The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius VII (1800-1823)
Consistory of January 17, 1803 (V)
Celebrated at the Quirinale Palace, Rome


(29) 1. BOISGELIN DE CUCÉ, Jean-de-Dieu-Raymond de (1732-1804)

Birth. February 27, 1732, Rennes, France. Of a family of ancient parliamentary nobility from Cesson-Sevigné, Bretagne, France. Son of Renaud Gabriel de Boisgelin de Cucé and Jeanne Françoise Marie du Roscoët. His father was a president of the parliament of Bretagne; and one of his ancestors had accompanied Saint Louis IX to the Holy Land. After the death of his elder brother, he ceded his patrimonial rights to his younger brother (guillotined in 1794). His second last name is also listed as Cicé, Cussé and Cusé.

Education. Jesuit College of Rennes (humanities); Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, from 1748 (bachelor's in theology); La Sorbonne University, Paris (licentiate in theology, 1752); he went to Rome to continue his education (obtained a licentiate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained, 1755. Vicar general of Rouen, 1756. Archdeacon of Pontoise, 1760.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lavaur, March 27, 1765; he received the pallium by brief dated on the same day; took possession of the see on the following November 9; he had been presented by the king of France December 23, 1764. Consecrated, April 28, 1765, church des Feuillants, rue S. Honoré, Paris, by Etienne-Charles de Loménie de Brienne, archbishop of Toulouse, assisted by Raymond de Dufort, bishop of Avranches, and by Louis de Suffren de Saint-Tropez, bishop of Sisteron. He obtained four abbeys in commendam. Resigned the government of the diocese, February 27, 1771. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Aix, June 17, 1771; he had been presented by the king of France on November 4, 1770. He presided, by right, the États de Provence. Member of the Académie Française, January 15, 1776. Member of the Assembly of Notables, 1776 and 1787-1788. Elected to represent the higher clergy of his province at the États généraux, 1789; president of the Assemblé Nationale (formerly États généraux) for fifteen days in November 1789 (1); his wisdom and eloquence made him leader and spokesman of thirty bishops in the assembly; after the adoption in the summer of 1790 of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, which he judged attempted against the rights of the Church, he was replaced by a constitutional bishop in March 1791; it was in this occasion that he addressed to Pope Pius VI, in the name of the episcopate, the famous Exposition de principes sur la constitution civile du clergé of October 30, 1790, a moderate document requesting the advise of the pope, who did not answer. In 1791, he published "Considérations sur la Paix publique adressées aux chefs de la Révolution". From December 1791 until February 1792, he went to Brussels and the to Mainz to visit his family. Returned to Paris and escaped the massacres of September 1792. He went into exile in London in September 8, 1792 (he spoke English well), for not having taken the constitutional oath; he dedicated himself to studying, reading, writing and ministering the French exiles; during the period of 1792 to 1801, he was the chief of the French Catholic émigrés, encouraging the committee of French bihops and counseling the court; he abstained from criticizing harshly the Revolution and the new order of things. Returned to France after the Concordat of July 15, 1801 between France and the Holy See restored peace to the church. He supported the concordat and published Lettre de M. lArchevêque dAix en réponse au bref de sa sainteté le pape Pie VII en date du 15 août 1801. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese as Pope Pius VII had requested to the old bishops, November 7, 1801. He returned to France in 1802. He was presented by First Consul Napoléon Bonaparte on April 12, 1802 to the metropolitan see of Tours; on the following April 16, he was named by Cardinal-legate Giovanni Battista Caprara; he took possession of the see on July 17; confirmed by apostolic bull on July 23; he was favorable to the consular regime. He published Discours sur le rétablissement de la religion prononcé à Notre-Dame de Paris, pour célébrer la signature du Concordat. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of First Consul Napoléon Bonaparte.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 17, 1803; received the red biretta on the following March 27 in the chapel of the Tuileries, Paris, from Napoléon; died before receiving the red hat and the title. In 1803, he was named a senator; and on July 14, 1804, grand-officer of the Légion d'onneur. He was interested in the ideas of Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu; a friend of Cardinal Loménie de Brienne, Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, and Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis; frequented the residence of Voltaire and of Jean le Rond d'Alembert; was a translator of Ovid, and a valiant defender in the plan of the princes of the Church in facing the Revolution while proposing measures of conciliation. A liberal prelate liberal, enlightened but pious and faithful to his duties, he was a also good administrator and concerned with economic development of his diocese. An eloquent speaker, he pronounced the funeral oration of the Dauphin, son of King Louis XV (1765); of King Stanislas of Poland (1766); of the Dauphine Marie-Josèphe of Saxony (1767); as well as the speech of the consecration of King Louis XVI in Reims on June 11, 1775. He was one of the most remarkable prelates of the 18th century, but the honors that he received after his acceptance of the Concordat of 1801 made him look like a traitor to the refractory bishops, who opposed the settlement.

Death. August 22, 1804, in his maison in Angervilliers. His funeral was celebrated on September 12, 1804. Buried in the cemetery of Angervilliers, then in diocese of Versailles, now in diocese of Evry-Corbeil-Essonnes. At the present, it is not known where his tomb is in that cemetery.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 546-547; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 199-200; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 159-161; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 92 and 433; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 9 and 381.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in French; another biography, in French; his genealogy; his engraving; another engraving, Archives of Rennes; and his engraving by Pietro Mancion, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana.

(1) The presidency of the assembly was rotatory for periods of approximately fifteen days and in it alternated representatives of the three estates.

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(30) 2. COLLOREDO-WALDESEE-MELS, Anton Theodor von (1729-1811)

Birth. June 29, 1729, Vienna. He was baptized on July 17, 1729. Son of Count Lodovico Colloredo-Waldesee and Princess Eleonore Gonzaga. His family owned considerable dominions near Mantua. His last name is also listed as Colloredo-Melz und Waldsee. He was destined from his youth to an ecclesiastical career.

Education. Completed his first studies in Modena; Collegio Nazareno, Rome; University of Padua, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on March 3, 1752. Received the subdiaconate on August 6, 1758; and the diaconate on August 15, 1758.

Priesthood. Non-resident canon of the cathedral chapter of Olomouc, December 5, 1746. Ordained, August 20, 1758, Brixen. Resident canon of the cathedral chapter of Olomouc, October 25, 1764. Provost of the Collegiate chapter of Saint Moritz in Kroměříž, November 7, 1766. Dean of the cathedral chapter of Olomouc, May 30, 1776. Vicar general of the diocese of Olomouc, June 13, 1776.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Olomouc by its chapter, October 6, 1777. Promoted to the rank of archbishop when the diocese was elevated to metropolitan, December 5, 1777. Confirmed by the pope, March 30, 1778. Consecrated, May 17, 1778, cathedral of Salzburg, by Hieronymus Joseph Franziskus von Colloredo, archbishop of Salzburg, assisted by Ferdinand Christoph von Waldburg-Zeil-Trauchburg, bishop of Chiemsee, and by Franz de Paula Xaver Ludwig Jakob von Breuner, former bishop of Lavant; took possession of the see the following July 11. Duke and prince of the Sacred Roman Empire as such, he participated in the Diet of Frankfurt, which elected Emperor Leopold II in 1790. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1790. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of Emperor Franz I.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 17, 1803; the pope sent him the the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated January 29, 1803; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title.

Death. September 12, 1811, Kroměříž. Exposed and buried in the chapel of Mother of Sorrows, cathedral of Saint Moritz, Kroměříž (1). In the same chapel is buried Cardinal Wolfgang Hanibal von Schrattenbach.

Bibliography. Bertolla, P. I cardinali friulani. Udine : 1962; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 253-254; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 318; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 9; Zelenka, Alés. "Colloredo-Waldesee (Wallesse)-Mles, Anton Theodor, Reichgraf von (1729-1811)." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1648 bis 1803 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Stephan M. Janker. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1990, p. 67-68.

Links. His portrait and biography, in German, Wikipedia; brief biographical data, in Italian, Dizionario Bigrafico Friulano; his engraving by Nicola Moneta, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana; his effigy and arms on seventeen medals and coins, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; seven engravings, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his portrait and coins, numismatika.cz, Michal Burian; his epitaph, Wikipedia.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from the photograph linked above:

CINERES HIC RECONDUNTUR
EMINENTISSIMI DOMINI DOMINI
ANTONII THEODORI COMITIS A COLLOREDO ET WALDESEE
S.R.E. PRESBYTERI CARDINALIS PRINCIPIS
PRESULISQUE AB ANNO MDCCLXXVII USQUE AD ANNUM
MDCCCXI
ARCHIEPISCOPI OLOMUCENSIS
CUIS PIA MEMORIA IN SEMPITERNA SIT BENEDICTIONE

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(31) 3. ZORZI, C.R.S., Pietro Antonio (1745-1803)

Birth. November 7, 1745, castle of Novogrado, diocese of Zara, Dalmatia (now in Croatia). Of an illustrious family of the Venetian nobility.

Education. Studied at the Accademia dei Nobili, Venice, directed by the Somascan Fathers. Entered the Somascan novitiate of Venice in 1764; and studied theology at Vicenza.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1768, Verona. Lector of theology at Collegio of Verona; and later, at the Seminary of Venice. In 1774, he became director of Collegio dei Nobili Brescia; and later director of the same in Venice. Synodal examiner in Brescia. Superior of S. Maria della Salute, Venice.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ceneda, at the proposition of the Venetian senate, April 3, 1786. Consecrated, April 17, 1786, church of Ss. Nicola e Biagio, Rome, by Cardinal Carlo Rezzonico, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Nicola Buschi, titular archbishop of Efeso, canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, and by Pietro Luigi Gelletti, O.S.B., titular archbishop of Cirene. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Udine, September 24, 1792; he had been presented by the doge of Venice on August 2, 1792.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 17, 1803; received the red biretta by papal brief date the following January 29; died before receiving the red hat and the title.

Death. December 17, 1803, Udine. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Udine.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 980-982; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 159 and 428; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 9; Spinozzi, L. Il cardinal Pier Antonio Zorzi e il giansenismo. (Thesis in literature, University of Trieste, 1960).

Link. His engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(32) 4. CADELLO, Diego Gregorio (1735-1807)

Birth. March 1, 1735, Cagliari, Sardinia. Son of Francesco Ignazio Cadello, a jurist, and his third wife, Angela Maria Cugia. Baptized, March 12, 1735. He belonged to the house of the marquises of San Sperato.

Education. Studied at the University of Cagliari and obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, August 12, 1761.

Early life. Coadjutor of the canonship of Villacidro, May 15, 1754. Received the subdiaconate, September 18, 1756; and the diaconate, September 24, 1757.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 20, 1758. In Cagliari, canon of its cathedral chapter, 1764; later, its dean; vicar general, 1781-1797; vicar capitular. Prebendary of Serramanna, Villacidro, Nuraminis and Vallermosa (as such he was called "Canonico di Serramanna" or "Canonico di Villacidro"), 1764 to 1768, when the prebend passed to the territory of the diocese of Ales.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Cagliari, January 29, 1798; he had been presented by the king of Sardinia on January 10, 1798; he received the pallium the same day of his election; the see of Cagliari contended with that of Sassari for the title of primate of Corsica and Sardinia. Consecrated, May 27, 1798, cathedral of Iglesias, by Giuseppe Domenico Porqueddu, bishop of Iglesias (the names of the co-consecrators are not known); he made the solemn entrance in his archdiocese the following June 2. Knight of Justice of the Order of Ss. Maurizio e Lazzaro; later knight of grand cross. He was a pastor very attentive to the social problems and was interested in the lot of the inhabitants of Carloforte, who had been made slaves en masse by the Tunisian pirates the night of September 2 to 3, 1798; he published "Lettera Pastorale per rendimento di grazie per la liberazione dei carolini dalla schiavitù" on June 17, 1799.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 17, 1803; received the red biretta, by papal brief dated the following January 29, from the viceroy of Sardinia on March 17; never received the red hat and the title. He made a general pastoral visitation of the archdiocese in 1805.

Death. July 5, 1807, Cagliari. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Cagliari; he left all his possessions to the seminary.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 187-188; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 140; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 9.

Links. His engraving and biography, in Italian, p. 255-259; his portrait; and his engraving.

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(33) 5. BELLOY, Jean-Baptist de (1709-1808)

Birth. October 9, 1709, Castle of Morangles, near Senlis, diocese of Beauvais, France. Of an ancient noble family. Son of Philippe Sébastien de Belloy and Jeanne Louise d'Auchy. Two of his brothers entered the order of the Premostratenses. His last name is also listed as Belloy-Morangle.

Education. Classics and theology, Paris; Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris (philosophy and theology); La Sorbonne University, Paris (licentiate in theology, 1736); Theological Faculty, Paris (doctorate in theology, 1737).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 19, 1733, Paris.In Beauvais, canon of its cathedral chapter for fifteen years; archdeacon for four years; vicar general for six years. In 1749, he received in commendam an abbey in the diocese of Avignon, which he exchanged for the abbey of Cormeilles, diocese of Lisieux in 1766. On October 3, 1751, he was presented by the king of France for the see of Glandèves.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Glandèves, December 20, 1751. Consecrated, January 30, 1752, chapel of the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, by Étienne-René Potier de Gesvres, bishop of Beauvais, assisted by Charles de Grimaldi, bishop of Rodez, and by Henri de La Tour du Pin-Montauban, bishop of Riez. Participated in the Assembly of the Clergy of 1755. Transferred to the see of Marseille, August 4, 1755. During the French Revolution, he did not accept the Civil Constitution of the Clergy of 1790, and sought refuge in Chambly, near his birth place. Never left France. He was the first bishop to resign his see on September 21, 1801, when it was suppressed by the Concordat of 1801 between France and the Holy See, setting an example that greatly influenced other French bishops. Nominated by Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte, who was highly pleased with this act of devotion to Church and State, to the metropolitan see of Paris on April 9, 1802; the nomination was accepted by the cardinal legate, Giovanni Battista Caprara on April 10, 1802; and confirmed by apostolic bull of September 14, 1802. Notwithstanding his very advanced age, he governed his new diocese with great vigor and intelligence; he reorganized the parishes and provided them with good pastors; and visited his flock in person. He restored the Crown of Thorns on August 10, 1806, to its place of honor in the Sainte Chapelle, which greatly pleased the emperor. He invented the filter for coffee makers. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of Emperor Napoléon I.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 17, 1803; received red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, February 1, 1805, in Paris. Senator with the Légion d'honneur and promoted to grand aigle, February 2, 1805; count of the French Empire, March 1, 1808. Welcomed Pope Pius VII in Notre Dame cathedral, Paris, when he went to crown Emperor Napoléon I.

Death. June 10, 1808, Paris, at 98, of rhume catharral (catarrhal colds); his last moments were very edifying; he addressed his family saying "apprenez a mourir" (learn to die). Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral, where the funeral also took place; the requiem mass composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was interpreted; and the funeral oration was delivered by Cardinal Jean-Siffrid Maury. His memorial is in the chapel of Saint Marcel in that cathedral. The monument, designed by Louis-Pierre Deseine, erected by Emperor Napoléon I in his honor is one of the finest in that cathedral.

Bibliography. Les archevêques de Paris (1622-2002). Paris : Letouzey & Ané, 2002, pp. 34-35; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 487-488; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 187-188; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 135-137; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 226, 280-281; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 9, 41 and 299.

Links. Biography by Charles Schrantz, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in French, Gallica, Bibliothèque nationale de France, p. 91-96; his portrait, engraving and biographical data, in French, archdiocese of Paris; Family Belloy-Morangle and biographical data, in French, Généalogie de la famille de Roussel de Preville; his funeral monument by Louis-Pierre Deseine, Chapelle Saint-Marcel, metropolitan cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris, Insecula; his engraving, Bildarchiv der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving by Pietro Mancion, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana; his portrait by Laurent Dalbos, Musée de Versalles; his bust by Louis Pierre Desseine, Musée du Louvre; his bust by Louis Pierre Desseine, Musée du Louvre; head by Louis Pierre Desseine, Musée du Louvre; another head by Louis Pierre Desseine, Musée du Louvre; and his portrait by an anonymous artist, Hospice of Villeneuve-lès-Avignon, France.

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(34) 6. CAMBACÉRÈS, Étienne-Hubert de (1756-1818)

Birth. September 11, 1756, Montpellier, France. on of Jean Antoine de Cambacères, counselor of the Cour de Comptes, and his frist wife, Marie Rose Vassal. Younger brother of Jean-Jacques Régis, prince archchancellor of the French Empire; there were eleven children but only two survived. Entered the ecclesiastical state by vocation.

Education. Seminary of Avignon, Avignon; University of Montpellier, Montpellier (licentiate in utroque iure, both civil and canon law, 1777).

Priesthood. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Montpellier. Ordained, 1780, Montpellier. Grand vicar honorary of Alès, 1788. Did not take the oath to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy because he did not occupy any ecclesiastical post in 1790. During the French Revolution, he lived in retirement in Montpellier and without problems because of the protection of his brother, Jean Jacques Rigis de Cambacérès, a deputy to the Convention. He never took the oath to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, and later refused to take the oath of hatred to the royalty; on the other hand, in 1792, he consented to take the oath of liberty-equality, the one of submission to the laws of the Republic of II prairial an III; and in 1800, the one of loyalty to the constitution. He went to Paris in November 1801and rejoined his brother, who had already attained the highest levels of government.

Episcopate. Nominated by Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte to the metropolitan see of of Rouen, April 9, 1802; accepted by the cardinal legate, Cardinal Giovanni Battista Caprara, April 10, 1802; confirmed by apostolic bull, July 5, 1802. Consecrated, Palm Sunday April 11, 1802, cathedral of Paris, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Caprara, assisted by Michel-François du Vivier de Lorry, bishop of La Rochelle, and by Jean Batiste Maillé de La Tour, archbishop of Reims.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 17, 1803; received the red biretta by papal brief of the following January 22; First Consul Bonaparte imposed it to him on March 27, 1803 in the chapel of the Tuileries; received red hat and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, February 1, 1805. In November 1804, he was asked to accompany the pope from Turin during the pontiff's trip to France to crwon Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte. Elected senator for the department of Hérault, February 1, 1805; became a grand officer of the Légion d'honneur the following day. Named count of the empire, September 18, 1808. Did not attend the second wedding of Emperor Napoléon I but probably he excused himself because he was prohibited from wearing his red robes. He attended the Gallican Council of Paris in 1811. Publicly accepted the Restoration and adhered to the act of the senate overthrowing Napoléon I, April 8, 1814. Member of the Chamber of Peers, June 1815. He refused to resign his post to facilitate the negotiation of the concordat of 1816.

Death. October 25, 1818, Rouen. Exposed and buried, on October 28, in the metropolitan cathedral of Rouen.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 611; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 219-220; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 195-197; Ledré, Charles. Le cardinal Cambacèrés archevêque de Rouen (1802-1818) : la réorganisation d4un diocèse français au lendemain de la révolution. Paris : Plon, 1943; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 9, 45 and 326.

Links. His engraving and brief biographical information, in French, eighth section on page, Emmanuel Prunaux; his engraving, Emmanuel Prunaux; same engraving by Pietro Mancion, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana.

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(36) 7. FESCH, Joseph (1763-1839)

Birth. January 3, 1763, Ajaccio, Corsica. Son of Franz Fesch and Angela Maria di Pietrasanta. His father was a Swiss officer at the service of the Genoese navy, who had converted from Protestantism; and his mother had had a daughter from her first marriage to Girolamo Ramolino, Letizia Ramolino, who became the mother of Napoléon Bonaparte. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Lucien-Louis-Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte (1868).

Education. Initial studies with the former Jesuits (the Society of Jesus had been extinguished) of the Seminary of Ajaccio; continued his studies at the Minor Seminary of Ajaccio from 1778; entered the Grand Seminary of Aix in 1781 (obtained a doctorate in theology, 1785).

Priesthood. Ordained, 1785, Aix. In Ajaccio, he became capitular prebendary in 1787; canon and archdeacon of its cathedral chapter also in 1787; vicar general of the constitutional bishop in 1791; he took the oath of loyalty to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in that same year and manifested himself in favor of the new order. Obliged to leave Corsica when his family sided with France against the English, who came to the island. Arriving in France, he had to abandon the religious habit; in June 1793, he sought refuge in Provence, with his nephews Joseph, Napoléon and Lucien, where he became a simple store guard; for a while he exiled himself in Switzerland; then, under the protection of his nephew, obtained in 1796, became commissary of war, which contributed to enrich him considerably and allowed him to carry out a rather worldly life. He approached his former state gradually after the 18 Brumaire of year VIII (November 9, 1799); he returned officially to the ecclesiastical state in April 1802, after a retreat in Saint-Sulpice. During the Consulate, became canon of Bastia. Helped, indirectly, to negotiate the Concordat of July 15, 1801 between France and the Holy See.

Episcopate. Nominated by Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte to the metropolitan see of Lyon, July 31, 1802; accepted by the cardinal legate, Giovanni Battista Caprara, August 4, 1802; confirmed by apostolic brief, September 27, 1802, which also granted him the pallium. Consecrated, August 15, 1802, cathedral of Paris, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Caprara, assisted by Étienne Bernier, bishop of Orléans, and by Louis Sebastiani, bishop of Ajaccio. He took possession of the see on January 2, 1803.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 17, 1803; received the red biretta from First Consul Napoléon Bonaparte in the chapel of the Tuileries the following March 27; received red hat, July 7, 1803; and the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, July 11, 1803. Named plenipotentiary minister of the French Republic before the Holy See on April 4, 1803; arrived in Rome on July 2; Chateaubriand was the secretary of the mission. Persuaded Pope Pius VII to go to Paris to crown Napoléon I; accompanied the pope to France and blessed the marriage of Napoléon I and Joséphine before their coronation, December 1, 1804; the coronation took place the following day. He participated in the negotiation of the concordat with the Italian Republic and also took part in the negotiations for a concordat with Germany. He was named senator on February 5, 1804. Named grand chaplain as such, he exerted a great influence on the episcopal nominations) and decorated with the grand aigle of the Légion d'honneur, February 2, 1805. Received the collar of the Spanish order of Toisón de Oro on August 9, 1805. Director of the missionary institutions of Saint-Lazare and Saint-Sulpice, 1805. He had the title of Imperial Highness. Recalled in France in April 1806, not having succeeded in inserting the Holy See in the anti-European coalition, he was appointed, on October 21, 1806, coadjutor of the prince-bishop of Ratisbon, title which did not oblige him with the residence but brought him considerable income, and which was allotted to him because the emperor wished to possibly make of it the primate of Germany as much as that of Gaules. He advised, semi-officially, the emperor on religious matters, which explains why between 1802 and 1812, he made only rare appearances in his archdiocese, remaining there in all for approximately only a year.

He presided over the ecclesiastical commission of 1809 on the application of the Concordat; over that of 1810 on the canonical nomination of the bishops; neither commission adopted any schismatic resolutions; and over the National Council of French bishops of June-October 1811, convened to settle the question of the canonical institution of the bishops apart from the pope by entrusting it to the metropolitans; he was exiled in his archdiocese in March 1812 following the failure of the discussions, the council declaring itself without competence in the matter, and the emperor judging his uncle too close to the Roman positions; he was also deprived on August 26 of the income of Ratisbon and lost the grand chaplaincy. In 1809 and 1810 presided over the two ecclesiastical commissions charged with the question of canonical institution of bishops. On January 31, 1809, he was nominated to the archdiocese of Paris; in February of that same year, he received from the cathedral chapter the powers of capitular administrator; but he declined because he knew that the Holy See would never allow the accumulation of two sees and would not grant the canonical institution. Blessed Napoléon I's marriage with Marie-Louise of Austria. April 2, 1810. He baptized the emperor's son, the king of Rome, on June 9, 1811. As president of the Council of 1811, he remained loyal to Pope Pius VII, in exile at Fontainebleau, and for this, the cardinal fell in disfavor with the emperor. He left his archdiocese in January 1814, because of the advance of the coalition troops, to prevent that a member of the imperial family would fall between their hands; he took refuge in Rome, where he arrived on May 14; he briefly returned to Lyon at the end of May 1815, at the time of the Hundred Days; on June 2, he was named member of the Chambre des Pairs, but he abstained from taking his seat. Prevented from returning to his see by King Louis XVIII, he went back to Rome in August 1815; he was definitively banished from France, like the other members of the imperial family, by the law of January 12, 1816; he always refused, in spite of the papal requests, to resign the archdiocese of Lyon, which he continued to govern through vicars general, although he would have been ready to accept a coadjutor; neither the offer of appointment to archbishop of Ferrara, vacant in 1822, 1826 and 1834, nor that of a suburbicarian, succeeded in convincing him (Pope Pius VII, on October 1, 1817, suspended his jurisdiction and named an apostolic administrator who never took his functions; and Pope Leo XII named a new apostolic administrator on December 26, 1823). He lived in Rome extremely withdrawn, in a palace where his collections accumulated, seeing only his family and remaining far away from the political intrigues. He took part in the work of the congregations to which it belonged (Consistorial, Bishops and Regulars, Council, Propaganda Fide and Ceremonial), and ensured himself, since 1819, of the presence of chaplains in Sainte-Hélène. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, retaining in commendam the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, December 2, 1822. Cardinal primo prete. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. More than one thousand paintings of his 17,626 works of art collection are housed at the Fesch Museum, Ajaccio. He succeeded in establishing the harmony between constitutional and refractory priests; supported the reconstitution of the religious communities; started again the interior missions; and restored the public worship. Very conscious of the intellectual failure of the clergy, he attached a particular importance to the revival of clerical studies and to the development of the seminaries, with the result of a considerable increase in the number of priestly ordinations; he conceived, in 1806, the project to associate to the cathedral chapter an École des hautes études, and supported in 1808 the creation of state theological faculties.

Death. May 13, 1839, of stomach cancer, Rome. Exposed in his title, where the funeral took place; transferred to Corneto and buried in the church of the monastery of the Passion in that city, next to his half-sister (1). In July 1851, according to their wills, transported to Ajaccio and in 1860, buried in the crypt of the chapel of his palace. He left important donations to the see of Lyon and to the city of Ajaccio.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 898-899; Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 379-381; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 295-296; Colombani, Hèléne. Le cardinal Fesch. Paris : Albatros, 1979; Latreille, André Auguste. ... Napoléon et le Saint-Siège (1801-1808). L4ambassade du cardinal Fesch à Rome. Paris : F. Alcan, 1935. (Biblothèque d4histoire contemporaine); LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 348-351; Lyonnet, Jean Baptiste. Le cardinal Fesch, archevêque de Lyon ... fragments biographiques, politiques et religieux pour servir à l4histoire ecclésiastique contemporaine. 2 v. Lyon ; Paris : Perisse fréres, 1841. Note: Paris, Lyon, Librairie Victor Lecoffre; Michel, Ersilio. Le carte Fesch nell4Archivio dipartimentale di Lione. Livorno : R. Giusti, 1932. Note: Estratto dall4"Archivio storico di Corsica", anno VIII, num. 4, 1932; Napoléon, les Bonaparte et l'Italie : 11/04-30/09 2001, Musée Fesch, Ajaccio. Ajaccio : Musée Fesch, 2001; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 9, 42, 43 and 246.

Links. Biography, in English; his engraving and biography, in English (Birtannica); his engraving and biography, in English; another biography, in French; his portrait by an anonymous artists, musée de château de Fontainebleau; his portrait by Charles Meynier, musée de château de Versailles; his portrait by Andrea Appiani, archbishopric of Lyon; his portrait and bust, by Jérôme Maglioli, and Antonio Canova, respectively, both in the Musée Napoléonien de l'Hôtel de Ville, Ajaccio; portrait by Jules Pasqualini, Musée Fesch, Ajaccio, Corsica, France; portrait by Antoine-Claude Fleury, Musée de la Maison Bonaparte, Ajaccio, Corsica, France; his statue, courtyard of the Musée Fesch, Ajaccio; seven engravings, Bildarchiv der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bibliothèque publique et universitaire, Neuchâtel; his engraving by Gioacchino Lepri, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana; and lithograph by Cäcilie Brandt.

(1) In Rome and during his brief return to France in 1815, the cardinal always lived with his half-sister, for whom he felt a deep fraternal affection in spite of having different fathers.

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