The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius VI (1775-1799)
Consistory of March 30, 1789 (XVIII)


(53) 1. SENTMENAT Y CARTELLÁ, Antonino de (1734-1806)

Birth. April 21, 1734, Barcelona, Spain. From a Catalonian lustrous and noble family, which was honored by King Felipe V as grandes de España. Son of Juan Manuel de Sentmenat-Oms y de Santa Paula and Mariana Sentmenat. Baptized on the same day of his birth. His first name is also listed as Antonio; and as Antoni; and his last name as Sentmanat y Cartellá; and as Sentmenat i de Cartellà.

Education. Studied at the Royal and Pontifical University of Cervera, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law; in 1757, while studying civil law at the university, he defended in public a thesis on the law of war and military law (Elementa iuri bellici, et militari), redacted in Latin by his professor José Antonio de Gomar y de Navés; interrupted his law studies because Pope Clement XIV dispensed him from having a doctorate in civil law to be able to serve as auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Early life. Named canon of the cathedral chapter of Barcelona when he was seventeen years old, with dispensation.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 23, 1758. Professor of canon law at the University of Cervera. Archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Barcelona. Archdeacon of Nendoz, archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela. Synodal judge of the diocese of Barcelona. Named auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for the Kingdom of Aragón on April 3, 1774; took the oath on the following May 12. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. He was nominated to the see of Avila by King Carlos III of Spain.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Avila, February 17, 1783. Consecrated, February 24, 1783, church of S. Maria di Montserrato, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Saverio Zelada, assisted by Orazio Mattei, titular archbishop of Colosse, and by Giuseppe Contesini, titular archbishop of Atenia. Resigned government of the diocese, June 22, 1784; took possession of the see by procurator and never visited it because he was promoted to the patriarchate of the West Indies on June 25, 1784; he had been presented to the patriarchate by King Carlos III of Spain on August 19, 1783; as patriarch, he was also grand almoner, chaplain of the king of Spain and vicar general of the royal armies. Grand chancellor and counselor of State. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne. Vicar general of the Spanish Army and Navy.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 30, 1789; papal courier Giovanni Antonio Tironi brought the news of the promotion to Spain; the pope sent him the red biretta with Ablegato Francesco Santacroce with an apostolic bull dated April 3, 1789; the ablegato arrived in Madrid on the following May 24; he received the red biretta, together with new Cardinal Francisco Antonio de Lorenzana y Butrón, in the royal chapel, from King Carlos IV, on May 26, in the presence of the entire court; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Did not participate in the conclave of 1799-1800, celebrated in Venice, which elected Pope Pius VII (1).

Death. April 14, 1806, Royal Palace of Aranjuez. Exposed and buried in the chapel of that palace.

Bibliography. Goñi Gaztambide, José. "Sentmanat y Cartellá, Antonino." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), Suppl., 674-676; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 115; Gutiérrez Pastor, Ismael. "Retratos de Antonio de Sentmenat y Castellá por José López Enguídanos." Goya : revista de arte, Año 2008, No. 323, p. 155-162; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LXIV, 80; Notizie per l'anno MDCCCXII. Rome : Nella Stamperia Cracas, 1822, p. 49, no. 28; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 36, 62 and 244.

Link. Biography, in Catalonian, Wikipedia; his portrait and biographical data, in English, Fundació Enciclopèdia Catalana; his portrait by José López Emguídanos, Revista Goya, Fundación Lázaro Galdiano (last on page).

(1) Goñi Gaztambide, José. "Sentmanat y Cartellá, Antonio." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, Suppl. 676, says that he was deprived of the title of cardinal and the red hat for not having gone to Rome or even to Venice for the 1799-1800 conclave. Notizie per l'anno MDCCCVI, p. 40, no. 28, lists him among the cardinals who died during the pontificate of Pope Pius VII without mentioning that he had been deprived of his cardinalitial dignity as Goñi Gaztambide indicates.

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(54) 2. LORENZANA Y BUTRÓN, Francisco Antonio de (1722-1804)

Birth. September 22, 1722, León, Spain. Son of Jacinto Rodríguez de Lorenzana y Butrón and María Josefa de Irauregui y Salazar. Baptized on that same day. His brother Tomás was bishop of Gerona. His last name is also listed as Lorenzana Butrón Irauregui.

Education. Primary studies at the Jesuit School, León; then, studied at the Benedictine monastery, Espinareda, El Bierzo (humanities and philosophy); later attended the University of Valladolid (theology); then, studied at the University of Avila (utroque iure, both canon and civil law); and finally, at Colegio San Salvador and Colegio de Oviedo, University of Salamanca (finished his studies in theology and canon and civil law). He became a member of the Marian Congregation (or Sodality of Our Lady).

Priesthood. Ordained, 1751. Canon lector of the cathedral chapter of Sigüenza, 1751; he was librarian, chaplain of Ánimas and member of several commissions. In Toledo, canon of its cathedral chapter, 1754; later, its dean; and vicar general for several years; abbot of Saint Vincent. He was nominated to the episcopate by King Carlos III of Span.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Plasencia, June 5, 1765. Consecrated, August 11, 1765, church of Santo Tomás, of the Dominican friars, Madrid, by Manuel Quintana y Bonifaz, titular archbishop of Farsalo and co-administrator of Toledo and inquisitor general, assisted by Juan Manuel Argüelles, titular bishop of Botri, auxiliary of Toledo, and by Felipe Pérez Santa María, titular bishop of Costanza di Arabia, auxiliary of Toledo; he never took possession of the see of Plasencia. Presented by King Carlos III for the see of Mécivo. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of México, April 14, 1766. On that same day, he was granted the pallium. He supported the expulsion of the Society of Jesus, with which he collided from the start, from the Spanish domains ordered by King Carlos III in 1767. He tried to reform the statutes of the convents of nuns. He gathered and published the acts of the first three provincial councils of México celebrated in 1555, 1565 and 1585 respectively (México, 1769-70). In 1771, he convoked the fourth provincial council that lasted from January 13 until October 26; he sent its decrees to Madrid for confirmation but they were not approved neither by the monarch nor by the pope and were never published. He profusely annotated and published the Historia de Nueva España, written by Hernán Cortés, the conqueror of México, which included the first Mexican edition of Cartas de Relación, with important maps. He fomented the elaboration of indigenous grammars, urban projects, and diverse excavations and studies related to Mexican antiquities; he also produced several catechisms for parish pastors and children. The archbishop also gathered an interesting collection of ethnographic objects from the Indians of California; paintings of mestizaje done in Puebla de los Ángeles; pottery of Tonalá (Guadalajara) and troughs of Michoacán, which he moved to Toledo, where they were dispersed to different institutions. Presented for the see of Toledo, Spain, by King Carlos III on December 17, 1771. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo, January 27, 1772; he was granted the pallium on that same day. In Toledo he gathered a great library and built a functional edifice for it; he collected 379 incunabili, nearly 1000 manuscripts from the 11th to the 19th centuries and more than 100,000 books printed between the 16th and the 19th centuries, which constituted the nucleus of the present great Biblioteca de Castilla-La Mancha. Archbishop Lorenzana sought and prepared the edition of the ancient writers hispano-latinos of Toledo, which was published under the title at last SS. Patrum Toletanorum opera (Madrid, 1782-1793). He also prepared the edition of the Mozarabic rite Gothic breviary, Breviarium Gothicum (Madrid, 1775), and the Mozarabic missal Missale Gothicum (Rome, 1804). In the introductions to these works, he elaborated with great erudition on Mozarabic liturgy. Ordered the composition of the so called Descripciones o Relaciones de Lorenzana (1784), a questionnaire of fourteen questions to be answered by vicars, ecclesiastical judges and parish priests of the archdiocese to gather information from all over the archdiocese, on issues as varied as the systems of crops, climatic limitations, marketing of products, the excellence of its waters or the most common illness suffered by its people, among other information primarily of geographic nature. The manuscript with the answers is preserved in the Diocesan Archive of Toledo. He also created an office of natural history and an antiquities museum. Besides, he charged the academic from Alicante Ignacio Haan with the construction of the Pontifical University of Santa Catalina and with the rehabilitation of the archiepiscopal palace; as well as the construction of the Nuevo Nuncio and the Puerta Llana of the cathedral. The Archbishop's Library, of great importance and expanded with the funds of the secularized Jesuits, was enriched with the Fuero Juzgo (a codex of Spanish laws enacted in Castile in 1241 by King Fernando III. It is essentially a translation of the Liber Iudiciorum that was formulated in 654 by the Visigoths).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 30, 1789; the pope sent him the red biretta with Ablegato Francesco Santacroce with an apostolic bull dated April 3, 1789; the ablegato arrived in Madrid on the following May 24; he received the red biretta, together with new Cardinal Antonino de Sentmenat y Cartellá, in the royal chapel, from King Carlos IV, on May 26, in the presence of the entire court; received the red hat on June 12, 1797; and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, July 24, 1797. Generously helped the exiled French clergy during the revolution, receiving hundreds of them in Toledo. General inquisitor of Spain, July 29, 1794 to 1797; he acted with moderation. In 1794 King Carlos IV sent him as special envoy before Pope Pius VI, who was having difficult times in Rome, especially during the 1797 French invasion of the city, and the cardinal accompanied the pontiff in his exile and death in Valence, France, in 1799. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, celebrated in Venice, which elected Pope Pius VII; his financial assistance was decisive in its celebration, covering, among other things, the travel expenses of several impoverished cardinals. Resigned government of the archdiocese, December 15, 1800, to remain with the pope in Rome as one of his closest advisors (1).

Death. April 17, 1804, Rome. Exposed in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, where the funeral took place; and buried in a superb marble mausoleum in the church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, Rome, with the inscription Aquí yace el padre de los pobres. In 1956, the cathedral chapter of México had his remains transferred to the metropolitan cathedral of that city. He distributed an inheritance of 25,000 scudi which he received to the poor, whom he desginatd as his heirs.

Bibliography. El Cardenal Lorenzana y el IV Concilio Provincial Mexicano. México : Miguel Angel Porrúa, 1999. Responsibility: Luisa Zahino Peñafort, recopilación documental; El Cardenal Lorenzana y la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha. Coordinated by Isidro Sanchez Sanchez. Cuenca : Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 1999; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 94; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 36, 42, 288, 340 and 410; Sierra, L. "Lorenzana, Francisco Antonio de." Diccionario de Historia Eclesiástica de España. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975. 4 vols., and supplement, 1987, II, 1346-1348; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 36, 288, 340 and 410.

Webgraphy. Biography by Nicholas Weber, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his portrait and biography, in Spanish, Pueblos Originarios de América; his portrait and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; his portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his portrait by Vincenzo Milione, convent of S. Maria di Montserrato, Rome; his engraving and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Some sources say that the real reason for his resignation was his conflicted relations with Valido Manuel Godoy y Álvarez de Faria, favorite and prime minister of King Carlos IV of Spain.

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(55) 3. BUSCA, Ignazio (1731-1803)

Birth. August 31, 1731, Milan. From a noble family ascribed in the second half of the 16th century to the Milanese patriciate. Youngest f the five children of Lodovico Busca, marquis of Lomagna, and Bianca Arconati Visconti, of the counts of Lomazzo. The other siblings were Maria, Carlo, Giuseppe and Bianca (a nun).

Education. Studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on April 26, 1759. Received the subdiaconate, August 13, 1775.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, May 17, 1759. Governor of Rieti from January 15, 1760. Governor of Fabiano from December 5, 1764 until 1766. Domestic prelate of His Holiness and relator of the Sacred Consulta in 1767. Received the subdiaconate on August 13, 1775.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 20, 1775.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Emesa, September 11, 1775. Consecrated, September 17, 1775, cathedral of Frascati, by Cardinal Henry Benedict Mary Stuart, bishop of Frascati, duke of York, assisted by Vincenzo Piccolomini, titular archbishop of Perga, and by Stefano Evodio Assemani, titular archbishop of Apamea. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, September 17, 1775. Nuncio in Flanders (Brussels), September 18, 1775. As nuncio in Flanders, he was apostolic vicar for the Republic of the Seven United Provinces of the Low Countries and for Great Britain. During his nunciature, Emperor Joseph II of Austria, by an imperial edict of 1781, extended the jurisdiction of the nunciature of Brussels to the duchies of Limburg and Luxembourg; and by another imperial edict, dated March 17, 1783, the emperor suppressed numerous convents considered useless, continuing the ecclesiastical reform which culminated with the establishment of the General Seminary of Louvain. Nuncio Busca limited himself to keep Rome informed about the imperial decisions and did not raise any complains. As apostolic vicar of the mission of Holland, Nuncio Busca exercised jurisdiction over the five Dutch dioceses. He paid close attention to detecting disciplinary and liturgical abuses in the three visits he made to those sees during the years 1778, 1780 and 1783; but showed little sensitivity to the religious controversies which agitated them, underestimating the importance of the schismatic Jansenist Church of Utrecht; and showing content with the minor penetration of the philosophy of the Enlightenment in the Netherlands compared to Belgium and other regions of Europe. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church from March 1, 1785 until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 30, 1789; received the red hat on April 2, 1789; and the title of S. Maria della Pace, August 3, 1789. Protector of the church and archconfraternity of Ss. Carlo e Ambrogio of Milan; of the monastery of S. Margherita, Narni; of the monastery of SS. Sagramento in S. Giovanni della Malva; of the city of Toscanella; of Terra di Rocca di Papa; of the University of Mosceria; and of the University degli Agricoltori in Terra della Tolfa. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals from April 11, 1791 until February 27, 1792. Opted for the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, December 18, 1795. Protector of the monks of Monte Vergine in S. Agata alla Suburra on January 19, 1796. Named secretary of State, August 9, 1796; his hostile policy against France produced the first French invasion, which ended with the Treaty of Tolentino, March 15, 1797. The clauses of the treaty were certainly hard for the Papal States having to cede the legations of Ferrara, Bologna and Romagna; renounce all rights to Avignon and the County Venaissin; and pay 30 million lire tornesi; but the religious situation was not affected in any way. Because of an episode which compromised the queen of Spain in letters that became public concerning negotiations that would achieve territorial gains for the duke of Parma, brother of the queen, to the detriment of the Papal States, Cardinal Busca offered to resign his post of secretary of State on March 9, 1797; Pope Pius VI rejected it; but the offer of resignation was renewed on March 15; and accepted on March 18. During the second French invasion of Rome, in 1798, Cardinal Busca's property was sacked and his library taken to France; he sought refuge in the kingdom of Naples, remaining in Palermo until the convocation of the conclave. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, celebrated in Venice, which elected Pope Pius VII. Returned to Rome and formed part of the congregation charged with the elaboration of a plan for the re-establishment of the papal government. With the reorganization of the papal administration, he was ascribed to the SS. CC. of Propaganda Fide, Bishops and Regulars, Consistorial, Sacred Consulta, Loreto, delle Acque, Holy Office, Tridentine Council and of the Economy. Named prefect of the S.C. of Good Government on December 2, 1800.

Death. August 12, 1803, in Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Agostino, Rome, where the funeral took place; and buried in the church of S. Maria degli Angeli, in a provisional tomb. His remains were transferred to his definitive sepulchre in that same church, S. Maria degli Angeli, on August 20, 1804.

Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. La Curia romana : lineamenti storico giuridici. 4th ed. aggiornata ed accresciuta. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 90; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 120; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 235; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VI, 171; Notizie per l'anno MDCCCII. In Roma MDCCCII : Nella Stamperia Cracas, con Licen. de' Sup. e Privilegio, p. 14; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 36, 45, 46, 56 and 208; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 154; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 226, 346, 362 and 529-530.

Webgraphy. Biography by Giuseppe Pignatelli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 15 (1972), Treccani; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his engraving, Araldica Vaticana.

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(56) 4. COSTA D'ARIGNANO, Vittorio Gaetano (1737-1796)

Birth. March 10, 1737, Turin. Second child of Carlo Maria Costa, count of Arignano, general of the Sardinian army and governor of Cuneo, and Paola Blanciardi. In baptism he received the name Vittorio Maria Baldassare Gaetano. The other siblings were Maria Clementina, Luigi, Allberto (died young), Giulio and five other children who died unmarried and childless.

Education. Studied at the Royal University of Turin, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both civil and canon law, on July 10, 1757 (1); aggregated to Collegio dei dottori di filosofia on December 22, 1757.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 1, 1760, by Cardinal Carlo Vittorio Amedeo Delle Lanze, grand almoner. Named royal almoner of the king of Sardinia on May 2, 1764. Vicar general of Cardinal Delle Lanze, February 10, 1769. Nominated to the see of Vercelli by King Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia on July 19, 1769.

Episcopate. Elected by the pope bishop of Vercelli, September 11, 1769. Consecrated, September 21, 1769, church of the Benedictines at Campo Marzio, Rome, by Cardinal Carlo Vittorio Amedeo delle Lanze, assisted by Francesco Saverio de Zelada, titular archbishop of Petra in Palestina, and by Orazio Mattei, titular archbishop of Colosso. He maintained an equidistant position the philo-Jansenists and the philos-Jesuits. His line, shared by the majority of the Piedmontese bishops, reflected the Thomistic approach, probabilist and moderately jurisdictionalist of the University of Turin. Nominated to the see of Turin by the King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia on September 9, 1778. Promoted by the pope to the metropolitan see of Turin, September 28, 1778; he was granted the pallium on that same day. He was named grand almoner of Sardinia and counselor of the monarch.The natural disasters that occurred in the years 1778 and 1781-1782, offered Archbishop Costa the opportunity to denounce the social injustices that affected, especially in times of famine, the poorest classes. He urged all the preachers to stand up for the poor, who were harassed by the authority of the powerful and the injustices of the strong. The attention to social problems was also reflected in religious reform. In the pastoral visits and the synodal statutes, he resized the expenses of worship and assigned fund to humanitarian and mutual aid. He supported the reduction of extradomenicali feasts of precept which in 1786 were reduced from thirty four to fourteen. In that same year, Archbishop Costa published in Turin Compendio della dottrina cristiana, derived largely from the catechism of Theatine Bishop Michele Casati of Mondovi; the catechism was widespread in other dioceses of Piedmont and reached more than 52 editions in over a century. From August 19 to 21, 1788, he celebrated a diocesan synod; Archbishop Costa did not exclude from the list of the synodal fathers any of the representatives of the different theological and pastoral currents, but he led the work with great firmness leaving no room for maneuver to supporters of the bishop of Pistoia, Scipione de' Ricci, who had celebrated a diocesan synod in 1786 to prepare the ground for a national council and a reform of the Tuscan Church along Jansenist lines. The Turinese synod accepted, with extreme moderation, some valid instances of the Tuscan reformist movement. The synod of Turin was warmly welcomed by the Holy See; Pope Pius VI sent Archbishop Costa a handwritten letter in which he thanked him for the gift of the volume of the synodal decrees.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 30, 1789; a papal courier brought the news of his promotion to Turin; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated April 3, 1789 with Monsignor Massimiliano Massimi, privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. The following years presented the repercussions of the French Revolution in the middle class and the intellectuals, while severe famine afflicted the people. To help the poor, the cardinal sold gold and diamonds that he had received as royal gifts.The events in France influenced the University of Turin, in which there were riots in 1791. A few days after the riots the king asked Cardinal Costa to accept the post of "interim"head of the university to implement reforms; the cardinal occupied the post from June 18, 1791 until December 1794; even though he was ill, the cardinal managed the situation to everyone's satisfaction; in 1792, having to close the university because of the war, Cardinal Costa, in order to facilitate the private study of the young people, sponsored the publication of all treaties usually "dictated" by voice, and thus there was a series of valuable publications that became known and honored the University of Turin. In a the pastoral letter of June 1792, concerned for the fate of the House of Savoy, the cardinal attempted an analysis of the social causes that lead to the rebellion of the people. The cardinal showed a certain hardness to the French ecclesiastics who had taken the constitutional oath when they asked for asylum in his diocese, demanding a solemn recantation of the schism they had created and of the mistakes they had taught and protected with a pen, voice and deed. During the dramatic events of the years 1794-1796, Cardinal Costa, a member of the Council of the King, as grand almoner, became increasingly involved in heavy political responsibilities. In the meeting of the royal council in which it was decided the armistice of Cherasco, signed by Napoléon Bonaparte on April 28 1796 and ratified by the Directory of Paris on the following May 15, the intervention of the cardinal in favor the "peace party" was decisive. King Vittorio Amedeo III, who admired the boldness and foresight of Cardinal Costa, decided to appoint him prime minister in place of the Earl of Hauteville, of whom the French had asked for the dismissal because he was a Savoyard. The royal edict of appointment to the high office of the cardinal was written before May 10: in the early hours of that day, after a meeting of the State Council which lasted all night, Cardinal Coast was seized by severe heart attack which led to his death.

Death. May 16, 1796, of a grave cardiac crisis, in Turin. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Turin, with an inscription in marble. The funeral oration, delivered by Francesco Regis, professor of Latin and Greek eloquence at the University of Turin, was printed in that city in 1796.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XVII, 308-309; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCVI. In Roma MDCCXCVI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, presso la fine del Corso, p. 15; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 36, 395 and 438; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 319.

Link. Biography by Oreste Favaro, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 30 (1984), Trceccani; engravings, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to his biography in Italian by Favaro, linked above. Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, 438, says that obtained his docorate on May 12, 1757.

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(57) 5. MONTMORENCY-LAVAL, Louis-Joseph de (1724-1808)

Birth. December 11, 1724, Castle of Baillet, Bayers, Charente, diocese of Angoulême, France. Son of Guy André de Montmorency-Laval and Marie-Anne de Turménies de Nointel. His last name is also listed as Laval-Montmorency.

Education. Studied at La Sorbonne University, Paris, where he obtained a licentiate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Vicar general of Sens. Nominated to the episcopate by King Louis XV of France on November 7, 1753.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Orléans, January 14, 1754. Consecrated, February 10, 1754, at the metropolitan cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris, by Christophe de Beaumonts, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Étienne-René Poitier des Gevres, bishop of Beauvais, and by Pierre de Rochechouart, bishop of Bayeux. Nominated to the see of Condom by King Louis XV on October 8, 1757. Resigned the see of Orléans, February 28, 1758. Transferred to the see of Condom, March 13, 1758. Nominated by King Louis XV to the see of Metz, August 21, 1760. Transferred to the see of Metz, April 6, 1761. Grand almoner of France and commander of the Order of Saint-Esprit from 1786. Abbot comendatario of Mont Saint Michel from 1788.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 30, 1789; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated April 3, 1789 with his nephew, Ablegato Anna-Pierre de Laval Monmorency, privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. During the French Revolution went into exile in Germany. Did not participate in the conclave of 1799-1800, which elected Pope Pius VII. Did not resign the diocese as requested to facilitate the implementation of the 1801 Concordat between France and the Holy See.

Death. June 17, 1808, in exile, Altona, Germany. Buried crypt of the church of Saint-Joseph, in "Grosse Freiheit". On July 4, 1900, his remains were transferred and buried in the crypt of the cathedral of Metz. The crypt of the church of Saint-Joseph of Altona was destroyed by a bombardment during the Second World War.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 421-422; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXVII, 184; Notizie per l'anno M. DCCC. XXII. Rome : Nella Stamperia Cracas, p. 50; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 36, 107, 178 and 287.

Webgraphy. His engraving and biography, in French, Wikipedia; his coat of arms, second from the bottom, Héraldique européenne; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana..

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(58) 6. AUERSPERG, Joseph Franz Anton von (1734-1795)

Birth. January 31, 1734, Vienna, Austria. He was the second of the ten children of Prince Heinrich Josef Johann von Auersperg, duke of Münsterberg and Frankenstein, and his second wife, Maria Antonia Franziska Trautson, countess of Falkenstein. The father held the office of royal privy counselor and colonel master of the stable. The other siblings Marie Anne (died at 1); Maria Theresia Franziska Xaveria, Maria Antonia, Franz, Marie Anne, Johann Baptist, Alois and Franz Xavier. He had two half-brothers from his father's first marriage to Maria Dominika von und zu Liechtenstein, Karl Josef Anton and Johann Adam. His first name is also listed as Joseph Franz von Paula; and his last name as Avesperg.

Education. He studied philosophy in Vienna and theology in Rome.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Passau in 1752; and of Salzburg in 1753. Provost of Ardagger, Lower Austria, in 1757.

Priesthood. (No information found).

Episcopate. Nominated bishop of Lavant, January 31, 1765, by Archbishop Siegmund Christoph von Schrattenbach of Salzburg. Confirmed by the pope as bishop of Lavant, May 8, 1763.He was allowed to retain his other benefices. Consecrated, May 22, 1763, by Archbishop von Schrattenbach of Salzburg. He was also vicar general for Salzburg, Upper and Lower Carinthia, 1763-1773. He received the provostship of St. Mauritzen in Friesach. As early as January 4, 1764, he tried to resign his diocese but Archbishop Schrattenbach did not allow him. When an earthquake damaged the church of St. Andrä Lavanttal, he repaired it with his own assets. Rooted in the Enlightenment, Bishop Auersperg promoted education and curbed popular Baroque traditions, without taking into account the feelings of the people; in 1770 he even prohibited the Passion Play and the wearing of crosses. After the death of Archbishop Schrattenbach in 1771, he unsuccessfully tried to be elected archbishop of Salzburg but Hieronymus Joseph Franz de Paula von Colloredo, bishop of Gurk, was the preferred candidate. The new archbishop nominated Bishop Auersperg as bishop of Gurk on October 18, 1772; he was confirmed by the pope on January 31, 1773. He was enthroned in the cathedral of Gurk on the following May 1. In Gurk, Bishop Colloredo had prepared the ground, so Bishop Auersperg was able to carry on his duties in accordance with the principles of the Enlightenment. Emperor Joseph II of Austria, who had great esteem for Bishop Auersperg and wanted him transferred to the diocese of Gurk, encouraged him to implant Iosephinism as a model of church reform, and his instructions to the clergy served the authority of the emperor over the church later. In the field of liturgical renewal, Bishop Auersperg had very modern ideas; he wanted the entire liturgy celebrated in the national language and for Sundays and public holidays celebrations, he ordered the Bible to be read; the bishop also watched over the life of the priests; he also maintained good relations with the cathedral chapter. He published a pastoral letter about the 1782 Imperial Edict of Tolerance, which among other things, extended religious freedom to the Jewish population in the Austrian empire. His proposal to raise the diocese of Gurk to archdiocese was not accepted. On the occasion of the first papal visit to Austria by Pope Pius VI, Bishop Auersperg traveled to Ljubljana and welcome the pope on March 16, 1782 on his journey to Vienna. He was postulated prince-bishop of Passau by its cathedral chapter on May 19, 1784; and elected by the pope on June 25, 1784; on that same day he was granted the pallium; he occupied the post until his death; the canons hoped, when they elected the new bishop that because of the prelate's support of Iosephinism, he was going to be able to dissuade Emperor Joseph II from taking away two-thirds of the diocese to form the two dioceses of Linz and St. Pölten, but Bishop Auersperg was unsuccessful (1). He conducted in the following years reaching reforms in the spirit of Josephinism. He battled various forms of popular piety; made in visitations and removed disputed images of saints; forbade the ringing of bells for the weather conditions; and prohibited preaching against Protestants. He supported the poor and the sick and at the same time, made begging a punishable offense.Theater and opera, which he understood as educational institutions, experience a heyday in his episcopate. He built schools, hospitals, administrative buildings, roads and bridges and particularly the Innpromenade in Passau. For himself, he, he had the court architect and lifelong friend, Johann Georg von Hagenauer Freudenhain, build a castle as a summer residence, which included a major park with an artificial village, Holländerdörferl, in the middle.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 30, 1789; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated April 3, 1789; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan in 1791.

Death. August 21, 1795, unexpectedly, Holländerdörferl, Passau. Exposed in the cathedral of Passau and buried in its grotto.

Bibliography. Leidl, August."Auersperg, Joseph Franz Anton Reichsgraf von." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1648 bis 1803 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1990, p. 19-21; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, III, 158; Notizie per l'anno MDCCLCCCC. In Roma MDCCLCCCC : Nella Stamperia Cracas, con Licen. de' Superiori e Privilegio, p. 63; Obersteiner, Jakob: Die Bischöfe von Gurk. 1072-1822. Klagenfurt : Verlag des Geschichtsvereines f|r Kärnten, 1969. (Aus Forschung und Kunst 5), p. 475-493; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp.. 36, 232, 255 and 330.

Webgraphy. Images and biography, in German, Wikipedia; his engraving, coffin and biography, in German, Wikipedia; biography, in German, eBay; biographical entry, in German, Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB). Band 1, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1953, p. 438; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his engraving and brief biographical data, in English; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait, Wikimedia; his engraving, Araldica Vaticana; his arms, Wikimedia; his seal, Wikimedia; his seal press, Wikimedia; his visiting card showing his new summer residence Freudenhain; his coffin, Wikimedia; his genealogy, in English, Camilla von Massenbach; House of Auersperg, in English, European Herladry.

(1) According to the article by J. Lins, Diocese of Passau, in The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911, "The Bishop of Passau and the majority of his cathedral chapter finally yielded in order to save the secular property of the diocese. By an agreement of 4 July, 1784, the confiscation of all the properties and rights belonging to the Diocese of Passau in Austria was annulled, and the tithes and revenues were restored to it. In return Passau gave up its diocesan rights and authority in Austria, including the provostship of Ardagger, and bound itself to pay 400,000 gulden ($900,000) -- afterwards reduced by the emperor to one-half -- toward the equipment of the new diocese. There was nothing left for Pope Pius VI to do but to give his consent, even though unwillingly, to the emperor's despotic act. The papal sanction of the agreement between Vienna and Passau was issued on 8 November, 1784, and on 28 January, 1785, appeared the Bull of Erection, 'Romanus Pontifex'".

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(59) 7. BORGIA, Stefano (1731-1804)

Birth. December 3, 1731, Velletri. Eledest of the five children of Camillo Borgia, supreme magistrate of Velletri, and Maddalena Gagliardi. The other siblings were Giampaolo (general of the papal armies), Clemente Ettore, Riccardo (a prelate), and Filippo (knight of Malta). He was baptized in the cathedral basilica of Velletri. Distantly related to the Spanish Borja family.

Education. In 1740, he was entrusted to the care of his uncle, Archbishop Alessandro Borgia of Fermo, who reaffirmed his inclination for historical research. Obtained a licentiate in philosophy in 1750. Because of his interest in antiquities, he became a member of Accademia etrusca of Cortona in 1750; and of Accademia Colombaria of Florence in 1751. The following year, 1752, he earned the doctorate in theology with Apologia del pontificato di Benedetto X (Modena 1756). In 1756, he went to Rome and obtained a doctorate in canon law at La Sapienza University in 1757.

Early life. He entered the Roman prelature in 1757. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Rector of Benevento, December 9, 1758 (1); took possession, February 13, 1759; occupied the post until September 1764. Returned to Rome in that year and named secretary of the S.C. of Indulgences and Sacred Relics.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 25, 1765. Secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide in 1770. Protonotary apostolic. He worked for the reorganization of the work of the congregation, taking care to encourage, even at his own expense, training in mission lands of an indigenous clergy. The extensive international relations of the congregation allowed him to acquire for his collections, which he gathered in a museum in Velletri, exotic pieces, especially Oriental most of which consisted of medals; and also numerous Coptic manuscripts. Of great interest was the Mexican illuminated manuscript, now designated as Codex Borgianus. He was also concerned with the study of those treasures, published scholarly dissertations and entrusted other scholars, often foreign, and even Protestants with that task. These publications were printed by the printing press of Propaganda Fide. On September 3, 1773, he presented to Pope Clement XIV a report on the status of missions, Notizie e luoghi di missioni, shortly after arguing against the immediate enforcement of the decree of dissolution of the Society of Jesus in mission territories, fearing serious impediments to the apostolic activities. The brief was issued, but the former Jesuits were able to continue to perform their duties as secular priests. When the Congregation of Propaganda Fide, on August 9, 1778, named Bishop Stanislaw Jan Siestrzencewicz Bohusz apostolic delegate and visitor for three years, there was a violent reaction of the Bourbon governments, given that the bishop had opened a Jesuit college in Płock thus allowing the survival of the Society of Jesus in Russia. Monsignor Borgia had to justify himself to the pope; in truth, he certainly was not a philo-Jesuit, as he was accused of by some satirical writings. Using historical material already collected in Benevento and after extensive research in the Vatican archives, Monsignor Borgia was able to successfully defend the papal claims, in the age-old dispute between the Curia and the Kingdom of Naples for possession of Benevento and its region, in the work Breve istoria del dominio temporale della Santa Sede nel Regno delle due Sicilie, published anonymously in Rome in 1788, in two volumes. A second edition, appeared in that same year, bore the name of the author; numerous pamphlets were distributed in the Kingdom of Naples against the thesis of Borgia, who replied in 1791 with Difesa del dominio temporale della Sede apostolica nelle Due Sicilie, in risposta alle scritture pubblicate in contrario. From the theoretical point of view the Papacy had won, but the political reality decided against the papal claims. The Neapolitan government refused to continue paying the feudal tribute and to recognize the jurisdiction of the nuncio, and despite the acquiescence shown by Pope Pius VI in the matter of episcopal appointments, they failed to conclude an agreement.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 30, 1789; received the red hat on April 2, 1789; and the title of S. Clemente, August 3, 1789. He was particularly entrusted with the supervision of orphanages. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals from February 27, 1792 until June 17, 1793. Cardinal Borgia became an advisory member of the Congregation of State that, from September 30, 1792, with Pope Pius VI and with the cardinal secretary of State, shared the responsibility of the most important foreign policy decisions. The Royal Society of Sciences of Göttigen named him honorary member in 1793. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index in 1796; confirmed by the new Pope Pius VII in 1800. After the armistice of Bologna in June 1796, he was a most intransigent opponent of peace with the French that would compromise on the religious prerogatives of the Holy. See. During the French invasion of Rome, 1797-1798, the pope placed him in charge of the city; after the proclamation of the Republic in 1798, he was arrested and quickly freed. When Pope Pius VI had to leave Rome on February 20. 1798, Cardinal Borgia was designated a member of the congregation in charge, under the leadership of Cardinal Leonardo Antonelli, of the government of the Church. Imprisoned by the French on March 8, he was released March 28 on condition that he abandon the territory of the Roman Republic. He first went to Tuscany; then to Venice; and later to Padua. Named pro-prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, May 25, 1798; he occupied the post until September 27, 1800; from Padua he tried unsuccessfully to reorganize the congregation; became its prefect on August 16, 1802; occupied the post until his death. Joined Pope Pius VI in his exile and imprisonment in Valence, France. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, celebrated in Venice, which elected Pope Pius VII. Rector of Collegio Romano, Rome. President of the Congregation for the Economy in 1891. He was a noted theologian, antiquarian, and historian. He established a museum in Velletri where he collected coins and manuscripts. After his death, the collection was divided and the museum eventually closed. He maintained correspondence with innumerable scholars of his time and wrote numerous works.

Death. November 23, 1804, at night, in Lyon, while accompanying Pope Pius VII in his journey to Paris to crown Napoleon. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Lyon. His remains were transferred to Velletri on February 13, 2002; a solemn mass was concelebrated in the cathedral of San Clemente by Bishop Andrea Maria Erba of Velletri-Segni and the secretary of the archbishop of Lyon. Then, he was buried in the chapel of the Annunciation, which once belonged to the Borgia family and is nowadays dedicated to Saint Vincent de Paul, in that cathedral on March 9, 2002.

Bibliography. Baraldi, Giuseppe ; Borgia, Stefano. Notizia biografica sul cardinale Stefano Borgia di Velletri. Modena : Eredi Soliani, 1830. Note: The author's name is taken from the dedication; Borgia, Stefano. Blosii Palladii Romani oratio de praestatione obedientiae Rhodiorum Leoni X. P. M. et senatui apostolico dicta. Romae, 1773. Other title: Oratio de praestatione obedientiae Rhodiorum Leoni X. P. M. et senatui apostolico dicta; Borgia, Stefano. Breve istoria del dominio temporale della Sede Apostolica nelle Due Sicilie. Roma : [s.n.], 1788; Borgia, Stefano. Breve istoria dell'antica città di Tadino nell'Umbria : ed esatta relazione delle ultime ricerche fatte sulle sue ruine. In Roma : Nella stamperia di Pallade a spese di Niccolò, e Marco Pagliarini, 1751; Borgia, Stefano. De cruce Vaticana ex dono Iustini Augusti in parasceve maioris hebdomadae publicae venerationi exhiberi solita commentarius : cui accedit ritus salutationis crucis in ecclesia Antiochena Syrorum servatus, nunc primum syriace & latine editus adnotationibusque inlustratus. Romae : Ex typographia eiusdem Sacrae Congregationis, 1779; Borgia, Stefano. De cruce veliterna commentarius. Romae : Typis eiusdem Sac. Congregationis, 1780; Borgia, Stefano. De Fabricio Borgia Ferentini episcopo oratio funebris Stephani Borgiae nepotis ad cives Veliternos. Velitris : Ex typographia Caesaris de Sartoriis bibliopolae, & calchographi, episcopalis, & publici, 1755; Borgia, Stefano. "Dissertazione filologica sopra un'antica gemma intagliata" in Angelo Calogerà and Fortunato Mandalli, Nuova raccolta d'opuscoli scientifici e filologici, Venezia 1755; Borgia, Stefano. Fragmenta copticum ex actiy S. Coluthi martyris. Romae, 1783; Borgia, Stefano. Letters from the Cardinal Borgia and the Cardinal of York, 1799-1800. London : [s.n.], 1800. Note: Addressed to, & ed. by, Sir J.C. Hippisley./ With facsimiles, one of a letter from Pope Pius VII; Borgia, Stefano. Monumento di Giovanni XVI. In Roma, Nella stamparia di Francesco Ansillioni, 1750. Responsibility: illustrato per Stefano Borgia; Borgia, Stefano. Memorie istoriche della pontificia città di Benevento dal secolo VIII. al secolo XVIII. : divise in tre parti. In Roma : Dalle stampe del Salomoni, 1763-1769. Contents: v. 1. Dal secolo VIII. ai principj del secolo XI. -- v. 2. Dal secolo XI. al secolo XVIII; Borgia, Stefano. Pii II P. M. oratio de bello Turcis inferendo. Romae, 1774; Borgia, Stefano. Stefano Borgia : epistolario privato. Velletri : Veliternagrafica, 1998-2000. (Quaderni della Biblioteca Comunale ; 6), Note: v. 1. 1758-1783 -- v. 2. 1784-1796 -- v. 3. 1797-1804. Other title: Epistolario privato. Responsibility: Maria Rigel Langella ; presentazione di Renato Mammucari; Borgia, Stefano. Vaticana confessio b. Petri, principis Apostolorum, chronologicis tam veterum quam recentiorum scriptorum testimonium inlustrata. Romae, 1776; Cancellieri, Francesco. Elogio della chiara memoria dell' Emo e Rmo signor cardinale Stefano Borgia, scritto in una lettera dal signor abate Francesco Cancellieri. Parma : Co' tipi Bodoniani, 1805; Cardinali, Luigi. Elogio detto all memoria di Stefano Borgia, cardinale prete del titolo di S. Clemente. [Rome? : s.n.], 1806; Millin, Aubin Louis. Notice sur la vie du cardinal Borgia. [n.p. : s.n., 1807?]; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VI, 52-53; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCVI. In Roma MDCCXCVI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, alla fine del Croso, con Licencia de' Superiori e Privilegio, p. 15; Paulinus, a S. Bartholomaeo. Vitae synopsis Stephani Borgiae S.R.E. Cardinalis Amplissimi : S. Congr. de Propaganda fide Praefecti. Romae : apud Antonium Fulgonium, 1805; Le quattro voci del mondo : arte, culture e saperi nella collezione di Stefano Borgia 1731-1804. A cura di Marco Nocca. Napoli : Electa Napoli, 2001. Note: "Giornate internazionali di studi, Velletri, Palazzo comunale, Sala Tersicore, 13-14 maggio 2000."; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 36, 43 and 56; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 93; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 144 and 518.

Webgraphy. Biography by Romain Butin, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Horst Enzensberger, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 12 (1971), Treccani; his portrait and biography, in Italian, Bbiblioteca di Velletri; his engraving and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 144. His biography in Italian by Enzensberger, linked above, says that he was named on November 25, 1758.

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(60) 8. ANTICI, Tommaso (1731-1812)

Birth. May 10, 1731, Recanati. Of an aristocratic family which later merged with the Roman Mattei family. Eldest of the nine children of Giuseppe Rinaldo Antici, marquis of Recanati, and Antonia Cipriani. The other siblings were Vittorio Niccolò, Filippo, Vincenzo, Olimpia, Lorenzo, Margherita, Scolastica and Anna.

Education. Studied law and theology in Rome. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure.

Early life. Secretary of Cardinal Ferdinando Maria de Rossi. Considered a very able diplomat, he represented before the Holy See the duchy of Parma and Piacenza (1763-1767); the principality of Cologne (1762-1789); the principality of Pfalz (1769-1777); the kingdom of Poland (1768-1795); the diocese of Luettich (1767-1784/1788); the kingdom of Prussia (1776-1778); the duchy of Pfalz Zweibruecken (1777-1798); and the principality of Bavaria (1776-1798). Abbot commendatario of the Cistercian abbey Paradies, near Meseritz, diocese of Posen, 1784.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 30, 1789; received the red hat on April 2, 1789; and the title of S. Maria in Trastevere on August 3, 1789. Received the subdiaconate on January 31, 1790; and the diaconate on February 2, 1790. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Holy Office, Ecclesiastical Immunity, Religious Discipline, Bishops and Regulars, Avignon, and Loreto. Protector of Collegio S. Bonaventura in Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome; of Pontifical Collegio Montalto, Bologna; of the cieties of Recanati, Tolentino, Civitavecchia, and Norcia and of its national church of S. Scolastica in Rome; of the Terre of Torre di Mandola, Loro, Sarnano, Grottazzolina, Monte Cosaro, and Penna San Giovanni; of the Oratory of the Fathers Filippini of Gradoli, diocese of Montefiascone; of the monastery of Adorazione del SSmo. Sagramento, Macerata; co-protector of Monte Ottone in the state of Fermo; of the Company of S. Anna, Recanati; of the Confraternity del Suffragio in Terra di Monte Milone; of the province of Marca; Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 17, 1793 until February 21, 1794. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, September 25, 1795 to March 7, 1798. Resigned cardinalate on March 7, 1798 due to age, chronic illness and the desire for a quiet old age, according to the official version (1); the resignation was accepted by the pope on September 7, 1798.

Death. January 4, 1812, Recanati. Buried in the cathedral of Recanati.

Bibliography. Re, Nicola del. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 131; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, II, 163; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCVI. In Roma MDCCXCVI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, alla fine del Croso, con Licencia de' Superiori e Privilegio, p. 15-16; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 36, 47 and 56; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 50.

Webgraphy. Biography by Elvira Gencarelli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 3 (1961), Treccani; biography by Gisela Fleckenstein, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; his engraving by Carlo Antonini, Araldica Vaticana; same engraving, Wikipedia.

(1) Some sources indicate that the real reason for the resignation was to escape the annoyances of the Roman Republic. After the victory of the Austrians, he wanted to be reinstated as a cardinal and tried to be received in the conclave of 1799-1800 in Venice. In a letter to the Sacred College of Cardinals, he explained that he had resigned forced by the revolutionary forces and asked to be restored to his cardinalitial rank. The College confirmed the decision of the deceased pope. He wrote to the new Pope Pius VII on September 3, 1800 asking to have his resignation voided. He was not successful and retired to Recanati, dedicating himself to charitable and pious works. The inscription in his grave in the cathedral S. Flaviano in Recanati praises his virtues and his generosity but does not mention his cardinalate.

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(61) 9. CAMPANELLI, Filippo (1739-1795)

Birth. May 1, 1739, Mantelica. Son of Giuseppe Campanelli and Laura Finaguerra.

Education. Studied at Collegio Marziale, Fermo; and later, at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Coadjutor of Niccolò de Vecchi, consistorial lawyer. Promotor of the Faith, July 1778. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites. He demonstrated his vast juridical knowledge with the publication Dissertatio de alluvionibus et paludibus et pascuis ad alium translatis (Rome 1779) dedicated to Pope Pius VI (1). Domestic prelate of His Holiness, December 1780. Consultor of the S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition (Holy Office), December 1780. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, December 1780. Protonotary apostolic, January 1781. Auditor of His Holiness, April 1782; this post placed him continuously in direct contact with the pope. Examiner of bishops, July 1782. Abbot commendatario of S. Cristoforo, Fossombrone, December 1782. Prior commendatario of S. Paolo e S. Domenico di Lovicato, S. Severino, December 1784.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 30, 1789; received the red hat on April 2, 1789; and the deaconry of S. Maria della Scala on August 3, 1789. Pro-datary of His Holiness, April 3, 1789 until his death. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Holy Office, Rites, Tridentine Council, Consistorial, Avignon, and Loreto. Protector of the Scolopini Fathers; of Mercanti Fondacali di lana of the city of Mantelica; of the cities of Cingoli and Osimo; of Terre di Montopoli, Ceprano e Fallerone; and of the Confraternity of S. Giuseppe, Bagnacavallo; co-protector of the city of Mantelica; and of the province of Marca. Member of the commission established by the pope in 1789 to examine the Puntuazioni of Ems (2) ; and the Acts of the Synod of Pistoia, together with Cardinals Gian Francesco Albani, Leonardo Antonelli, Hyacinthe Sigismond Gerdil, C.R.S.P., and Francesco Saverio de Zelada, secretary of State. Granted dispensation to be a cardinal deacon without having received the minor orders, March 26, 1790. After the Revolution broke out in France, he was asked to join, along with Cardinals Gian Francesco Albani, Vitaliano Borromeo, Leonardo, Guglielmo Pallotta and Gregorio Salviati, the Congregation for the Affairs of France, which was to examine the situation that followed the promulgation of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy; and oriented the hard decisions of the pope it met every other day with Cardinal Zelada, the secretary of State. Transferred to the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, November 29, 1790. Transferred to the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, September 26, 1791. Cardinal Campanelli had a prominent role the difficult negotiations between the Papal States and the Kingdom of Naples, whose relations had gone gradually worse in 1790. After the meeting between Pope Pius VI and King Ferdinando IV of Naples, who visited Rome in the spring of 1791, attempts were made to find a solution to the conflict which focused on three key issues: the appointment of bishops, the jurisdiction of the papal nuncio and that of the ecclesiastical court. Negotiations for an agreement were held in Castellione from July 24 to 31, 1792, between the Papal Plenipotentiary, Cardinal Campanelli, and the Neapolitan Minister Sir John Francis Edward Acton. Despite the ability of the cardinal, the negotiations ran aground, ending with a stalemate. He remained, however, the greatest expert on the problem between Rome and Naples, so that during a subsequent approach between the two parties, conducted in the summer of 1794 in Rome, the pope kept him abreast of the latest developments .In 1793, he was asked by the Secretariat of State to get in touch with John Coxe Hippisley, envoy of the British government in Rome, on the occasion of the diplomatic rapprochement between the Holy See and England caused by common counterrevolutionary interests. Cardinal Campanelli, as part of this activity, suggested the British and Irish clergy a rigorous line of loyalty towards the government. As a result of his ability in this matter, he was named protector of the Catholics of the United Kingdom on January 27, 1795.

Death. February 18, 1795, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marcello, where the funeral took place; and buried in his deaconry, S. Cesareo in Palatio.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VII, 113-114; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCV. In Roma MDCCXCV : Nella Stamperia Cracas, alla fine del Croso, con Licencia de' Superiori e Privilegio, p. 23-24; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 36, 50 and 52.

Webgraphy. Biography by Mirella Giansante, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 17 (1974), Treccani; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) In the work, the author examined the problem of reclaimed land only in terms of law, without taking into account aspects of politico-economic nature of the important work of improvement undertaken by the popes in the pontine area and in the countryside Roman. The topics discussed were: the unlawfulness for individuals to change the natural course of rivers; their right to provide banks in their lands to protect them from the violence of the currents; and the criteria for allocation of the land vacated by the waters of the swamp. There were frequent references to the Roman agrarian law according to the Code of Justinian. This work of legal clarification was the first example of the function that Monsignor Campanelli exercised in the Roman Curia as the man of law who approached the most intricate controversy from the point of view of canon law.
(2) This was a Febronian and episcopalist document redacted in 1786 by the Austrian reformer bishops which was dismissed by Rome with an official rebuttal redacted by Cardinal Giuseppe Garampi, Francesco Antonio Zaccaria, M. Monsagrati and others. The papal response was published in Rome in 1790 under the title Sanctissimi domini nostri Pii papae sexti responsio ad metropolitanos Moguntinum, Trevirensem, Coloniensem et Salisburgensem super nunciaturis apostolicis. It was sent to the archbishops with an apostolic brief dated November 14, 1789. The work of the Roman congregation ended with a long Memoriale, of which the drafter was Cardinal Campanelli, who took advantage of the material provided to it by Cardinal Garampi and by Zaccaria. The document gave Cardinal Campanelli great prestige as well as the unconditional trust of Pope Pius VI, who, because of the cardinal's profound competence in canon law and his proven loyalty to the interests of Rome, kept him informed of the most important and delicate affairs and requested his opinion about them.

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