The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius VII (1800-1823)
Consistory of July 11, 1803 (VII)
Celebrated in the Quirinale Palace, Rome


(38) 1. DESPUIG Y DAMETO, Antonio (1745-1813)

Birth. March 30, 1745, Palma de Mallorca, Spain. He was one of the eight children of Ramón Despuig, count of Montenegro and of Montoro, and María Dameto, of the marquises of Bellpuig. The family was allied to the old kingdom of Aragón.

Education. Jesuit School of Monte Sión, Palma (humanities); University of Mallorca, Mallorca (philosophy, 1762-1764; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, June 1, 1779). Received the ecclesiastical tonsure in 1760; the minor orders on May 17, 1769; and the subdiaconate on September 21, 1771, in Alcañiz. In 1761, he received a diocesan benefice. He interrupted his studies and retired to a property of his family in Alcañiz Aragón, in 1764; dedicated himself to write and to translate.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 3, 1774. In Mallorca, canon of its cathedral chapter, March 29, 1774; took possession by procurator, July 2, 1774. Collaborated in the Sociedad Mallorquina del País and was one of the founders of the drawing school; named its censor, 1778. Became judge conservador and vicar apostolic of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in Mallorca, June 23, 1777. Lieutenant-vicar and subdelegate of the armies of land and sea of the island, 1780. Member of the Royal Academy of San Fernando de Madrid, March 5, 1782. Rector of the University of Mallorca, 1783-1785. Chantre of the cathedral chapter of Mallorca, April 29, 1786. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for the kingdom of Aragón, May 7, 1785.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Orihuela, September 26, 1791. Consecrated, September 29, 1791, church of S. Maria di Montserrato, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Saverio de Zelada, assisted by Xaverio Passari, titular archbishop of Larissa, and by Gregorio Bandim titular archbishop of Edessa. On January 23, 1794, Captain General Duke de la Roca, arrested the archbishop of Valencia (who was able to escape from the Kingdom), and named Bishop Despuig governor of the archdiocese on February 1, 1794. The bishop immediately went to the capital, upsetting the archbishop and most of the people that considered him an intruder. To normalize the situation, King Charles IV asked the pope to name him archbishop. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Valencia, June 1, 1795. Uncomfortable in Valencia, he was transferred to the metropolitan see of Seville, December 18, 1795. Sent to Rome in ca. 1796 (or 1797) with Cardinal Francisco Antonio de Lorenzana y Butrón, archbishop of Toledo, and personal representative of King Carlos IV of Spain before Pope Pius VI. Promoted to the titular Latin patriarchate of Antioch, January 13, 1799, retaining the administration of the archdiocese of Seville; resigned administration, March 23, 1799. Archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Valencia, 1799. Covered the expenses of the burial of Pope Pius VI, who died on August 29, 1799.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 11, 1803; received the red hat, July 14, 1803; and the title of S. Callisto, September 26, 1803. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, December 28, 1803. Pro-vicar of His Holiness for Rome, March 26, 1808; vicar general, 1810-1813. Forced by the French to leave Rome, November 11, 1809; he did not attend the second wedding of Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte with Archduchess Maria-Louise of Austria on April 2, 1810 but was not relegated with the black cardinals (prohibited from wearing their red garments for having refused to attend the emperor's wedding); because of his poor health was allowed to return to Italy and went to live in Lucca. Collector of books and art; in his farm of Raixa, between Palma and Sóller, he established a museum surrounded by beautiful gardens. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1810 until his death.

Death. May 2, 1813, Lucca. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Lucca. In October 1993, his mortal remains were taken to Palma de Mallorca and buried in the church of Santa Magdalena, where Santa Catalina Tomás is also buried; in 2005, a statue of the cardinal by Damià Ramis Caubet was erected in he square of Santa Magdalena, front of the church.

Bibliography. Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 127-128; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 302-304; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 87, 238, 319 and 430; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 10, 40 and 50.

Link. Biography, in Spanish; his engraving and biography, in Catalan; Varias observaciones hechas en el terremoto acaecido en la Calabria ulterior, ano de 1783 by Antonio Despuig y Dameto, in Italian; his engraving by Pietro Bettelini, Biblioteca Nacional de España; his engraving, probably by Manuel Peleguer, Biblioteca Nacional de España; his engraving, probably by Manuel Peleguer, Biblioteca Nacional de España; and his engraving by Nicola Moneta, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana.

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(39) 2. GALLEFFI, Pierfrancesco (1770-1837)

Birth. October 27, 1770, Cesena. Of a patrician family. Son of Count Vincenzo Galleffi and Countess Violante Fantaguzzi. Compatriot and client of the Braschi family of Pope Pius VI. His first name is also listed as Pier Francesco; and his last name as Galeffi.

Education. Studied at the Franciscan convent of Cesena, under Fr. Bonaventura Gazzola, future bishop and cardinal, from 1780; entered the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, 1791-1793.

Early life. Named privy chamberlain participantium, before February 22, 1794. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica September 21, 1794. Forced to leave Rome by the authorities of the Roman Republic, May 17, 1798. Economous and secretary of the S.C. of the Fabric of St. Peter's, October 30, 1800. Entered the Roman prelature as as domestic prelate of His Holiness before November 8, 1800. Named referendary on November 9, 1800. Protonotary apostolic non participante before December 20, 1800. In 1801, he was co-visitor, with Cardinal Carafa di Traetto, of the Hospital of Santo Spirito in Sassia, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 11, 1803; received the red hat, July 14, 1803; and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, September 26, 1803. Abbot commendatario perpetuo e ordinario of Ss. Benedetto e Scolastica di Subiaco from September 26, 1803 until his death. Protector of the Order of Clerics Regular (Caracciolini) before June 22, 1805. He was one of the fourteen cardinals expelled from Rome on March 23, 1808, under the pressure of the French authorities that had occupied the city. Taken to France in 1809 after the removal of Pope Pius VII; he was one of the thirteen "black cardinals" (prohibited by Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte to wear the red cardinalitial habit for having refused to attend the second wedding of the emperor with Archduchess Maria-Louise of Austria on April 2, 1810); by order of the emperor, he was relegated to Sedan in 1810; later, to Charleville, together with Cardinal Ferdinando Maria Saluzzo, until the signature of the concordat of Fontainebleau by Pope Pius VII on January 25, 1813; united with the pope, he was again exiled on January 27, 1814 to Lodève; an order of the provisional government freed him on the following April 2. After the restoration of the papal government in Rome, he was named secretary of Memorandums, May 20, 1814. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, September 26, 1814 until March 10, 1818. Protector of the Order of the Eremites of Saint Augustine before September 27, 1815. Executor of the will of Cardinal Romoaldo Braschi (April 30, 1817) and tutor of his nephew Duke Pio Braschi. Protector of the Order of the Friars Minor Observant and of the Order of Camaldolese, May 10, 1817. Prefect of the S.C. of Religious Discipline, May 14, 1817. Protector of the confraternity of SS. Trinità de' Pellegrini, May 27, 1817.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Damasco, August 31, 1819. Consecrated, September 12, 1819, church of Ss. Domenico e Sisto, Rome, by Cardinal Alessandro Mattei, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Meraldo Macioti, titular bishop of Elusa, and by Francesco Albertini, bishop of Terracina, Sezze e Piperno. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, May 6, 1820 until his death. Prefect of the S.C. of the Fabric of St. Peter's, May 16, 1820 until his death. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, May 29, 1820. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church and archchancellor of the University of Rome, December 20, 1824 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina and Civitavecchia, July 5, 1830. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. Archchancellor of the Roman University, Rome.

Death. June 18, 1837, Rome. Exposed and buried in the tomb of his family in the church Santissima Trinità dei Pellegrini e Convalescenti, Rome, where the funeral also took place.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 389-390; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 348; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 379-381; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 10, 37, 38, 40, 49 and 172.

Links. His episcopal genealogy, in English; his arms on a coin of the 1829 sede vacante; his engraving by Gioacchino Lepri, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana; and engraving of his arms.

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