The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius VI (1775-1799)
Consistory of February 21, 1794 (XXII)


(65) 1. DUGNANI, Antonio (1748-1818)

Birth. June 8, 1748, Milan. From one of the most distinguished noble families in Milan. Eldest of the two sons of Count Carlo Dugnani, signore of Terrazzano, and Countess Giuseppa Dati, of the counts della Somaglia. The other son was Giulio, decurione, with whom the family ended in 1832. He was baptized the following September 24 with the name Antonio Giuseppe.

Education. Initial studies in Milan; then, he studied at the University of Pavia, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. He was initiated by his parents in the ecclesiastical career.

Early life. He went to Rome when completed his studies. Conclavist of Cardinal Carlo Rezzonico, iuniore, in 1769. In 1770, he was already privy chamberlain of His Holiness in abito paonazzo. Then, he became primicerio of the nation of the Armenias. Named consistorial lawyer on June 1, 1770 (1). Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, September 5, 1771.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 21, 1771, in the cathedral of Frascati. In 1772, he became domestic prelate of His Holinees. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites, November 1775. Civil auditor of Cardinal Camerlengo Carlo Rezzonico, iuniore, in January 1777. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Lateran basilica; and later, its vicar ca.1780. Protonotary apostolic supernumerary, January 1781. Named nuncio in France on February 14, 1785.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Rodi, April 11, 1785. Consecrated, June 12, 1785, Rome, by Cardinal Carlo Rezzonico. Confirmed as nuncio in France by an apostolic brief dated June 14, 1785; presented his letters of credence in April 1787; although he was not prepared to deal with the events of the French Revolution, he provided the secretary of State a detailed body of information and some critical judgments to help understand the seriousness of the situation since the early days after the opening of the Etats Généraux, inaugurated on May 5, 1789. In July 1790, Nuncio Dugnani obtained from King Louis XVI the draft text of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy; he declined the king's invitation to make critical observation of the text; instead, the nuncio sent it to Rome; he maintained the same attitude when the French bishops asked him advice about what to do; his opinion was that a decision on a matter of such importance, as was the organization of the ecclesiastical system in France and its relations with the civil power, could only be taken by the Holy See; the nuncio confirmed what the bishops loyal to Rome, but more active in the National Assembly, believed that a complete rejection of the Civil Constitution could lead the French clergy, imbued with Gallican ideas, to a schism of vast proportions. In Rome, Pope Pius VI entrusted to a special congregation of cardinals the affairs of France, hoping that time would improve the situation. Nuncio Dugnani was facing the growing animosity against Rome; as early as August 1790, he warned the cardinal secretary of State that in the French public opinion it was spreading the rumor that the pope was promoting with other powers a military intervention to crush the Revolution. In the months following, the French episcopate, autonomously, gave proof of loyalty to Rome and criticism of the civil constitution of the clergy in a document entitled Exposition des prmncipes sur la constitution civile du clergé (published October 30, 1790); and resisted the pressure and intimidation aimed at obtain a forced adhesion to the Civil Constitution. Then Pope Pius VI decided to make official the condemnation of the Civil Constitution by the brief of March 10, 1791 to the bishops signatories of the Exposition; and a brief of April 13 to the clergy and people of France; the text was radically opposed to any opening and also critical to the ideas of tolerance and freedom, no longer left any room for compromise. The first reaction against the papal position occurred on May 2, 1791 when a group of protesters burned in Paris at the Palais-Royal, a puppet depicting the pope with the text of the civil constitution in one hand and a dagger in the other, a ribbon with the inscription "fanatisme" on the forehead and another with the words "guerre civile" on the chest. Nuncio Dugnani vainly protested repeatedly asking Foreign Minister Armand Marc, count de Montmorin de Saint Herem for a reparation. On the following May 24, he asked for a passport to go to the baths at Aix-les-Bains; on May 29, Minister Montmorin tried to avoid a rupture in extremis apologizing for not being able to give satisfaction to the demands of the nuncio. The latest dispatch of Nuncio Dugnani from Paris was dated May 30, 1791, the day after he left the French capital, leaving for the daily administration of the nunciature Auditor Giulio Quarantotti. Back in Italy, Nuncio Dugnani he went to Milan, where he awaited instructions with the hope of being able soon to resume his mission in the French capital, especially after the outbreak of war in the spring of 1792. But the illusion for a quick defeat of the Revolution soon vanished, and he returned to Rome. Two years later, he was promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1794; received the red hat on February 27, 1794; and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, September 12, 1794. Ascribed to the SS. CC. Consistorial, Bishops and Regulars, Propaganda Fide, Correction of Books of the Oriental Church, Good Government, Eastern Indies, and China. Protector of the Antonian monks of Mount Lebanon; of the Archconfraternity of Sagre Stimmate; of the Confraternity of S. Anna de' Bresciani; of the Confraternity of S. Bartolomeo dei Bergamaschi; of the Confraternity of SS. Rosario in Albano; of the Republic of San Marino; and of the city of Betinoro. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 1, 1795 until June 27, 1796. Named legate in Romagna, the richest province of the Papal States, on June 1, 1794; he arrived in the legation on October 30; he left Ravenna, the capital, with the vice-legate, Giacomo Giustiniani, on June 25, 1796, on the occasion of the first invasion by the French troops commanded by Charles Pierre François Augereau; he returned on July 20, after the departure of French troops but then chose to still reside in Rimini from August 2 to 11 November 1796; on November 12, he returned to Ravennaand stayed until January 31, 1797, when he left definitively, with Vice-legate Giustiniani, after the French occupation of the legation was sanctioned by the Treaty of Tolentino, by which Romagna was united to the Republic Cispadana. He went to Milan until the convocation of the conclave. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, celebrated in Venice, which elected Pope Pius VII. Returned to Rome. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, December 23, 1801. Named pro-prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, October 31, 1804; occupied the post until May 16, 1805. Between 1806 and 1808, when relations between the Papal States and the French Empire deteriorated, Cardinal Dugnani was, along with Cardinals Giuseppe Doria Pamphili, Fabrizio Ruffo and Aurelio Roverella, was one of the most influential among those who tried to persuade Pope Pius VII to assume a conciliatory attitude towards Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, August 3, 1807. Even after the occupation of Rome and the deportation of the pope and the College of Cardinals to France, he continued to show a moderation that was deemed excessive by many. In 1808 was deported to Milan and later, in 1809, to Paris. He was able to avoid attending the civil and religious ceremonies (April 1 and 2, 1811) of the wedding of Emperor Napoléon I and Maria-Louise of Austria and not be sanctioned for it. He alleged an indisposition (real or fictitious) and was excused allowing the imperial court to consider him as "adherent" to the decision of the emperor (2). For this reason, he was among the "red cardinals", allowed by the emperor to wear their cardinalitial habits, while those cardinals who refused to attend the wedding were not allowed to wear them and were the "black cardinals". Returned to Rome after the reestablishment of the papal government in 1814. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, March 8, 1816. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, March 16, 1817.

Death. October 19, 1818, Rome (3). Exposed and buried in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome (4).

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 372-373; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 242; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XX, 293-294; Notizie per l'anno 1806. In Roma MDCCCVI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, con Licenza de' Superiori e Privilegio Pontificio, p. 23; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 37, 44 and 357; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 37, 38 and 44; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 376; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 373 and 648.

Links. Biography by Giseppe Pignatelli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 41 (1992), Treccani; his portrait, by an anonymous artist, Scuola Lombarda, Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Regione Lombardia - Università degli Studi di Pavia; his portrait, Cultura Italia, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali (his last name is misspelled); his portrait, Cultura Italia, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali (his last name is misspelled); his engraving by Carlo Antonini, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

(1) This is according to Boutry, Souverain et Pontife, p. 372. Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio, p. 648, says that he was named on July 1, 1770. His biography by Pignatelli, linked above, says that he became consistorial lawyer on September 1, 1770.
(2) Cardinal Ercole Consalvi, secretary of State of Pope Pius VII, in his Memoirs, p. 56, considered Cardinal Dugnani's behavior a Pilatesc act intended to "save the goat and the cabbage".
(3) This is according to his epitaph transcribed in note 2, below; Boutry, Souverain et Pontife, p. 372; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 37; and VII, 38, say that he died on October 17, 1818.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph provided by Mr. Mark West, London, England:

CINERES
ANTONII EPISCOPI PORTUEN
ET S. RUFINAE
S. R. E. CARD. DUGNANI
MEDIOLANE(I)
OBIIT DIE XIX OCTUBRIS AN. MDCXVIII
ORATE PRO EO

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(66) 2. VINCENTI MARERI, Ippolito Antonio (1738-1811)

Birth. January 20, 1738, Rieti (1). Youngest of the five children of Cinzio Francesco Vincenti Gentili Mareri, count of Ascrea, Bulgaretto and Mirandella, and gonfaloniere of Rieti in 1747, and Caterina Razza di Sermoneta. The other siblings were Lavinia, Filippa Margareta (a nun), Cecilia, Alessandro (gonfaloniere of Rieti in 1780) and Maria (died in childhood). He was baptized on that same day. On his father's side he had a grand-uncle, Giuseppe, and an uncle, Adriano, who were priests. His first name is also listed as Ippolito only; and last name as Mareri only; as Vincenti only; and as Vincentini.

Education. When he was nine or ten years old, he entered the Diocesan Seminary of Rieti, where he studied grammar, rhetoric and humanities; when he was almost seventeen years old, he was sent to Rome to continue his priestly formation; in November 1754, he started his studies at La Sapienza University, Rome; he studied canon institutions under professor Dario Guicciardi and civil institutions under professor Michelangelo Petrocchi; he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on April 27, 1764; during his stay in Rome, he resided at the Dominante.

Early life. After finishing his studies, he returned to Rieti and in the summer of that year he concluded the negotiations for the matrimony of his sister Lavinia and Baron Bernardino Gagliarid from Aquila. He entered the ecclesiastical state becoming a clerico Reatino. Named auditor of the nunciature in Spain on April 11, 1764; took possession the following August; during his tenure, he had to deal with the suppression of the Society of Jesus ordered by King Carlos III in 1767; occupied the post until the end of 1775. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Signature of Justice and of Grace. Protonotary apostolic onorario. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, April 1776; as such, temporarily assumed the government of Rome in the absence of the titular, Monsignor Ferdinando Spinelli, between September 1783 and February 1784. Named preceptor general of the Archhospital of Spirito Santo in Sassia on January 16, 1784, after the death of Monsignor Domenico Sampieri; on the following January 29, he received from Pope Pius VI the insignias of his office and took the oath; on February 14, 1785, he received the news of his impending appointment as nuncio in Spain and resigned the post three day later.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 19, 1785.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Corinto, April 11, 1785. Consecrated, May 8, 1785, cathedral of Frascati, by Cardinal Henry Benedict Mary Stuart, duke of York, assisted by Girolamo Volpi, titular archbishop of Neocesarea in Ponto, and by Pier Luigi Galletti, O.S.B., titular bishop of Cirene. Named nuncio in Spain on May 24, 1785.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1794; the pope sent him the red biretta with Monsignor Francesco Carafa d'Andria, privy chamberlain of His Holiness, with an apostolic brief dated February 25, 1794; King Carlos IV of Spain imposed on him the biretta in Madrid in the presence of the entire court; arrived in Rome from Spain on April 5, 1795; received the red hat on May 28, 1795; and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, June 1, 1795. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Bishops and Regulars, Propaganda Fide, Tridentine Council, Index, Paludi Pontine, Chiane, and China. Legate in Bologna, June 1, 1795 until the French occupation in June 1796; he went to Rieti in 1797; from there, he was taken prisoner to Rome in March 1798, and was about to resign the cardinalate, but was eventually released after paying a ransom and returned to Rieti in May of that year. He stayed in Rieti until the convocation of the conclave. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, celebrated in Venice, which elected Pope Pius VII. Prefect of the Economy of Collegio Romano, December 1801. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, August 3, 1807. Pro-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, temporarily, in the absence of Cardinal Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphili, March 26, 1808. Forced to go to Paris, he left Rome on January 2, 1810 and arrived at Fontainebleau on the 29th of that month. It is not known with certainty if he attended or not the marriage of Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte and Maria-Louise of Austria, celebrated in Paris on April 2, 1810.

Death. March 21, 1811, Paris, assisted by his humble host and by his faithful chamberlain, Michele Torraca. Exposed in the church of Saint-Thomas d'Aquino, Paris, his parish, where the funeral took place; and buried in Vault III, in the first bay (from the door) on the left hand side, in the church of Sainte-Geneviève, now the Panthéon, Paris (2). In 1861, the archbishop of Paris, Cardinal François-Nicholas-Madeleine Morlot, advised Giacinto, grand-nephew of Cardinal Vincenti-Mareri, that the church where the remains rested was no longer designated for Catholic worship; and Giacinto decided to transfer the remains home. The casket was exhumed and transferred by train to Marseille; then, in a steamboat of the Messaggerie Imperiale, taken to Civitavecchia on September 4 and deposited in the parish church; on the evening of October 22, the remains arrived in Rieti in a funeral car from a Roman funeral home, and deposited in the cathedral; and after a solemn funeral, they were buried in the tomb of the family in the chapel of S. Catalina, next to the tomb of his brother, Alessandro (3).

Bibliography. Decraene, Jean-François. Petit dictionnaire des grands hommes du Panthéon. Paris : Monum, éditions du patrimoine, 2005, p. 57; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 267; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, CI, 13-17; Notizie per l'anno 1806. In Roma MDCCCVI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, con Licenza de' Superiori e Privilegio Pontificio, p. 23; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 37, 47 and 183; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 39; Vincenti Mareri, Giovanni. Un diplomatico del secolo decimottavo: il cardinale Ippolito Antonio Vincenti Mareri ed i suoi tempi (con documentazione in gran parte inedita desunta dal carteggio segreto). Milano : Edizioni Corbaccio, 1931; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 969.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait, Scuola italiana (1807-1811), diocese of Sabina; his portrait by Vincenzo Prozak, Cultura Italia Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; his portrait by an anonymous artist, Cultura Italia Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; his portrait, Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali; his engraving by Carlo Antonini, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his arms and commemorative plaque, piazza Vittorio Emanuele II (Municipio) - Rieti, RI, Chiera costui; his tomb in the Panthéon, Paris, France, Plot: Cell 3; funeral monument of his family by Giuseppe Valadier (1861), cathedral of Rieti, Cultura Italia Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; plaque of the funeral monument, cathedral of Rieti, Artpast, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali.

(1) This is according to Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, CI, 13; Notizie per l'anno 1806, p. 23. Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 267, says that he was born on January 30, 1738.
(2) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London, England:

HYPOLYTE ANTOINE VINCENT MARERI
CARDINAL ÉVÊQUE DE SABINE
NÉ À RÉATE LE XIII FÉVRIER MDCCXXXVIII
MORT À PARIS LE XII MARS MDCCCXI
     The date of his death is erroneous because he died on March 21, 1811.
(3) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from a photograph kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London, England:

A      XP      Ω
CINERES HIPPOLYTI VINCENTI MARERI CARD
EX AEDE PARISIENSE S. GENOVEVAE
HUC INLATI SUNT AN MDCCCLXI


         And on a plaque below:

XP      MEMORIAE IMMORTALI      XP
HIPPOLITI · ANT · VINCENTI · MARERI ·EQVIT · HIEROSOLYMARI
DOMO · REATE
GENERIS · ET · VIRTVTVM · GLORIA · SPECTANTISSIMI
OVI · P · M · PIO · VI · NEGOTIIS · PVBLICIS · GERVNDIS · ENITVIT
S · SPIRITVS · NOSOCOMIO · PRAEPOSITVS · AEGROTANTIVM · LEVAMEN
APOCRISARIVS · APVD · KAROLVM · III · ET · IV · REGES · HISPANIARVM
REI · CHRISTIANAE · PVBL · DECVS · ET · ROBVR
TVM · S · R · E · CARDINALIS
LEGATIONE · BONON · ET · SABIN · PONTIFICATV · SANCTE · PERFVMCTVS
IN · MEDIA · HONOREM · LVCE
ANNOS · NATVS · LXXIV · LVTETIAE · PARIS · DECESSIT · A · M · DCCC · XII
HYACYNTHUS · AVVNCVLO · INCOMPARABILI
TITVLVM · GRAT · ANIMI · CAUSSA · INSCRIB · CVRAVIT · A · M · DCCC· LXI ·

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(67) 3. MAURY, Jean-Siffrein (1746-1817)

Birth. June 26, 1746, Valreás, archdiocese of Avignon, France. From a Protestant family that had embraced Catholicism after the revokation of the Edict of Nantes. Son of Jean Jacques Maury, a shoemaker who had established himself in the Comtat Venaissin, and Jeanne Guille (1). He had three brothers. His first name is also listed as Giansifrido.

Education. Studied humanities at Collège of Sainte-Garde d'Avignon (a minor seminary), Vaucluse, from 1759; later, at Saint-Charles Seminary, Avignon (theology); and finally, at Collège de France, Paris, from 1765.

Early life. He went to Paris in 1765 as preceptor of the children of a noble family.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1769, Sens, by Cardinal Paul d'Albert de Luynes, archbishop of Sens. Distinguished himself as a sacred orator. Vicar general and official in the diocese of Lombez, January 1772. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Lombez, June 1772. Abbot commendatario of the Cistercian monastery of La Frenade, diocese of Saintes, September 30, 1772. Because of the fame of his eloqeunce, he was invited to preach at the French court in Versailles in Lent 177, 1778 and 1785. Member of the Académie Française, December 16, 1784. Prior of Lions-en-Santerre, Picardy, 1786. In the days before the Revolution, he was one of the counselors and secretaries of the keeper of the seal Chrétien Guillaume de Lamoignon de Malesherbes. Elected by the clergy of Péronne to the États Généraux in April 1789. Defended the monarchy and the Church in the National Assembly; he maintained oratory fights against Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, count of Mirabeau, whom he visited in his deathbed on March 23, 1791. In 1791, he published the work Sovranità del Papa sulla Città di Avignone e contado Venaissino. When the assembly was dissolved in September 1791, he left France and went to Coblence, the headquarters of the French exiles, in October 1791; and later, the following December, to Rome invited by Pope Pius VI.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicea, April 24, 1792. Consecrated, May 1, 1792, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Saverio de Zelada, secretary of State, assisted by Charles-François Pisani de la Gaude, bishop of Vence, and by Antoine-Félix Leyris-Desponchez, bishop of Perpignan. Nuncio extraordinary to the Diet of Frankfurt for the election of the successor to Emperor Leopold II and the coronation of Emperor Francis II of Austria.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1794; received the red hat on February 27, 1794; and the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, September 12, 1794. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Bishops and Regulars, Discipline of the Regulars, Fabric of Saint Peter's basilica, and Apostolic Visit. Protector of Vitorchiano, province of Viterbo. Transferred to the see of Montefiascone e Corneto, with personal title of archbishop, February 21, 1794. During the last years of the pontificate of Pope Pius VI he acted as agent of the count of Provence, regent of France and later claimant to the French throne (eventually becoming Louis XVIII). When the French invaded Italy in February 1798, he left the Papal States clandestinely, disguised as a coachman, and went to Sienna; and later to Venice. He was invited to go to Russia but never went. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, celebrated in Venice, which elected Pope Pius VII; he was the only French cardinal present. King Louis XVIII named him, after his exile in Mittau, his ambassador before Pope Pius VII The pope asked him to leave Rome in 1801 and go to his see of Montefiascone at the demand of Napoléon Bonaparte because his open hostility against the negotiation of the concordat. On August 22, 1804, he wrote a letter of congratulations to future Emperor Napoléon which marked his abandonment of the monarchic camp and his movement toward the empire. He met Napoléon in Genoa in April 1805 and established himself in Paris in June 1806; he became the cardinal of France from October 1, 1806 and a senator. Reentered the Académie Française on October 22, 1806 (he had been replaced by Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély in 1803); excluded again by royal ordinance of King Louis XVIII dated March 21, 1816. He was named first chaplain of King Jérôme of Westphalia and, on February 17, 1809, knight of the Légion d'honneur. He was present at the civil marriage of Empeor Napoléon and Archduchess Marie-Louise in April 1810 in Paris. Napoléon named him archbishop of Paris by imperial decree of October 14, 1810, without the papal bulls; Cardinal Joseph Fesch, Napoléon's uncle, had turned down the offer; he accepted and took possession of the see on November 1, 1810; a brief from Pope Pius VII, dated on November 5, 1810 in Savone, prohibited him from governing the archdiocese; a second brief of December 18, 1810, declared null all his administrative acts; the cardinal refused to take action and personally collaborated in the arrest, on January 1, 1811, of his vicar general, Paul-Thérèse-David d'Astros, with charges that he himself presented. Cardinal Maury actively participated in the National Council of the Gallican Church in 1811; and in 1812 in the negotiations with the pope for the signature of the Concordat of Fontainebleau. He received the grand cross of the Order de la Réunion on April 3, 1813. On April 4, 1814, he associated himself to the resolution of the chapter of the cathedral of Notre-Dame of Paris in favor of the removal of Emperor Napoléon; the same chapter took away the cardinal's power on April 9, 1814. In spite of a Mémoire of justification, dated May 12, 1814, he had to resign as archbishop of Paris on the following day, May 13; he left the city on May 18 to avoid the vengeance of King Louis XVIII, who had ascended to the throne. He returned to Rome and was summoned to explain his conduct; Pope Pius VII refused to receive him in audience, prohibited him from attending the cardinalitial congregations and other functions of the Sacred College of Cardinals and removed him from his diocese, where the administration had been entrusted to Bonaventura Gassola, bishop of Cervia, as apostolic vicar. After the departure of the pope for Genoa during the One Hundred Days, March 22, 1815, he was imprisoned in the Castle of Sant'Angelo by the Giunta provisionale for having considered to go back to France; a commission of ten cardinals (2) was formed to examine his conduct; he was sent to the Lazzarist novitiate of S. Silvestro del Quirinale; when Cardinal Secretary of State Ercole Consalvi returned in July 1815, he suspended any judicial action, obtained the pardon of the pope and restored his cardinalitial dignity. He resigned the government of the see on March 24, 1816. King Louis XVIII of France never forgave him. The cardinal spent the last years of his life very isolated.

Death. May 10, 1817, Rome, of scurvy; he was found dead in his bed with the rosary in his hands. King Louis XVIII prohibited the burial of his body in his titular church, SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, the national church of France in Rome. Pope Pius VII ordered that the cardinal should be buried before the high altar of the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, next to Cardinals Cesare Baronio and Domenico Tarugi.

Bibliography. Les archevêques de Paris (1622-2002). Paris : Letouzey & Ané, 2002, pp. 74-75; Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 423-426; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 411-412; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLIV, 16-20; Notizie per l'anno 1806. In Roma MDCCCVI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, con Licenza de' Superiori e Privilegio Pontificio, p. 24; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 38, 49, 295 and 308; Poujoulat, Jean Joseph François. Le cardinal Maury, sa vie et ses oeuvres. Paris : J. Vermont, 1855.

Links. Biography by Thomas Scannell, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; portrait and biography, in French; his portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his portrait and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his engraving by Medardus Thönert and ... Delaplace; Essai sur l'éloquence de la chaire by Jean Siffrein Maury, in French, Internet Archive; Correspondance diplomatique et mémoires inédits du cardinal Maury (1792-1817), in French, (1891), tome 1, Internet Archive; Correspondance diplomatique et mémoires inédits du cardinal Maury (1792-1817), in French, (1891), tome 2, Internet Archive; Vie du cardinal Jean Sifrein Maury by Louis Sifrein Maury, in French (1828), Internet Archive; Le cardinal Maury, sa vie et ses uvres by Jean Joseph F. Poujoulat, in French (1855), Internet Archive; his portrait, Library of the Seminary of Montefiascone, Levenson; his portrait by Étienne Barthélémy Garnier, Arcadja; his portrait, Cultura Italia, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali (erroneously named Paolo Emilio); his portrait, Cultura Italia, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali (erroneously named Paolo Emilio); his engraving by Carlo Antonini, Banque d'images, Recherche de Recherches, Château de Versailles; his engraving by Henri Grévedon, Banque d'images, Recherche de Recherches, Château de Versailles; his engraving by François Godefroy, Banque d'images, Recherche de Recherches, Château de Versailles; his engraving, Banque d'images, Recherche de Recherches, Château de Versailles; his engraving and arms by an anonymous artists, Bilbliothèque National de France; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; four engravings, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna.

(1) Some sources say that the father was a smallholder, accommodated, but not rich.
(2) They were Cardinals Alessandro Mattei, Giulio Maria della Somaglia, Michele di Pietro, Ferdinando Maria Saluzzo, Bartolomeo Pacca, Cesare Brancadoro, Lorenzo Litta, Giulio Gabrielli, Pierfrancesco Galleffi and Carlo Oppizzoni; the secretary was Michele Belli.

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(68) 4. BUSSI DE PRETIS, Giovanni Battista (1721-1800)

Birth. September 11, 1721, Urbino (1). Son of Francesco Maria de Pretis, a nobleman, and Lucrezia di Porto, from Ravenna. Baptized on that same day. His first name is also listed as Giambattista; and his last name listed as Pretis only; as Bussi già de Pretis; and as Bussi olim de Pretis.

Education. Studied at the University of Urbino, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, April 27, 1747. Governor of the city Narni, 1748 until 1751. Prelate of the Fabric of Saint Peter's basilica, 1749. Took the name of the prelature Bussi as his last name. Governor of the city of San Severino, June 30, 1751 until March 1752. Governor of the city of Benevento, March 15, 1752 until December 1758. Governor of the city of Spoleto, December 1, 1758 until June 1762. Governor of the city of Ascoli, May 25, 1762 until November 1764. Governor of the city of Ancona, November 27, 1764 until October 1765. Governor of the city of Civitavecchia, October 5, 1765 until November 1766. Governor of Frosinone (Campagna e Marittima), November 15, 1766. President of the Apostolic Chamber in 1771. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, March 25, 1772 until 1794.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate on December 23, 1775. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1776. President delle Strade, June 1778. Dean of the clerics of the Apostolic Chamber in 1778. Commisary delle Armi, June 1785, at the death of Monsignor Pietro Paolo Millo.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1794; received the red hat on February 27, 1794; and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, September 12, 1794. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Tridentine Council, Ecclesiastical Immunity, Good Government, and Sacred Consulta.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Jesi, February 21, 1794. Ordained priest, April 13, 1794. Consecrated, April 27, 1794, cathedral of Frascati, by Cardinal Henry Benedict Mary Stuart, duke of York, bishop of Frascati, assisted by Ottavio Boni, titular archbishop of Nazianzo, and by Michele di Pietro, titular bishop of Isauropoli. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, celebrated in Venice, which elected Pope Pius VII.

Death. June 27, 1800, Jesi. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Jesi.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VI, 173; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCVI. In Roma MDCCXCVI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, presso la fine del Corso. Con licenza de' Superiori, e Privilegio, p., p. 31; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 38, 45 and 68; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 118, 125, 144, 184, 220, 308, 382, 389 and 532

Links. His portrait, Pinacoteca Civica, Jesi, Sirpac sistema informativo Regione Marche; his engraving by Carlo Antonini, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

(1) This is according to Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, VI, 173; and Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCVI, p. 31. Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 68, says that he was born on September 22, 1721.

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(69) 5. PIGNATELLI, iuniore, Francesco Maria (1744-1815)

Birth. February 19, 1744, Rosarno, a city in the feud of his family in Calabria. Of one of the premier families of the Neapolitan aristocracy. Second of the nine children of Fabrizio III Pignatelli, 8th prince of Noia, and Costanza de' Medici di Ottajano. The other siblings were Ettore, Diego, Margherita and five nuns. The family gave the Church Pope Innocent XII; and Cardinals Francesco Pignatelli, seniore, Theat. (1703); Domenico Pignatelli di Belmonte, Theat. (1802); and Ferdinando Maria Pignatelli, Theat. (1839).

Education. Received his initial education from Dominican and Capuchin preceptors; went to Rome in 1758 and continued his formation at the Somaschan Collegio Clementino; obtained a doctorate in law at La Sapienza University, Rome, on October 21, 1765.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature as protonotary apostolic and later, on November 28, 1765, became referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Vice-legate in Ferrara, January 19, 1767 until June 30, 1772. Relator of the Sacred Consulta, January 1772. Master of the Papal Chamber, February 14, 1785; occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate. Archdeacon of Gerona, March 1786. As master of the papal chamber, he went to Viterbo to meet King Ferdinand IV and Queen Maria Carolina of Naples, who were visiting the Papal States.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1794; received the red hat on February 27, 1794; and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, September 12, 1794. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, Rites, Sacred Consulta, and Apostolic Visit. Apostolic visitor of the Archhospital S. Giovanni, called Sancta Sanctorum. Protector of the Congregation of Nobles under the title of the Nativity of Mary, Narni; of the Confraternity of S. Giovanni Decollato, Orte; of the Confraternity of Ssmo Sagramento e Nome di Dio in Ss. Celso e Giuliano, Banchi; of the Confraternity of Ssmo Sagramento in S. Niccolò in Carcere; of the City of Orte; of Tolentino; of Monte Brandone, in Marca; of the Venerable Confraternity of S. Niccola in Monte Brandone; and of the Confraternity of Sagre Stimata di S. Francesco, Macerata. Legate in Ferrara, June 1, 1795; when the French troops occupied Ferrara without a fight, he was incarcerated for a brief time as prisoner of war; freed, he went to Rome and then to Naples; reclaimed by Napoléon Bonaparte as prisoner under parole and ordered him to go to Milan; Pope Pius VI asked him to surrender; the signature of the Treaty of Tolentino exempted him. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, celebrated in Venice, which elected Pope Pius VII; after the conclave, he returned to Rome, which was occupied by Neapolitan troops. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, April 2, 1800. Named protector of the Order of St. Augustine before August 2, 1800. Prefect of the S.C. of the Discipline of Regulars before October 10, 1801. Apostolic visitor of the Hospital Ssmo Salvatore; apostolic visitor and protector of Collegio Capranica, Rome; of the church and hospital of S. Maria di Loreto de' Fornari; and of the Convertite of the monastery of S. Maria Egiziaca of Viterbo. When he went to France to crown Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte, Pope Pius VII gave Cardinal Pignatelli he document of resignation from the pontificate in case he would be retained by the French by force. Arrested in Rome by the French on December 10, 1809 and exiled to France after the detention of Pope Pius VII; he was one of the thirteen "black cardinals" who refused to attend the wedding of Emperor Napoléon I and Archduchess Marie-Louise of Austria on April 12, 1810; by order of the emperor, he was relegated to Rethel with Cardinal Alessandro Mattei; he was recalled after the signature of the Concordat of Fontainebleau by the pope on January 25, 1813. Returned to the side of the pope following the denunciation of the concordat on March 24, 1813; due to his ill health, he remained in Paris when other cardinals were exiled on January 27, 1814; an order of the provisional government freed him on April 2, 1814. Returned to Rome and died the following year.

Death. August 14, 1815, in his palace of S. Lorenzo ai Monti, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, where the funeral took place in the presence of Pope Pius VII and the Sacred College of Cardinals; the solemn mass was sung by Cardinal Pierfrancesco Galleffi, camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals; and buried in his title, S. Maria in Trastevere.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 450-451; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LIII, 51-52; Notizie per l'anno 1806. In Roma MDCCCVI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, con Licenza de' Superioi e Privilegio Pontificio, p. 24; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 38 and 46; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 43; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 761; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 255, 256 and 844.

Links. His portrait, Araldica Vaticana; his engraving by Carlo Antonini, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

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(70) 6. ROVERELLA, Aurelio (1748-1812)

Birth. August 21, 1748, Cesena. Of an illustrious family. Youngest of the five children of Carlo Roverella, count of Sorrivoli, and Maria Toschi. The other siblings were Giovanni (commander of the city and province of Ferrara), Teresa (nun of S. Caterina of Cesena), Ippolito (count) and Chiara. Another cardinal of the family was Bartolomeo Roverella (1461).

Education. At a young age, he went to Rome to study law, acquiring great legal expertise.

Early life. Conclavist of Cardinal Luigi Maria Torrigiani in the conclave of 1769. He entered the Roman prelature after the election of Pope Pius VI, his compatriot, who advanced his ecclesiastical career rapidly. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, September 1775. Ablegato apostolic to bring the red biretta to new Cardinal Giovanni Carlo Bandi in Imola in September 1775. Consistorial advocate, June 1776. Protonotary apostolic. Abbot commendatario of S.Benedetto di Schalocchi and of S. Giovanni Evangelista, Città di Castello, December 1782. Civil auditor of the auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, January 1783. Domestic prelate, January1783. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, February 1785; took possession on July 5, 1785. Prelate of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, July 1785. Abbot commendatario of S. Pietro in Vincoli, Imola, December 1786. Papal auditor, April 1789.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1794; received the red hat on February 27, 1794; and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, September 12, 1794. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Holy Office, Consistorial, Tridentine Council, Examination of Bishops in Sacred Canons, and Loreto. Protector of the Order of Friars Minor Conventuals, December 12, 1794. Pro-datary of His Holiness, February 27, 1795. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 27, 1796 until July 24, 1797. In 1797, when Pope Pius VI fell ill, he granted Cardinal Roverella all the faculties; and the pontiff did the same thing on February 20, 1798, when he was taken prisoner by the French and transported to France. When the Roman Republic was proclaimed and the Papal States were occupied by the French, the cardinal departed. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, celebrated in Venice, which elected Pope Pius VII. Confirmed as pro-datary by Pope Pius VII, March 29, 1800; occupied the post until his death. On May 23, 1800, he was named one of the three cardinal legates to go to Rome to govern until the arrival of the pontiff. Abbot commendatario of Fossanova, September 1802. Protector of the Congregation of Vallombrosa, November 19, 1802. In 1808, he was expelled from Rome by the French and retired to Ferrara.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, March 27, 1809, retaining in commendam his title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo. Consecrated (no information found). Superior of the house and church of Gesù. Protector of the Congregation of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin the house of Gesù; of the monastery of the Oblates of the Seven Sorrows; of the Hospital of S. Gallicano; of the Venerable Archconfraternity of S. Maria del Gonfalone; of he Archconfraternity degli Agonizzanti; of he Archconfraternity del Nome di Maria; of the Archconfraternities of Ssma Anunziata and of Ssmo Rosario in Santa Maria sopra Minerva; of the church and hospital of S. Maria del'Orto; of the nuns of Ss BambinoGesù; delle Maestre Pie; of the Conservatory delle Mendicanti; of thirteen other sodalities in Rome and the Papal States; of the Hospital of Sanseverino; of the nuns of S. Caterina of Todi and of S. Antonio di Cascia; of the cities of Osimo, Viterbo, Piperno, Sezze, Cori, Ascoli and Jesi; and of eleven terre of the Papal States. Toward the end of 1809, after Pope Pius VII had been deported to France on July 6, he received the order of going to Paris like all the other cardinals; there, afraid because of the violence that he saw the pope, other cardinals and the Roman clergy subjected to, or won the praise that he received from the imperial ministers, he acquiesced to the orders and decision of Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte against the pope, his prisoner. He was present at the civil and religious marriages of Emperor Napoléon I and Archduchess Marie-Louise of Austria on April 1 and 2, 1810 in Paris. He was one of the most distinguished "red cardinals". Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca, in his Memorie storiche, openly points at Cardinal Roverella as the instigator of the maneuvers and pressures exercised over Pope Pius VII during his captivity in France by Emperor Napoléon I. In 1811, he was sent to Savona, where Pope Pius VII was together with Cardinals Giuseppe Doria, Antonio Dugnani, Fabrizio Ruffo and Alphonse-Hubert de Latier de Bayane. In that year, Cardinal Roverella took the leading role of that group of cardinals which practically wrote the papal brief that gave approval to all the decrees sanctioned by the Council of Paris, which had been taken without papal intervention or the presence of the papal legate; the decrees contained the clauses that should be added to the concordat that Pope Pius VII had signed the year before, which he had regretted for many days.

Death. September 6, 1812, Bourbon-les-bains, Champagne, France. Buried in the church of Sainte-Genoviève, Paris (the Panthéon).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1481-1482; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LIX, 198-200; Notizie per l'anno 1806. In Roma MDCCCVI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, con Licenza de' Superioi e Privilegio Pontificio, p. 24-25; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 38, 44 and 56; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 38; Roverella, Aurelio. Decisiones Sac. Rotae Romanae coram R.P.D. Aurelio Roverella Patritio Ferrariensi, et Caesenate, ejusdem Sac. Rotae XIIviro, nunc sanctissimi domini nostri Pii Papae Sexti auditore : juxta seriem temporis dispositae : cum argumentis, summariis, ac indice conclusionum locupletissimo ad finem adjecto. Romae : Prostant apud Marium Nicolj, 1790. Note: Contains 96 (I-XCVI) decisions dating from March 1784 through March 1789; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 846.

Links. His portrait by Giuseppe Milani, Pinacoteca Comunale di Cesena; his portrait (?) by an unknown artist, Biblioteca Comunale Ariostea, Ferrara; his engraving by Carlo Antonini, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

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(71) 7. RINUCCINI, Giovanni (1743-1801)

Birth. July 22, 1743, Florence. From a noble family. Youngest of the four children of Marquis Folco Rinuccini and Maria Camilla Aldobrandini, of a senatorial family. The other siblings were Carlo (ambassador in Spain), Alessandro (maggiordomo maggiore of the king of Etruria) and Vittoria.

Education. He received the "educazione civile e scientifica conveniente al suo grado" (1).

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature. Protonotary apostolic, April 1763; later, dean of their college; as such, assumed temporarily the functions of secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide from September to November 1770; of the prefecture of studies of Collegio Romano during the conclave of October 1774 to February 1775. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, June 9, 1763. Vice-legate in Bologna, July 1763. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, October 1766; took possession, January 1767. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber and president della Grascia, December 1780. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, April 7, 1789 until February 21, 1794.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1794; received the red hat on February 27, 1794; and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, September 12, 1794. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Propaganda Fide, Rites, Sacred Consulta, Ecclesiastical Immunity, Avignon, and Loreto. Protector of Congregation of the monks of Vallombrosa; of the Hospital of S. Gallicano; of the Conservatory of the Divine Providence; of the University of Padroni Cappellari; and of the University of Macellari. Received the subdiaconate on December 14, 1794; and the diaconate on December 21, 1794. The year after the French invasion of Rome, he was forced to leave the city with other cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, celebrated in Venice, which elected Pope Pius VII. Prefect of the Economy of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, January 1801. Apostolic visitor of the House of Loreto and its hospital. Protector of the Order of the Servants of Mary; of the Confraternity and Hospice of SSma Trinità dei Pellegrini; and of the Confraternity of S. Giuseppe di Palombara, in S. Sabina. Abbot commendatario of S. Giovanni dell'Eremo, Perugia.

Death. Sunday December 28, 1801, of an apoplexy, near 7 p.m., in Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marcello, Rome;where the solemn funeral, in the presence of Pope Pius VII, and celebrated by Cardinal Diego Innico Caracciolo, camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, took place; he was provisionally buried in that church. Later, in July 1802, his remains were privately transferred to the church of S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini, Rome, and buried in his family's tomb.

Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 121; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LVII, 304-305; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCVI. In Roma MDCCXCVI : Nella Stamperia Cracas, presso la fine del Corso. Con licenza de' Superiori, e Privilegio, p.24; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 38, Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 811; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 161, 362 and 867.

Link. His engraving by Carlo Antonini, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

(1) Morono, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, LVII, 304: he received the civil and scientific education convenient to his condition.

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(72) 8. LANCELLOTTI, Filippo (1732-1794)

Birth. August 17, 1732, Rome. From a noble family. Second of the eight children of Ottavio Lancellotti, prince of Lauro, and his first wife, Maria Angelica Lante Montefeltro della Rovere. The other siblings were Scipione (prince of Marzano), Erminio, Federico (died in infancy), Luigi (died in infancy), Filippo (died in childhood), Maria Anna (Discalced Carmelite nun of Quattre Fontane) and Luigi (died in infancy). After the death of his wife in 1743, the father married Ginevra Toruzzi, from Velletri, and had a son, Luigi. Grand-nephew on his mother's side of Cardinal Federico Marcello Lante (1743). Other cardinals of the family were Scipione Lancellotti (1583); Orazio Lancelllotti (1611); and Giulio Gabrielli (1641), a Lancellotti on his mother's side.

Education. Manifesting inclination to the ecclesiastical state, he made the corresponding studies.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature. Pope Benedict XIV named him protonotary apostolic and canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Having cultivate poetry, in 1759, he was proclaimed prince of the Academy degli Infecondi. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta. Second assessor of the criminal of the tribunal of the government of Rome, 1771. Coadjutor of the voter of the Tribunal of the Signature of Justice, Msgr. Guarnacci, May 1775; later titular voter. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, November 1778; took possession, April 1779. Pro-prefect of the Sacred Apostolic Palace, December 1786; prefect, January 1787.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1794; he never received the red hat and the deaconry.

Death. July 13, 1794, after a short illness, having received the sacraments of the Church and the apostolic blessing, in Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, of the Filippini Fathers, where the funeral took place, celebrated by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Caprara, camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals; and buried in the chapel of S. Luigi Gonzaga, of his family, in the church of S. Ignazio, Rome.

Bibliography. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXVII, 87; Notizie per l'anno MDCCXCV. Rome : Nella Stamperia Cracas, 1795, p. 37; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 38; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 548.

Links. His portrait, Cultura Italia Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; his engraving by Carlo Antonini, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

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