The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius VII (1800-1823)
Consistory of February 23, 1801 (III)
Celebrated in the Quirinale Palace, Rome


(4) 1. FIRRAO, Giuseppe (1736-1830)

Birth. July 20, 1736, Fagnano, diocese of S. Marco Argentano. Of a princely family. Second of the three children child of Pier Maria Firrao, prince of Sant'Agata and Luzi, and Livia Grillo di Agapito, duchess of Mondragone and countess of Carinola. The other siblings were Tommaso, viceroy of Sicily in 1798; and Maria Antonia, sister in law of Cardinal Fabrizio Dionigi Ruffo (1791). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Giuseppe Firrao (1731).

Education. Completed his first studies in Naples; Collegio Nazareno, Rome (humanities); La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, April 25, 1756).

Early life. Received the subdiaconate, March 11, 1775. Privy chamberlain of Pope Clement XIII. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, July 1756. Relator of the Reverend Fabric of Saint Peter's, December 1759. Named vice-legate in Romandiola, January 1761; took possession, November 14, 1761; occupied the post until before December 8, 1766. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta from July 1766; dean in 1781. Received the diaconate, March 10, 1782.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 16, 1782.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Petra in Palestina, February 25, 1782. Consecrated, March 31, 1782, church of S. Maria ad Martyres, Rome, by Cardinal Innocenzo Conti, assisted by Orazio Mattei, titular archbishop of Colosso, and by Girolamo Volpi, titular archbishop of Neocesarea in Ponto. Nuncio in Venice, April 8, 1782. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, 1795.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 23, 1801; received the red hat, February 26, 1801; and the title of S. Eusebio, July 20, 1801. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 29, 1802 until 1803. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII.

Death. January 24, 1830, Naples. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 382-383; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 354-355; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 335; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 7 and 41; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. 6 v. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 424; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 372 and 673.

Links. His biographical entry, in Italian, at the end of the page; and his engraving by Carlo Antonini, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana.

Cool Archive

(5) 2. SALUZZO, Ferdinando Maria (1744-1816)

Birth. November 20 (1), 1744, Naples. Son of Giacomo Saluzzo, duke of Corigliano, and Maria Francesca Pignatelli.

Education. La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, February 11, 1767).

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, February 19, 1767. Protonotary apostolic participantium. Vice-legate in Ferrara, 1772. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta and of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites. Sub-dean of the college of protonotaries apostolic numeraries and participants.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1784.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Teodosia, June 25, 1784. Consecrated, July 4, 1784, basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, by Cardinal Marcantonio Colonna, assisted by Girolamo Volpi, titular archbishop of Neocesarea in Ponto, and by Orazio Mattei, titular archbishop of Colosso. Transferred to the titular see of Cartago, July 13, 1784, when the see of Teodosia was extinguished. Nuncio in Poland, July 30 (2), 1784 until 1794. President of the state of Urbino, March 14, 1794.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 23, 1801; received the red hat, February 26, 1801; and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, July 20, 1801. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1803 to 1804. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, May 28, 1804. Deported by the French to Naples and later to France. For his refusal to attend the marriage ceremonies of Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte and Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria on April 2, 1810, he and twelve other cardinals were deprived of their property and of their cardinalitial dignity and compelled to wear black garments, whence their name of "black cardinals". Prefect of the S.C. of the Good Government, 1814 until his death.

Death. November 3, 1816, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, where the funeral took place on November 7, 1816; and buried in his title.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 463-464; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 259; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 825-826; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 150 and 402; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 7, 40 and 43; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 255, 421 and 887.

Link. His engraving by Carlo Antonini, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 402; Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 259, says that he was born on November 21, 1744.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 150; Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, 259, says that he was named on August 21, 1784.

Cool Archive

(6) 3. RUFFO SCILLA, Luigi (1750-1832)

Birth. August 25, 1750, S. Onofrio, diocese of Mileto. Son of Guglielmo Ruffo, prince of Scilla, and Lucrezia Reggio, of the princes of Campoflorito and Aci. Other cardinals of the family were Tommaso Ruffo (1706); Antonio Maria Ruffo (1743); Fabrizio Dionigi Ruffo (1791); and Fulco Luigi Ruffo-Scilla (1891).

Education. La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, December 3, 1772).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 20, 1780. Relator of the S.C. of the Good Government and of the Sacred Consulta. Governor of Rome (1). Regent of the Apostolic Chancery.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Apamea, April 11, 1785. Consecrated, April 24, 1785, patriarchal Lateran basilica, by Cardinal Francesco Saverio de Zelada, librarian of the Holy Roman Church and archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, assisted by Martino Bianchi, bishop of Lucca, and by Pietro Luigi Galletti, O.S.B., titular bishop of Cirene. Nuncio in Tuscany, April 26 (2), 1785 until 1793. In 1788 brought the red biretta to the new Cardinal Tommaso Maria Ghilini. Nuncio in Austria, August 23, 1793 until 1800.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 23, 1801; received the red hat, June 10 1801; and the title of S. Martino ai Monti, August 9, 1802. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Naples, August 9, 1802. On May 26, 1806 he was expelled from his see by the French and relegated to the fortress of Gaeta; in 1809, he was sent to Paris and then confined in Saint-Quentin from 1810 to 1813; he was one of the "black cardinals" (prohibited by Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte to wear red cardinalitial habits); in 1813, he was sent to Fontainebleau; later, reunited with Pope Pius VII and other cardinals in the castle of Savona; returned to Naples on June 10, 1815. Elected president of Public Instruction in 1821. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI (3).

Death. November 17, 1832 (4), Naples. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples (5). The funeral oration was delivered by Canon Salvatore Guarracino.

Bibliography. Berthelet, Giovanni. Conclavi pontefici e cardinali nel secolo XIX; atti concernenti la malattia, morte ed elezione del papa. Torino : Casa Editrice Nazionale, 1903; Cacciamani, Giuseppe M. Storia del conclave di Papa Gregorio XVI (15 dicembre 1830 - 2 febbraio 1831). Fano : Edizioni Camaldoli, 1960; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972; Dovere, Ugo. Il buon governo del clero. Cultura e religione nella Napoli di antico regime. Roma : Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 2010. (Biblioteca di storia sociale, 36); Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 258; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 816-817-817; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 90; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 7, 43 and 278; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunci apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, pp. 191-193; Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli: Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, p. 262-270; Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli: Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, pp. 262-270.

Links. Biography, in German; his genealogy, A8 B1 C4 D4 E1 F1 G2 H4; his engraving by Carlo Antonini, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana; his engraving, Bildarchiv der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; and another engraving from the same source.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 90; Del Re, Monsignor governatore di Roma, does not mention him among the governors of Rome.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 90; Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 258, says that he was appointed on April 30, 1785.
(3) This is according to Cacciamani, Storia del conclave di Papa Gregorio XVI; Berthelet, Giovanni. Conclavi pontefici e cardinali nel secolo XIX says that he did not participate in the conclave of 1830-1831.
(4) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 7; Zigarelli, Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli, p. 269, says that he died on November 16, 1832.
(5) This is the text of his epitaph, composed by Canon Francesco Rossi, taken from Zigarelli, Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli, p. 269:

HEIC. EXPECTAT. BEATAM. RESVRRECTIONEM.
ALOYSIUS. RVFFO. DE. CALABRIA. S. R. E. PRESBYTER. CARDINALIS.
ARCHIEPISCOPVS. NEAPOLITANVS.
RELIGIONIS. CVLTV. ET. CETERIS.
PASTORALIBVS. VIRTVTIBVS. VNIVERSIS. COMMENDATTISSIMVS.
VIXIT. AN. LXXXII. MEN. II. DIES. XXVIII.
OBIIT. XVI. KALEN. DECEMB. AN. R. S. MDCCCXXXII.

Cool Archive

(7) 4. PACCA, seniore, Bartolomeo (1756-1844)

Birth. December 25 (1), 1756, Benevento. Second child of Orazio Pacca, marquis of Matrice, and Cristina Malaspina, of the marquises of Lunigiana. Uncle of Monsignor Tiberio Pacca. Grand-uncle of his homonimous Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca, iuniore (1875).

Education. Studied at the Somaschan Collegio Clementino , Rome; at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, from 1778; and at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on April 21, 1775. Received the insignias of the clerical character on July 13, 1777; the minor orders on July 17, 1785; the subdiaconate on July 31, 1785; and the diaconate on August 7, 1785.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 14, 1785. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, 1785.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Damietta, September 26, 1785. Consecrated, April 17, 1786, in the Church of SS. Trinità a Montecitorio (no longer in existence, it is now the Italian parliament building), Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Carlo Boschi, assisted by Rudolf von Edling, archbishop of Gorizia, and by Ottavio Boni, titular archbishop of Nazianzo. Nuncio in Cologne, April 24, 1786. Nuncio in France but could not occupy the post because of the French Revolution. Nuncio in Portugal, March 21, 1794.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 23, 1801; received the red hat, July 29 , 1801; and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, August 9, 1802. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1804 to 1805. Pro-secretary of State, June 18 (or 19), 1808, after the entrance of the French in Rome; occupied the post until May 7 or 10, 1814. Prefect of the S.C. of the Ecclesiastical Immunity, January 7, 1809. In 1809, Pope Pius VII excommunicated Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte and on July 6, the pope and Cardinal Pacca were arrested and the former was sent to Savona while the latter was sent, on August 6, 1809, to Fenestrelle until 1813. In that year, he was allowed to join the pope in Fontainebleau; influenced the pope to retract the agreement with Napoléon I and was deported to Uzès in January 1814; freed at the fall of Napoléon I in April 1814. Returned to Rome and organized a State Junta to govern in the name of the absent pope. Initially, represented the Holy See in the Congress of Vienna but soon was replaced by Cardinal Ercole Consalvi. Pro-secretary of State while Cardinal Consalvi was at the Congress, 1814. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, September 26, 1814 until 1824. Did not leave Rome when Joaquim Murat, king of Naples, advanced toward the city; and during the one hundred days as governor of Rome, took some controversial measures such as ordering the imprisonment of Cardinal Jean-Siffrein Maury in Castello Sant'Angelo (freed by Cardinal Consalvi as soon as he returned to Rome). Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, October 2, 1818. Cardinal protoprete. Prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, November 29, 1818. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, December 21, 1818. Legate in Velletri. Preceptor of the Accademia Archeologica; issued the Edict Pacca prohibiting the exodus from Rome of artistic treasures preserved in private galleries, 1820. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, August 13, 1821. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Pro-datary of His Holiness, November 18, 1824. Became bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina and Civitavecchia on December 10, 1825, when the latter see was united to his previous one. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Confirmed as pro-datary by the new pope, March 31, 1829; occupied the post until his death. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, April 5, 1830 until his death. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, July 5, 1830. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Prefect of the S.C. Ceremonial. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, 1830. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 19, 1837 until February 12, 1838. Prefect of the S.C. for the Correction of Oriental Books. Prefect of the Economy of Collegio Romano. His house was frequented by the most illustrious scientists, men of letters, and artists, both Roman and foreign. He had excavations made in Ostia at his own expense; and with the objects discovered, he formed a small museum in his vineyard on Via Aurelia, the Casino of Pius V.

Death. April 19, 1844, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli where the funeral, with the participation of Pope Gregory XVI, took place; and buried in that same church.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 439-443; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 701-707; Pacca, Bartolomeo. Notes on the ministry of Cardinal B. Pacca, secretary of state to His Holiness Pope Pius VII., from the 18th June, 1808, to the dethronement of the Pope by Buonaparte on the 6th July, 1809; also, an account of the Cardinal's journey with the Pope to Grenoble; his imprisonment in the fortress of San Carlos, at Fenestrelles, from the 6th August, 1809, to 5th February, 1813; his journey to Fontainebleau and Paris, and final return to Rome on the 14th May, 1814. Dublin: John Cumming, 1843; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 192; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 7, 37, 38, 39, 42, 44 and 49.

Links. Biography by Umberto Benigni, in English, the Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by David Armando, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 80 (2014), Treccani; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; portraits, engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; two engravings, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; and his arms on a medal in the same collection.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 192; and his biography in Italian, linked above; his biography in English, also linked above, indicates that he was born on December 27, 1756.

Cool Archive

(8) 5. BRANCADORO, Cesare (1755-1837)

Birth. August 28, 1755, Fermo. Of one of the premier families of the patriciate of Fermo. Son of Count Giuseppe Brancadoro and Giulia Massi. Uncle of Cardinals Tommaso Bernetti (1826); and Antonio Matteucci (1866).

Education. University of Fermo, Fermo (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Pastoral work at the cathedral of Fermo; then librarian of the archbishop. Privy chamberlain of Pope Pius VI.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nisibis, October 20, 1789. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, November 5, 1789. Consecrated, July 25, 1790, cathedral of Fermo, by Andrea Minucci, archbishop of Fermo, assisted by Domenico Spinucci, bishop of Macerata e Tolentino, and by Bartolomeo Bacher, bishop of Ripatransone. Superior of the mission in Batavia. Given faculties over the provinces of Holland, Zealand, and Western Frigia, August 13, 1790. Nuncio in Belgium, August 28, 1792. Secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, June 7, 1797. Transferred to the see of Orvieto, with the personal title of archbishop, August 11, 1800.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 23, 1801; received red hat, February 26, 1801; and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, July 20, 1801. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Fermo, July 11, 1803. Refused to attend Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte's wedding, was deported to Reims in 1810, and was one of the "black cardinals" (prohibited by Napoléon I to wear red cardinalitial habit). Transferred to Fontainebleau in 1813 and deported to Orange at the beginning of 1814. Freed at the fall of Napoléon I. Opted for the title of S. Agostino, May 29, 1820. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. Went blind several years before his death.

Death. September 12 (1), 1837, Fermo. Exposed and buried metropolitan cathedral of Fermo.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 320-322; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 178-180; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 311; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 7, 40, 41 and 195; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 100.

Link. His engraving by Giuseppe Mannelli, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 7, 40 and 195; the same work, VI, 311, gives September 10, 1837 as the date of his death.

Cool Archive

(9) 6. GALLARATI SCOTTI, Giovanni Filippo (1747-1819)

Birth. February 25, 1747, Milan. Of one of the premier families of the Milanese patriciate. Son of Giovanni Battista Gallarati Scotti and Maria Teresa Spinola. He is also listed as Scotti Gallarati, Gallerati Scotti and Filippo Scotti.

Education. University of Pavia, Pavia (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, 1773); Collegio of Milan (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, 1773). Received the insignias of the clerical character, September 11, 1754.

Early life. Vice-legate in Romagna, February 17, 1770 until April 1776. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, February 6, 1769. Relator of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Affairs and of the Sacred Consulta. Inquisitor general in Malta, 1785.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 12, 1792.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Side, September 24, 1792. Consecrated, March 17, 1793, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Luigi Valenti Gonzaga, prefect of the Economat of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, assisted by Carlo Crivelli, titular archbishop of Patras, prefect of the Vatican archives, and by Antonio Felice Zondadari, titular archbishop of Adana, nuncio in Belgium. Nuncio in Tuscany, August 23, 1793 until October 3, 1795. Nuncio in Venice, August 18, 1795 until 1797 (1). Prefect of the cubiculi of His Holiness, August 19, 1800.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 23, 1801; received red hat, February 26, 1801; and the title of S. Alessio, July 20, 1801. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1805 to 1806. Refused to attend the wedding of Emperor Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte and Empress Marie-Louise and was exiled to Sédan, Carleville, and Toulon. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, September 26, 1814. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, 1814. Prefect of the Economy of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, 1817. Opted for the title of Lorenzo in Lucina, retaining in commendam the title of S. Prassede, December 21, 1818. Cardinal protoprete.

Death. October 6, 1819, in the country house of the Gaultieri family, near Orvieto. Exposed in the cathedral of Orvieto; transferred to Rome and buried in the church of Ss. Ambrogio e Carlo al Corso (2).

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, p. 465; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 245; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 384-386; Martinelli, Raffaello. Le Lapidi di San Carlo al Corso : catechesi in immagini. Roma : Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo, 2007. (Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo; Variation: Arciconfraternita dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo), p. 92; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 379; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 7, 42 and 44; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 372 and 685.

Link. His engraving by Carlo Antonini, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 379; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 245, indicates that he was named on September 25, 1795.
(2) This is the text of his epitaphy, taken from a photograph of the same in Martinelli, Le Lapidi di San Carlo al Corso : catechesi in immagini, p. 92:

IOHANNI · PHILIPPO
CARDINALI · GALLARATO · SCHOTTO
MEDIOLANENSI
QUI · ABDICATIS · PATRIMONII · SPLENDIDISSIMI
FRUCTIBVS · ADOLESCENS · ECCLESIAE · ADDICTVS
LEGATIONIBVS · MVNERIBVSQVE · SACRIS
CVMPLVRIBVS · CVM · LAVDE · PERFVNCTVS · EST
IN · COMMVNIBVS ·ECCLESIAE · AERUMNIS
PATIENTER · FORTITEQVER · SE · GESSIT
DEVM · SVMMA · RELIGIONE
HOMINESQVE · EIVS · CAVSA · DILEXIT
PONTIFICE · MAXIMO · BONISQVE · OMNIBVS · CARVS
VIXIT · ANNIS · LXXII · MENS · VIII ·
VITAM · CLVSIT · IN · VRBISVETERIS · SVBVRBANO
GENTIS · GVALTERIAE · IVS · AFFINIS
ANNO · REP · SAL · MDCCCXIX · PRID · NON · OCTOBER
VIRO · INNOCENTI · PIO · COMI
LIBERALI · BENEMERENTI
CAROLVS · DVX · FRATRIS · FILIVS
ET · FRATRIS · AMMANTISSIMI
CVM · LACRYMIS · POSVERE

Cool Archive

(10) 7. CASONI, Filippo (1733-1811)

Birth. March 6, 1733, Sarzana. Eldest of the two children of Count Leonardo Casoni, Genoese patrician, and Maddalena Promontorio. The other child was Violante. Great-grand-nephew of Cardinal Lorenzo Casoni (1706). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Luigi Vannicelli Casoni (1839). His last name is also listed as Casonus.

Education. Studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on January 2, 1767.

Early life. Received the insignias of the clerical character on May 3, 1751. Privy chamberlain of Pope Clement XIII. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, January 22, 1767. Governor of Narni, February 10, 1767 until 1770. Governor of Recanati, November 10, 1770 until 1785. Vice-legate in Avignon and Comtat Venaissin, 1785 until June 12, 1790, when he was forced to leave the city by the French and retired first to Carpentras; later to Chambéry; and finally to Rome. Named vice-legate to Nice. Protonotary apostolic honorarius.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Perge, February 21, 1794. Received the minor orders on April 13, 1794. Consecrated, May 4, 1794, Rome, by Cardinal Hyacinthe-Sigismond Gerdil, C.R.S.P., assisted by Ottavio Boni, titular archbishop of Nazianzo, chamberlain of His Holiness, and by Michele Di Pietro, titular bishop of Isauropoli. Nuncio in Spain, May 27 (1), 1794 until 1801.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 23, 1801; received red hat, March 22, 1801; and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, March 26, 1804. Secretary of State, June 1806 until February 2 or 7, 1808, when he resigned due to old age and bad health; as secretary of state, he played an unobtrusive role, since Pope Pius VII assumed responsibility for papal policy concerning Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1807 to 1808.

Death. October 9, 1811, Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli), Rome.

Bibliography. Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 238; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 225-226; Leflon, Jean. "Casoni, Filippo." New Catholic Encyclopedia. 2d. edition. 15 vols. Detroit : Thomson/Gale, 2003, III, 204; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 333; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 7, 42 and 50; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 230; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 136, 283, 309 and 558; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 523.

Links. Biography by C. Bordini, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; his engraving and biographical information, in Italian, Comune di Sarzana; his engraving by Carlo Antonini, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana; and his arms, when he was vice-legate in Avignon, Enluminures.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 333; Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 238; and LeBlanc, Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle, p. 225, say that he was named on May 24, 1794.

Cool Archive

(11) 8. DELLA PORTA, Girolamo (1746-1812)

Birth. November 14, 1746, Gubbio. Son of Count Giammari della Porta of Gubbio, and Anna Stelluti, of the counts of Rotorscio. His last name is also listed as Porta.

Education. Completed his first studies in Gubbio; Collegio Nazareno, Rome (philosophy; doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, 1771).

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Sgnature of Justice and of Grace, May 2, 1771. When the papal decree suppressing the Society of Jesus was issued by Pope Clement XIV in August 1773, he was one of the prelates charged with its execution and organized the occupation of Collegio Maronita. Governor of S. Sanverino, July 27, 1775. Governor of Fermo, May 25, 1776 until June 1778. Secretary of the S.C. of Good Government, 1778. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican bsailica, September 26, 1779 until 1794. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1784. Prefect of the Annona, 1784. Treasurer General of the Apostolic Chamber, February 1794.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 23, 1801; received red hat, February 26, 1801; and the title of S. Maria in Via, July 20, 1801. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, September 20, 1802. Prefect of the S.C. of the Good Government, December 6, 1803 until 1809. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1808 to 1809. Forced to leave Rome by the French although he was ill, January 1, 1810.

Death. September 5, 1812, Florence. Exposed and buried in the collegiate church of S. Maria del Carmine, Florence.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 762-763; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 7, 43 and 44; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 248, 382 and 626.

Link. His portrait by Vincenzo Milione, 1794, Museo di Roma.

Cool Archive

(12) 9. GABRIELLI, Giulio (1748-1822)

Birth. July 20, 1748, Rome. Son of Marquis Angelo Gabrielli and Marchioness Caterina Trotti. Relative of Cardinal Giulio Gabrielli (1641). His last name is also listed as Gabrieli.

Education. Studied law (no further educational information found). Received the subdiaconate, March 9, 1800; diaconate, March 16, 1800.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 23, 1800. Protonotary apostolic. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government; later, secretary. Secretary of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 23, 1801; received red hat, February 26, 1801; and the title of S. Tommaso in Parione, July 20, 1801.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Sinigaglia, January 11, 1808. Consecrated, Sunday February 14, 1808, pope's private chapel, Rome, by Pope Pius VII, assisted by Francesco Bertazzoli, titular archbishop of Edessa, and by Giuseppe Bartolomeo Menocchio, titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan. Secretary of State, March 26, 1808. Arrested by the French, June 16, 1808, and deported to Novara and Milan; and in 1809 to France with Pope Pius VII; confined in Sedan. For his refusal to attend the marriage ceremonies of Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte and Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria on April 2, 1810, he and twelve other cardinals were deprived of their property and of their cardinalitial dignity and compelled to wear black garments, whence their name of "black cardinals". He joined the pope in Fontainebleau in 1813; in February 1814, confined again in Le Vigan, Cevennes (south of France), until he was liberated. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, July 26, 1814 until May 9, 1820. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese, February 5, 1816. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, December 17, 1819. Cardinal protoprete. Pro-datary of His Holiness, May 12, 1820 until his death. Abbot commendatario of S. Paolo in Valdiponti, Perugia; S. Giovanni dell'Eremo, Città della Pieve; and Ss. Vito e Pancrazio, Todi.

Death. September 26, 1822, Albano Laziale. Exposed in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, where his funeral took place on October 1, 1822; and buried in that same church.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 387-389; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 377-379Re, Niccolò del. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 132-133; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 7, 42, 45 and 342.

Links. His engraving by Gioacchino Lepri, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana; his arms; and another image of his arms (in color).

Cool Archive

(13) 10. MANTICA, Francesco (1727-1802)

Birth. September 14, 1727, Rome. Of a family of the baronial nobility.

Education. Studied in Rome (no further educational information found).

Early life. Entered the ecclesiastical state. Chamberlain of honor of Pope Clement XIII. Prelate referendary in 1758. Rapporteur at the S.C. of Good Government, 1760-1764. Named canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in 1762. Rapporteur at the Sacre Consulta, 1765-1766. Named civil auditor of Cardinal Carlo Rezzonico, camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church in 1766. Domestic prelate of His Holiness in 1769. Named cleric of the Apostolic Chamber in 1776; became its dean in 1791. Prefect of the S.C. of Roads and Waters from 1785.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 23, 1801; received red hat, February 26, 1801; and the title of S. Prisca, July 20, 1801.

Death. April 13, 1802, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome, where the funeral took place on April 21, 1802; and buried in his family's chapel in that church.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 579-580; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 7 and 44.

Cool Archive

(14) 11. MASTROZZI, Valentino (1729-1809)

Birth. July 25, 1729, Terni. Of a noble family.

Education. Completed his ecclesiastical studies.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Admitted to the Roman prelature in September 1758. Secretary of the S.C. of Good Government. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber. Prefect of the Annona.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 23, 1801; received red hat, February 26, 1801; and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, July 20, 1801. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1809 to 1810.

Death. May 13, 1809, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marcello and buried in his title.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 606-607; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 7 and 42.

Cool Archive

(15) 12. ALBANI, Giuseppe (1750-1834)

Birth. September 13, 1750, Rome. Of a distinguished Italian family, descendant of refugees from Albania in the fifteenth century. Originally, the family had two branches: Bergamo and Urbino. Son of Orazio Albani, prince of Soriano al Cimino, and Maria Anna Matilde Cybo Malaspina, princess of Massa. His baptismal name was Giuseppe Andrea. Nephew of Cardinal Gian Francesco Albani (1747). Grand-nephew of Cardinals Annibale Albani (1711); and Alessandro Albani, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1721). Great-grand-nephew of Pope Clement XI. The first cardinal of the family was Gian Girolamo Albani (1570).

Education. Seminary of Siena, Siena; later, he went to Rome to study law for three years under Alessandro Litta, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, and Domenico Cattani, consistorial lawyer.

Early life. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure on October 30, 1771. Entered the Roman prelature as referendary prelate on December 5, 1771. Domestic prelate of Pope Clement XIV. Rapporteur of the S.C. of Good Government. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber in 1775; its auditor general in 1787. President of the House of Currency, 1775-1778. Consistorial lawyer. Prelate vicar of the basilica of S. Maria in Cosmedin from July 13, 1777 until January 3, 1780. Prefect of the Annona, 1778-1784. Extraordinary envoy to Milan in the occasion of a congress celebrated in that city in 1794 to discuss the measures to take in order to protect Italy against the troubles occurring in Europe; he was sent in a mission to Vienna in1794; he became a friend of the imperial family and Prince Clemens Lothar Wenzel Metternich; returned to Rome on July 1, 1796; went back to Vienna the following October 10 as chargé d'affaires with the mission of negotiating the protection of the Holy See by Austria against the ambitions of revolutionary France; the interception of his correspondence with Rome was one of the pretexts for the invasion of the Papal States by the French armies; he remained in Vienna until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 23, 1801; received red hat and the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, October 29, 1804. Granted a three year dispensation to receive the sacred orders, June 8, 1804; and again in 1814 and 1823. Pro-secretary of Memorials, March 26, 1808. During the French occupation of Rome, took refuge in Vienna, 1808-1814, and returned to the city after the fall of Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte (1). Granted a three year dispensation to receive the sacred orders, September 30, 1814. Prefect of the S.C. of Good Government, May 20, 1817 to January 30, 1824. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, October 2, 1818. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1821 to 1822. Granted a six month dispensation to receive the sacred orders, March 12, 1823. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII; presented the veto of Emperor Francis I of Austria against the election of Cardinal Antonio Gabriele Severoli. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1823. Secretary of Secret Domestic Briefs, January 30, 1824. Apostolic legate in Bologna, December 10, 1824. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, January 28, 1828. Cardinal protodeacon. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII; he crowned the new pope on April 5, 1829. Secretary of State, March 31, 1829 until November 30, 1830. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs, for life, April 15, 1829. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, April 23, 1830 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI; he crowned the new pope on February 6, 1831. Legate in Urbino and Pesaro and commissary extraordinary to reestablish order in the Legations, June 21, 1831.

Death. December 3, 1834, Pesaro. Transferred to Urbino, December 10, 1834, and buried in his family's chapel in the the cloister of the Observant Franciscan church of S. Pietro in that city (2).

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 301-302; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 84-86; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, I, 181-183; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 7-8, 45 and 46.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 1 (1960), Treccani; The Albani family and brief biographical information about him at the end of the page, in English; biography, in Italian; his engraving and biographical data, in Italian; biographical data, under ALBANI Giuseppe, in Italian; his portrait by Giovanni Giulianini, Pinacoteca de Forli; two engravings, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving by Carlo Antonini, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; and his effigy on another medal of the same collection.

(1) This is according to his brief biographical information in English linked above; Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, I, 607; Bindel, Victor, Le Vatican à Paris (1809-1814), Paris, Editions Alsatia, 1942, p. 37ff, say that he spent the Napoleonic years in France; and "Cardinaux noirs", Dictionnaire Napoléon, I, 387, includes him among the participants in Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte's wedding.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 8; and his second biographical data in Italian, linked above; the first one, indicates that he was buried in the cathedral of Urbino.

Cool Archive

(16) 13. CARAFA DI BELVEDERE, Marino (1764-1830)

Birth. January 29, 1764, Naples. Son of Carlo Carafa di Belvedere and Maria Giulia Caracciolo. His first name is also listed as Caraffa. Other cardinals of the family were Filippo Carafa (1378); Oliviero Carafa (1467); Gianvincenzo Carafa (1527); Carlo Carafa (1555); Diomede Carafa (1555); Alfonso Carafa (1557); Antonio Carafa (1568); Decio Carafa (1611); Pier Luigi Carafa, seniore (1645); Carlo Carafa della Spina (1664); Fortunato Ilario Carafa della Spina (1686); Francesco Carafa della Spina (1773); and Domenico Carafa della Spina (1844).

Education. Collegio Nazareno , Rome; Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, from 1782.

Early life. Joined the ecclesiastical state and became protonotary apostolic. Rapporteur of the S.C. of the Good Government. Master of the Papal Chamber in 1794. Majordome and prefect of the Apostolic Palace in 1795; he followed Pope Pius VI to France when the pontiff was taken prisoner in 1799. In 1800, he went to Venice, where the conclave took place. He was confirmed in his functions by the new Pope Pius VII. Named member of a special congregation charged with the economic reform and the elimination of abuses in the Apostolic Palaces.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 23, 1801; received red hat, February 26, 1801; and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, July 20, 1801. Granted a three year dispensation to receive the sacred orders, February 23, 1802; dispensation extended for another three years, February 8, 1805. Resigned the cardinalate, because of the lack of descendence in his family, in the consistory of August 24, 1807, through Angelo Nuzzi, protonotary apostolic (1). He became prince of Acquaviva and married Marianna Gaetani dell'Aquila d'Aragona. Sindaco of Naples from March 30, 1813 until February 7, 1817.

Death. April 5, 1830. Exposed and buried (no information found).

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 217-218; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 8, and 46.

Link. His engraving by Carlo Antonini, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana; and genealogy of Marianna Gaetani dell'Aquila d'Aragona, A10, last entry on the page, Genealogy EU.

(1) In that same consistory, the pope created in his place Francesco Guidobono Cavalchini a cardinal deacon and reserved his name in pectore; he was published in the consistory of April 6, 1818.

Cool Archive

(17) 14. ZONDADARI, Antonio Felice (1740-1823)

Birth. January 14 (1), 1740, Siena. Of a noble family. Son of Giuseppe Flavio (Chigi) Zondadari, marquis of S. Quirico, and Violante Gori. His last name is also listed as Chigi Zondadari. Nephew in third degree of Cardinal Antonio Felice Zondadari (1712).

Education. La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, July 23, 1768).

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, September 20, 1764. Governor of Rieti, December 5, 1766. Governor of Benevento, July 13, 1775 until April 1776. Apostolic delegate and general inquisitor in Malta, 1777-1785. Received the diaconate, December 23, 1780.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 16, 1782.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Adana, December 19, 1785. Consecrated, December 21, 1785, church of S. Caterina da Siena, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Saverio Zelada, secretary of State, assisted by Orazio Mattei, titular archbishop of Colosso, canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, and by Francesco Xaverio Cristiani, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan. Named assistant at the Pontifical Throne and nuncio in Flanders, January 3 (2), 1786; accused by the government of combating Febronianism and of supporting the agitation that followed the introduction a new organization of the seminaries, he was expelled in February 1787; he sought refuge in Lüttich and then returned to Rome. Secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, rom March 30, 1789; he entered into functions in February 1791; occupied the post until August 1795. Vicar of the archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in May 1793. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Siena, June 1, 1795. He received Pope Pius VI in Siena while the pontiff was in route to Florence after having being expelled from Rome in February 1798.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 23, 1801; published in the consistory of September 28, 1801; received red hat and the title of S. Balbina, December 23, 1801. Received Pope Pius VII in Siena in route to France. Named by Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte chaplain to his sister Elisa Bonaparte, princess of Lucca and Piombino; travelled to France in 1809. Attended the marriage of Napoléon I and Maria Louise; he was one of the "red cardinals". Participated in the Gallican Council of 1811.

Death. April 13, 1823, Siena. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Siena.

Bibliography. Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 268; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 979-980; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 64 and 375; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 8 and 40; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 144, 346 and 988.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 64; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 268, says that he was born on April 13, 1740.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 64; and Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 988; Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 268, says that he was named on January 31, 1740.

Cool Archive

(18) 15. LITTA, Lorenzo (1756-1820)

Birth. February 23, 1756, Milan. Of a noble family. Milanese patrician. Son of Pompeo Giulio Litta Visconti Arese, 6th marquis of Gambolò, and Maria Elisabetta Visconti Borromeo Arese, of the counts della Pieve di Brebbia, who was Pompeo's aunt. Great-great-grand-nephew of Cardinal Alfonso Litta (1664).

Education. Collegio Clementino, Rome (letters and law); La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, January 28, 1780).

Early life, Entered the Roman prelature on April 13, 1780 as referendary. Protonotary apostolic de numero participantium in 1782. Relator of the Sacred Consulta on February 14, 1785. Charged by Pope Pius VI with a mission before Napoléon Bonaparte in 1791. Censor attached to the Academy of Theology. Commissioner at the border with Tuscany. Prelate vicar of the archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 6, 1789.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tebe, September (1) 23, 1793. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, September 23, 1793. Consecrated, October 6, 1793, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Luigi Valenti Gonzaga, prefect of the Economat of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, assisted by Carlo Crivelli, titular archbishop of Patras, prefect of the Vatican archives, and by Giovanni Francesco Guidi di Bagno-Talenti, titular archbishop of Mira, canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Nuncio in Poland, November 15 (2), 1793; he arrived in Warsaw on March 24, 1794; presented his credentials the following April 9; he remained there until March 13, 1797. In the negotiations for the third partition of Poland, he defended the rights of the church; abstained from condemning the insurgents and tried to conciliate the nationalists and the Russophiles; but all his efforts were not sufficient to avoid the partition of the country in January 1795; he tried to protect the Latin rite Catholics and the Uniates in the three territories under whose jurisdiction they had passed; the nunciature was vacant for one hundred and twenty three years after he left. On February 11, 1797, he was named extraordinary ambassador in Russia to represent the Holy See at the coronation of Czar Paul I in Moscow on April 8 to 16 of that year; later, he went to St. Petersburg to try to persuade the czar to grant religious freedom to his Polish subjects, to allow the canonical organization of the Catholic Church in Russian territories and to repeal the anti-Catholic and anti-Uniate measures of Empress Catherine II; his mission was partially successful: he could not reestablish the free communication between the local episcopate and Rome; he was able to restore nine dioceses of both rites; recover part of the ecclesiastical properties that had been confiscated; and reestablish the convents of the Basilians. He was expelled from Russia in May 1799 after the failure of the negotiations concerning the Order of Malta; Rome did not accept that the czar had proclaimed himself grand master of the order after the occupation of the island by French troops. He went to Venice, where the papal court was, and assisted in the conclave of 1799. He was named general treasurer and collector of the Apostolic Chamber by the new Pope Pius VII on November 23, 1800; he occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 23, 1801; published in the consistory of September 28, 1801; received red hat, October 1, 1801; and the title of S. Pudenziana, December 23, 1801. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, August 27, 1803; occupied the post until June 1816. Prefect of studies of Collegio e Seminario Romano from 1805 to 1814. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1806-1807. In 1807, knowing his anti-French feelings, Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte refused to accept him as plenipotentiary to examining the disagreements between the Holy See and France. Exiled in Milan March 1808 and then deported to France like the majority of the other cardinals in 1809, he refused to attend the civil and religious wedding of the emperor with Marie-Louise in April 1810; he was then among the "black cardinals" (not allowed to wear the red garments of his rank). He was relegated to Saint-Quentin and then, in February 1813, to Fontainebleau; and to Nîmes in January 1814; he returned to Rome after the fall of Napoléon the following April. Named prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, of the S.C. for the Correction of the Books of the Oriental Church, and prefect of the press of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide on May 20, 1814; occupied the post until September 24, 1818. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, September 26, 1814. He took refuge in Genoa with Pope Pius VII at the time of the invasion of Joachim Murat, king of Naples, in 1815. He was also protector of the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles from 1817 until 1820. Vicar general of His Holiness for the city of Rome, September 28, 1818. Prefect of the S.C. of the Residence of Bishops from 1818 until 1820.

Death. May 1, 1820, of gastric problems, quite suddenly, in Monteflavio, diocese of Sabina. Exposed in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, where the funeral took place; and buried in the church of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Rome, according to his will.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1138-1139; Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 407-409; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912. (Suomalaisen Tiedeakatemian Toimituksia. Sarja B. Nid.5, no. 3), pp. 213 and 248; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 543-546; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, VI, 400; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, VII, 8, 39 and 44.

Links. Biography, in English; and his effigy on a medal, Numismatic Collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 400; Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 248, indicates that he was elected on June 23, 1793.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 400; Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 248, indicates that he was named on February 8, 1794.

Cool Archive

(19) 16. LUCHI, O.S.B.Cas., Michelangelo (1744-1802)

Birth. August 20 (1), 1744, Brescia. His last name is also listed as Lucchi.

Education. Completed his first studies in Brescia. Entered the Order of St. Benedict in Montecassino, where he also professed.

Priesthood. Ordained, Montecassino (no further information found). Professor of theology, philosophy, Greek and Hebrew at the Benedictine abbey of Florence. Elected abbot of Montecassino at the moment of his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 23, 1801; published in the consistory of September 28, 1801; received red hat, October 1, 1801; and the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, December 23, 1801. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine abbey of Subiaco, 1801. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, August 18, 1802.

Death. September 29, 1802, of gout, in the Benedictine abbey of Subiaco. Exposed in the abbatial church of S. Scolastica, where the funeral took place; and buried in that same church, according to his will. He left a collection of 193 manuscripts in Greek and Latin to the Vatican library; he also donated several of his unpublished works such as a Biblia Polyglotta and several other Scriptural works.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 552-553; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, VII, 8 and 43.

(1) This is according to LeBlanc, Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle, p. 552; and Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica, XL, 89; Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 8, n. 48; says that he was born on April 20, 1744.

Cool Archive

(20) 17. CRIVELLI, Carlo (1736-1818)

Birth. May 20 (1), 1736, Milan. Of a patrician family of Cremona. Younger of the six children of Stefano Gaetano Crivelli, count and senator, and Cristofora Marliani. The other siblings were Giuseppe, Giorgio, Antonio, Giovanni Angelo and Teresa. Giovanni Angelo married Mariana von Colloredo, sister of Cardinal Anton Theodor von Colloredo-Waldesee Mels (1803). Nephew of Cardinal Ignazio Michele Crivelli (1759).

Education. Initial studies in Milan; Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, 1755-1759; La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, July 27, 1761).

Early life. Chamberlain of honor of Pope Clement XIII in 1759. He was named ablegato to bring the red biretta to his uncle, who was then nuncio in Vienna, at his promotion to the cardinalate. He entered the Roman prelature as protonotary apostolic. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature, August 6, 1761. Prelate of the Reverend Fabric of Saint Peter's and consultor of the S.C. of Rites in 1765. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, 1766. Relator of the Sacred Consulta in 1767. Assessor of the governor of Rome. Dean of the college of apostolic protonotaries in 1774.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 20, 1775.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Patras, September 11, 1775. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, September 17, 1775. Consecrated, September 21, 1775, church of S. Anna dei Bresciani, Rome, by Cardinal Lodovico Calini, prefect of the S.C. of Relics and Indulgences, assisted by Orazio Mattei, titular archbishop of Colosso, and by Giuseppe Maria Contesini, titular archbishop of Atene, papal almoner. Nuncio in Tuscany, September 23, 1775; returned to Rome on March 12, 1785. Named cleric of the Apostolic Chamber and prefect of the Vatican archives on February 14, 1785. Governor of Rome, February 25, 1794 until February 12, 1798, at the advent of the Roman Republic when the French troops removed and arrested him (2); imprisoned in Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome, and later, in Civitavecchia; finally, he was relegated to Milan.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 23, 1801; published in the consistory of March 29, 1802; received red hat, April 1, 1802; and the title of S. Susanna, May 24, 1802. In March 1808, the French forced him to leave Rome and go to Milan; he was not allowed to join the majority of the cardinals in France.

Death. January 19, 1818, Milan. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Maria alla Porta, Milan.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, p. 354; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 121; Fischer-Reichenbach, Marie-Caroline von, Urbain III et Barberousse et les trois cardinaux Crivelli.. Bern, Büchler : 1940, pp. 85-86; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 270-271; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, VI, 331; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, VII, 8 and 45; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 322.

Link. His engraving by C. Antonini, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 331; Del Re, Monsignor governatore di Roma, p. 121, indicates that he was born on May 31, 1736.
(2) On February 13, 1798, Giovanni Battista Zauli, first assessor of the government, was named vice-governor of Rome. He was arrested on May 16, 1798 and exiled eight days later on May 24. He was promoted to the cardinalate in the consistory of March 8, 1816.

Cool Archive

(21) 18. SPINA, Giuseppe (1756-1828)

Birth. March 11, 1756, Sarzana. Only son of Marquis Giovanni Francesco Spina and Eugenia Maria Spina.

Education. University of Pisa, Pisa, 1776-1780 (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, December 10, 1780).

Early life. He established himself in Rome and completed his juridical formation under the advocate Lancellotti. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure on March 30, 1787. He entered the Roman prelature in 1793 as referendary. Before April 16, 1796, he was named assistant to the dean of the College of Judges of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, Pio Antonio Martínez. Auditor of the majordome of the Apostolic Palace; he returned to Sarzana during the French occupation; later, he returned to the papal court.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 13, 1796, Sarzana. After the French occupation of Rome, he was charged by Cardinal Secretary of State Giuseppe Doria to prepare the exile of Pope Pius VI in Sienna and later, in the Carthusian monastery of Florence; he established himself near the pope and in June 1798, he became papal majordome, succeeding Duke Luigi Braschi.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Corinto, June 10, 1798; Pope Pius VI named him during the trip from Rome to France, after the proclamation of the Roman Republic; he was asked to go to Siena and then to Florence to announce the arrival of the pope. Consecrated, September 30, 1798, church of the Carthusian monastery of Florence, in the presence of the pope, by Cardinal Francisco Antonio de Lorenzana y Butrón, archbishop of Toledo, assisted by Antonio Maria Odescalchi, titular archbishop of Iconio, nuncio in Tuscany, and by Fabrizio Selvi, bishop of Grossetto. When Pope Pius VI had to leave Rome on February 20, 1798, Archbishop Spina received from Bishop Michele di Pietro full powers as apostolic delegate of Rome (governor sede vacante). Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, October 21, 1798. He accompanied Pope Pius VI from March 27, 1799, in his deportation to France by order of the Directory; they were separated in Briançon on April 30; shortly after, he was authorized to join the pope again after he was installed in Valence on July 14, 1799. He administered the last rites to Pope Pius VI in Valence and assisted him until he died on August 29, 1799, and took care of the burial of the pope in the chapel of the citadel; and then, in the cemetery of Valence on January 30, 1800. In Valence, in October 1799, he met General Napoléon Bonaparte, on his return from Egypt. He went to Venice and carried to the conclave, in the capacity of executor, the Ring of the Fisherman of the late pope. Following the first restoration of the papal government in Rome, Pope Pius VII named him, before April 16, 1800, pro-secretary of the Congregation for the Affairs of France. At the request of the first consul, Napoléon Bonaparte, he was selected to lead to Paris the pontifical delegation in the negotiations of the legal settlement with the Holy See. He left Rome on September 21, 1800; joined Cardinal Carlo Giuseppe Filippa della Martiniana in Verceil on October 5, where the Servite theologian and future Cardinal Carlo Francesco Caselli joined them; they arrived secretly to Paris on November 5. Because of the slowness of the negotiations led with the Abbé Étienne-Alexandre Bernier, representative of Bonaparte, Cardinal Ercole Consalvi joined them in person in Paris on June 20, 1801; the legal settlement was signed on July 15. Following the signature of the settlement, the repatriation of the remains of Pope Pius VI took place; the late pontiff had made Archbishop Spina promise to bring back his body to Rome; the remains were exhumed on December 25, 1801; the coffin left Valence on January 11, 1802 and arrived in Rome by sea, via Marseille and Genoa; the solemn funeral took place in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on February 17 and 18, 1802.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 23, 1801; published in the consistory of March 29, 1802; received red hat, April 1, 1802; and the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, May 24, 1802. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Genoa, May 24, 1802; the Republic of Genoa had been annexed to the French Empire. He was later named by Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte chaplain of Princess Pauline Borghèse. He was called to Paris in spring 1810; he was among the eleven "red cardinals" who attended the second marriage of the emperor on April 2. The following year, he took part in the National Council of French bishops, in Paris on June 5 to August 17, 1811; he endeavored to obtain the liberation of Pope Pius VII from his imprisonment in Savone. He went back to Genoa and pronounced in the first days of the second restoration a homily in which he expressed publicly excessive kindness towards the emperor. On March 16, 1815, he was named examiner of the bishops in canon law. A few weeks later he hosted Pope Pius VII during the voyage that the pontiff took to Genoa on March 22 to June 7, 1815, during the Hundred Days. Apostolic administrator of his native diocese of Brugnato, Luni et Sarzana, September 12, 1815. Apostolic legate in the city and province of Forlì, September 6, 1816. Resigned pastoral government of archdiocese of Genoa, December 13, 1816. Apostolic legate in Bologna, August 11, 1818. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, February 21, 1820. He was named plenipotentiary of the Holy See at the diplomatic congresses of Lubiana (Laibach) in May 1821; and of Verona in October 1822. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. He was recalled to Rome by Pope Leo XII and substituted at the head of the legation of Bologna before December 1, 1824. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature on January 15, 1825. On December 14, 1827, he was named protector of congregation of Montecassino of the Order of Saint Benedict.

Death. November 13, 1828, after a brief illness of fevers, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Andrea delle Fratte, Rome, where the funeral took place; and buried in the cathedral of Palestrina.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 473-474; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 897-899; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, VI, 183; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, VII, 8, and 39.

Links. His portrait and biography, in Italian, Comune di Sarzana; his engraving by Carlo Antonini, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana; and another engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna.

Cool Archive

(22) 19. DI PIETRO, Michele (1747-1821)

Birth. January 18, 1747, Albano. From a wealthy merchant family of modest origins. One of the four sons of Domenico Di Petro, a trader of burning coal who had accumulated a respectable wealth. Other siblings were Panfilo and Pasquale. Granduncle of Cardinal Camillo Di Pietro (1853). His last name is also listed as De Petro.

Education. Seminary of Albano, Albano; Collegio Romano, Rome; La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, June 4, 1768).

Early life. Beneficiary of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. In 1769, he published a catalog of theses in theology written at La Sapienza University. In that same year, he was named lector supernumerary of law at La Sapienza.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1771. Professor of utroque iure, La Sapienza University, Rome, 1782-1792. Professor of theology and ecclesiastical history at Collegio Romano, after the expulsion of the Society of Jesus. Consulter of the S.C. of the Holy Office, January 19, 1787. Prefect of studies, Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum of Propaganda Fide, Rome in 1788. From 1789 to 1794, he was chosen by Pope Pius VI as secretary of three successive congregations, formed on February 3, November 9, 1790 and March 31, 1792, which prepared the condemnation of the acts of the Council of Pistoia with the bull Auctorem fidei of August 28, 1794. In 1790, he became secretary of the Congregation for the Affairs of France, charged with the examination of the civil constitution of the clergy and the examination of the questions originated by the political and religious evolution of revolutionary France. Examiner of the Roman clergy. Named prelate of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity before April 26, 1794. Consultor of the S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition and of the S.C. of the Index. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Isauriopoli, February 21, 1794. Consecrated, February 24, 1794, cathedral of Frascati, by Cardinal Henry Benedict Mary Clement Stuart of York, bishop of Frascati, assisted by Antonio Felice Zondadari, titular archbishop of Adana, nuncio in Belgium, and by Ottavio Boni, titular archbishop of Nazianzo, chamberlain of His Holiness. Examiner of bishops in canon law, October 30, 1795. When Pope Pius VI had to leave Rome on February 20, 1798, Bishop Di Pietro gave Archbishop Giuseppe Spina full powers as apostolic delegate of Rome (governor sede vacante); he was arrested the following May 13 and imprisoned in Castello Sant'Angelo; he was freed by a heavy ransom; in May 1799, under the threat of a new arrest, he went into clandestinity, protected by the family of Giuseppe Antonio Sala, future cardinal; later by the Visitandines of Via Lungara, Rome; he reassumed his functions after the arrival of the Neapolitans in the provisional junta of government on October 4, 1799. Secretary of Congregation for particular ecclesiastical affairs, charged with the examination of the concordat with France, July 28, 1800. Promoted to the titular Latin patriarchate of Jerusalem, December 22, 1800. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 22, 1800. He was one of the founding members of Accademia di Religione Cattolica, February 4, 1801.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 23, 1801; published in the consistory of August 9, 1802; received red hat, August 12, 1802; and the title of S. Maria in Via, September 20, 1802. Protector of Collegio Maronita, Rome, before August 18, 1802; and of Collegio Greco, Rome, November 20, 1802. Received the abbey of Ss. Clemente et Pancrazio di Rome before September 25, 1802. Accompanied Pope Pius VII in his trip to Paris in the occasion of the coronation of Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte, November 2, 1804 to May 16, 1805. Named pro-prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide on May 24, 1805; occupied the post until May 20, 1814. In 1807, he was named apostolic delegate of Rome, in case the pope had to leave the city; his faculties were confirmed in June 1809; he was one of the principal redactors of the bull of excommunication Quum memoranda of June 10, 1809. Pro-secretary of Memorandums before September 14, 1808. Taken to France together with Cardinal Ercole Consalvi in December 1809; he transferred his faculties to Emmanuele De Gregorio, future cardinal; he was banished to Semur-en-Auxois for not attending Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte's wedding with Maria Louise of Austria on April 2, 1810 (he was one of the "black cardinals", deprived in retaliation from wearing his red cardinalitial vestments); in Semur-en-Auxois he was reunited with Cardinals Giulio Gabrielli and Carlo Oppizzoni. Imprisoned in the fortress of Vincennes at the end of 1810 for sending the papal order to the clergy of Paris not to recognize Cardinal Jean-Siffrein Maury as archbishop of that city. Penitentiary major ad interim, 1811-1814. Apostolic delegate for the affairs of France, 1811. Brought back to Paris and imprisoned on January 22, 1811 in the dungeon of Vincennes; he was released after the signature of the concordat of Fontainebleau by Pope Pius VII on January 25, 1813; he was arrested again on April 5, considered responsible, together with Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca, for Pope Pius VII's retraction of his agreement with Emperor Napoléon I; he was exiled again in Semur-en-Auxois; an order of the provisional government freed him on April 2, 1814 and he returned to Rome at once. Penitentiary major, May 20, 1814 until July 2, 1821. Apostolic delegate of Rome during the absence of Pope Pius VIl in Genoa from March 22 to June 7, 1815. Member of the commission charge with the examination of the acts of Cardinal Maury, June 22, 1815. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, March 8, 1816. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, September 25, 1818. Prefect of studies of the Pontifical Gregorian University in Collegio Romano, May 9, 1820. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, May 29, 1820. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Death. July 2, 1821, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, where the funeral took place on July 5, 1821; and buried in the cathedral of Albano.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 366-369; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 308-310; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LIII , 37-39; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 245; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 8-9, 37, 38 and 43.

Link. Biography by Marina Caffiero, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 40 (1991), Treccani.

Cool Archive

(23) 20. CASELLI, O.S.M., Carlo Francesco (1740-1828)

Birth. October 20, 1740, Gamondio, or Castellazzo (from 1863 was called Castellazzo Bormida), near Alessandria, Piedmont. He was the sixth of the eight children of Domenico Caselli, architect and agent of the marquises Pallavicini del Castellazzo, and Caterina Negrone. The other siblings were Vittorio Amedeo, Francesca Maria, Isabella Barbara, Maria Anna, Angelina, Giuseppe and Paolo Giuseppe. He was baptized on October 28, 1740, in the cathedral of Ss. Pietro e Dalmazzo of Alessandria. His godfather was Carlo Stortiglioni; and his godmother was Teresa Quovace. His last name is also listed as Casella, Casello, Casellum, and de Caselli.

Education. On October 15, 1755, he received the habit of the Order of the Servants of Mary in the convent of Santa Maria dei Servi del Castellazzo; he received the name Carlo Francesco Maria; he was then sent to study at the novitiate of Bologna. On October 31, 1756, he made his solemn profession in the chapel of the novitiate of Bologna, before Reverend Father Master Giuseppe M. Orsi, prior, in the name of the convent of Castellazzo. On November 4, 1756, he was transferred to the convent of San Giuseppe, in the same city, where he completed the three years of philosophy studies; on June 12, 1759, he defended his thesis in philosophy in that convent. From September 3, 1759 to 1762, he studied at the convent of San Salvatore, Turin, where he completed most of the four year theological formation. On February 6, 1762, he received permission to receive the subdiaconate. On June 5, 1762, he was transferred to the convent of SS. Annunziata, Florence. On the following November 27, he was granted permission to receive the diaconate. On December 15 of that same year, he was transferred to the convent of Pistoia. On August 23, 1763, the father general of the order sent him the letter of permission to receive the priestly ordination. He had to wait for the three months because of the dispensation of age and the interstices. On September 20, 1763, the superior general sent him to the convent of S. Marcello in Rome, annexed to the mother house, in via del Corso, where he earned a magister in theology on April 14, 1769.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 24, 1763, by Federico Alamanni, bishop of Pistoia e Prato. Lector of philosophy and theology in houses of his order in Montecchio (1769-1772); regent of studies in Turin (1772-1775); regent of studies in Reggio Emilia and Florence (1775-1781); secretary of his order in 1781; in 1785, he was sent in a mission to Switzerland. In his order, secretary and provincial prior in Piedmont, 1785; vicar and visitor in Lombardy, 1786; procurator general, 1786; prior general, May 26, 1792 until the French occupation of Rome in February 1798; he was elected with the almost unanimous vote of the general chapter celebrated in Rome. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites in 1793; and of the Roman and Universal Inquisition on October 30, 1795. In October 1800 in Vercelli, he was chosen by Giuseppe Spina, titular archbishop of Corinto, plenipotentiary of the Holy See for the negotiations of the concordat with France, to accompany him as theological consultor; they arrived secretly to Paris on November 5. Because of the slowness of the negotiations led with the Abbé Étienne-Alexandre Bernier, representative of Bonaparte, Cardinal Ercole Consalvi joined them in person in Paris on June 20, 1801; the legal settlement was signed on July 15; also, he accompanied Archbishop Spina in the repatriation of the mortal remains of Pope Pius VI. He was one of the founding members of Accademia di Religione Cattolica on February 4, 1801.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 23, 1801; published in the consistory of August 9, 1802; received red hat, August 12, 1802; and the title of S. Marcello, September 20, 1802. His promotion had been reserved by the pope in order to avoid disturbing the negotiations of the concordat with France.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Side, March 29, 1802. Consecrated, April 4, 1802, church of S. Marcello, Rome, by Cardinal Giuseppe Spina, assisted by Benedetto Fenaja, titular archbishop of Filippi, and by Simone de Magistris, titular bishop of Cirene. He was a member of the cardinalitial commissions concerned with the reconciliation of the constitutional clergy of France; the examination of the concordat with the Italian Republic in 1803; and with the projects of the ecclesiastical reorganization of Germany in 1805. Transferred to the see of Parma, with personal title of archbishop, May 28, 1804; he took possession of the see on May 1, 1805. He accompanied Pope Pius VIl during his trip to Paris for the coronation of Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte, from November 2, 1804 until May 16, 1805. He also attended, on May 26, 1805, the coronation of Emperor Napoléon I in Milan as king of Italy; and later, on the following June 26, welcomed the emperor in Parma. At the request of the pope, he took part, with Cardinal Carlo Oppizzoni, in a conciliating mission before Napoléon I in Milan on December 21, 1807; the mission failed and the emperor issued an ultimatum; the pope bitterly reproached the cardinals for their weakness. He was asked to go to France in spring 1810; he attended the wedding of Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte and Maria Louise of Austria (he sat among the senators of the kingdom and not with the members of the Sacred College of Cardinals); he was considered a "red cardinal" (not prohibited by Emperor Napoléon I to wear the red cardinalitial habit). He took part, the following year, in the National Council of the French bishops in Paris, June 17 to August 5, 1811; and endeavored to obtain the release of Pope Pius VII from his imprisonment in Savone. He was publicly accused of treason by the emperor on July 28, 1811, and fell in disgrace; nevertheless, he took part in the negotiations of the Concordat of Fontainebleau, January 25, 1813; he was held in distrust by the pope. The cardinal withdrew to his diocese after the fall of Napoléon I; there, he published, on June 3, 1814, a pastoral letter at the time of the devolution of the duchy of Parma to Empress Maria Louise, of whom he was privy counselor. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII.

Death. April 20, 1828, Parma. The funeral mass was celebrated in the cathedral of Parma. Canon Theologian Francesco Cristani delivered the eulogy. The funeral oration was pronounced by Father Agostino Garbarini, prior cassinese. He was buried in the chapel of the Most Blessed Sacrament in that cathedral, which he had adorned with his own funds. His funeral monument in the cathedral was made by Tommaso Bandini, disciple of Lorenzo Bartolini.

Bibliography. Allodi, Giovanni M. Serie cronologica dei Vescovi di Parma. Con alcuni cenni sui principali avvenimenti civili. 2 vol. Parma : P. Fiaccadori, 1856, II, 446-499; Benassi, Vincenzo ; Dias, Odir J. ; Faustini, Faustino. A short history of the Servite order. Rome : General Secretariate for the Servite Missions, 1987, pp. 164, 168, 172, 178, 182, 184, 186 and 189; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col.641; Beseghi, Umberto. "Una missione del cardinal Caselli presso Napoleone." Aurea Parma, XXXVI (1952), 227-233; Beseghi, Umberto. I tredici cardinali neri. Firenze : Marzocco, 1944, pp. 25, 39, 58, 75, 183; Botti, Ferruccio. Le sculture di Lorenzo Bartolini e Tommaso Bandini nella Chiesa della Steccata. Parma : L. Battei, 1972; Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 340-341; Fantini, Rodolfo. "Due cardinali "napoleonisti" : Caselli, vescovo di Parma, e Oppizzoni, arcivescovo di Bologna." Aurea Parma : rivista quadrimestrale di storia, letteratura e arte, LIII (1969), 153-164; Garbarini, Agostino. Orazione in morte dell'Em.mo Card. Carlo Francesco Caselli O.S.M., Vescovo di Parma. Parma : Carmignani, 1828; Gasparolo, Francesco. "Il cardinale Caselli", in Rivista di storia e d'arte della prov. di Alessandria, XXI (1912), p. 129-136; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 223-224; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, X, 139-140; Oldelli, Gian Alfonso. Orazione ringraziatoria recitata dal padre m. r. Gian-Alfonso Oldelli da Mendrisio per la promozione alla sacra Porpora dell'Em.mo Card. Caselli nella chiesa de' rr. padri Serviti di Mendrisio il giorno 14 novembre 1802. In Lugano : presso Rossi e Comp, 1802; Piola Caselli, Carlo. "Il cardinale Carlo Francesco Caselli, servita, nel periodo napoleonico e di Maria Luisa." Rivista Storica Svizzera, XXVI (1976), 33-86; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 9 and 42.

Links. His portrait and biography by Gabriele Roschini, in Italian, Ordine dei Servi di Maria; his portrait bust and biography by Carlo Piola Caselli, in Italian, Casato Piola Caselli; biography by Stanislao da Campagnola, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; his arms and biography, in French, Wikipedia; biography, in Italian, Comune di Parma; Il cardinale Carlo Francesco Caselli, servita, nel periodo napoleonico e di Maria Luisa by Carlo Piola Caselli, Rivista storica svizzera, XXVI, 1976, fasc. 1/2, p. 33-86; Le letture diplomatlche del Card. Caselli consigliere di Maria Luigia nella correspondenza con il Conte di Neipperg by Carlo Piola Caselli, L'Archivio storico per le Province Parmensi, Quarta serie, Volume XXX, Anno I, 1978, p. 271-361; his engraving by Carlo Antonini, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana; and his funeral monument by Tommaso Bandini, cathedral of Parma.

Cool Archive

(24) 21. LATIER DE BAYANE, Alphonse-Hubert de (1739-1818)

Birth. October 30, 1739, Véry, diocese of Valence, France. Of a noble family from Dauphiné. Third child of Louis de Latier de Bayane, seigneur of Orcinas, captain of infantry, and Catherine de Sibeud de Saint-Ferréol. From his infancy, he was destined to the ecclesiastical state. He is also listed under Bayane and Bayanne; and his last name as Lattier.

Education. La Sorbonne University, Paris (doctorate in theology). Received the ecclesiastical tonsure in 1755. Named doctor in utroque ire by a papal brief of January 12, 1773.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 17, 1760, Sens. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Valence. Vicar general of Coutances. He received as benefices the abbeys of Saint-Guilhem-le-Désert, diocese of Lodève in 1770; of Broqueboeuf and of Notre-Dame-du-Vœu, diocese of Coutances; as well as the one of Saint-Pierre d'Hautvillers, Champagne. He went to Rome in 1769 as conclavist of Cardinal de Luynes, archbishop of Sens; he was proposed to assume the functions of auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for France by the duke of Aiguillon on May 28, 1772. Named auditor of the Rota by motu proprio of November 13, 1772; admitted to the tribunal on the following November 16; its pro-dean, February 9, 1792); its dean, March 21, 1792. Regent of the Apostolic Penitentiary. The revolution deprived him of all his benefices in France. After having refused to adhere himself to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, he retired to Florence during the French occupation of Rome. After the first restoration of the papal government in Rome, he took charge of the reorganization of the tribunal of the Rota; before August 9, 1800, he resigned the regency of the Apostolic Penitentiary in favor of Vice-dean Giovanni Resta.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 23, 1801; published in the consistory of August 9, 1802; received red hat August 12, 1802; and the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, September 20, 1802. He received from Napoléon Bonaparte, first consul, a traitement de cardinal (30.000 francs per year). He accompanied Pope Pius VIl during his trip to Paris on the 'occasion of the coronation of Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte from November 2, 1804 until May 16, 1805; he then returned to Rome, where he supported for a policy of conciliation with the emperor. Sent as legate to Paris at the demanded of Napoleon for the final negotiations, he left Rome definitively on September 29, 1807; he resided in Paris until his death. He failed to reconcile the pope and the emperor, who occupied the Marches, and then Rome. He was recalled to Rome and constrained to ask for his passports on December 30, 1807; he remained nevertheless in France. He was one of the eleven "red cardinals" (allowed to wear their cardinalitial garments by the emperor) and was present at the second wedding of Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte on April 2, 1810. He was named by the emperor to be part of the group of five cardinals who went to Savone, where Pope Pius VII was in captivity, to obtain the pontiff's of the decisions of the National Council of French bishops, September 3 to 20, 1811. He also intervened in favor of the "legal settlement of Fontainebleau", January 25, 1813. Named senator of the empire on April 5, 1813 he voted in April 1814 the forfeiture of Napoléon. Named peer of the French kingdom by King Louis XVIII on the following day of the first Restoration, June 4, 1814. He attended the mass celebrated at Champ de Mars during the Hundred Days, June 1, 1815. King Louis XVIII, who did not trust him, nevertheless confirmed him among the members of the Chambre des Pairs in July 1815; there, he refused to sit in Haute-Cour during the process of Marshal Ney. Named grand officer of the Légion d'Honneur in 1816. Elevated to the rank of duke in 1818. An acute deafness forced him to live in retirement the final years of his life.

Death. July 27, 1818, Paris. Exposed in the church of Saint-Thomas d'Aquin, Paris, here the funeral took place; and buried in "Père Lachaise" cemetery, Paris.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 333; Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 311-312; Desrobert, F. "Le cardinal de Lattier de Bayane d'après ses souvenirs inédits, 1739-1818." Mémoires de l'Académie de Stanislas (Nancy), Rº série, VIII (1891), 179-275; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 519-521; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXVII, 167-168; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 9 and 45; Ruck, Erwin. Die Sendung des Kard. de Bayane nach Paris, 1807-1808. Eine Episode aus der Politik Napoleons I. und Pius VII. Heidelberg : [s.n.], 1913.

Links. His portrait, French School, 18th Century, Gabrius Databank; and his tomb in "Père Lachaise" cemetery, Paris, Amis et Passionné du Père-Lachaise.

Cool Archive

(25) 22. LOCATELLI, Francesco Maria (1727-1811)

Birth. February 22, 1727, Cesena. Of a noble family with the rank of counts. His last name is also listed as Loccatelli.

Education. Initial studies in Cesena; later, he studied law at the University of Bologna (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, November 9, 1752).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 18, 1752. Archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Cesena. Elected vicar capitular of Cesena during the vacancy of the see in March 1772.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Spoleto, June 1, 1772. Consecrated, June 8, 1772, church of S. Andrea delle Fatte, Rome, by Cardinal Lazzaro Opidio Pallavicini, secretary of State, assisted by Francesco Carafa della Spina di Traetto, titular archbishop of Patras, secretary de la S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, and by Francesco Saverio de Zelada, titular archbishop of Petra in Palestina, secretary of the SS. CC. of the Tridentine Council and of the Residence of Bishops. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 13, 1772. He restored the cathedral, founded a lyceum, expanded the hospital and created a fund in favor of the poor. He welcomed the Jesuits who had been expelled from Spain and Portugal as well as the French clergy exiled because of the revolution. In 1796, he received in Spoleto Cardinal Gregorio Barnaba Chiaramonti, O.S.B.Cas., and received him (by then Pope Pius VII) again in 1805, on his return from France.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 23, 1801; published in the consistory of January 17, 1803 as cardinal deacon; received red hat, January 20, 1803; and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, March 28, 1803; in this same consistory he was transferred to the order of cardinal priests. Apostolic visitor to the hospitals of S. Carlo and S. Francesco di Paola, and to the Seminary of Visso, Spoleto,

Death. February 13, 1811, after an illness of five years which affected both his body and his spirit, having received the sacraments of the Church, in Spoleto (1). Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Spoleto.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 548-549; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 729; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXIX, 109; Notizie per l'anno M.DCCC.XVIII. Rome : G.F. Chracas, 1817, p. 84; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 386; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 9 and 42.

Link. His portrait by Francesco Andreini, Pinacoteca Comunale, Cesena.

(1) This is according to LeBlanc, Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle, p. 548; Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XXXIX, 109; and Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 386; and VII, 9 and 42. Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 729, indicates that he died on January 8, 1812. Notizie per l'anno M.DCCC.XVIII, p. 84, says that he died on February 13, 1812.

Cool Archive

(26) 23. CASTIGLIONE, Giovanni (1742-1815)

Birth. January 31, 1742, Ischia di Castro, diocese of Acquapendente, province of the Patrimony. Of a noble family descendent of the Castiliglioni of Milan. Other cardinals of the family were Goffredo Castiglione (1227), elected Pope Celestine IV; Branda Castiglione (1411); Giovanni Castiglione (1456); and Francesco Abbondio Castiglioni (1565).

Education. Studied brilliantly law and theology in Rome. Member of the Theological Academy of La Sapienza; and of the Accademia di Religione Cattolica, both in Rome; obtained the prelature attached to Collegio S. Ivo, La Sapienza ((praesidentiæ majoris.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature as referendary on January 25, 1781. Pope Pius VI named him successively, president of Collegio Germanico-Ungarico; secretary of the S.C. of Good Government, before January 29, 1787; examiner of bishops in canon law, October 30, 1795; commander of the hospital S. Spirito in Sassia, before February 20, 1796; occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate. At the same time, he was a canonist the Apostolic Penitentiary. Following the first restoration of the papal government in Rome, Pope Pius VII named him member of the particular congregation for Ecclesiastical Affairs on July 28, 1800; charged with the examination of the concordat with France. He was one of the founding members of the Accademia di Religione Cattolica, February 4, 1801.

Sacred orders. Ordained (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 23, 1801; published in the consistory of January 17, 1803; received red hat, January 20, 1803; and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, March 28, 1803. Before March 9, 1803, he was named protector of the Theological Academy of La Sapienza University. On March 29, 1803, he was named member of the SS.CC. of the Tridentine Council, of Bishops and Regulars, of the Index, and of Good Government. Protector and apostolic visitor of the hospital Proiectorum in Viterbo, April 19, 1803. He substituted for Cardinal Leonardo Antonelli, as pro-penitentiary, during the latter's trip to France on the occasion of the coronation of Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte, November 2, 1804 to May 16, 1805. Pope Pius VII named him member of the S.C. of Rites on July 19, 1807.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Osimo e Cingoli, January 11, 1808. Consecrated, Sunday January 31, private chapel of the consecrator, Rome, by Cardinal Carlo Crivelli, assisted by Giuseppe Morozzo, titular archbishop of Tebe, secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, and by Giuseppe Graziosi, titular bishop of Anastasiopoli, auxiliary of Palestrina. He is one of the rare cases of a diocesan bishop who belonged the order of cardinal deacons.

Death. January 9, 1815, Osimo. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Osimo.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, p. 341; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 227-228; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, X, 220; ; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 9 and 46.

Cool Archive

(27) 24. ERSKINE, Charles (1739-1811)

Birth. February 13, 1739, Rome. Of a Scottish-Italian family related to the royal house of Stuart; his grandfather was Earl of Kellie and Mar. Son of Colin Erskine and Agata Gigli, of a noble family from Anagni. His last name is also listed as Erskine of Kellie.

Education. He was placed under the protection of Cardinal Henry Benedict Mary Stuart, duke of York, he studied at Pontificio Collegio Scozzese, Rome, 1748-1753; and later, at La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in law, 1770).

Early life. He first exercised as a lawyer. Received an ecclesiastical benefice in 1776. In 1780, he became auditor of Prince Chigi. Pro-auditor of His Holiness and promoter of the faith in the causes of canonization (devil's advocate), 1782. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1782. Named, in July 1783, judge of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1783. Dean of the college of consistorial advocates, 1783. Received the subdiaconate, August 28, 1783. A British subject, he was sent in 1793 in England on a semi-official mission (of a nature more political than religious), within the framework of an anti-French alliance; he arrived on November 13. He was to try to improve the internal situation of the Church, as well as to obtain a complete political emancipation of the Catholics and a re-establishment of diplomatic relations; to solve the disagreements existing between the apostolic vicars and the laity; and to obtain the protection of the Crown for the French clergy exiled by the Revolution. Auditor of His Holiness in February 1794. He accepted, in June 1795, the powers of extraordinary envoy to represent the Holy See at an eventual congress of the Powers united against France (which did not take place). He composed the funeral oration of Pope Pius VI at the time of a commemorative mass celebrated in London on November 16, 1799, the first for a Roman pontiff since the Reformation. He also acted as financial agent of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, after the suppression of this congregation by the French, and took part in the execution of the concordat (which he found too generous for France) by asking the resignation of the French bishops residing in England (he succeeded in convincing five out of the fourteen bishops). He left London on December 12, 1801, and returned to Italy, while passing through Paris, where he was at the time of the approval of the concordat by the French legislative bodies in April 1802; he arrived in to Rome on October 1, 1802.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 23, 1801; published in the consistory of January 17, 1803; received red hat, January 20, 1803; and the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, March 28, 1803.

Sacred orders. Received the diaconate on January 22, 1804. He was particularly interested in the affairs of Great Britain and Ireland. Protector of Scotland and of Pontificio Collegio Scozzese, Rome. Pro-secretary of Apostolic Briefs, September 14, 1808. When the French invaded Rome, 1808, he was confined to the Quirinale Palace with Pope Pius VII and when the latter was taken prisoner, the cardinal was allowed to go free, but his property was confiscated and he would have been reduced to total poverty if his Protestant relatives had not given him an allowance. In 1809, Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte ordered him to go to Paris in spite of his poor health (he suffered of lumbar rheumatism). Forced to leave Rome, January 2, 1810. He was present at the civil wedding of Emperor Napoléon I, but not at the religious wedding the following day alleging bad health . He was a renowned jurist recognized for the finesse of his analyses and his mastery of Latin; he was considered one of the most scholarly cardinals of his time and spoke and wrote in five languages.

Death. March 20, 1811, of an apoplexy, Paris. Exposed in the church of Saint-Thomas d'Aquin, Paris, where the funeral took place; and buried in Vault III, in the second bay on the left hand side, in the church of Saint-Geneviève, now the Panthéon, Paris (1).

Bibliography. Decraene, Jean-François. Petit dictionnaire des grands hommes du Panthéon. Paris : Monum, éditions du patrimoine, 2005, p. 43; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 325-326; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXII, 62-64; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 9 and 46.

Links. Biography by Edwin Burton, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Panthéon, Paris; his portrait by an unknown artist, Blairs Museum, The Museum of Scotland's Catholic Heritage, Aberdeen, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC; and his tomb in the Panthéon, Paris, Find a Grave.

This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London, England:

CHARLES ERSKINE
CARDINAL DIACRE DE STE. MARIE DANS LA PORTIQUE
NÉ À ROME D'UN PÈRE ECOSSAIS
LE XIII FÉVRIER MDCCXLIII
MORT À PARIS LE XX MARS MDCCCXI

Cool Archive

SILVA, Paolo Luigi (1733/1737-1802)

Birth. 1733/1737, Milan. Of an old family from Domodossola, where Palazzo Silva still stands despite the extinction of the family in the 19th century.

Education. (No information found).

Sacred orders. Ordained (no information found). Auditor of the nunciatures in Poland and Austria for many years, under Nuncio Antonio Eugenio Visconti, future cardinal. Domestic prelate of His Holiness in June 1770. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature in July 1770. In May 1773, he was named judge of the Reverend Fabric of Saint Peter's and in April 1775, civil lieutenant of the vicar general of Roma, assuming simultaneously, the following May, the posts of voter of the Tribunal of the Signature of Grace and examiner of bishops. In July 1775, he was also named prelate of the SS. CC. of the Tridentine Council and of the Ecclesiastical Immunity. In December 1775, he received in commendam the abbey della Cagnina. As civil lieutenant of the vicar general of Rome, he assumed, temporarily, the post of vicegerent of the diocese of Rome between February and October 1776, during the absence of the occupant, Francesco Antonio Marcucci, bishop of Montalto delle Marche, who had gone to his see; during the is period, he acted as secretary of several particular congregations and in April 1776, he received in commendam the abbey of S. Antonio di Como. Assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition in December 1780, succeeding Paolo Francesco Antamori, when the latter was elevated to the cardinalate. Named cleric of the Apostolic Chamber in June 1778. Secretary of the particular congregation for the confirmation of the general chapter of the Order of Malta in 1779.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 23, 1801; died before his name was published. In his place, Archbishop Domenico Pignatelli di Belmonte, O.C.R.Theat., of Palermo, was promoted in the consistory of August 9, 1802.

Death. Between February 23, 1801 and August 9, 1802. Exposed and buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 8, citing Consistoriale, Archivum Vaticanum 1802/1803 f. 249'-250.

Top Consistories Catalogs Home

©1998-2014 Salvador Miranda.