. 23; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 37, 46, 138 and 423; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 44; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 382 and 483; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 444.

Link. Biography by C. Pignatelli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 7 (1970), Treccani.

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(39) 5. COLONNA DI STIGLIANO, Nicola (1730-1796)

Birth. July 15, 1730, Naples. Fourth of the seven children of Ferdinando Colonna, prince of Stigliano, and Luigia Caracciolo, of the princes of Santobuono and the dukes of Bagnara. The other siblings were Marcantonio (viceroy of Sicily in 1774), Giuliano, Felice, Lorenzo Filippo, Margherita and Costanza. His first name is also listed as Niccolò and as Niccolo; and his last name as Columna de Hostiliano. Great-nephew of Cardinal Prospero Colonna (1739). Nephew of Cardinal Giovanni Costanzo Caracciolo (1759), on his mother's side. Other cardinals of the different branches of the Colonna family were Giovanni di San Paolo Colonna (1193); Giovanni Colonna, iuniore (1212); Giacomo Colonna (1278); Pietro Colonna (1288); Egidio Colonna, O.E.S.A. (1302); Giovanni Colonna (1327); Agapito Colonna (1378); Stefano Colonna (1378); Oddone Colonna (1405) (Pope Martin V); Prospero Colonna (1426); Giovanni Colonna (1480); Pompeo Colonna (1517); Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore (1565); Ascanio Colonna (1586); Colonna, Girolamo (1627); Federico Baldeschi Colonna (1673); Carlo Colonna (1706); Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Prospero Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Marcantonio Colonna, iuniore (1759); and Pietro Colonna Pamphili (1766). He was the last of the Colonna cardinals.

Education. Studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on April 13, 1752.

Early life. Named referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace on July 6, 1752. Protonotary apostolic participantium in 1752. Relator of the Sacred Consulta. Vice-legate in Ferrara, 1753 to 1759; because of incompatibility with Cardinal legate Giovanni Francesco Banchieri, he resided in Bologna. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber in 1756. Praeses of the clerics of the Apostolic Chamber in 1761. Prefect of the archives, 1768. Vicar of Collegio di San Lorenzo in Damaso, Rome. Primicerius and economous of the Neapolitan Royal Church of the Holy Spirit, Rome. Received the subdiaconate on April 6, 1776; and the diaconate on April 8, 1776.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 9, 1776.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sebastea, May 20, 1776. Consecrated, May 28, 1776, cathedral of Frascati, by Cardinal Henry Benedict Mary Stuart, bishop of Frascati, duke of York, assisted by Orazio Mattei, titular archbishop of Colosso, and by Stefano Evodio Assemani, titular archbishop of Apamea. Nuncio in Spain, June 7, 1776. He arrived in Madrid on the following September 14; remained in the post until September 13, 1785, when his successor, Nuncio Ippolito Vincenti, titular archbishop of Corinto, arrived. In the farewell audience, the king of Spain, Carlos III, granted him a rich benefice.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 14, 1785; with an apostolic brief date February 25, 1785, the pope sent him the red biretta to Madrid with Monsignor Marino Carafa, papal ablegato; the entire royal family, together with the ambassadors of France and Naples, attended the solemn ceremony of the imposition of the red biretta by King Carlos III; received the red hat on March 18, 1786; and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, July 24, 1786. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Propaganda Fide, Sacred Consulta, Bishops and Regulars, and delle Acque. Named legate in Romagna (Romandiola) for a triennium on July 24, 1786; entered his legation on the following December 22; at the beginning of 1787, he issued an edict against the abuses of solicitors in the churches of Ravenna; legation renewed for another triennium on July 10, 1789; ceased as legate on October 4, 1795. In 1797, by the Treaty of Tolentino, Ravenna was ceded to France.

Death. March 31, 1796, Savignano di Romagna, where he had retired (1). Buried, temporarily, in Collegio di Savignano. His body was transferred to Rome and buried in the chapel del Presepe in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, of which he had been protector.

Bibliography. Colonna, Prospero. I Colonna dalle origini all'inizio del secolo XIX : sunto di ricordi storici raccolti. Roma : Istituto Nazionale Medico Farmacologico "Serono", 1927, p. 319; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 239; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XIV, 309-310; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 34, 49 and 370; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 255, 373 and 589.

Links. Biography by Luisa Bertoni, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 27 (1982), Trecacni; His genealogy, C4; La dinastia dei Colonna di Stigliano, in Italian, Colonna Orologi; Famiglia Colonna, in Italian, Nobili Napoletane.

(1) This is according to Bertoni, in his biography in Italian, linked above, Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 239; and Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XIV, 310. Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, 34 and 49, says that he died on March 30, 1796.

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(40) 6. CHIARAMONTI, O.S.B.Cas., Gregorio Barnaba (1742-1823)

Birth. August 14, 1742, Cesena. Son of Count Scipione Chiaramonti and Countess Giovanna Coronati Ghini. Both families belonged to the local patriciate.

Education. Studied at Collegio dei Nobili, Ravenna. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict, Montecassino, at the monastery of Santa Maria del Monte, near Cesena, October 2, 1756, under the guidance of Dom Gregorio Caldarera; received the religious habit and took the name Gregory, October 10, 1756; pronounced his vows, August 20, 1758. From 1758 to 1766, studied theology in Cesena; at the monastery of S. Giustine, Padua, until 1763; and, from 1763, at Collegio S. Anselmo in Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 21, 1765. Lector of theology, Benedictine monastery of S. Giovanni Evangelista, Parma, from 1766; monastery of Sant'Anselmo, Rome, 1772-1781. Abbot of the monastery of Santa Maria del Monte, Cesena. Abbot of the monastery of Santa Maria, Castrobono. Confessor of Pope Pius VI since 1773. Prior of the abbey of San Paolo fuori le Mura, Rome; the pope gave him the title of abbot in 1782.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tivoli, December 16, 1782. Consecrated, December 21, 1782, church of S. Ambrogio, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Saverio de Zelada, assisted by Giuseppe Maria Contesini, titular archbishop of Atena, and by Girolamo Volpi, titular archbishop of Neocesarea. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 22, 1782.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 14, 1785; received the red hat on February 17, 1785; and the title of S. Callisto, June 27, 1785. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Holy Office, Rites, Propaganda Fide, and Bishops and Regulars. Transferred to the see of Imola, February 14, 1785. In 1797 when the French invaded northern Italy, he asked the faithful not to uselessly resist their overwhelming force. In 1797, he advocated submission to the Cisalpine Republic indicating that there was no opposition between a democratic form of government and the constitution of the Catholic Church. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, celebrated in Venice, and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope, March 14, 1800; took the name Pius VII. Crowned, March 21, 1800, church of S. Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, by Cardinal Antonio Maria Doria Pamphilj, protodeacon of S. Maria ad Martyres, with a papier-mâché tiara. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese of Imola, March 8, 1816. He created ninety nine cardinals in nineteen consistories.

Death. August 20, 1823, after falling and breaking his leg in the summer of that year, he was unable to recover from his wound, in Rome. Exposed in the patriarchal Vatican basilica; and buried, on August 25, 1823, in a mausoleum built by Danish sculptor Berte Thorwaldsen in that basilica, which was financed by Cardinal Ercole Consalvi (1).

Beatification. On August 15, 2007, the Holy See communicated to the diocese of Savona-Noli that Pope Benedict XVI had declared "nihil ostare" (nothing against) for the cause of beatification of Pope Pius VII, thus opening the diocesan process for this pope's beatification.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. "Pio VII." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 509-525; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCVI. In Roma MDCCXCVI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, presso la fine del Corso, p. 13; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 34 and 43.

Links. Biography by Nicholas Weber, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; portrait and biography, in English, (Encyclopaedia Britannica); biography by Philippe Boutry, in Italian; Enciclopedia dei Papi (2000), Treccani; his episcopal lineage, in English; portrait, arms and biographical information, in English; images and biography, in Italian; his portrait by Louis David; his bust by Anotnio Canova and sepulchral monument by Bertel Thorvaldsen, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome; Mons. Calcagno impegnato nella causa di beatificazione di Pio VII, in Italian, diocese of Savona; Via libera alla causa di beatificazione di Pio VII, in Italian, diocese of Savona; Via libera alla causa di beatificazione di Pio VII, in Italian, diocese of Imola.

(1) The monument has the following inscription, dictated by Cardinal Consalvi himself:

PIO.VII. CLARAMONTIO. CAESENATI. PONTIFICI. MAXIMO.
HERCULES. CARD. CONSALVI ROMANUS. AB. EO. CREATUS.

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(41) 7. GALLO, Muzio (1721-1801)

Birth. April 15, 1721, Osimo. From a noble family. Fifth of the eight children of Count Giulio Gallo and Anna Francesca Ripanti, from Jesi. The other siblings were Bernardino, Anton Maria, Maria Lucia, Francesco, Vittoriano, Filomena, Benedetto and Cristina. His last name is also listed as Galli. Another cardinal of the family was Antonio Maria Gallo (1586).

Education. Initial studies in Osimo; later, attended the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles from 1743; and at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Went to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Benedict XIV. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, August 28, 1749. Governor of Narni, July 3, 1751. Governor of San Severino, March 15, 1752. Governor of Norcia e Montagna, February 28, 1755. Governor of Camerino, December 12, 1759; ingressed, February 20, 1760; during the famine of 1764, he help the poor forcing the landowners to open their stores and imposing a ceiling price; he was generous with his own patrimony and alms. Governor of Civitavecchia, November 27, 1764. Governor of Campagna e Marittima, October 5, 1765. Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial and of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1767-1770. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, January 31, 1768. Secretary of the S.C. of Rites 1769. Protonotary apostolic honorarius. Received the diaconate, September 22, 1770. Secretary of the Sacred Consulta in the pontificate of Pope Pius VI

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 14, 1785; received the red hat on February 17, 1785; and the title of S. Anastasia, April 11, 1785. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Rites, Sacred Consulta, Bishops and Regulars, and Fabric of St. Peter's basilica. Protector of the monasteries of S. Niccolò, Osimo; of S. Marziale, Gubbio; of S. Rosa, Viterbo; of the Confraternities of SS. Nome di Gesù, of the SS. Concezione, both in Viterbo; of the S. Giovanni Decollato, called della Misercordia, Vetralla; of S. Giovanni Battista, called Confalone, Terra di Bagnaja; and of the monastery della Assunta, Viterbo. Professor Tommaso Zenobi, from Osimo, pronounced an oration in his honor because of his promotion to the cardinalate.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella, February 14, 1785, with dispensation for not having yet received the priesthood. Consecrated, April 17, 1785, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Saverio de Zelada. He took possession of the see the following June 5. His episcopal arms had a rooster (gallo) in the middle and the cross of Malta in the background. On the following August 25, the new bishop participated in a solemn ceremony in the cathedral of S. Lorenzo of Viterbo for the baptism of the Moor Musta of Oithman, a Moslem, born in Tripoli, who converted to Catholicism. The godfather was Cardinal Francesco Paolo Antamori, bishop of Orvieto. He received the names Paolo Francesco (in honor of his godfather) Giuseppe Maria. The allocution given by Cardinal Gallo was printed by Poggiarelli from Viterbo. He was knight of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta. After the outbreak the French Revolution many clergymen who had refused to swear allegiance to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy were exiled and took refuge in the Papal States. Since it was not possible to receive all of them in Rome, Pope Pius VI sent a number to Viterbo, where Cardinal Gallo promptly organized the Opera Pia dell'ospitalità francese to help the refugees. In 1793, when the news of the execution of King Louis XVI of France arrived in Viterbo, Cardinal Gallo celebrated a funeral for the monarch on May 14 in the church of Santa Maria in Gradi, to which the authorities did not attend because for fear of compromising their positions. On December 29, 1797, when Joseph Bonaparte, who had been appointed French ambassador to Rome, passed through Viterbo, he was insulted and stone. This was the pretext for the abolition the Papal States and the final occupation of the French. The Church property was confiscated and the annuity of the bishop was drastically reduced. While numerous prelates elsewhere fled or gave up their positions, Cardinal Gallo, despite the advanced age, remained bravely in its place, running from end to end of the city in plain lay clothes (he was prohibited from wearing bishop's vestments) to try to calm the angry residents. On November 27, 1798, he saved the lives of thirty Frenchmen, whom the populace of Viterbo threatened with death. The cardinal received them into his palace and clothing himself in his pontifical robes, harangued he people from a balcony. The multitude, until then furious and mutinous, fell on their knee, and implored his benediction and soon afterward General Kellerman marched into the city and relived his countrymen. Did not participate in the conclave of 1799-1800, which elected Pope Pius VII. Normalcy returned to Viterbo only after the signature of the concordat between France and the Holy See on February 18, 1801. The last months of his life were marred by a final disaster: the fall of the "Macchina" of the Santa Rosa on the evening of September 3, which caused many casualties. He restored the cathedral of Viterbo at his own expense.

Death. December 13, 1801, near 10 a.m., of an apoplexy, in Viterbo. Exposed in the cathedral of Viterbo, where the funeral took place; and buried in that same cathedral. A funeral mass for the repose of his soul was celebrated in the church of S. Anastasia, Rome, his title, by Canon Filippo Evangelisti.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXVIII, 151-152; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCVI. In Roma MDCCXCVI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, presso la fine del Corso, p. 13-14; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 34, 42 and 444; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 449; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 177, 184, 220, 309, 317, 382, and 687.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait by Anton von Maron (1785), Corbis Museum, North Carolina Museum of Art; his effigy on a white marble medallion, cathedral of S. Lorenzo, Viterbo, Viterbo Città d'Arte; The Gallo Family History (Prior to year 1900), in English, Gallo World Family Foundation; Viterbo settecentesca: una diocesi turbolenta by Maria Luisa Polidori, in Italian, Biblioteca Consorziale di Viterbo.

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(42) 8. DE GREGORIO, Giovanni (1729-1791)

Birth. January 20, 1729, Messina, Sicily. Of a noble family; dukes of Tremestieri in 1648. Third of the three children of Leopoldo De Gregorio, marquis of Squillace and prince of S. Elia, minister and secretary of State of the Two Sicilies, and his first wife, Giuseppa (Gioseffa) Mauro Grimaldi. The other siblings were Francesco and Giuseppe. Half-brother on his father's side of Cardinal Emmanuele de Gregorio (1816). His last name is also listed as Gregorij and Gregorj.

Education. ... "ricevette una educazione propria della sua distinta nascita..." (1).

Priesthood. Ordained during the pontificate of Pope Benedict XIV (no further information found). Named domestic prelate by that pope. In the pontificate of Pope Clement XIII, obtained the post of abbreviatore di parco maggiore in the Apostolic Chancery, after paying 8,000 scudi; later, became dean of the abbreviatori. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, August 3, 1747. Governor of Rieti, December 4, 1748. Governor of Fano, July 3, 1751. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, October 1754. Archimandrite commendatario of S. Salvatore di Messina from July 1757 until his death. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, July 1766. President of the Zecca, January 1767. President of the Grascia, May 1776. Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, June 1778.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 14, 1785; received the red hat on February 17, 1785; and the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, April 11, 1785. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Sacred Consulta, Bishops and Regulars, Indulgences and Sacred Relics, and Consistorial. Protector of the Order of the Monks of S. Basilio. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinalsfrom March 30, 1789 until March 29, 1790.

Death. July 11, 1791, Rome. Exposed and buried in his title, SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, where the funeral also took place (2).

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXIII, 9-10; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 34-35 and 49; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 350; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 237, 346 and 619.

Link. His tomb in the church of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XXXIII, 10: "received an education appropriate to his distinguished birth".
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D      ·      O      ·      M
MEMORIAE · AETERNAE
IOANIIS · S · R · E · CARD · DE · GREGORIO
PATRICI · ET · ARCHIMANDRITAE · MESSANENSIS
ECCLESIAE · HVIVS ·TITULARIS
QVI
REATIS · ET· FANI· GVBERNIIS · OPTIME · FVNCTIS
SACRAE · CONSVLTAE · PRAESVLIBVS · ADSCRIPTVS
REV · CAM · CLERICVS
REI · MONETARIAE · ATQVE · ALIMENTARIAE
VRBE · VNIVERSA · PLAVDENTE
INTEGERRIME · PRAEFVIT
TANDEM
APOSTOLICAE · CAMERAE · GENERALIS ·AVDITOR
A · SSMO · DNO · NRO · PAPA · PIO · VI
XV · KAL · MART · A · CIƆIƆCCLXXXV
SACRO · PVRPVRATORVM · COLLEGIO · ADSCITVS
RELIGIONIS · ET · CHRISTIANIS · VIRTVTIBVS · ORNATISSIMVS
E · VIVIT · EREPTVS · HIC · IACET
CARNIS · RESCRRECTIONEM · EXPECTANS
OBIT · IV · ID · IVLIAS · AN · REP · SAL · CIƆIƆCCLXXXVI
AETATIS · SVAE · N · LXIII · MENS · V · D · XXI
FRATRES · AMANTISSIMI · MOERENTES
P · C

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(43) 9. RIMINALDI, Giovanni Maria (1718-1789)

Birth. October 4, 1718, Ferrara. Of a patrician family. Eldest child of Count Ercole Antonio Riminaldi and Countess Vittoria Avoglio Trotti. His first name is also listed as Gianmaria; and his last name as Riminaldo. He was also known as the Cardinal of Ferrara.

Education. Studied at Collegio di San Carlo, Modena, from 1732 to 1738; then, he returned to Ferrara and studied at that university and studied law under Jurist Domenico Borsetti and Canon Ippolito Gratiadei; and later, studied in Rome for four years.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature in 1746. Auditor of the cardinal camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church in 1748; occupied the post for eleven years; during his tenure, he collaborated with Cardinal Luigi Valenti Gonzaga, Ludovico Maria Toriggiani and Girolamo Colonna. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota from 1759; later, became its dean. Vicar of Cardinal Giovanni Costanzio Caracciolo in his deaconry of S. Eustachio. Primicerius of the archconfraternity and hospital of S. Rocco, Rome. President of the Pontifical University of Ferrara; between 1763 and 1781, the prelate, who kept his own residence in Rome, made continuous donations to the museum; he was charged by Pope Clement XIV with the reform of the university in 1771; in 1777, Pope Pius VI confirmed him in his post and named him apostolic delegate; Girolamo Barufaldi, vice-librarian of the university, pronounced in his honor, for his promotion to the cardinalate, the discourse Orazione per la promozione a la s. purpura del cardinale Riminaldi (Ferrara 1785); later, he donated his rich library and vast art collection to the university.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 14, 1785; received the red hat on February 17, 1785; and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, April 11, 1785. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Holy Office, Council, Examination of Bishops and Consistorial. Protector and apostolic visitor of the Archconfraternity and Hospital of S. Rocco; of the archconfraternity of SS. Sagramento, Loreto; and of those of S. Carlo, S. Nicola and S. Leonardo for the redemption of the slaves, in Ferrara. Opted for the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, January 29, 1789 took possession of February 7, 1787. Prefect of the S.C. of the Discipline of Regulars. He was an honorary member of the Roman Accademia di S. Luca; and also was co founder of the Accademia del Nudo.In Rome, he was closely involved with the more advanced artistic and intellectual circles. He was a friend and patron of Anton Raphael Mengs.

Death. While vacationing in the convent of S. Maria degli Angeli, near Assisi, he caught a bad cold which caused an apoplexy. Transferred to Perugia, he died on October 11 (or 12), 1789, in the house de' Signori della Missione. Exposed and buried, temporarily, in the cathedral of Perugia. Annibale Mariotti pronounced his funeral oration in Perugia in 1790 (1). The University of Ferrara celebrated his exequies, with the oration by Ignazio Zecchini, in the church of San Francesco, where the chapel of his family is situated. Monsignor Belisario Cristaldi, future cardinal, published Decisiones s. Rotae Romana, coram R. P. D. Jo. M. Riminaldo ejusdem s. R. Dec., nunc S.R.E. Card. (Rome 1789).

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 301-303; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LVII, 245-246; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 35, 46 and 49.

Links. Portraits and biography by Elena Bonatti, in Italian, Musei Civici di Arte Antica, Ferrara; biography, in Italian, Comune di Ferrara; his portrait by Anton von Maron (1763), Comune di Ferrara; Gian Maria Riminaldi and the Affair of the Busts by Catherine Turrill, in English (partial text), The Art Bulletin 1992, JSTOR; All'eterna fama dell'eminentissimo e reverendissimo signor cardinale Giovanni Maria Riminaldi, il collegio dei riformatori della Pontificia Universit` di Ferrara le presenti lugubri memorie dedica e consacra (1790) by Anton von Maron; Giovanni Emili; and Petronio Zecchini, in Italian, Internet Archive; La litoteca del Cardinale Riminaldi a Ferrara, in Italian, Archittetura di Pietra; Giovanni Maria Riminaldi, Mengs and Pacetti: the roman patronage of a cardinal from Ferrara by Livia D'Avenia, in English (abstract), Roma moderna e contemporanea. Rivista interdisciplinare di storia, Anno XIII, N02-3/2005 maggio-dicembre, CROMA - Centro per lo studio di Roma; The Riminaldi Museum by Maria Teresa Gulinelli, in English, errara voci di una città, Rivista semestrale di cultura, informazione e attualità della Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Ferrara; Una fonte inedita per la storia dell'Università di Ferrara dopo la riforma del 1771: il carteggio di monsignor Riminaldi con il Collegio dei Riformatori by Valentino Sani, in Italian, Annali di Storia delle Università italiane - Volume 11 (2007), Centro Interuniversitario per la Storia delle Università Italiane, Bologna; Museo Riminaldi, Musei Civici di Arte Antica, Ferrara; Collezione Riminaldi, in Italian, Comune di Ferrara.

(1) Delle lodi dell'eminentissimo e reverendissimo Sig. Cardinale Giovanni Maria Riminaldi morto in Perugia... (Perugia : Presso Carlo Baduel, 1790).

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(44) 10. MASSEI, Paolo (1712-1785)

Birth. September 30, 1712, Montepulciano. Second of the six children of Master Sergeant Arcangiolo (Arcangelo) Massei and Francesca Pecci, a noble from Siena. The other siblings were Francesco, Antonio, Agnese, Lavinia and Anna. His baptismal name was Paolo Girolamo. Nephew of Cardinal Bartolomeo Massei (1730). The Massei family was related to the Bellarmini.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, June 21, 1742. Governor of Ancona, April 7, 1744. Governor of Civitavecchia, November 3, 1749. Governor of Frosinone and Campagna e Marittima, June 19, 1751. Governor of Viterbo, December 22, 1753. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Coadjutor of Msgr. Casoni, cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, January 1758; his successor at his death, March 1759. President of the Zecca, November 1761. President of the Strade, July 1766. Dean of the Clerics of the Apostolic Chamber, 1775. Commissary general delle Armi, June 1778.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 14, 1785; received the red hat on February 17, 1785; and the title of S. Agostino, April 11, 1785.

Death. June 9, 1785, Rome. Exposed and buried in his title, S. Agostino, where the funeral also took place. The inscription on his tombstone was composed by Father Stefano Antonio Morcelli, S.J.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLIII, 236; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 35 and 42; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 597; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 118, 184, 220, 434 and 768; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 524, no. 775.

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(45) 11. CARRARA, Francesco (1716-1793)

Birth. November 1, 1716, Ghisalba, a few kilometers from Bergamo (1). From a noble and conspicuous family. Son of Count Carlo Carrara and Ana Maria Passi. His brother Giacomo was the founder of Accademia Carrara of Bergamo.

Education. Initial studies in letters and philosophy at the Jesuit Collegio della Misericordia, Bergamo; then, he attended the University of Padua, where he obtained a doctorate in law; finally, he went to Collegio Cerasoli, in Rome, recently opened, to study theology; besides, he attended the Università degli studi, Rome; he also studied ecclesiastical history and Greek language and literature.

Early life. He stayed in Rome, probably incited by Monsignor Giuseppe Alessandro Furietti, protector of the young students from Bergamo, and entered the Roman prelature. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1745 (2). Auditor of the nunciature in Florence. Domestic prelate of His Holiness Benedict XIV. In 1749, he pronounced, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, the discourse De apostolica Sancti Petri cathedra (Romae 1749) in honor of Pope Benedict XIV. Named prelate of the S.C. of the Fabric of St. Peter's, March 1756; occupied the post until 1780. In 1757, he was named prelate adjunct in the S.C. of the Tridentine Council for the reception and examination of the relations of the state of their churches that abbots and ordinaries submit when they realize the ad limina visit. In 1758, he pronounced in Campidoglio the oration Delle lodi delle belle arti (Roma 1758), in which he manifested his predilection for the pure faith of the first Christians. Civil auditor of the auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, September 1759 to 1767. Auditor of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, November 1762; and civil lieutenant and judge of the same tribunal, 1768 to 1770 . Commendatario of Ss. Filippo e Giacomo di Bergamo, February 1764. Consultor of the S.C. of the Index and examinator of Sacred Canons until the end of 1780. Second civil lieutenant of the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, October 1767. Secretary of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, April 1775.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate, March 23, 1776. In 1779, he presented to the pope his dissertation on La caduta del Velino nella Nera (Roma 1779).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 14, 1785; received the red hat on February 17, 1785; and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, April 11, 1785. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Tridentine Council, Propaganda Fide, Bishops and Regulars, and Index. Protector of the Bergamese church and nation in Rome; and of the hospitals of Narni, Perugia, Viterbo and Spoleto. He was a man of intransigent orthodoxy and decisive anti-Jansenism. In 1789, he was among the cardinals named by the pope to supervise the work of the congregation which examined the Acts of the Synod of Pistoia (3). Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 29, 1790 until April 11, 1791. Opted for the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, April 11, 1791. He was known for the simplicity of his life and customs and his concern and assistance to the poor.

Death. March 26, 1793, Rome. On April 2, his body was transferred to the church of S. Silvestro in Capite, Rome, where the funeral took place on April 3; buried in that same church after the funeral.

Bibliography. Dentella, Lorenzo. I vescovi di Bergamo. (Notizie storica). Bergamo : Editrice Sant'Alessandro, 1939, p. 438-440; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, X, 112-113; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCI. In Roma MDCCXCI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, presso la fine del Corso, p. 62; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 35, 43, 49 and 56; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 520-521.

Link. Biography by Francesco Raco, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 20 (1977), Treccani.

(1) This is according to Dentella, I vescovi di Bergamo, p. 438; and his biography by Raco, linked above. Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, X, 112, says that he was born on November 6, 1716. Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCI, p. 62, says that he was born on November 5, 1716. Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, 35, says that he died on March 26, 1793 and lived seventy six years, four months and twenty one days.
(2) This is according to his biography by Raco, linked above. Weber, Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809, II, 520, says that he was named on January 22, 1756.
(3) A diocesan synod held in 1786 by Scipio de' Ricci, bishop of Pistoia, in an effort to advance Jansenism.

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(46) 12. SPINELLI, Ferdinando (1728-1795)

Birth. November 9, 1728, Naples. From a noble family. Eldest of the nine children of Giovanni Battista Spinelli, marquis of Fuscaldo, and Maria Imperiale, of the princes of Francavilla. The other siblings were Maria, Giovanna, Giulia, Antonia, Giuseppe married to Ana Doria, sister of Cardinal Giorgio Doria (1743)), Giovanni Battista (professed knight of Malta), Tommaso Francesco and Filippo (governor of Capua). Nephew of Cardinal Giuseppe Spinelli (1735). Another cardinal of the family was Filippo Spinelli (1604).

Education. " ... fu con ogni cura educato alla pietà, a la buona morale e alle lettere, non senza successo in queste pel suo svegliato ingegno ... " (1).

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature during the pontificate of Pope Benedict XIV, who assigned him to the S.C. of the Tridentine Council as prelate to receive and examine the relations concerning the state of their churches, submitted by bishops and abbots nullius for their ad limina visits to Rome. Prelate of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, cleric of the Apostolic Chamber and commissary general of the army in the pontificate of Pope Clement XIII. President of the Apostolic Chamber, September 1759. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, June 5, 1778 until February 14, 1785; during his absence, between September 1783 and February 1784, Monsignor Ippolito Antonio Vincenti Mareri, relator of the Sacred Consulta, assumed temporarily the government of Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 14, 1785; received the red hat on February 17, 1785; and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, April 11, 1785. Assigned to the SS. CC. of the Tridentine Council, Consistorial, delle Acque, and Indulgences and Sacred Relics. Protector of the Sicilian church and nation; of the Archconfraternity of Spirito Santo dei Napolitani; of the Celestine monks, May 24, 1785; of the Benedictine monks of Monte Vergine, December 9, 1785; of the Archconfraternities of SS. Nome di Maria, of Carmen and della Morte; and protector and apostolic visitor of Università dei fornari italiani. Legate in Ferrara, July 24, 1786. Opted for the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, August 3, 1789.

Sacred orders. Received the diaconate on March 20, 1790. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin on November 29, 1790. After his return to Rome, he was afflicted by a grave illness. Triduums for his recovery were celebrated in the church dei Napolitani with the exposition of the relic of S. Gennaro; in the church of Madonna della Pietà; in his parish church, S. Marco; and in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva.

Death. December 18, 1795, after receiving all the sacraments of the Church, Rome. Exposed in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, where the funeral took place, with the attendance of fifteen cardinals; the requiem mass was celebrated by Cardinal Aurelio Roverella; the body was privately transferred to and buried in his deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria (2).

Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 120; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LXVIII, 292-293; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 35, 50 and 51; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 911.

Link. His portrait (1750), Cultura Italia Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; his portrait (1800), Cultura Italia Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; his tomb in the church of S. Maria in Cosmedin, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, LXVIII, 292: "was most carefully educated in piety, good morals and letters, not without success in these awakened for his ingenuity".
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

FERDINANDUS . SPINELLI
HUJUS . INSIGN . BASIL .
S . MARIÆ . IN . COSMEDIN
CARD . DIAC . TITUL .
JUSTITIA . LIBERALITATE
CLARISSIMUS
OBIIT . XV . KAL . IAN . MDCCXCV
ANN . LXVII . M . I . D . VII .

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(47) 13. DORIA PAMPHILJ, Antonio Maria (1749-1821)

Birth. March 28, 1749, Naples. Of the noble family of the dukes of Melfi. Son of Prince Giovanni Andrea IV Doria Landi Pamphilj and Eleonora Carafa della Stadera. Brother of Cardinal Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphilj (1785) and uncle of Cardinal Giorgio Doria Pamphilj (1816). Related to Pope Innocent X. Other cardinals of the Doria family were Girolamo Doria (1529), Giovanni Doria (1604); Sinibaldo Doria (1731); and Giorgio Doria (1743). Of the Pamphilj family were Cardinals Girolamo Pamphilj (1604); Camillo Francesco Maria Pamphilj (1644); and Benedetto Pamphilj, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1681). His last name is also listed as Doria Pamphily; and as Doria Pamphili Landi.

Education. He spent his infancy in the palace of Fassolo, Genoa, where he was educated by private tutors until the transfer of the family to Rome in May 1761; then, he studied, together with his brother Giuseppe Maria, at the Jesuit Collegio de' Nobili from 1761 to 1767; later, at the Somaschan Collegio Clementino, Rome, from May 1767 to 1768; and finally at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on July 15, 1769.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature as protonotary apostolic on July 27, 1769. Named cleric of the Apostolic Chamber by Pope Clement XIV. President of the Grascia, 1778-1780; as such, he had to take care of the food supply for the capital and exercise civil and criminal jurisdiction in that area. Prefect of the Papal Chamber, 1780. Vicar of the patriarchal Liberian basilica.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 14, 1785, with dispensation for having a brother in the Sacred College of Cardinals; received the red hat on February 17, 1785; and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, April 11, 1785. Abbot commendatario of the abbeys of Foligno, Assisi and Pesaro in 1785. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, Rites, Ceremonial, Sacred Consulta and Good Government. Protector of the Regular Canons of Ss. Salvatore, of the church and nation of the Genoese; of the church of S. Agnese in Piazza Navona; of Collegio Clementino; of the abbatial church of S. Martino in Montibus; of the Order of the Celestine monks; of the monks of the congregation of Montevergine; of the monastery of the Filippine; of the archconfraternity della pietà de'carcerati; of the cities of Terni, Orvieto, and others; and of several other places.

Sacred orders. Received, from his brother Cardinal Giuseppe Maria, the minor orders on May 8, 1785; the subdiaconate on May 14, 1785; and the diaconate on May 16, 1785. Protector of the Archconfraternity of Ss. Crocefisso in 1787. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria ad Martyres, March 30, 1789. Named protector of the Order of the Celestins before February 20, 1796. He established himself in Naples in the fall of 1797, for health reasons, and stayed there during the French occupation of Rome; later, in the fall of 1798, he sought refuge in Messina; and then in Trieste, Venice and Padua, residing in the convent of S. Antonio. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, celebrated in Venice, which elected Pope Pius VII. As cardinal protodeacon, crowned Pope Pius VII on March 21, 1800, with a papier-mâché tiara in the church of S. Giorgio, in Venice. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, contiguous to the palace of his family, on April 2, 1800. Returned to Rome with the pope on July 3, 1800. Member of the particular congregation for the economic reform of the Apostolic Place and the abolition of abuses, which was established on July 9, 1800. Named prefect of the Congregation of Acque, Paludi Pontine e Chiane before March 28, 1801; for a long time the cardinal had had a strong interest in economic issues, particularly agriculture and trade. Member of the S.C. Ceremonial in 1801. He was one of the fourteen cardinals expelled from Rome by the French authorities on March 23, 1808; he retired to Naples and later to Pegli with his brother Cardinal Giuseppe Maria. Transferred to Paris, he was one of the eleven red cardinals who attended the wedding of Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte to Archduchess Maria-Louise of Austria on April 2, 1810. In September 1810, he was allowed to leave Paris because of health and established himself in Genoa. After the restoration of the papal government, he returned to Rome. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 16, 1818 until March 29, 1819. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, October 10, 1819. Prefect of the S.C. of the Discipline of the Regulars, September 11, 1820.

Death. January 31, 1821, after a long and painful illness, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, and buried in the tomb of his family in the church of S. Agnese in Agone (1), Rome.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 369-370; "Cardinali morti nel Pontificato di Nostro Signore." Notizie per l'anno 1823. Rome : G.F. Chracas, 1822, p. 57-58; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XX, 220-221; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 35 and 51; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 46 and 50.

Links. Biography by Marina Formica, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 41 (1992), Treccani; his portrait by Vincenzo Milione, Galleria Doria Pamphilj, Rome.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 35; and "Cardinali morti nel Pontificato di Nostro Signore." Notizie per l'anno 1823, pp. 57-58. Boutry, Souverain et Pontife, p. 370, says that he was buried in the church of S. Maria in Allicella.

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(48) 14. LIVIZZANI, Carlo (1722-1802)

Birth. November 1, 1722, Modena. Fourth of the five children of Marquis Ippolito Livizzani and Countess Teresa Forni. The other siblings were Agostino (a Jesuit); Giovanni; Paolo Camillo; and Gaspare. Nephew of Cardinal Giuseppe Livizzani (1753).

Education. Called to Rome by his uncle, he studied at Collegio Nazareno.

Early life. Delivered a sermon on the Resurrection in the papal chapel before Pope Benedict XIV, April 4, 1741. Delivered a sermon on the Ascension in the papal chapel before Pope Benedict XIV, May 14, 1746. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Chamberlain of honor di abito paonazzo. Ablegato to Lisbon to deliver the red biretta to new Cardinal José Manuel da Câmara, 1747. Prelate referendary, January 11, 1753. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government. Voter of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1766. President of Urbino and protonotary apostolic supernumerary, 1778.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 14, 1785; courier Andrea Novi brought the news of his promotion to his relatives in Modena; received the red hat on February 17, 1785; and the deaconry of S. Adriano, April 11, 1785. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Holy Office, Council, Bishops and Regulars, Propaganda Fide, Good Government, Discipline of the Religious, Rites and Consistorial. Protector of the Kingdom of Ireland; of the Irish College, Rome; of the Reform Congregation of S. Bernardo; of S. Matteo in Merulana; of the Venerable Archconfraternity of SS. Corpo di Cristo in Ascoli, Marca; of the University and Confraternity of degli Scarpellini; and of the Capuchin monastery in Monte Castrilli. Prefect delle Acque, Palude Pontine e .Chiane.Prefect of the Economy of Collegio e Seminario Romano.

Sacred orders. Received the diaconate, May 14, 1785. Protector of the Order of the Cistercians, February 3, 1789. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, February 21, 1794.

Priesthood. Ordained, Sunday April 13, 1794, by Cardinal Ludovico Valenti, in the domestic chapel of the palace of the ordaining bishop. He was ordered to return to Modena by the French when they occupied Rome in 1798; he remained in that city until the death of Pope Pius VI in 1799, when he went to Venice for the conclave to elect the successor. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, which elected Pope Pius VII. Returned to Rome in 1800 and welcomed the hew pope to the city.

Death. July 1, 1802, of a chest infection, after receiving the sacraments and the apostolic blessing, in Rome. Exposed and buried in his title, where the funeral took place with the participation of Pope Pius VII, who imparted the final absolution. Cardinal Giuseppe Firrao celebrated the requiem mass. In his will, he named the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith and his relatives as his beneficiaries.

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 217-227; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXIX, 79-80; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCVI. In Roma MDCCXCVI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, presso la fine del Corso, p. 14; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 35, 49 and 50; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 567.

Link. His portrait, Fondazione Collegio San Carlo di Modena; his engraving, Araldica Vaticana.

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