The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius VII (1800-1823)
Consistory of March 8, 1816 (X)

(42) 1. DELLA GENGA, Annibale (1760-1829)

Birth. August 2 (or 22), 1760, Castle della Genga, diocese of Fabriano. Sixth of the ten children of Count Flavio della Genga and Countess Maria Luisa Periberti di Fabriano. His baptismal name was Annibale Francesco Clemente Melchior Girolamo Nicola. Uncle of Cardinal Gabriele della Genga Sermattei (1836).

Education. Collegio Campana, Osimo, 1773; Collegio Piceno, Rome, 1778; Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, 1783. Received the subdiaconate, 1782; diaconate, 1783.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 14, 1783, with dispensation of the canonical age. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness. Private secretary of Pope Pius VI, 1783-1784. Ambassador to Switzerland, 1784. Guest professor at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles. Privy chamberlain de numero participantium. Prefect of the Vatican Seminary. Delivered the sermon on in the Sixtine Chapel the oration on the death of the Emperor Joseph II of Austria, 1790. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1792. Abbot commendatario for life of the Abbey of Monticelli.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tiro, February 21, 1794. Consecrated, February 24, 1794, cathedral of Frascati, by Cardinal Henry Benedict Mary Stuart, duke of York, bishop of Frascati, assisted by Antonio Felice Zondadari, titular archbishop of Adana, and by Ottavio Boni, titular archbishop of Nazianzo. Nuncio in Cologne, March 14 (1), 1794 until 1800. Retired to Monticelli, and, expecting to end his days there, he built in the abbey church the tombs for his mother and for himself. Extraordinary nuncio to the Diet Ratisbon, September 23, 1805. With Cardinal Giovanni Battista Caprara, went to Paris to negotiate some agreement between the Holy See and Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte, 1808; mission failed. On the the fall of Napoléon I, sent to Paris as envoy extraordinary to convey the pope's congratulations to King Louis XVIII, July 22, 1814. Cardinal Ercole Consalvi, accredited to all the sovereigns then at Paris, resented his mission and Archbishop Della Genga returned to Rome, and again retired to Monticelli for two years.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat, March 11, 1816; and the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, April 29, 1816. Transferred to the see of Senigallia, with personal title of archbishop, March 8, 1816. Because of poor health, resigned the pastoral government of the diocese without ever entering it, September 10, 1816; resignation accepted by the pope, September 18, 1816. Prefect of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, May 9, 1820. Vicar general of His Holiness for the city of Rome, May 12, 1820. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, February 10, 1821. Participated in the conclave of 1823, and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope, September 28, 1823; at first, he was not willing to accept the election due to his poor health, telling the cardinals that they were electing "a dead man"; took the name Leo XII. Crowned, October 5, 1823, by Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo, protodeacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. Created 25 cardinals in eight consistories.

Death. February 10, 1829, Rome. Exposed in the patriarchal Vatican basilica; and buried on February 15, 1829 in that same basilica. His remains were transferred and buried before the altar of St. Leo the Great in the grotto of that basilica on December 5, 1830.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 359-361; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 245; Kelly, John Norman Davidson, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 304-306; Monsagrati, Giuseppe. "Leone XII." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 529-538; Montor, Artaud de. Histoire du Pape Léon XII. 2 vols. Paris : A. Le Clere et c., 1843; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 424; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 10-11, 18 and 43.

Links. Biography by Leslie Toke, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English (Britannica); biography by Giuseppe Monsagrati, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei papi, Treccani; biography, in Italian; portrait and biography, in Italian; portrait, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; biography, in English (Britannica); engraving and biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography by Leslie Toke, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, also in English; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his statue by Giuseppe de Fabris, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome; his bust, Promoteca Capitolina, Rome, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving by an anonymous artist, Promoteca Capitolina, Rome, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; lithograph by an anonymous artist, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his effigy on a coin, Numismatica Lago Maggiore S.p.A.; twelve engravings, Bildarchiv Austia, Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; eight images, Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; another engraving, Library, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; his portrait and biography, in Italian, Consorzio Frasassi; his effigy on a medal, Hawaii OnLine; his effigy on two other medals, John Paul Adams, California State University, Northridge; and his monument by Giuseppe de Fabris, patriarchal Vatican basilica, St Peter's Basilica.Org.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 424; Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 245, says that he was appointed on April 23, 1794.

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(43) 2. GRAVINA, Pietro (1749-1830)

Birth. December 16, 1749, Montevago, diocese of Girgenti. Of a family of Spanish descent. Of one of the premier families of the patriciate of Palermo. Son of Giovanni Gravina Moncada, duke of San Michele, III duke of Montevago and grande of Spain, and Eleonora Napoli di Montaperto, of the princes of Resuttana Monteleone. Baptized, December 26, 1749. His brother Federico, grand admiral, commanded the Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in 1805; he was seriously wounded and died of his wounds after the battle in March 1806; and his brother Gabriele, O.S.B., was bishop of Catania; and later, titular archbishop of Melitene.

Education. Theatine Seminary of Palermo, Palermo; Collegio Clementino, Rome (thesis in philosophy: "Praepositiones philosophicae", 1769); La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law); Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles (diplomacy); he completed his juridical formation working for three years with lawyer Antonio Maria Gasparri. Received the minor orders in Palermo on September 7, 1778.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, April 5, 1781; also, protonotary apostolic non participante. Governor of Città di Castello, July 9, 1783. Governor of Fano, February 25, 1785. Governor of Iesi, May 30, 1789. Governor of Spoleto, August 13, 1790.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 7, 1792. Governor of Ancona, January 25, 1793 until March 7, 1794. Protonotary apostolic ad honorem, 1794.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicea, September 12, 1794. Consecrated, September 14, 1794, church of S. Andrea di Monte Cavallo, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Saverio de Zelada, secretary of State, assisted by Nicola Buschi, titular archbishop of Efeso, and by Michele Di Pietro, titular bishop of Isauriopoli.. Nuncio in Switzerland, September 16 (1), 1794 until 1800; he left Lucerne for Basle in the spring of 1798 because of the advance of the troops of the French Directorate; in 1799, he took refuge in Constance; later, in Augsburg together with nuncio Annibale della Genga, future cardinal and Pope Leo XII; and finally in München. Recalled to Rome after the first restoration of the papal government, he was named consultor of the S.C. of Indulgences in 1802. Nuncio in Spain, March 1 (2), 1803 until his promotion to the cardinalate; in 1812-1813, he was in conflict with the Junta de Cádiz and with Cardinal Luis María de Borbón y Vallábriga, archbishop of Toledo and primate of Spain, because of the defense of the privileges of the ecclesiastics and the suppression of the tribunal of the inquisition, he had to go in exile in Portugal in July 1813; he returned to Madrid in July 1814, after the restoration of King Fernando VII; he left the capital of Spain definitively on July 15, 1817.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, November 15, 1817. Named archbishop of Palermo by King Ferdinando I of Sicily on July 10, 1816; preconized by the pope on September 23, 1816; he entered his see in the spring of 1818; after the Sicilian revolution of 1820, he exercised the functions of lieutenant-general from March 24 to July 10, 1821. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Named honorary Maggiordomo Maggiore of the new pope. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. He received the decorations of Knight of the Order of San Gennaro; and the Gran Croce dell'Ordine di Carlo III.

Death. December 6, 1830, Palermo. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Palermo; and buried in the chapel of the Most Holy Sacrament in that cathedral (3).

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 397-398; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 246; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 446-448; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 308; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 11, 42 and 298; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 119, 211, 238, 390 and 712.

TRONG>Links. Biography by M. Maiorino, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; biography, in Italian, Comune di Montevago, provincia de Agrigento, Italy; brief biographical entry by Urban Fink, in German, Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz, concentrating on his nunciature in Switzerland; I Gravina, principi di Montevago, in Italian, Comune di Montevago, provincia de Agrigento, Italy; I doni dei Gravina, in Italian, Comune di Montevago, provincia de Agrigento, Italy; and his monument in the cathedral of Palermo, Sicily, Italy, The Australian National Univesrity.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 308; and Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife, p. 397; Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 246, says that he was named on September 20, 1794.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 308; Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 246, says that he was named on February 21, 1803.
(3) This is the inscription in his vault, placed by his brother Father Gabriele, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

Memoriae nunquam interiturae
Petri Gravina
ex Pnbus Montisvagi S.R.E. Card. Arch. Panormitani
pietate prudentia morum suavitate insignis
qui religionis patriae egenorum
columen decus auxilium
et locum regis in Sicilia tenens
sacra ejusdem jura aeque hac dei tuenda curavit
publicaeq. hominis politici laude
securitati durissima tempestate consuluit
Gabriel capp. maior frater amantiss. posuit
vixit annos LXXXI decessit postr non dec an MDCCCXXX

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(44) 3. SPINUCCI, Domenico (1739-1823)

Birth. March 2, 1739, Fermo. Baptized on that same day.

Education. University of Bologna, Bologna (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, July 5, 1757).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 19, 1763. Pro-synodal examiner. Pro-vicar general of Fermo.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Targa, April 3, 1775. Consecrated, April 17, 1775, cathedral of Fermo, by Cardinal Urbano Paracciani, archbishop of Fermo (the co-consecrators are not known). Transferred to the see of Macerata e Tolentino, May 12, 1777. Acting administrator of Recanati and Loreto, June 30, 1787. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Benevento, June 27, 1796.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat, March 11, 1816; and the title of S. Callisto, April 29, 1816. Did not participate in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII.

Death. December 21, 1823, Benevento. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Benevento, January 24, 1824.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 475; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 901; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 121, 270 and 393; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 11 and 40.

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(45) 4. CALEPPI, Lorenzo (1741-1817)

Birth. April 29, 1741, Cervia. Of a patrician family. Son of Count Nicola Caleppi and Luciana Salducci.

Education. Jesuit School of Nobles, Ravenna (humanities); University of Cesena, Cesena (doctorate in utroque iure, January 3, 1767).

Early life. Vicar and general commissary of the of the Ferrarese section of the of the archdiocese of Ravenna, 1766-1767. He went to Rome under the protection of Giuseppe Garampi, future cardinal.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 1, 1772, Rome, by Giuseppe Garampi, titular archbishop of Beirut, nuncio in Poland. Entered the Roman Curia as auditor of Nuncio Garampi in Poland, 1772-1775; later in Austria, 1776-1780; he was charged with delivering the funeral oration for Empress Maria-Theresa in 1780; chargé d'affaires of the Holy See in 1782, while the nuncio accompanied Pope Pius VI on his return to Rome from Vienna. Named pontifical ablegato for the elevation of Nuncio Garampi to the Sacred College of Cardinals on February 14, 1785. Prior of the Collegiata of S. Maria in Via Lata, Rome, 1785. Charged with several diplomatic missions, notably to Naples from 1786 to 1788. In the fall of 1792, Pope Pius VI named him director of the reception of the Franciscan friars who had to migrate to Rome from France. Named domestic prelate of His Holiness, February 21, 1794. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, March 13, 1794. Secretary of the congregation particolare for the affairs of Poland, 1795. Sent in May 1796 to Florence in a diplomatic mission to negotiate with the Directorate. Named plenipotentiary, next to Cardinal Alessandro Mattei, for the negotiations of the disastrous Treaty of Tolentino, February 22, 1797. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, before May 6, 1797. He sought refuge in Naples and later in Sicily during the French occupation of Rome; afterward, he went to Venice for the conclave of 1800-1801. After the restoration of the papal government, Pope Pius VII named him to the congregation particolare for the recovery of the properties confiscated during the French occupation of Rome, July 9, 1800. He was one of the founding members of the "Accademia della Religione Cattolica".

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nisibis, February 23, 1801. Consecrated, Sunday November 15, 1801, cathedral of Frascati, by Cardinal Henry Benedict Mary Stuart, duke of York, bishop of Frascati, assisted by Angelo Cesarini, titular bishop of Milevi, and by Bonaventura Gazola, bishop of Cervia. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, November 19, 1801. Named nuncio in Portugal, December 23, 1801; he left Rome for Portugal on April 26, 1802, with Vincenzo Macchi, future cardinal, as auditor; arrived in Lisbon on May 22, 1802, and presented his credentials on June 27th. When Portugal was invaded by the French army in 1808, he left for Brazil with the Braganza royal family on April 19th; they arrived in Rio de Janeiro on September 8, 1808; Msgr. Macchi stayed in Lisbon.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 8, 1816; never received the red hat and the title. When promoted, he was in Brazil and because of this, some sources say that he should be considered the first cardinal of the New World. He died in the Brazilian capital ten months later.

Death. January 10, 1817, Rio de Janeiro. Exposed and buried in the Franciscan church of San António, Rio de Janiero, according to his will.

Bibliography. Accioly, Hildebrando Pompeo Pinto, Os primeiros núncios no Brasil. São Paulo : Instituto Progresso Editorial, 1949. (Coleção Tropico, 2). Contents : Mons. Lorenzo Caleppi.--Mons. Giovanni-Francesco Marefoschi.-- Mons. Pietro Ostini, pp. 19-126; Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 330-331; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 193-195; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 11 and 284.

Links. His image on the painting of the signing of the Treaty of Tolentino, he is the second from the left, standing next to Cardinal Alessandro Mattei; and his engraving by an anonymous artist.

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(46) 5. SEVEROLI, Antonio Gabriele (1757-1824)

Birth. February 28, 1757, Faenza. Of a noble family. Son of Count Carlo Severoli and Anna Dorotea de' Marchesi Guidi di Crema. He had the title of count.

Education. Jesuit school, Ravenna (early education); Collegio di San Carlo, Modena; University of Modena, Modena (1773-1775); Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, 1776. University of Cesena, Cesena (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, February 3, 1787).

Early life. Domestic prelate of Pope Pius VI, 1776.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1779, Faenza. In the diocese of Faenza, archdeacon of the cathedral chapter; synodal examiner; and pro-vicar general.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Fano, April 23, 1787. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, April 27, 1787. Consecrated, May 13, 1787, basilica of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Carlo Boschi, grand penitentiary, assisted by Pietro Luigi Galletti, O.S.B., titular bishop of Cirene, and Domenico Manciforte, bishop of Faenza. In 1798, during the French occupation, was relegated to Castrocaro, Tuscany; freed, was able to return the following year. Promoted to the titular see of Petra in Palestina, September 28, 1801, retaining the administration of Fano. Nuncio in Austria, October 1801. Transferred to the see of Viterbo e Toscanella, with personal title of archbishop, January 11, 1808. Remained as nuncio in Austria at the request of Metternich until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat, July 31 1817; and the title of S. Maria della Pace, October 1, 1817. Datary of His Holiness, 1823-1824. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII; Cardinal Giuseppe Albani presented the veto of Emperor Francis I of Austria against his election. Realizing that his health was failing, he expressed to his nephew and servants his hope of dying on the feast of the Nativity of Our Lady, and on that day he asked to receive the sacraments and later died.

Death. September 8, 1824, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, where the funeral was celebrated by Cardinal Francesco Bertazzoli, and buried in his family's tomb in that church (1).

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 311-317; Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 468-469; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 874-876; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 213; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 11, 43 and 303; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998. p. 194-197; Strocchi, Andrea. Memorie istoriche del duomo di Faenza e de' personaggi illustri di quel capitolo. Faenza : Tripografia Montanari e Marabini, 1838, pp. 165-167.

Links. Biography, in German; and his portrait, Collegio S. Carlo, Modena.

(1) This is the text of a plaque placed in his memory by the cathedral chapter of Faenza in the sacristy major of the cathedral: taken from Strocchi, Memorie istoriche del duomo di Faenza e de' personaggi illustri di quel capitolo, p, 167:

ANTONIO . GABRIELI . SEVEROLIO
CARD . EPISCOPO . VITERBIENSIVM
SVMMO . MAGISTRO . BENEFICIIS . DANDIS . ADTRIBVENDIS
OLIM . ARCHIDIAC . DEIN . PRAEPOSITO . HVIVSCE . TEMPLI
OMNIVM . VIRTVTVM . LAVDE . SPECTATO
QVOD
VI . A . CONSILIIS . D. N. LEONIS. XII . PONT . MAX . AMOREM . SVVM . ERGA . VETERES . SODALES
OSTENSVRVS
PRINCIPI . OPTIMO . MVNIFICENTISSIMO
PRISTINVM . CANONICORVM. NUMEI~VM. AB . HOSTIBVS
ECCLESIAE . ITALIAM . OCCVPANTIBVS
IMMINVTVM . INTEGRANDI
AYGENDIQVE . ANNVVM 7 EORVM . REDITVM
AD . NIHILVM . PROPE . REDACTVM
AVCTOR . FVERIT
COLLEGIVM . IPSVM . CANONICORVM
NE . TAM . INSIGNIYM . BENEFICIORVM . MEMORIA
APVD . SVCCESSORES . INTERCIDAT
VTIQVE . SVI . IN . CIVEM . ET . PATRONVM . PRAESTANTISSIMVM
GRATI 7 REVERENTISQVE. ANIMI
TESTIMONIVM . EXTET . AD . PERENNITATEM
ID . TOTVM . MARMORE .7 INCIDENDVM
CENSVIT
ANNO . MDCCC . XXIIII

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(47) 6. MOROZZO DELLA ROCCA, Giuseppe (1758-1842)

Birth. March 12, 1758, Turin. Of an ancient and noble Piedmontese family. Son of Giuseppe Francesco Lodovico Morozzo, marchis of Brianzè, and Lodovica Cristina, daughter of Count Giulio Cesare Bertone Balbis di Sambuy. His last name is also listed as Morozzo di Brianze. When he became an orphan, he was raised by his uncle the bishop of Novara.

Education. Initial studies under a private preceptor, Abbé Paolo Lamberto Allègre (later bishop of Pavia); University of Turin, Turin (doctorate in theology in April 1777); Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, 1778.

Early life. Rector magnificus of the University of Turin, 1777-1778. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Protonotary apostolic participantium. Vice-legate of Bologna, August 13, 1784 until 1785. Governor of Civitavecchia, February 25, 1785. Governor of Campagna e Marittima, March 7, 1794. Governor of Perugia, August 18, 1795 until 1797.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 14, 1802.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tebe, March 29, 1802. Consecrated, April 4, 1802, church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, by Cardinal Leonardo Antonelli, assisted by Carlo Buronco, archbishop of Turin, and by Giovanni Coppola, titular archbishop of Mira. Nuncio in Tuscany, May 11, 1802; he left Florence in 1806. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, December 2, 1807 until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat, March 11, 1816; and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli alle Terme, April 29, 1816. Transferred to the see of Novara, with personal title of archbishop, October 1, 1817. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. Apostolic visitor and delegate of all the religious orders in the Kingdom of Sardinia, 1832.

Death. March 22, 1842, Novara. Buried in the cathedral of Novara.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 430-431; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956 . Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, p 121; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 669-671; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 11, 42, 287 and 365; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 161, 185, 220, 335 and 791-792.

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(48) 7. AREZZO, Tommaso (1756-1833)

Birth. December 16, 1756, Orbetello (now Pitigliano-Sovana-Orbetello). Bolognese patrician. Son of Marquis Orazio Arezzo and Maria Fitzgerald Browne, of the dukes of Linster; she was Irish. Baptized on that same day with the names Tommaso Maria Raimondo Leopoldo.

Education. Collegio Nazareno, Rome; Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, 1777 (studied canon and civil law); La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Early life. Dean of the cathedral of Girgenti, of the court of Naples, 1773. Entered the Sovereign Order of Malta, February 23, 1781. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, March 31, 1781. Protonotary apostolic. Vice-legate in Bologna, 1785-1790. Governor in Fermo, March 30, 1790. Governor of Marche, August 18, 1794 until January 5, 1797 when he had to escape because of the arrival of the French troops. Governor in Perugia, ad interim, February 7, 1797 until March 31, 1797. Received the subdiaconate, March 13, 1802; diaconate, March 14, 1802.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 19, 1802.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Seleucia in Isauria, March 29, 1802. Consecrated, April 4, 1802, church of S. Agnese a Piazza Novona, Rome, by Cardinal Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphilj, assisted by Camillo Campanelli, titular archbishop of Atena, and by Bernardo Sinibaldi, titular archbishop of Efeso. Sent to Russia on a mission of approachment with the Orthodox Church, 1802. Pro-governor of Rome, April 22, 1808 until September 6, 1808; detained by the French and sent to Florence, 1809; later deported to Novara and finally to Bastia, Corsica; escaped and went to Sardinia, 1813. Pro-commissary of the Holy Office, 1814.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received red hat, March 11, 1816; and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, April 29, 1816. Apostolic legate in the province and city of Ferrara, September 6, 1816; confirmed for a triennium, April 1829. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, May 29, 1820. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, July 5, 1830 until his death. Commendatario of title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, July 5, 1830. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI.

Death. February 3, 1833, Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, where his funeral took place with the participation of Pope Gregory XVI.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 306-308; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 11, 39, 41, 44 and 340; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 162, 248, 291, 335, 362 and 464.

Links. His portrait and biography, in Italian; Entretien de Napoléon et de Monsigneur Arezzo (9 novembre 1806) by Emile Dard, La Revue de Paris, 1935/06/01 (A42,N11).

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(49) 8. CASTIGLIONI, Francesco Saverio (1761-1830)

Birth. November 20, 1761, Cingoli. Of a noble family from the Marche. Third of the eight children of Count Ottavio Castiglioni and Countess Sanzia Ghislieri. His baptismal name was Francesco Saverio Maria Felice

Education. Jesuit Collegio Campana, Osimo; University of Bologna, Bologna (doctorate in utroque iure, 1785).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1785. Secretary of the commission investigating the Synod of Pistoia (1786). Vicar general of Anagni, 1788. Vicar general of Fano, 1790. Vicar general of Ascoli Piceno and archpriest of its cathedral chapter, 1797.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Montalto, August 11, 1800. Consecrated, August 17, 1800, church of Ss. Domenico and Sisto, Rome, by Cardinal Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphilj, assisted by Nicola Buschi, bishop of Ferentino, and by Camillo Campanelli, titular archbishop of Atena. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, August 17, 1800. When the French occupied Italy, he refused to the take the oath of allegiance to the king of Italy and was arrested, taken to Milan, July 29, 1808; later to Pavia; and then to Mantua; on November 10, 1813, was sent to Turin; and on November 18, 1813, to Milan. After the fall of Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte, returned to Montalto on June 16, 1814.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat, March 11, 1816; and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, April 29, 1816. Transferred to the see of Cesena, March 8, 1816. Grand penitentiary, August 4, 1821 until March 31, 1829. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, August 13, 1821. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, November 14, 1821 until his election to the papacy. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Participated in the conclave of 1829 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope, March 31, 1829, at the Quirinal Palace, Rome. Took the name Pius VIII. Crowned, April 5, 1829, by Cardinal Giuseppe Albani, protodeacon of S. Maria in Via Lata.

Death. November 30, 1830, Rome. Exposed and buried, December 6, 1830 in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome; his remains were transferred on June 5, 1846 to the grotto of that basilica.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 342-343; Monsagrati, Giuseppe. "Pio VIII." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 539-546; Fusi-Pecci, Odo. La vita del Papa Pio VIII. Rome : Casa Editrice Herder, 1965; Kelly, John Norman Davidson, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 306-307; Montor, Artaud de. Histoire du Pape Pie VIII. 2 vols. Louvain : Vanlinthout et Vandenzande, 1836; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 11, 22, 39, 43, 124 and 270.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in English; biography, in Italian; his portrait, arms and biography, in Italian; his episcopal lineage, in English; portrait, arms and biographical information, in English; "stampa", Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his effigy on a coin; his engraving by Luigi Bardi, Library, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; another engraving, Library, Regensburg University, Regensburg, Germany; his engraving, Eros Donnini, 1999; twenty eight engravings, Bildarchiv Austria, Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; eighteen engravings, Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio, Bolognahis portrait; his effigy on fourteen medals, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his bust, church of S. Maria Assunta, Cingoli; his bust by Pietro Tenerani, Museo di Roma; and his monument by Pietro Tenerani, patriarchal Vatican basilica.

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(50) 9. PELAGALLO, Carlo Andrea (1747-1822)

Birth. March 30, 1747, Rome.

Education. Collegio Romano, Rome; La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, April 28, 1773). Received minor orders, November 5, 1809; subdiaconate, November 12, 1809; diaconate, November 19, 1809.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, October 1773. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, May 1776. Apostolic commissary for the establishment of the border between the Papal State and Tuscany, 1776-1778. Second assessor of the tribunal of the Roman government, February 1785.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 3, 1809. Auditor of the government of Rome. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature. Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Osimo e Cingoli, December 18, 1815. Consecrated, Sunday February 18, 1816, church of S. Maria Maddalena, Rome, by Cardinal Antonio Dugnani (the co-consecrators are not known).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat, March 11, 1816; and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, April 29, 1816.

Death. September 6, 1822, Osimo. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Osimo.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 448-449; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 11, 43 and 98.

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(51) 10. NARO, Benedetto (1744-1832)

Birth. July 26, 1744, Rome. Of the noble family of the marquis of Baldachino. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Costantino Patrizi Naro (1834) (1).

Education. Collegio di San Carlo, Modena, January 20, 1752.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Appointed by Pope Clement XIII canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and privy chamberlain. Domestic prelate and referendary of the Supreme Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1775. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government and of the Sacred Consulta. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1800. President of the Commission delle ripe e delle acque. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace, 1807.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat, March 11, 1816; and the title of S. Clemente, April 29, 1816. Prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Relics, November 29, 1818. Prefect of the S.C. of Religious Discipline, February 10, 1821. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, January 1, 1824. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI.

Death. October 6, 1832, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marcello, Rome, where the funeral took place celebrated by Cardinal Carlo Odescalchi, and buried, according to his will, in the chapel of the Passione of the Redentore e S. Caterina, in the church of S. Clemente, Rome.

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 304-307; Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 431-432; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 11 and 41.

(1) According to Bernabei, Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi, p. 304, his brother Marquis Francesco, who was vessiliffero di Santa Chiesa, later assumed the last name Patrizi. Francesco married Donna Porzia Patrizi and had a son, Giovanni, who married Duchess Cunegunda, of the royal house of Saxony, and was the father of Cardinal Costantino Patrizi Naro (1834).

Links. His portrait by Vincenzo Camuccini, Galleria Spada, Rome; and another portrait by an anonymous artist, Collegio S. Carlo, Modena.

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(52) 11. GARDOQUI ARRIQUÍBAR, Francsco Antonio Javier de (1747-1820)

Birth. October 9, 1747, Bilbao, diocese of Calahorra y La Calzada, Spain. Baptized in the parish church of Santiago, Bilbao. His family owned Banca Gardoqui Arriquíbar.

Education. Studied theology and canon law in Valladolid where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 1, 1776 , Madrid. Vicar general in Palencia, 1781. Fiscal of the Inquisition in Granada, 1785. Inquisitor in Valladolid, 1788. Archdeacon in Sagunto and Alarcón. Member of the Council of Castilla. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for the Kingdom of Castilla, 1789. Counselor of Kings Charles III and Charles IV of Spain. Took part in the negotiation of the Peace of Amiens, 1802. He opposed the project of Puerto de la Paz de Abando because it was contrary to the interest of the bourgeoisie of Bilbao. He maintained great firmness before the pretensions of Napoleon Bonaparte concerning both the peninsular politics and the relations with Rome. In collaboration with his brother Diego María, he redacted a project of colonization for the Argentine Pampa by Basque farmers. He was a notable preacher.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat and the title of S. Anastasia, November 15, 1817. He obtained the elevation of the parish church of Santiago to the rank of minor basilica.

Death. January 27, 1820, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, and buried in his title. There is a street in Bilbao dedicated to his memory.

Bibliography. Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 11 and 40.

Links. His engraving and biography, in Spanish, aee. Auñamendi Eusko Entziklopedia; his portrait by José Madrazo y Agudo, Museo de Bellas Artes, Bilbao; his effigy in a fountain, Park of Doña Casilda Iturrizar, Bilbao, flikr.

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(53) 12. BARDAXÍ Y AZARA, Dionisio (1760-1826)

Birth. October 7, 1760, Puyarruego, diocese of Barbastro, Spain. Nephew of Josef Nicolás de Azara, ambassador of Spain in Rome and minister of the Spanish Council of State. His last name is also listed as Bardají.

Education. University of Huesca, Huesca (doctorate in canon law, 1777).

Priesthood. Ordained, 1785 (no further information found). Prior of Santa Ana de Barcelona. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for the Kingdom of Aragón, 1791. Received the Cross of Knight of the Order of Charles III. School master of the cathedral chapter of Murcia. Archdeacon of Trujillo, Plasencia. Archpriest of Belchite, Zaragoza. Chantre of the cathedral chapter of Huesca. Incarcerated by the French in Castle Sant'Angelo, Rome; transferred to Grenoble and later to the fort of Pierre-Chatel, 1812; and finally to Nevers, 1814. Returned to Rome at the end of 1815.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat, March 11, 1816; and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, April 29, 1816. Opted for the title of S. Agnese fuori le Mura, September 27, 1822. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Suffered from an acute deafness in the last years of his life.

Death. December 3, 1826, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Salvatore in Lauro, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in his title (1).

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 310-311; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 11, 39 and 40.

Links. Biography, in Spanish; and biographical entry, in Spanish.

(1) Some sources indicate that he was buried in the church of S. Pudenziana, Rome.

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(54) 13. RUSCONI, Antonio Lamberto (1743-1825)

Birth. June 19, 1743, Cento, archdiocese of Bologna. Of a patrician family. Son of Domenico Bartolomeo Rusconi and Maria Marta Manari.

Education. Studied law and economic sciences at the University of Bologna; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. Entered the ecclesiastical state.

Early life. Canon of the collegiate church of San Biagio, Cento, 1763. Went to Rome in 1765 to continue his studies. Entered the Roman prelature in the pontificate of Pope Clement XIV, when he was 30 years old. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, December 23, 1773. Abbreviatore de parco maggiore, 1773. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, 1775; as such, he visited several localities of the Papal States in the provinces of Sabina, Marittima e Campagna, Patrimony, Benevento and Pontecorvo, 1778. Civil auditor of the cardinal camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, Carlo Rezzonico, February 14, 1785. After the first restoration of the papal government in Rome, Pope Pius VII named him head of the particular deputation for the Grascia, July 9, 1800. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for Bologna, February 24, 1801; he entered in functions on December 15, 1801; sworn in, January 8, 1802. Received the diaconate, January 1, 1803.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 2, 1803. Auditor of the Apostolic Chamber for many years. Member of the Congregation of the Stateformed by Cardinal Agostino Rivarola on May 11, 1814, after the second restoration of the papal government in Rome; he was charged with reestablishing the order in the Pontifical Gregorian University, the Archiginnasio dell Sapienza, schools, libraries and museums of the city of Rome; he was also in charge of the administration of the postal service and urban works.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat, March 11, 1816; and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, April 29, 1816.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Imola, March 8, 1816. Consecrated, March 21, 1816, in the pope's private chapel, Rome, by Pope Pius VII, assisted by Francesco Bertazzoli, titular archbishop of Edessa, and by Giuseppe Bartolomeo Menocchio, titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan; in the same ceremony was consecrated Cardinal Nicola Riganti, bishop of Ancona. Legate in Romagna, February 9, 1820. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII.

Death. August 1, 1825, Imola. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Imola (1).

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 460-461; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 11, 41 and 223; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 819-820; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 185 and 881.

Links. His effigy in an engraving of his funeral monument, cathedral of Imola; and two engravings, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna.

(1) This is the inscription in his memorial, situated on the south wall of the sanctuary, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London:

XP    H · S · E ·    XP
ANTONIUS · RUSCONIUS · CARD
TIT · SANCTOR · IOANN · ET · PAULI EPISCOPUS · FOROCORNELIENS
VIX · ANN · LXXXII DEC · AN · MDCCCXXV
NOMINE · QUISQUIS · ADES · LECTO · BONA · VERBA · PRECARE
HEIC · O · QUI · TEGERIS · SIT · TIBI · PAX · SUPERUM

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(55) 14. DE GREGORIO, Emmanuele (1758-1839)

Birth. December 18 (or 28), 1758, at sea while his mother was travelling to Spain; the birth was registered in Naples. Fourth of the seven children of Leopoldo De Gregorio, marquis of Squillace and prince of S. Elia, minister and secretary of State of the Two Sicilies, and his second wife, María Josefa Verdugo y Quijada, of a distinguished family from Barcelona. The other siblings were Carlo, Antonio Maria, Girolamo, Maria Giuseppa, Angela Maria and Maria N. His first name is also listed as Emanuele. Half-brother on his father's side of Cardinal Giovanni de Gregorio (1785).

Education. Collegio Clementino, Roma.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Privy chamberlain supernumerary of Pope Pius VI, March 1781. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Abbreviatore del Parco maggiore. Relator of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, September 1783. Vicar of Cardinal Carlo Rezzonico, archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, April 1785. Prelate of the S. C. of the Council, July 1785. Lieutenent civil of the tribunal of the Vicariate of Rome, August 1786. Incarcerated with Pope Pius VI in 1798, during the Roman Republica; freed upon payment of a bail of 4.000 scudi. French General Dallemagne and the republican government planned to create him antipope in opposition to Pius VI. He fled to Siena to assure the pope of his loyalty and inform him of what was being planned against him. Pro-vicar of Rome and apostolic delegate during the absence of Cardinal Giulio Maria della Somaglia, who was vicar of Rome from 1795 to 1818. Pro-nuncio before Louis de Bourbon, King of Etruria. Secretary of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, 1808. During the French occupation of Rome and the exile of Cardinal Michele di Pietro, was apostolic delegate of the pope in Rome. Forced to go to Paris, arrested on January 2, 1811 and kept in captivity until 1814. Freed on April 1, 1814, remained in France trying to recover the Vatican treasures stolen by the French army.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat, March 11,1816; and the title of S. Alessio, April 29, 1816. Prefect of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, November 29, 1818. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, May 6, 1820. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, May 18, 1829, retaining in commendam the title of S. Alessio. Consecrated, May 31, 1829, Rome, by Cardinal Giulio Maria della Somaglia. Grand penitentiary, May 31, 1829 until his death. Archimandrite of Messina, Sicily. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs, December 11, 1834. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina and Civitavecchia, October 2, 1837. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 12, 1838 until February 18, 1839.

Death. November 7, 1839, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Andrea delle Fratte, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in the church of S. Giuseppe a Capo le Case, Rome, of the nuns of St. Theresa.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 357-358; Del Re, Niccolò. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 133-134; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXIII, 10-16; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 11, 38, 39 and 40; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 350.

Link. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati.

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(56) 15. ZAULI, Giovanni Battista (1743-1819)

Birth. November 25, 1743, Faenza. Son of Count Rodolfo Zauli and Anna Montecuccoli.

Education. (No information found).

Priesthood. Ordained, 1785. Knight of the Sovereign Order of Malta. Domestic prelate and referendary, January 27, 1785. Canonist of the Apostolic Penitentiary, January 1785. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, January 1785. Assessor of the criminal tribunal of Rome, January 1787. Relator of the Sacred Consulta. Vice-governor of Rome, February 13, 1798. After the French occupation of Rome, he assumed the responsibilities of Cardinal Francesco Saverio de Zelada, grand penitentiary. Arrested by the French on May 16, 1798 and imprisoned in Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome; exiled eight days later on May 24. After the restoration of the papal government in Rome, he was named datary of the Apostolic Penitentiary and secretary of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, before November 5, 1800. Canon altarista and custodian of the Confession of Saint Peter, before August 11, 1802. Forced to leave Rome after the Napoleonic occupation of the city; after the papal restoration, he resumed his posts, which he kept until his promotion to the cardinalate. Assessor of the criminal tribunal of the governor of Rome, January 18, 1815.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat, March 11,1816; and the title of S. Onofrio, April 29, 1816.

Death. July 21, 1819, Rome. Exposed in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, and buried in his title.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : Ecole française de Rome, 2002, p. 485; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 11 and 41.

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(57) 16. RIGANTI, Nicola (1744-1822)

Birth. March 24 (or 25), 1744, Molfetta. Son of Michele Riganti. Nephew of Msgr. Giambattista Riganti.

Education. He went to Rome to pursue his studies in law and attended the Collegio dei Protonotari Apostolici (doctorate in utroque iuris, both canon and civil law, February 15, 1767).

Eraly life. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, February 1767.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 14, 1768. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, Jaunuary 1770. He participated in the enactment of the decree of suppression of the Society of Jesus by being in charge of the occupation of Collegio Grieco, August 1773. Civil auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, September 1773. Auditor of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, January 1783. First lieutenant of the auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, February 1785. Vice-auditor of His Holiness. Secretary of the Sacred Consulta.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat, March 11,1816; and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, April 29, 1816.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ancona e Umana, March 8, 1816. Consecrated, March 21, 1816, in the pope's private chapel, Rome, by Pope Pius VII, assisted by Francesco Bertazzoli, titular archbishop of Edessa, and by Giuseppe Bartolomeo Menocchio, titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan; in the same ceremony was consecrated Cardinal Antonio Lamberto Rusconi, bishop of Imola.

Death. August 31, 1822, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in that same church.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 455; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 11, 42 and 73.

Link. Brief biographical data, in Italian, under "25/3/1744 - mercoledì".

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(58) 17. MALVASIA, Alessandro (1748-1819)

Birth. April 26, 1748, Bologna. Of a patrician and senatorial family. Son of Count Alberto Malvasia Gabrielli and Junipera Gozzadini.

Education. Studied law at the University of Bologna for two years; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law at the University of Rome on May 25, 1770. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure in Bologna on October 1769.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, February 1771, Relator of the Congregation of Good Government, May 1776.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 1783. In November 1789, he was named vicar of S. Maria in Trastevere. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for Bologna, August 1783. Assessor of the S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, February 1801.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat, March 11,1816; and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, April 29, 1816. Apostolic legate in the city and province of Ravenna, September 6, 1816.

Death. September 12, 1819, Ravenna. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 413-414; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 12 and 41.

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(59) 18. FONTANA, C.R.S.P., Francesco Luigi (1750-1822)

Birth. August 28, 1750, Castelmaggiore. Of pious, honest and well-off parents. His baptismal name was Luigi Maria.

Education. Entered in the Congregation of the Clerics Regular of St. Paul (Barnabites) in Monza; took the name Francesco Luigi; professed, December 21, 1766. Studied philosophy in Milan, and theology in Bologna.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1774, Bologna. Professor of eloquence, Barnabite Collegio di Sant'Alessandro, Milan. Director of Barnabite Collegio di Santa Lucia, Bologna, 1797. Provincial of his order in Lombardy, 1797. Procurator general of his order, ca.1801. Consultor of the SS.CC. of Rites and of the Universal and Roman Inquisition. Secretary of the S.C. of the Correction of Oriental Books, 1802. As theologian of the pope, accompanied Pius VII to France in 1804. Superior general of his congregation, 1807. Deported to France in 1808, was imprisoned in Vincennes from 1811 to 1814; he formed part of the first Ecclesiastical Commission created by Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte but he eluded participation because of illness. Freed, returned to Rome. Secretary of the newly created S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, 1814.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat, March 11,1816; and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, April 29, 1816. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, June 30, 1816. Prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, and of its press, of the Corrections of the Books of the Oriental Church, and of studies of the Gregorian University, September 24, 1818 until his death.

Death. March 19, 1822, Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, according to his will; the funeral eulogy was delivered by Giacinto Placido Zurla, O.S.B.Cam., future cardinal, on March 26, 1822.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 383-384; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 12 and 43.

Links. His engraving, portrait, arms and biographical information, in Italian; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his tomb, church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome.

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(60) 19. CACCIA-PIATTI, Giovanni (1751-1833)

Birth. March 8, 1751, Novara. His last name is also listed as Cacciapiatti. Son of Carlo Emmanuele Caccia-Piatti and Giuseppa Caccia-Piatti.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Abbreviatore di parco maggiore, September 1774. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, June 22, 1775. Vice-legate in Romagna, March 17, 1776; and again, 1778-1782. Relator of the Sacred Consulta, November 1782; occupied the post for eighteen years. Apostolic delegate in Urbino, 1801-1806. Auditor general of the causes of the Apostolic Chamber, 1808. Abbot commendatario of S. Giulio di Dulzago, diocese of Novara.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat, March 11,1816; and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, April 29, 1816. Granted a prorogation to the dispensation to receive sacred orders, February 21, 1817; March 13, 1818. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 10, 1823 until 1825. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Signature of Grace. Did not participate in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI.

Death. September 15, 1833, Novara. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Novara.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 326; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 12 and 45; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 373, 421 and 533.

Link Church of Sant'Eufemia, Novara, where his marble funeral monument is.

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(61) 20. LANTE, Alessandro (1762-1818)

Birth. November 27, 1762, Rome. Of one of the premier families of the Roman aristocracy, originally from Pisa. Son of Duke Filippo Lante and his second wife, Faustina Capranica. His last name is also listed as Lante Montefeltro della Rovere. Half-brother of Cardinal Antonio Lante (1816). Great-great-grand nephew of Cardinal Marcello Lante (1606). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Federico Marcello Lante (1743).

Education. Studied with the Benedictines, Rome; later, at Collegio Clementino, Rome; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law at La Sapienza University, Rome, on August 2, 1785; completed his juridical formation with lawyers Filippo Carandini, Giovanni Battista Quarantotto and Francesco Riganti.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature as domestic prelate and referendary on June 16, 1785. Pope Pius VI named him beneficiary of the patriarchal Vatican basilica on July 18, 1784; and later, June 25, 1785, canon of its chapter. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, February 1787, under its prefect, Cardinal Filippo Carandini. After the restoration of the papal government in Rome, Pope Pius VII named him secretary of the congregation for the reestablishment of the papal system of government on July 9, 1800. Secretary of the S.C. of Good Government, October 30, 1800. Protonotary apostolic before November 22, 1800. Prelate of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity before December 20, 1800. Treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber, September 28, 1801; he was one of the principal protagonists of the reform policies of Cardinal Ercole Consalvi, secretary of State; occupied the post until the French occupation of Rome; he retired to Tuscany and was one of the founding members of the Academy of the Catholic Religion. After the restoration of the papal government in Rome, he was compromised before the eyes of the zelanti party, and was replaced as treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber by Luigi Ercolani. Pro-treasurer of the Commission of Sate, May 14, 1814; later its treasurer general, in title, on September 23, 1814. The return to power of Cardinal Consalvi allowed him to dispel the accusations against him and to be promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat, March 11, 1816; and the deaconry of S. Eustachio, April 29, 1816. Apostolic legate in the city and province of Bologna, September 6, 1816; he entered his legation of September 29, 1816.

Death. July 14, 1818, Bologna. Exposed and buried in the altar of the confession in the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna. Transferred to a new monument in the same cathedral, October 13, 1858 (1).

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 405-406; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 12 and 45.

Links. His genealogy, X-1, 8 and another genealogy, A1 B8.

(1) In the north aisle of the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna; on the north wall between the chapel of the Sacred Heart and the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament, there is a marble monument, Adamo Taddolini, 1838, showing at the left a lion lying down, in the center a mourning angel, and at right a bust of the cardinal on a shield. This is the text of the inscription provided by Mr. Mark West, London, England:

CINERIBUS
ALEXANDRI PHIL. DUCIS E LANTE
CARD. DIAC. AD EUSTACH
AD MAGNA QUAEQUE PROGNATI
QUEM URBANIS MUNERIBUS GRAVISSIMIS
E PUBLICA RE GESTIS INSIGNEM
PIUS VII P.M.
IN SENATUM PATRUM. PURPURATOR COOPTAVIT
ET PROVINCIAE BONON LEGATUM DIXIT
EUMDEM COMMUNI BONO IN DIES IMPENSIUS INCUMBENTEM
QUUM AGERET ANN LVI
BREVIS MORBI VI INTERCEPTUM. PRID. ID. IVL. A. MDCCCXVIII
OMNES MOERERE ET LUCTU PROSEDUCTI SUNT
AMICI
VIRTUTIS HONORANDAE CAUSSA F.C.

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(62) 21. VIDONI, iuniore, Pietro (1759-1830)

Birth. September 2, 1759, Cremona. Relative of Cardinals Girolamo Vidoni (1626) and Pietro Vidoni, seniore (1660). Belonged to the noble and ancient Soresina family. Patrician of Cremona.

Education. Collegio San Carlo, Modena, 1766; Collegio Nazareno, Rome, 1771; Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, 1778 (theology and law).

Early life. Privy chamberlain supernumerary of Pope Pius VI. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, July 19, 1781. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1781. Vice-legate in Ferrara, March 8, 1785-1790. Protonotary apostolic, 1784. Relator of the Sacred Consulta, 1790. Apostolic delegate in Ancona, 1800-1808. Apostolic delegate in Urbino and Pesaro, 1806-1808. When the French invaders occupied the Marche, he returned to Rome and in 1809, when Pope Pius VII was deported to France, he was forced to return to Cremona. Went back to Rome in 1814 when the pope returned.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 8, 1816; received the red hat, March 11,1816; and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, April 29, 1816. Granted a prorogation to the dispensation to receive sacred orders, February 7, 1817; July 26, 1817; March 13, 1818; July 6, 1819. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 21, 1825 until Match 13, 1826. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII.

Death. August 10, 1830, after ten days of fevers. Exposed in the church of S. Andrea della Valle where the funeral took place on August 14, 1830, and buried in his family's chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary della Purità, in the same church.

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 308-311; Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 482-483; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 12 and 46; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 119, 256, 421 and 972.

Links. His portrait, Collegio S. Carlo, Modena; and his arms, in "Palazzo Vidoni dal '500 ad oggi", p. 11.

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(63) 22. DE SIMONE, Camillo (1737-1817)

Birth. December 13, 1737, Benevento. Of a family of the nobility, which possessed a marquisate. He was the secod of two children. The other child was Francesco. Nephew of Cardinal Gennaro Antonio De Simone (1773). Uncle of Cardinal Domenico De Simone (1830). His last name is also listed as De Simeoni.

Education. Seminary of Benevento, Benevento; La Sapienza, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, February 16, 1771). Received the insignias of the clerical character, December 21, 1756.

Early life. Entered the clericature in December 1756. Consultor of the S.C. of the Index. Auditor of Paolo Francesco Antamori, future cardinal. Cleric of the chamber of Pietro Bartolomeo Millo.

Sacred orders. He had not received either the minor orders or the major ones when he was promoted to the episcopate and probably received them in rapid succession before his episcopal consecration.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Sutri e Nepi, December 16, 1782. Consecrated, March 9, 1783, church of S. Maria in Vallicela, Rome, by Cardinal Paolo Francesco Antamori bishop of Orvieto, assisted by Giuseppe Maria Contesini, titular archbishop of Atene, papal almoner, and by Francesco Guidi di Bagno-Talenti, titular archbishop of Mira, canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 17, 1784. He celebrated a diocesan synod in 1795. He was hostile to the Napoleonic regime and refused to take the oath of obedience to the French authorities. He was arrested on May 21, 1810 and exiled for four years in Belley and later in Nice. He returned to his diocese, which had been suppressed by Napoleonic decree on June 18, 1810, in the spring of 1814.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of March 8, 1816; published in the consistory of July 22, 1816; received the red hat, July 25,1816; and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, September 23, 1816.

Death. January 2, 1818, several days after suffering an apoplexy, in Sutri (1). Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Sutri, where the funeral also took place. In his will, he left a large part of his wealth to the poor.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, p. 465; Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1822, Rome, 1821, p. 54; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 880-881; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 307; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 12 and 41; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 475.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catolica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 12; and LeBlanc, Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle, p. 881. Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1822, p. 54, indicates that he died on December 31, 1817.

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(64) 23. QUARANTOTTI, Giovanni Battista 1733-1820)

Birth. September 27, 1733, Rome.

Education. Collegio Romano, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Abbreviatore di parco maggiore. Relator of the Congregation of Good Government, December 1759. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of S. Eutizio, Norcia, in 1764. Member of the Sovereign Order of Malta. Coadjutor of the voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, Msgr. Guarnacci, Jaunuary 1770; later he was named voter of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signatures. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, March 1785. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber. Prefect of the Annona. Secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide; pro-prefect during the French occupation of Rome, 1809-1814.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of March 8, 1816; published in the consistory of July 22, 1816; received the red hat, July 25, 1816; and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, September 23, 1816. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Signature of Grace and prefect of the press of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, May 10, 1820.

Death. September 15, 1820, Rome. Exposed in his title and buried in the chapel Santo Bambino, in the jurispatronato of his family.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 453-454; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 12 and 42.

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doriapg.jpg

(65) 24. DORIA PAMPHILJ, Giorgio
(1772-1837)

Birth. November 17, 1772 (1), Rome. Son of Prince Andrea IV (Giorgio) Doria Pamphilj Landi and Princess Leopolda di Savoia-Carignano. Nephew of Cardinals Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphilj (1785), and Antonio Maria Doria Pamphilj (1785). Other cardinals of the Doria family were Girolamo Doria (1529); Giovanni Doria (1604); Sinibaldo Doria (1731); and Giorgio Doria (1743). Related to Pope Innocent X. Other cardinals of the Pamphilj family were Girolamo Pamphilj (1604); Camillo Francesco Maria Pamphilj (1644); and Benedetto Pamphilj, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1681).

Education. (No information found).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 31, 1804. Prefect of the Papal Household, 1808.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of March 8, 1816; published in the consistory of July 22, 1816; received the red hat, July 25, 1816; and the title of S. Maria in Via, September 23, 1816; he received dispensation for having an uncle in the Sacred College of Cardinals.. Abbot commendatario and ordinary of Ss. Vincenzo ed Anastasia ad aquas Salvias, or Tre Fontane, 1816. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, March 16, 1818. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites, February 10, 1821. Prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Sacred Relics, 1822. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Grand Prior in Rome of the Sovereign Order of Malta, 1828. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. At the end of his life he was almost totally blind.

Death. November 16, 1837, Rome, of an apoplexy. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, and buried in the church of S. Agnese in Agonali Platea.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 370371; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 12, 40 and 43.

Links. His genealogy, 3a; and his portrait, convent of S. Cecilia, Rome.

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 12. His genealogy, linked above, indicates that he was born on February 15, 1771; but the same genealogy indicates that his sister Anna was born three months earlier on November 15, 1770.

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(66) 25. ERCOLANI, Luigi (1758-1825)

Birth. October 17, 1758, Foligno. Son of Ascanio Ercolani and Lucrezia Cirocchi.

Education. Initially, studied in Foligno with preceptors; Collegio Nazareno, Rome (1770-1776); Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, 1776; when his father died, he returned to Foligno and continued his studies with the guidance of preceptors from 1776 to 1782; then he returned to the Academy.

Early life. He inherited a considerable fortune at the death of his brothers. During this time of his life, he remained celibate but lived a worldly life and at the same time correct in all aspects, specializing in economics and finance. In 1796, he entered the service of the papal administration as a member of the Military Commission; in 1799, he received the function of delegate of finances; and the following year, in July 1800, he became a member of the S.C. for the Reform of the Government of the Papal States, as provisional treasurer general. In October 1800, he became a member of the Congregation charged with the financial affairs. He left Rome during the French occupation and resided in one of his family's properties in Perugia. In March 1814, he became member of the Commission of Government as pro-treasurer. In May 1814, he was named treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, September 1814. He was member of the Junta of State, left in place in March-June, 1815, during the flight of the pope to Genoa following the escape of Napoléon Bonaparte from the island of Elba.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon and reserved in pectore in the consistory of March 8, 1816; published, July 22, 1816; received the red hat, July 25,1816; and the title of S. Marco, in commendam, July 22, 1816; transferred from the order of deacons to the order of priests by apostolic authority, April 14, 1817, after his priestly ordination and without having to wait ten years to pass from one order to the other; assigned the title of S. Marco, April 14, 1817. Protector of the Order of the Carmelites, June 12, 1817. Abbot commendatario and ordinary of the abbeys of S. Maria in Farfa and S. Salvatore Maggiore, January 1818. Prefect of the Economat of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide and economous of Collegio Romano, October 10, 1819. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. He suffered for several years of an advancing paralysis.

Death. December 10, 1825, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marco, where the funeral took place; and buried in that same church.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 373-374; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 323-324; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 12 and 42.

Link. Un cimitero "ballerino". Senigallia, i Mastai e la questione del camposanto nel XIX secolo by Laura Casavecchia, Alma Mater Studiorum Università degli Studi di Bologna, Facoltà di Conservazione dei beni culturali, Corso di Laurea in Conservazione dei beni culturali, Tesi di Laurea in Storia della città e del territorio, Anno Accademico 2005/2006 - Sessione II; information about the cardinal and his family, p. 27-30.

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(67) 26. SANSEVERINO, Stanislao (1764-1826)

Birth. July 13, 1764, Naples. Son of Pietro Antonio Sanseverino, prince of Bisignano, and Aurelia Caracciolo, princess of Torella. The family gave the church several cardinals: Guglielmo Sanseverino (1378); Federico Sanseverino (1489); Antonio Sanseverino, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1527); and Lucio Sanseverino (1621).

Education. Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, 1782.

Early life. Papal prelate, 1783. Regent of the Apostolic Chancery. Referendary of the tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, June 14, 1787. Relator of the Sacred Consulta, 1789. Vice-legate in Romagna, December 1789 to February 3, 1793. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, October 30, 1800. President delle strade, 1807. Pro-governor of Rome, July 12, 1815 until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Sacred orders. Ordained (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of March 8, 1816; published in the consistory of July 22, 1816; received the red hat, July 25,1816; and the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, September 23, 1816. Granted a prorogation to the dispensation to receive sacred orders, July 5, 1817. Apostolic legate in the city and province of Forlì, August 11, 1818. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria ad Martyres, March 21, 1825. Granted another prorogation to the dispensation to receive sacred orders, June 17, 1825.

Death. May (1)11, 1826, Forlì. Exposed in the cathedral of Forlì, where the funeral took place, and buried in that same cathedral.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, p. 464; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editores, 91972, pp. 122-123; Fabi Montani, Francesco. Elogio storico del cardinale Stanislao Sanseverino. Rome : B. Guerra, 1864; Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio (1550-189), pp. 373 and 891; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 12 and 46.

Link. His genealogy, A5 E5 F2 K9.

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 12, and Del Re, Monsignor governatore di Roma, p. 123; his genealogy, linked above, indicates that he died on March 11, 1826.

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(68) 27. QUEVEDO Y QUINTANO, Pedro Benito Antonio (1736-1818)

Birth. January 12, 1736, Villanueva del Fresno, diocese of Badajoz, Spain.

Education. Jesuit college, Granada (baccalaureate, 1753); Seminary of Salamanca, Salamanca; University of Avila, Avila (licentiate in theology, 1755); University of Salamanca, Salamanca (doctorate in theology, 1766).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 22, 1760. Canon lectoral of the cathedral chapter of Zamora, 1756. Canon magistral of the cathedral chapter of Salamanca, 1760. Professor at the University of Salamanca, 1770; vice-chancellor, 1776.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Orense, April 15, 1776. Consecrated, July 14, 1776, First Monastery of the Visitation (Salesian nuns), Madrid, by Felipe Beltrán Serrano, bishop of Salamanca, assisted by Felipe Pérez Santa María, titular bishop of Costanza in Arabia, auxiliary of Toledo, and by Francisco Mateo Aguiriano Gómez, titlar bishop of Tagaste, auxiliary of Toledo. Twice declined promotion to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, 1776 (or 1778), and 1814. Founded the Diocesan Seminary of Orense in 1803, in the houses that had belonged to the Society of Jesus, for which he is considered the father of the Seminario Conciliar de San Fernando de Orense. Received in his diocese the French clergy exiled during the Revolution. Refused to participate in the Congress of Bayona, 1808, where a constitution favoring the new king of Spain, José Bonaparte, was approved. Elected member of the first regency, February 1810; its president in Cádiz, May-October 1810. Refused to accept the Constitution of 1812 and was exiled to Portugal, 1812-1814, residing in Torey, Portuguese town of the diocese of Orense; returned to his see in 1814, when King Ferdinand VII also returned.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of March 8, 1816; published in the consistory of September 23, 1816; never received the red hat and the title.

Death. March 27/28, 1818, Orense. Exposed and buried in the capilla mayor of the cathedral of Orense.

Bibliography. Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 107-108; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 109. ; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 12.

Link. His portrait and biography, in Spanish; Fundación y Establecimiento del Seminario Conciliar de San Fernando, Ourense, in Spanish; his tomb, cathedral of Orense; three engravings, Bildarchiv Austria, Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; and Un episodio curioso durante las Cortes Constituyentes de Cádiz y don Pedro de Quevedo y Quintano, arzobispo de la diócesis de Orense by A. Risco, in "Razón y Fe", año 26, nº 297, tomo 74, fasc. 5, pp. 438-447, in Spanish.

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(69) 28. CESAREI LEONI, Francesco (1757-1830)

Birth. January 1, 1757, Perugia. Of a patrician family.

Education. Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, 1778-1884; University of Perugia, Perugia (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, September 24, 1779).

Early life. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, November 1783. Auditor of the tribunal of the Sacred Roman Rota for Perugia, April 19, 1784; admitted to the tribunal, April 26, 1784; entered in functions, November 13, 1784. Abbot in commendam of the monastery of S. Maria di Uselle, Città di Castello, December 1784. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1784. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of S. Maria in Pontionio, Todi, December 1786. Received the subdiaconate, August 20, 1797; diaconate, August 25, 1797.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 27, 1797. After the first restoration of the papal government, Pope Pius VII named him prelate vicar of the chapter of S. Maria in Cosmedin in July 1802; occupied the post until July 29, 1817. Regent of the Apostolic Penitentiary, 1804. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites, 1808. Named relator and pro-secretary of the S.C. of the Eccelsiastical Immunity before June 1, 1808, after the occupation of Rome by the troops of General Miollis. Dean of the Sacred Roman Rota, June 1809; returned to his functions after the second restoration of the papal government in Rome. Consultor of the Holy Office, September 30, 1814. Member of the congregation ad referendum for the indemnization of the buyers of ecclesiastical properties, July 22, 1816. Dean and archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Città di Castello.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of March 8, 1816; published in the consistory of July 28, 1817; received the red hat, July 31, 1817; and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, October 1, 1817.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Iesi, July 28, 1817. Consecrated, Sunday August 24, 1817, Gesù Church, Rome, by Cardinal Alessandro Mattei, assisted by Giovanni Francesco Guerrieri, titular archbishop of Atena, and by Candido Maria Frattini, titular bishop of Filippi. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII.. Did not participate in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII.

Death. July 25, 1830, Iesi. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Iesi.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, p. 345; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 13, 22 and 43.

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(70) 29. LANTE, Antonio (1737-1817)

Birth. December 17, 1737, Rome. Of one of the premier families of the Roman aristocracy, originally from Pisa. Son of Duke Filippo Lante of Bomarzo his first wife, Maria Virginia Altieri. His last name is also listed as Lante Montefeltro della Rovere. Half-brother of Cardinal Alessandro Lante (1816). Great-great-grand nephew of Cardinal Marcello Lante (1606). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Federico Marcello Lante (1743).

Education. Jesuit college, Turin; Collegio Clementino, Rome.

Early life. Entered the service of the Roman Curia as regent of the Apostolic Chancery, and Pope Clement XIII admitted him to the Roman prelature as referendary on March 24, 1763. Pope Clement XIV authorized his grand-uncle the cardinal to hand over, while he was still alive, the abbeys of Farfa and S. Salvatore Maggiore, where he performed a great pastoral activity. Governor of Benevento, December 14, 1764 until 1771; in practice, ceased on June 11, 1768, when the army of the king of Naples occupied the city and its territory and district. Inquisitor in Malta, 1771-1777. On his return from Malta, Pope Pius VI named him governor of Marche (Macerata) on July 19, 1777; occupied the post until 1785. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber and president of the Zecca, February 14, 1785; he occupied the posts for thirty years; later, dean of the Apostolic Chamber, 1801; returned to his post after the restoration of the papal government in Rome, on September 23, 1814. Pro-prefect of the Vatican Archive before the French occupation of Rome (1807).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of March 8, 1816; published in the consistory of July 28, 1817; received the red hat, July 31, 1817; and the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, October 1, 1817.

Death. October 23, 1817, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Nicocola da Tolentino, Rome, and buried in his family's chapel in that church.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, p. 407; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 13 and 44; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 144, 291 and 732.

Links. His genealogy, X-1, 2; another genealogy, A1 B2; and 'A Spy of Marquis Tanucci': Inquisitor Antonio Maria Lante by Frans Ciappara, Melita Historica : Journal of the Maltese Historical Society, 13 (2001) 2, 209-220, in English.

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(71) 30. BOTTINI, Lorenzo Prospero (1737-1818)

Birth. March 2, 1737, Lucca. Of a patrician family. Son of Marquis Filippo Bottini, consistorial lawyer, and Fulvia Spada.

Education. University of Bologna, Bologna (law).

Early life. Coadjutor of a consistorial lawyer, 1764; titular, December 1769. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, February 1771. Abbot commendatario) of a monastery in Lucca, December 1771. Member of a congregation, annexed to the S.C. of the Council, for the revision of the State of the Church, shortly after the accession of Pope Pius VI, September 1775. Rector of the Archiginnasio of La Sapienza, July 1781. Relator of the Sacred Consulta, January 1784. Representative of the Republic of Lucca in Rome, 1784?-1799. Pro-prefect of the Annona. Rector of the Pontifical Gregorian University, 1808. Secretary of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of March 8, 1816; published in the consistory of October 1, 1817; received the red hat, October 4, 1817; and the deaconry of S. Adriano, November 15, 1817.

Death. August 11, 1818, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, where the obsequies took place; and buried in his family's tomb in the church of Santissimo Crocifisso e San Bonavenura dei Lucchesi, Rome.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 319-320; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 13 and 45.

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(72) 31. SCEBERRAS TESTAFERRATA, Fabrizio (1757-1843)

Birth. April 1, 1757, Valletta, Malta. Son of Pasquale Sceberras Testaferrata and Lucrezia Dorell. Baptized, April 3, 1757. His last name is also listed as Testaferrata Scebarras; as Xeberras; and as Scriberras.

Education. Collegio Clementino, Rome (1771); La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, November 26, 1785).

Early life. Received the insignias clerical character, September 12, 1768. Canon coadjutor of the canonry of Ghar-Barca, 1770. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, December 15, 1785. Governor of Narni, August 8, 1786 until 1790. Governor of Città di Castello, August 13, 1790 until 1794. Governor of Fano, March 7, 1794. Granted the Crucem Aureaum Devotionis by the grand master of the Order of Malta, December 12, 1786. Apostolic delegate in Camerino, 1800. Apostolic delegate in Marche, June 26, 1801.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1802.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Berito, September 20, 1802. Consecrated, Tuesday December 21, 1802, church of Ss. Domenico e Sisto, Rome, by Cardinal Giuseppe Maria Doria, assisted by Benedetto Fenaja, titular archbishop of Filippi, and by Francesco Bertazzoli, titular archbishop of Edessa. Nuncio in Switzerland, September 20, 1803 until 1816. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, 1815.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of March 8, 1816; published in the consistory of April 6, 1818; received the red hat, April 9, 1818; and the title of S. Pudenziana, May 25, 1818. Transferred to the see of Senigallia, April 6, 1818. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. He was the first Maltese cardinal.

Death. August 3, 1843, Senigallia. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Senigallia (1).

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 475-476; Farrugia Randon, Robert. The Maltese cardinal : Fabrizio Sceberras Testaferrata. Valletta, Malta : R. Farrugia Randon, 1988.; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 14, 44, 110 and 342; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 177, 211, 238, 291, 309 and 945.

Links. Biography, in English, 7th paragraph, Melita Historica; biography, in Maltese, Saint George's Paris, Qormi, Malta; his engraving, arms and genealogy, in English, Maltagenealogy; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait, Bibliothèque publique et universitaire, Neuchâtel, Switzerland; and The Maltese Cardinal: Fabrizio Sceberras Testaferrata, Sierra Books Distributors, Malta.

(1) This is the text of the epitaph on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, Froma Malta:

FABRIZIO. SCEBERRAS. TESTAFERRATAE
E. PRIMORIBUS. MELITENSIUM.
URBANUS. PRAEFECTURIS
ET LEGATIONE. APVD. HELVETIOS.
HUNC. NITIDE. FUNCTUM
PIUS. VII. PON. MAX.
INTER. PATRES. CARDINALES. ADLECTUM.
ARCHEPISCOPUMQUE. APPELLATUM.
SENIGALLIENSIBUS. EPISCOPUM. DEDIT
ALUMNIS. ET. VIRG SACRIS. PROSPICIENTEM.
HOC. TEMPLUM. SVI. HONORIS. SEDEM.
INSTRUMENTIS. AUCTUM
MENSA. PAUPERUM.
UNA. CUM. ORPHANOTROPHIO.
INSTITUTA
HOMINEM. PIUM. MAGNANIMUM. LIBERALEM.
COMPROBAVERE.
IN SUBSIDIUM. EGENORUM
AVITAS. OPES. PROFUNDENTEM.
IDEM. ANNOS. NATUS. LXXXV. MM. DXIV.
OBIIT. III. NON. SEXTIL. MDCCCXILIII
GAETANUS. CECCHIUS. CUR. TEST.
POSUIT PATRONO. BENEFICENTISSIMO
QUI AD. ARAM. VIRGINIS. MATRIS
HUMARI. IUSSERAT
IPSIUS. VIVENS. CULTOR. EXIMIUS
AEDEM. ETIAM.IMAGINEM
MUNIFICENTIA. PARI EXORNAVIT.

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CORTOIS DE PRESSIGNY, Gabriel (1745-1823)

Birth. December 11, 1745, Dijon, France. Son of Antoine Cortois, seigneur of Quincey, counselor of the Parliament of Bourgogne, and Anne de Mussy. Nephew of Gabriel Cortois de Quincey, bishop of Belley; and brother of Pierre-Marie-Madeleine Cortois de Baloré, bishop of Nîmes.

Education. Theological faculty, Paris (licentiate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Vicar general of Langres. 1780 Abbot commendataire of Saint-Jacques, diocese of Béziers and prior of Commagny, near Moulins.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Saint-Malo, December 19, 1785. Consecrated, January 15, 1786, parish church, Mussy-sur-Seine, Aube, by César-Guillaume de la Luzerne, bishop of Langres, assisted by Jacques de Vogüé, bishop of Dijon, and by Jules de Clermont-Tonnerre, bishop of Châlons. On October 14, 1790, a municipal commission advised him that his diocese had been suppressed by a decree of the Assemblée Nationale. He was the last bishop of Saint-Malo and his diocese was divided between those of Rennes, Vannes and Saint-Brieuc. Resigned the government of the see, September 19, 1801, together with most French bishops at the request of Pope Pius VII to allow the implementation of the Concordat of 1801. Named on July 7, 1814 ambassador extraordinary of France to the Holy See to negotiate an arrangement to the Concordat of 1801; he was recalled to France in 1816.

Cardinalate. On March 28, 1816, he wrote to the minister of External Affairs, that it was being said in Rome that he was among the cardinals created in pectore in the consistory of March 8, 1816; the secretary of the French embassy, Artaud de Montor, told him also that he had gotten semi-official communications to that effect; he got permission from the king to accept it, but declined because he thought that the title would put him in a conflict of interest; five cardinals in pectore were created in that consistory and published on July 22, 1816, and of course, he was not among them; returned from Rome, January 6, 1817. Named by King Louis XVIII pair of France, April 20, 1816. Given the title of count, August 31, 1817. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Besaçon, October 1, 1817. He died when he was about to receive the cardinal's hat in the consistory of 1823 (1).

Death. May 2, 1823, Paris. Buried, church of Saint-Roch, Paris (2).

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, pp. 247-248; L'Épiscopat français depuis le Concordat jusqu'à le Séparation (1802-1905). Ouvrage publié sous la direction de la Société bibliographique. Introduction par Msgr. Baunard. Paris : Librairie des Saints-Pères, 1907, p. 132; Feret, P. "Le concordat de 1816; ambassade à Rome de Cortois de Pressigny et du comte de Blacas." Revue des questions historiques (1901), 187-240; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 271; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 112.

Links. Biography, in French; his drawing by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, private collection, courtesy of the Art Renewal Center; his engraving by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Rosenwald Collection, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., United States of America; his episcopal lineage; and bishops of Saint-Malo.

(1) Dictionnaire de biographie française. 115 vols. Sous la direction de J. Balteau, M. Barroux, M. Prévost, avec le concours de nombreux collaborateurs. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1933-2003, IX, 740.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph on the plaque with his arms taken from the site of his burial, linked above: ICI REPOSE LE CORPS DE MGR. GABRIEL CORTOIS COMPTE DE PRESSIGNY ARCHÊVEQUE DE BESANÇON ANCIEN ÇVEQUE DE ST. MALO NÉ À DIJON LE 11 DE DECEMBRE 1745 SACRÉ LE 15 JANVIER 1786 DÉCÉDÉ À PARIS E 5 MAI 1823 AGÉ DE 78 ANS ET INHUMÉ DANS LES CAVEAUX DE CETE ÉGLISE REQUIESCAT IN PACE

ALLIATA, Giovanni (?-1816)

Birth. (No date found), Pisa. Of a patrician family. Son of Francesco Alliata. Brother of Ranierio Alliata, archbishop of Pisa, previously bishop of Volterra.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He entered the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace on February 28, 1782. Chosen by Cardinal Andrea Corsini as executor of his testament. Named by Pope Pius VI auditor of the auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber on February 14, 1785. Civil auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, 1794-1798. After the first restoration of the papal government in Rome, Pope Pius VII named him auditor of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature on October 30, 1800. Named governor of Loreto on April 25, 1802; brief of June 25, 1802; he remained in the post until the French invasion of the Marches. Named pro-auditor of His Holiness before June 4, 1808, after the Napoleonic occupation of Rome; confirmed in his functions after the restoration of the papal government in Rome and also named coadjutor of Auditor Alessandro Lacchini; succeeded in that charge on August 27, 1815. Named canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica; took possession on August 15, 1814. Nuncio extraordinary in special mission to Toscany in October 1814.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. According to Boutry, Souverain et Pontife, p. 491, Pope Pius VII wanted to promote him to the cardinalate in 1816 but he declined. The pope accepted his resignation as auditor for reasons of health on July 22, 1816; he was confirmed as canon of the Vatican chapter with a pension of 1600 scudi.

Death. October 30, 1816, Rome. Buried in the church of Ss. Vicenzo ed Anastassio a Trevi, Rome.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, p. 491-492; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 283 and 451.

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