The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius VII (1800-1823)
Consistory of March 10, 1823 (XVIII)


(86) 1. BERTAZZOLI, Francesco (1754-1830)

Birth. May 1, 1754, Lugo, diocese of Imola. Of a noble family.

Education. University of Bologna, Bologna (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law; doctorate in theology, October 20, 1778).

Priesthood. Ordained, 1777. In Lugo, professor of theology in its seminary; canon of the collegiate church of Ss. Petronio e Propsero; pro-vicar foraneo; while performing these offices, he met Cardinal Gregorio Barnaba Chiaramonti, O.S.B.Cas., bishop of Imola, future Pope Pius VII, who named him his theologian. In 1796, he tried to calm the insurrection of the citizens of Lugo against the French army and became a member of the council of regency of the city after the Austrian occupation in 1799. He lent the necessary sum of money to Cardinal Chiaramonti to be able to attend the conclave of 1799-1800 in Venice, in which he was elected pope. The new pope offered him the see of Montalto but he declined. Called to Rome on April 10, 1802, the day after the death of Msgr. Gregorio Bandi, who had been chaplain to Pope Pius VI. Entered the service of the Roman Curia as apostolic chaplain before April 24, 1802; and named domestic prelate of His Holiness and canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica before May 1, 1802.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Edessa in Osrhoëne and named secret almoner of His Holiness, May 24, 1802. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 26, 1802. Consecrated, Sunday May 30, 1802, cathedral of Frascati, by Henry Benedict Mary Stuart, duke of York, bishop of Frascati, assisted by Giovanni Coppola, titular archbishop of Mira, and by Angelo Cesarini, titular bishop of Milevi. Member of the Academy of the Catholic Religion after May 13, 1802; elected its president before January 20, 1808; kept the post until his promotion to the cardinalate. Named again canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica before June 6, 1804. He accompanied the pope in his first trip to France and assisted to the coronation of Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte on December 2, 1804. Named consultor of the Holy Office before July 23, 1806. Following the French occupation of Rome, he retired to Lugo. Because of his weak character and his influence with Pope Pius VII, he was called to Paris by Napoléon in the Spring of 1811; after long conferences with Cardinal Joseph Fesch, he was to visit the pope, who was prisoner in Savone together with Cardinal Alphonse-Hubert de Latier de Bayane, to negotiate the celebration of a national council in Paris; his influence reopened the possibility of a compromise. In 1811, he was named bishop of Piacenza by the emperor but the appointment remained without effect. He accompanied the pope when he was transferred from Savone to Fontainebleau, June 9 to 19, 1812; he was the sole companion of the pontiff in captivity; it seems that by his advice he influenced the signature of the Concordat of Fontainebleau of January 25, 1813. After the retraction of the concordat by Pope Pius VII on March 24, 1813, he remained at the side of the pontiff and accompanied him in the course of his journey from Fontainebleau to Savone, January 23 to February 16, 1814; and from Savone to Rome, March 19 to May 24, 1814. He entered Rome with the pope, resumed his functions as apostolic chaplain and actively worked in the restoration of the religious enterprise under the direction of Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca beginning in the Spring of 1814. He was named a member of the congregation for the examination of bishops on May 28, 1814; assessor of the congregation for the examination of disturbances, May 31, 1814; member of the congregation for reform, June 4, 1814; secretary of the congregation for the reforms of studies, December 30, 1814; and again, when it became a cardinalitial congregation, July 22, 1816. Because of strong suspicion on the part of the pope and severe judgement of the part of Cardinals Ercole Consalvi and Pacca, he was not promoted to the cardinalate in the great consistory of 1816. In the Spring of 1816, he contributed the renaissance of the Academy for the Catholic Religion and was named consultor of the S.C. of the Index on July 23, 1816.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 10, 1823; received the red hat, March 13, 1823; and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, May 16, 1823. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Named examiner of bishops in theology, November 7, 1823. Member of the cardinalitial commission for the reform of the pontifical universities, November 23, 1823. Prefect of the new S.C. of Studies, August 28, 1824; the congregation had been established by the apostolic constitution Quod divina sapientia. He became a close friend of Cardinal Mauro Alberto Cappellari, O.S.B.Cam., future Pope Gregory XVI. Protector of the Carmelite Order, July 18, 1826; and of the missions of Ireland, April 3, 1827. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, December 15, 1828. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII.

Death. April 7, 1830, Rome, suddenly. Exposed in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva where the funeral took place on April 14, 1830, and buried in that same church. He named Cardinal Cappellari, O.S.B.Cam., as executor of his will.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 316-318; Francesco Bertazzoli : primo cardinale di Lugo nel 250. della nascita : nuovi studi, antologia e ristampe. A cura di Giovanni Baldini e Vittorio Tampieri. Lugo : Parrocchia dei Ss. Francesco e Ilaro, 2004; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15, 38, 43 and 184.

Link. Biography by Raffaele Colapietra, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 9 (1967), Treccani.

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(87) 2. FALZACAPPA, Gianfrancesco (1767-1840)

Birth. April 7, 1767, Corneto. Member of an patrician family of landholders. Son of Leonardo Falzacapp, gonfalonier of Corneto, and Teresa Guerrini.

Education. Seminary of Frascati, Frascati; La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate ad honorem in utroque iure ad honorem).

Early life. He entered the service of Nicola Acciaiuoli Torrigoni, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota; and later, the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, September 1, 1796. Pope Pius VI added him to the college of abbreviatori di parco maggiore of the Apostolic Chancery in 1796 and gave him the responsibility of assisting the French priests who had sought refuge in the Papal States.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 27, 1799. Soon after the restoration of the papal government in Rome, Pope Pius VII named him, on July 9, 1800, secretary of the particular congregation for the recuperation of the properties of the church confiscated during the French occupation of the Eternal City. Auditor of the general auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, October 30, 1800. Secretary of the S.C. of the Good Government, September 28, 1801. Prelate of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity before December 23, 1801; he intervened in the debate over the right of collective pasture in favor of the abolitionists. He was one of the founding members of the Academy of the Catholic Religion, February 4, 1801. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, August 10, 1804. Deported first to Parma, then to Alessandria and finally to the island of Capraia for his refusal to take the oath of loyalty during the French occupation, 1808-1814. After the restoration of the papal government, he was named by Agostino Rivarola (extraordinary delegate) member of the commission for hospitals of Rome on May 15, 1814. During the flight of Pope Pius VII to Genoa, March 22 to June 7, 1815, he was a member of the Giunta di Stato that was presided by Cardinal Giulio Maria della Somaglia. Secretary of the S.C. of the Ecclesiastical Immunity, March 9, 1816. Secretary of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, July 22, 1816 until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Atena, September 27, 1819. Consecrated, September 29, 1819, church of the nuns of the Humility, Rome, by Cardinal Alessandro Mattei, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Giovanni Francesco Guerrieri, archbishop-bishop of Rimini, and by Francesco Albertini, bishop of Terracina, Sezze and Priverno.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 10, 1823; received the red hat, March 13, 1823; and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, May 16, 1823. Transferred to the see of Ancona, with personal title of archbishop, March 10, 1823. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII; he was hostile to Cardinal Ercole Consalvi. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, November 17, 1823. Resigned pastoral government of the diocese, May 23, 1824. Examiner of bishops in canon law, April 2, 1827. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, January 7, 1829 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, July 5, 1830. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. Prefect of the Office of the Census before July 11, 1837. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina and Civitavecchia, November 22, 1839. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 18, 1839 to April 27, 1840.

Death. November 18 (or 19), 1840, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marcello, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in the Capuchin church of Santissima Concezione, Rome.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 376-378; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 350 and 352; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 331-332; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15, 37, 38, 43 50 and 93.

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(88) 3. PALLOTTA, Antonio (1770-1834)

Birth. February 23, 1770, Caldarola, archbishopric of Ferrara. Of a patrician family from Ferrara. Eldest of the three sons of Giammario Pallotta and Countess Cinzia Maffei. The other sons were Desiderio and Paride. Nephew of Cardinal Guglielmo Pallotta (1777). Other members of the family promoted to the cardinalate were Giovanni Evangelista Pallotta (1587); Giovanni Battista Maria Pallotta (1629).

Education. Seminary of Frascati, Frascati; Collegio Nazareno, Rome.

Early life. Received a benefice of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, January 25, 1792. Entered the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace on March 17, 1796. Prelate of the S.C. of the Fabric of St. Peter's basilica before April 23, 1796. Prelate of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council before June 18, 1796. Made beneficiary of the patriarchal Vatican basilica before January 28, 1797. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in 1800, after the first restoration of the papal government in Rome. Named protonotary apostolic non participantium and relator of the S.C. of Good Government on October 30, 1800. Auditor of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature before May 1, 1802. Superintendent of Monte di Pietà on May 19, 1814, after the second restoration of the papal government in Rome. Commendatario of the Hospital of Spirito Santo in Sassia, October 24, 1814. Auditor general of the causes of the Apostolic Chamber, March 9, 1816; occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 10, 1823; received the red hat, March 13, 1823; and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, May 16, 1823. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Legate a latere in the provinces of Maritima e Campania, May 4 to July 2, 1824; he had full powers to fight the brigands; he established himself in Ferentino and on May 15 emitted a very rigorous and totally ineffective edict; he was replaced two months later by Msgr. Benvenuti. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace from 1833 until his death.

Death. July 19, 1834, Monte Cassiano, Macerata. Transferred to Rome in a lead coffin; after a funeral triduum in his title, S. Silvestro in Capite, he was buried in that church on July 26, 1834.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 21; Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 443-444; Camillis, Mario de, "Antonio Pallotta." Enciclopedia Cattolica. Città del Vaticano, vol. IX, col. 647; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15 and 44; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 707.

Links. Biography by Yvon Beaudoin, o.m.i., in French, Historical dictionary, Oblate Communications; and detailed relation of legation in Marittima e Campania, pp. 113-126, under "Antonius Pallotta dictator".

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(89) 4. SERLUPI, Francesco (1755-1828)

Birth. October 26, 1755, Rome. Of the patrician family of the marquises Serlupi Crescenzi, inscribed in the Roman patriciate by Pope benedict XIV with the bull Urbem Romam of January 4, 1746. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Mario Millini (1747).

Education. Studied law in Rome (no further educational information found).

Early life. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, April 1777. He delivered the funeral oration for King José I of Portugal in May 1777, at the Sistine chapel. Sent as ablegato to Portugal to bring the red biretta to Cardinal Fernando de Sousa e Silva, in June 1778. Entered the Roman prelature as a domestic prelate and referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace on August 17, 1780; voter during the pontificate of Pope Pius VI. Relator of the Congregation of Good Government, December 1780. Vicar of S. Maria ad Martyres, Rome, March 1782. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, January 1787. Named auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota before August 13, 1800, after the first restoration of the papal government in Rome; he took over his functions on April 16, 1801 and took the oath on May 4, 1801.Priesthood. Ordained, May 4, 1801. Chosen by Cardinal Romoaldo Braschi as vicar of the patriarchal Vatican basilica before January 2, 1808. After the Napoleonic invasion of Rome and the successive arrests of Francesco Guidobono Cavalchini, governor of the city, and of Tommaso Arezzo, pro-governor, he was named pro-governor of Rome, September 24, 1808; he occupied the post until July 6, 1809 when Pope Pius VII was taken away; removed by the French; sent to Corsica and imprisoned for three years; fed only bread for 82 days. After the second restoration of the papal government in Rome, he returned to his post in the Sacred Roman Rota and on May 15, 1814, he was named member of the congregation of ecclesiastical properties. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites in 1814. Member of the congregation ad referendum for the indemnization of the buyers of ecclesiastical properties, July 22, 1816. Dean of the auditors of the Sacred Roman Rota, July 28, 1817. Consultor of the S.C. of the Holy Office before August 30, 1817.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 10, 1823; received the red hat, March 13, 1823; and the title of S. Prassede, May 16, 1823. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Member of the S.C. Consistorial, April 21, 1825.

Death. February 6, 1828, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in his family's tomb in the chapel Santissima Concezione, in that same church.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : Ecole française de Rome, 2002. (Collection de l'Ecole française de Rome, 3000), pp. 466-467; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 122, n. 3; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15 and 44; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 362 and 909-910.

Links. The Serlupi Family; his engraving and biography, in Italian; and his effigy and arms on a marble medallion.

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(90) 5. PEDICINI, Carlo Maria (1769-1843)

Birth. November 2, 1769, Benevento. Of a patrician family. Son of Marquis Dionisio Pedicini and Beatrice Vulcano.

Education. Collegio Nazareno, Rome, 1783-1789; completed his juridical formation under Alessandro Mcedonio; Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, 1790-1792 (diplomacy).

Early life. Named privy chamberlain supernumerary by Pope Pius VI. Entered the Roman prelature as domestic prelate and referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, January 12, 1792. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites before December 20, 1794. Named prelate of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council before December 19, 1795. After the first restoration of the papal government in Rome, he was named relator of the Sacred Consulta, October 30, 1800. Named prelate of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity before March 28, 1801. After the Napoleonic occupation of Rome, he was named pro-secretary of the Sacred Consulta before June 22, 1808. After the second restoration of the papal government in the Eternal City, Apostolic Delegate Agostino Rivarola, named him member of the Commissione di Stato, put in place on May 11, 1814, in anticipation of the restoration of the Papal States; he was in charge, together with Msgr. Giovanni Barberi, of all the affairs of last resort of the Sacred Consulta and of the sanitary administration. On July 2, 1814, he was named substitute, cum futura successione, of the secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, Giovanni Battista Quarantotti; succeeded as secretary after the promotion of the secretary to the cardinalate, July 22, 1816; he kept the post until his own promotion to the cardinalate. Received the subdiaconate on March 12, 1815; and the diaconate on March 19, 1815.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 26, 1815. Secretary of the S.C. of the Examination of Bishops, June 28, 1815. Consultor of the S.C. of the Holy Office, 1818.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 10, 1823; received the red hat, March 13, 1823; and the title of S. Maria in Via, May 16, 1823. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Prefect of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, October 1, 1826. Opted for the title of S. Maria della Pace, December 15, 1828. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Secretary of Memorandums April 3, 1829 until February 4 or 5, 1831. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites, July 2, 1830.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, July 5, 1830. Consecrated, August 15, 1830, church of S. Maria in Campitelli, Rome, by Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals (his protector and compatriot), assisted by Giuseppe della Porta Rodiani, titular Latin patriarch of Constantinople, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Lorenzo Girolamo Mattei, titular Latin patriarch of Antioch, secretary of the S.C. of the Apostolic Visit. Prefect of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, July 1830. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. Prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, February 4, 1831 until November 21, 1834. Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, November 21, 1834; and commendatario of the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, proper of the vice-chancellor, December 19, 1834; occupied the post until his death. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina and Civitavecchia, December 14, 1840. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, April 27, 1840 until March 1, 1841. He was the spiritual director of Anna Maria Taigi and contributed to the opening of the cause for her beatification.

Death. November 19, 1843, Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, Rome.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 447-448; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 734-735; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15, 38, 43 and 50.

Links. His portrait and biography, in French; and another portrait, Museo di Roma.

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(91) 6. PANDOLFI, Luigi (1751-1824)

Birth. September 6, 1751, Cartoceto, diocese of Fano. Of a noble family inscribed in the patriciate of Pesaro, Fano and Ascoli.

Education. Collegio di Nobili of Fano, Fano; La Sapienza University, Rome (law).

Early life. Vicar general of the diocese of Todi for four years. Vicar general of the diocese of Pesaro for nine years at the end of the pontificate of Pope Pius VI. He manifested his loyalty to the papal government during the first French occupation of Marches. Entered the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace on May 14, 1802. Governor of Montalto May 4, 1801. Governor of Ascoli Piceno, February 17, 1807. Governor of Orvieto, ad interim, 1808. Governor of Perugia March 24, 1809. After the second restoration of the papal government, he was named apostolic delegate in Pesaro and Urbino on May 4, 1814; he occupied the post until 1819. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 22, 1814. Named by the provisional giunta apostolic delegate in Ancona before May 27, 1815; the appointment was not ratified by Cardinal Ercole Consalvi when he returned from Vienna and Msgr. Pandolfi remained in his post in Pesaro and Urbino. Recalled to Rome, he was named secretary of the Sacred Consulta before January 5, 1819; occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 10, 1823 ; received the red hat, March 13, 1823; and the title of S. Sabina, May 16, 1823. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII.

Death. Monday, February 2, 1824, in his home in Rome of an apoplexy; seven hours after having received the extreme unction and the apostolic blessing; of an apoplexy that he had suffered the day before. Exposed in the church of S. Marcello, where the funeral took place, officiated by Cardinal Francesco Bertazzoli; and buried in his title, S. Sabina.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1348; Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 444-445; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15 and 44; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 125, 299, 324, 335 and 823.

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(92) 7. TURRIOZZI, Fabrizio (1755-1826)

Birth. November 16, 1755, Toscanella (now Tuscania). Of a patrician family from Toscanella and Anagni. Son of Count Turriozzi.

Education. Seminary of Montefiascone, Montefiascone; La Sapienza University, Rome (theology and law).

Early life. Entered the service of the Roman Curia in 1796 as chargé d'affaires of the Holy See in Turin before King Carlo Emmanuele IV. Participated in the Conference of Rastatt in 1798, as representative of the Holy See. Named privy chamberlain supernunumerary before September 23, 1801. Entered the Roman prelature as domestic prelate on September 28, 1801 and referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace on April 2, 1802. Governor of Jesi, May 7, 1802 until the French invasion of Marches. Governor of Campagna e Marittima, August 6, 1808, in spite of the French invasion of the Papal States. After the second restoration of the papal government, he was named, by Agostino Rivarlo, president of the Commissione di Stato, apostolic delegate of the province of Campagna (Frosinone) on May 12, 1814; he also operated for the reestablishment of the papal government in the enclave of Benevento on June 4, 1815. Assessor of the S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, March 9, 1816 until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites, 1816. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1816.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 10, 1823 ; received the red hat, March 13, 1823; and the title of S. Maria in Aracolei, May 16, 1823. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. On December 9, 1823, he was named president of the commission of jurisconsults charged with the revision of the motu proprio of July 6, 1816, that prepared the promulgation of the new civil code on October 5, 1824.

Death. November 9, 1826, Rome. Exposed and buried in his title, S. Maria in Aracoeli.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 478-479; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15 and 42; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 185, 278 and 956.

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(93) 8. DANDINI, Ercole (1759-1840)

Birth. July 25, 1759, Rome. Of a family originally from Cesena, established in Rome in the 16th century and inscribed in the golden book of the Roman nobility by the bull of Pope Benedict XIV Urbem Romam of January 4, 1746. Son of Count Pietro Dandini and Countess Maria Giovanna Silva, of a family of Portuguese origin. Relative of Cardinal Girolamo Dandini (1551).

Education. Collegio Nazareno, Rome, 1772-1779; La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, May 2, 1785). Received the subdiaconate.

Early life. Beneficiary of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, December 24, 1780. Ablegato to Paris to bring the red biretta to new Cardinal Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphilj in February 1785; he never made it to Paris because the cardinal was already en route to Rome. Entered the Roman prelature as domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 11, 1785; and as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, May 12, 1785. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and prelate of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, March 1787. After the first restoration of the papal government in Rome, Pope Pius VII named him assessor of the tribunal of the governor of Rome on October 30, 1800; and later, voter of the tribunals of the Apostolic Signature on May 1, 1802. After the second restoration he was named member of the Commission for the Conservatories of Rome by the extraordinary delegate Agostino Rivarola on May 15, 1814 as well as prelate of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's basilica in that same year. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, March 14, 1815. Secretary and economous of the Fabric of St. Peter's basilica, March 9, 1816. Preceptor of the archhospital of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, July 22, 1816; he occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 10, 1823 ; received the red hat, March 13, 1823; and the title of S. Balbina, May 16, 1823.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Osimo e Cingoli, March 10, 1823, with dispensation for not having received the priesthood. Never received the episcopal consecration. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Resigned pastoral government of the diocese, May 23, 1824. Prefect of the S.C. of Good Government, March 3, 1828 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Apostolic visitor of the archhospital of S. Spirito in Sassia, June 26, 1829; he kept the post until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI.

Death. July 22, 1840, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marcello, Rome, where the funeral took place on July 26, 1840, and buried in that same church.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 354-355; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15 and 40; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 295.

Link. His portrait by Guerrini, Pinacoteca Comunale, Cesena, FC, Istituto per i beni artistici, culturali e naturali della Regione Emilia-Romagna, Bologna.

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(94) 9. ODESCALCHI, S.J., Carlo (1785-1841)

Birth. March 5, 1785, in his family's palace, Rome. Second son of Baldassare, prince d'Odescalchi, and Valeria Caterina Giustiniani. His father was also duke of Sirmien and prince of the Holy Roman Empire. Great-grand-nephew of Pope Innocent XI. Gran-nephew of Cardinal Benedetto Erba-Odescalchi (1713); Nephew of Cardinal Antonio Maria Erba-Odescalchi (1759). Nephew of Cardinal Giacomo Giustiniani (1826).

Education. Educated at home; he studied at Seminario Romano, in Hungary (1798-1800), where he was with his parents during the French occupation of Rome; later, in 1809, he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure, 1797.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 31, 1808; celebrated his first mass, January 1, 1809. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Planned to become a Jesuit in 1814 but failed however because of the resistance of his family (1). Papal Privy Treasurer, 1814. After Pope Pius VII was freed from the French in 1814, he sent him twice on special missions to Olomouc, first as legate to Cardinal Antonín Theodor Hrabì Colloredo-Waldsee, archbishop of that city, November 24, 1815; and later, to present the red biretta to Cardinal Rudolf Johannes Joseph Rainier von Hapsburg, July 14, 1819. Named vicar of the patriarchal Lateran basilica by Cardinal Giulio Maria della Somglia, July 17, 1814 to March 19, 1819. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for Austria, February 28, 1815. Accepted in the Society of Jesus when "an appropriate time" came, June 7, 1818. Auditor of His Holiness (Uditor Santissimo) and canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica from June 5, 1820.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 10, 1823; received the red hat, March 13, 1823; and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, May 16, 1823.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Ferrara, March 10, 1823. Consecrated, May 25, 1823, in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, by Cardinal Giulio Maria della Somaglia, bishop of Ostia and of Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Giuseppe della Porta Rodiani, titular Latin patriarch of Constantinople, and by Lorenzo Mattei, titular Latin patriarch of Antioch. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Papal legate to the opening of the holy door at the patriarchal Lateran basilica for the 1825 Holy Year. Resigned the pastoral government of the archbishopric, July 2, 1826. Prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Religious, February 5, 1828. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, before December 22, 1832. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, April 15, 1833. Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, April 15, 1833 until December 19, 1834; commendatario of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, April 15, 1833-December 19, 1834. Vicar of His Holiness for Rome, November 21, 1834. President of the Apostolic Visit Extraordinary to Rome, November 28, 1834. In October 1837, asked Pope Gregory XVI permission to resign from all his offices and enter the Society of Jesus; the pope refused. Assisted the Roman people during the cholera epidemic of 1837-1838. Ordained Gioacchino Pecci, future Pope Leo XIII, to the priesthood in his private oratory, December 31, 1837. Grand prior of the Sovereign Order of Malta in Rome, February 6, 1838. The pope appointed a commission of cardinals to study his resignation request; the recommendation was positive. Submitted his resignation from the cardinalate and the suburbicarian see of Sabina on November 21, 1838 to enter the Society of Jesus; the pope accepted it in the consistory of November 30, 1838. Entered the Society of Jesus, December 6, 1838; took the religious habit of the society at the novitiate in Verona, December 8, 1838; emitted the religious profession, February 2, 1840. Conducted missionary activity and preaching in Northern Italy.

Death. August 17, 1841, at 10:30 a.m., in the Jesuit School of S. Bartolomeo, Modena, in odorem sanctitatis. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Bartolomeo, in the Jesuit school of the same name, Modena.

Beatification. The canonical recognition of the body took place on March 31, 1927; and the beatification process is open.

Bibliography. Angelini-Rota, Antonio. Storia della vita del P. Carlo Odescalchi della Compagnia de Gesù. Roma : G.B. Marini e B. Morini, 1850; Bérengier, Théophile. Vie du cardinal Charles Odescalchi, mort religieux de la Compagnie de Jésus, 1785-1841. Arras ; Société du Pas-de-Calais, 1876; Berlendis, Luigi. Mémoires édifiants sur la vie religieuse du serviteur de Dieu le Père Charles Odescalchi, de la Compagnie de Jésus : depuis son entrée en religion jusqu' à sa mort arriveé le 17 Août 1841. Liége : H. Dessain, 1843; Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 433-435; Elogio funebre del p. Carlo dei principi Odescalchi recitato il 10 November 1841 in Faenza dal vescovo di Faenza Gian Benedetto dei Conti Folicaldi, 1841; Fleuriau, Bertrand Gabriel. The life of the Venerable Father Claver, S.J., Apostle of the West Indies : and memoirs of the religious life of Cardinal Odescalchi, S.J. Translation of Vie du vénérable Père Pierre Claver, de la Compagnie de Jésus, apôtre de Cartagene et des Indes Occidentales.; Père de la même Compagnie. ; Memoires edifiantes sur la vie religieuse du serviteur de Dieu, le Père Charles Odescalchi, de la Compagnie de Jesus, depuis son entrèe en religion jusq' a sa mort arriveè le 17 Août, 1841. London : Thomas Richardson and Son, 1849. (The Saints and servants of God ; v.16); Haro y Tamariz, Antonius de. Theses ex ivre ecclesiastico qvas avspice eminentissimo principe Carolo Odescalchi S.R.E. cardinali S. congregationis episcoporvm, ac regvlarivm praefecto, etc., etc., etc. Rome: Edebat Crispinvs pvccinellivs colleg. Rom. typ., 1831; Marchetti, Bruno. Un cardinale si confessa : la diocesi di Sabina nel carteggio Odescalchi-Chiofi, 1833-'38. Roma : Edizioni d'Europa, 1993; Marchetti, Bruno. Ottocento Sabino : visita pastorale del Cardinale Carlo Odescalchi (1833-1836). Roma : Fratelli Palombi, 1988; Pirri, Pietro. Vita del servo di dio Carlo Odescalchi già cardinale di S. Chiesa e Vicario di Roma. Isola del Liri : Macioce & Pisani, 1935; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15, 39, 40, 42 and 194; Tylenda, Joseph N. Jesuit saints & martyrs : short biographies of the saints, blessed, venerables, and servants of God of the Society of Jesus. 2nd ed. Chicago : Jesuit Way, 1988, pp. 249-250; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 678.

Links. Biography by John Hungerford Pollen, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his genealogy, A9 C1 D5, Genealogy EU; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his portrait by Agnes Xavier Trail, Scottish Catholic Archives, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; and his engraving, Raynor Memorial Libraries, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America.

(1) According to Tylenda, Jesuit saints & martyrs, p. 249, in 1809, Fr. Giuseppe Pignatelli came to Rome with a small group of Jesuits expelled from the Kingdom of Naples, and after Fr. Odescalchi became acquainted with them, he thought of entering the Society of Jesus. Finally, after Pope Pius VII had restored the Society on August 7, 1814, and it was allowed again to accept new members, Fr. Odescalchi was among the first applicants and was scheduled to enter the Roman novitiate at S. Andrea del Quirinale on November 12, 1814. When his younger sister Vittoria learned of his decision, convinced that she could not live without him near her, she used her influence with Pope Pius VII to intercede on her behalf. Fr. Carlo obeyed the papal wishes and postponed his joining the Society until her future was assured. But when she married three years later, it was the pope himself who did not want to do away with Fr. Carlo when he needed him and, to insure that he would always be at his side, named him to the Sacred Roman Rota.

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(95) 10. FROSINI, Antonio Maria (1751-1834)

Birth. September 8, 1751, Modena. Of a patrician family. Son of Marquis Alessandro Frosini and Countess Vittoria Carrandini. Related to Cardinals Filippo Carandini (1787) and Ercole Consalvi (1800), on his mother's side.

Education. Collegio dei Nobili di S. Carlo, Modena (completed his studies in 1771); La Sapienza University Rome (law); completed his juridical formation under his relative Filippo Carandini; he also studied philosophy theology in Rome.

Early life. After the death of his father, he started a career the court of Duke Francesco III of Modena as chamberlain; and later as plenipotentiary minister in Vienna before Emperor Joseph II in 1773; after his return from Vienna, he went to Rome and entered the service of the Holy See. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure on February 18, 1783. Entered the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, April 10, 1783. Consultor of the S.C. of Indulgences, 1784. Governor of Montalto, August 8, 1786. Governor of Ancona, August 13, 1790. Governor of Spoleto, January 25, 1793. Governor of Civitavecchia, August 18, 1794; occupied the post until the occupation of the Papal States by the forces of the French Directory in 1798; he sought refuge in Florence during the Republic.He was present, as prelate, in the conclave of 1799-1800 in Venice. After the first restoration of the papal government in Rome, Pope Pius VII named him voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice on October 30, 1800 and prelate of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council before June 27, 1801. He, again, sought refuge in Florence in 1808 when the French occupied Rome; and later, in 1810, he was forced into exile in Paris; after the fall of Napoléon, he visited the entire country and England; returned to Rome and occupied his post in the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature; he was named pro-dean of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature on August 28, 1814. Named cleric of the Apostolic Chamber on March 9, 1816 and prelate of the S.C. of the Census on July 22, 1816.President of a special commission to systematize the farming of rice in the legations of Bologna and Ferrara, and to regulate the new drainage of Polesine di S. Giorgio in the valley of Comacchio in 1816. Majordome and prefect of the Apostolic Palace, October 1, 1817; he remained in this post until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 10, 1823 ; received the red hat, March 13, 1823; and the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, May 16, 1823. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Relics, October 1, 1826 until his death. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, April 9, 1827 to January 28, 1828. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI.

Death. July 8, 1834, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Andrea delle Fratte (de Sipitibus), Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in the Capuchin church of S. Bonaventura alla Polveriera, Rome, next to the urn containing the ashes of St. Leonardo di Porto Maurizio, according to his will.

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 228-233; Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 386-387; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15, 46 and 50; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 119, 221, 299, 390 and 679.

Link. His portrait, Collegio S. Carlo, Modena.

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(96) 11. RIARIO SFORZA, Tommaso (1782-1857)

Birth. January 8, 1782, Naples. Of an aristocratic family. Son of Duke Nicola Riario Sforza and Princess Giovanna Di Somma. Uncle of Cardinal Sisto Riario Sforza (1846). Other cardinals of the family were Pietro Riario, O.F.M.Conv. (1471) and Raffaele Sansoni Riario (1477); and Alessandro Riario (1578).

Education. Collegio Nazareno, Rome, from 1793.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, April 19, 1804. Named protonotary apostolic participantium in 1806. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government before September 13, 1806; occupied the post until 1808. After the restoration of the Papal States, he was named member of the commission of the ecclesiastical properties on May 15, 1814. Prelate of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, December 8, 1814. Papal delegate in Macerata, March 9, 1816. Papal maestro di camara, July 22, 1816; occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 10, 1823; received the red hat, March 13, 1823; and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, May 16, 1823. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 28, 1823. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, November 17, 1823. Member of the first Congregation of the State, March 12, 1825. President of the Commission of Subsidies, March 15, 1826. Prefect of the Economy of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, October 1, 1826. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 28, 1828 to May 18, 1829; and May 18, 1829 to March 15, 1830. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Apostolic legate in the province of Forlì, April 17, 1829; he returned to Rome for the conclave of 1830 and did not return to his post because of the insurrection in the legation. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. Apostolic legate in Urbino and Pesaro, December 5, 1834. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, December 19, 1834, retaining in commendam his former deaconry; resigned commendatio, May 13, 1837. Cardinal protodeacon. Prefect of the S.C. of Good Government, January 24, 1843. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, April 3, 1843 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX; he announced the election of Pope Pius IX on June 16, 1846. Named, because of his post of camerlengo, minister of commerce, Beaux-Arts, Industry and Agriculture after the formation of the first ministries on December 27, 1847; he resigned the posts on February 12, 1848. Named president of the new congregation for the examination of the expenditures of the public administration on February 12, 1848; he resigned sixteen days later, on February 28, 1848.

Death. March 14, 1857, Rome. Exposed in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, where the funeral took place with the participation of Pope Pius IX; he was buried in that same basilica. Last surviving cardinal of Pope Pius VII.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 454-455; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15, 45, 46 and 50.

Links. His genealogy, A9; his arms on a medal of the Sede Vacante of 1846 and biographical data, in English; and his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria, Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

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(97) 12. ORFINI, Viviano (1751-1823)

Birth. August 23, 1751, Foligno. Of a patrician family.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature as domestic prelate and referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, June 5, 1778. Governor of Sabina, with residence in Collevecchio, June 20, 1778 until November 8, 1782. Governor of Fano, November 9, 1782 until February 1785. Recalled to Rome, he was named relator of the Sacred Consulta, February 14, 1785. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, December 25, 1788. Executor of the will of Cardinal Andrea Corsini, vicar general of Rome, who died on June 18, 1795. He had to leave Rome during the period of the Roman Republic. After the restoration of the papal government in Rome, he was named cleric of the Apostolic Chamber on February 23, 1801. Prelate of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity before June 1, 1808. After the second restoration of the papal government, he was named president of the Ripe, September 23, 1814; and president delle Strade, March 9, 1816. Dean of the clerics of the Apostolic Chamber, October 1, 1817. President of the Administrative Council of Works for urban streets before February 10, 1819. Prefect of the Annona, June 4, 1820 to 1823.

Sacred orders. Ordained (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 10, 1823; received the red hat, March 13, 1823. He had been assigned to the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria but died before the celebration of the consistory of May 16, 1823, when he was to receive it.

Death. May 8, 1823, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marcello, Rome, where the funeral also took place; and buried in the church of S. Angelo in Pescheria.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : Ecole française de Rome, 2002, pp. 436-437; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 14 and 15; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 238, 378 and 807.

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(98) 13. ZURLA, O.S.B.Cam., Giacinto Placido (1769-1834)

Birth. April 2, 1769, Legnago, archdiocese of Milan, where his family was temporarily living. Of a patrician family from Crema. He refused the primogeniture to enter in the Calmaldolose convent of S. Michele di Murano.

Education. Seminary of Verona, Verona. Studied with the Barnabites of Cremona, 1784. Entered the Order of St. Benedict, Camaldolese, October 1787; Monastery of San Michele di Murano, Venice (became life-long friend with Mauro Cappellari, future Pope Gregory XVI, also a monk in that monastery).

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Lector in philosophy and theology, and librarian in houses of study of his order. In 1802, he published and abbreviated version of the Summa theologicae of St. Thomas Aquinas. He read the erudite works on history of cartography and of the grand Venetian travelers. Elected definitor of his order with the title of abbot of Murano in 1809. When the religious orders were suppressed by order on Emperor Napoléon I Bonaparte in 1810, his monastery converted into a college and the monks carried on dressed as secular priests. Of this institution Don Zurla acted as rector and Don Mauro Cappellari as lector of philosophy; the college was transferred to Padua in the Fall of 1813. After the restoration of the papal government, he became professor of theology at the Patriarchal Seminary of Venice from 1814 until the Fall of 1821. Went to Rome and took again the Camaldolese habit. He delivered the funeral eulogy of Cardinal Francesco Fontana, C.R.S.P., on March 26, 1822. Entered the Roman Curia as consultor of the SS. CC. of Propaganda Fide, November 27, 1821; and of the Index, May 20, 1822. Prefect of studies of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum of Propaganda Fide, Rome. Noted writer of medieval geography. Abbot general of his order, 1823-1833.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of March 10, 1823; published in the consistory of May 16, 1823; received the red hat, May 19, 1823. Participated in the conclave of 1823, which elected Pope Leo XII. Received the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, November 17, 1823. Vicar of His Holiness for Rome, January 7, 1824.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Edessa in Osrhoëne, January 13, 1824. Consecrated, January 18, 1824, church of S. Ignazio, Rome, by Cardinal Giulio Maria della Somaglia, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Giuseppe della Porta Rodiani, titular Latin patriarch of Constantinople, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Lorenzo Girolamo Mattei, titular Latin patriarch of Antioch, secretary of the S.C. of the Apostolic Visit. Prefect of the S.C. of the Residence of Bishops, January 27, 1824. Protector of the Venerable English College, Rome, and of the Pontifical Maronite College, Rome, March 31, 1824. President of the extraordinary apostolic visitation to the churches of Rome, May 31, 1824. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Prefect of the S.C. of Studies before July 3, 1830. Protector of the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and of the Order of Preachers (Dominicans), July 16, 1830. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. Protector of the Order of Our Lady of Mercy, July 18, 1834. Died during a visit to Sicily. He was a prolific writer who published numerous works, especially in geography.

Death. October 29, 1834 (1), of dysentery, in Palermo. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Palermo, where the funeral also took place; later, his body was transferred to Rome and buried in the church of S. Gregorio in Monte Celio. Solemn exequies were celebrated in the church of the monastery of S. Maria degli Angioli, Florence, on November 29, 1834; the funeral oration was delivered by Piarist Father Stanislao Gatteschi. A special post stamp was issued in Legnago on September 19, 2009, for the 240th anniversary of his birth.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 485-487; Gatteschi, Stanislao. Orazione funebre in lode del cardinale Don Placido Zurla, [nelle solenni esequie celebrate in Firenze nella chiesa del monastero di S. Maria degli Angioli il di 29. novembre 1834]. Firenze : Coi tipi Calasanziani, 1834; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 982-985; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VI, 295-296 ; CIII, 493; and XIV, 227; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 16, 41 and 184; Sanseverino, Faustino. Notizie sulla vita e le opere di Placido Zurla Cardinale di S.R.C. [s.n.] : Milano, 1857.

Links. Biography by Douglas Raymund Webster, in English; brief biographical entry, in Italian, Encyclopedia on line, Treccani; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria, Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; another engraving from the same source; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; and his tomb in S. Gregorio in Monte Celio, Rome, The Australian National University; Placido Zurla nelle opere: il mappamondo di fra Mauro e l'eccellenza della fede cristiana by Walter Venchiarutti, in Insula Fulcheria, Museo Civico di Crema e del Cremasco, no. XXXX, Dicembre 2010 , p. 307-325; Il fondo Giuseppe Brunati. Inventario. Sezione Epistolario by Giuseppina Caldera, Salò, Ateneo di Salò, 2008 p. 555; one hundred and four bibliographic entries concerning Cardinal Placido Zurla. WorldCat.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted, both printed and electronic, except Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, pp. 16, 41 and 184, that says that he died on October 29 (al. 30), 1834.

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PACCA, Tiberio (1786-1837)

Birth. August 31, 1786, Benevento. Second son of Giuseppe Pacca, marquis of Matrice, and Maria Teresa Crivelli, Milanese noblewoman. His baptismal name was Tiberio Raimondo Gaspare Camillo. Nephew of Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca, seniore (1801) and uncle of Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca, iuniore (1875).

Education. In 1795, he went to Rome to studied at Nobile Collegio Clementino; after a few weeks, he left for Lisbon with his uncle Bartolomeo, who had been named nuncio in Portugal.

Early life. Together with his brothers Orazio and Paolo, was sent to Rome to study in 1795. Sent by Pope Pius VII as ablegato to bring the red biretta to his uncle, nuncio in Portugal, when he was promoted to the cardinalate, on February 23, 1801. Returned to Rome with his uncle on July 5, 1802. Privy chamberlain, in abito paonazzo, of His Holiness before May 7, 1803. Ablegato to bring the red biretta to Cardinal Miguel Carlos José de Noronha e Abranches, canon protodeacon of the cathedral of Lisbon, promoted to the cardinalate on May 16, 1803. Went to live at the Apostolic Palace with his uncle, pro-secretary of State in 1808, to be closer to Pope Pius VII during the French occupation of Rome. Entered the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace on May 18, 1809. Prisoner of state in 1809; together with his uncle the cardinal, he was deported to the fortress of Fenestrelle, in the valley of Chisone, near Pinerolo, now province of Turin. Transferred to Forte Mutin, where he was interned for two years until August 4, 1811, when he was freed; Cardinal Pacca was not freed until January 30, 1813. During the time he was incarcerated, he enjoyed some freedom because he maintained a love relationship with a local young and humble girl with whom he had an illegitimate son. Protonotary apostolic non participantium, April 21, 1814. After the papal restoration in Rome, he was named apostolic delegate in Viterbo on May 4, 1814; occupied the post until July 22, 1816 . Apostolic delegate in Civitavecchia, September 21, 1814. President of the Apostolic Chamber, September 28, 1814. Apostolic delegate in Romagna (Forlì), July 6, 1815. In February 1816, He headed a papal delegation to Milan to negotiate with the Austrian authorities. Pro-governor of Rome, July 22, 1816. Director general of the papal police, October 23, 1816. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, April 24, 1817. On April 7, 1820, he had to escape from Rome, abandoning his posts, for having forged the signature of Cardinal Ercole Consalvi, secretary of State, to save himself from the monetary debts which he had incurred (1).

Sacred orders. Never received any of the sacred orders.

Cardinalate. According to Del Re, Tiberio Pacca, cardinale mancato, p. 12, "Con la sua avventata fuga della Capitale, mons. Tiberio Pacca, Governatore di Roma, Vice-Camerlengo di S.R.C. e Direttore generale della Polizia pontificia, aveva malauguramente infranto una brillante carriera, che, avuto il suo felice e lusinghiero escordio ai primi di maggio del 1814, cioè all'indomani immediato della seconda restaurazione dello Stato pontificio, lo aveva condotto nel giro di pochi anni addirittura alle fulgide soglie del cardinalato" (2)

Later life. He sought refuge in Switzerland and France. Married Marie-Madeleine Joussot in London in 1824 (3). In October 1828, Pope Leo XII granted him permission to return to the Papal States but the death of the pontiff, on February 10, 1829, kept him in Milan. He went to Piedmont at the beginning of 1833 and two years later, in 1835, with the help of the Marquis of Montmorency, ambassador of France in Turin, he was able to obtain employment in the Interior Ministry of the Kingdom of Sardinia as intendant general. Shortly after, he was fired because of his intrigues and his conduct produced the fall of Antonio Tonduti dell'Escarena, minister of the Interior on April 19, 1835. He finally settled in Naples.

Death. June 29, 1837, of cholera, Naples. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 607-608; Del Re, Niccolò. Tiberio Pacca, cardinale mancato. Rome : Fratelli Palombi Editori, 1984. (Antiquaria/Collezionismo); Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romai Editore, 1972, p. 123: De Rienzo, Antonio. "Tiberio Pacca." Samnium, 10 (1937), pp.147-150; Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 607-608; Giuntella, Vittorio P., "Pacca, Tiberio," Enciclopedia Cattolica, IX, 494; Zazo, Alfredo. "Un'inedita corrispondenza del cardinale Bartolomeo Pacca al nipote Tiberio (1830-1837)." Samnium, 13 (1940), pp. 182-199; Zazo, Alfredo. "Il cardinale Bernetti in alcune sue lettere inedite a Tiberio Pacca (1834-19837)." Samnium, 19 (1946), pp.210-214.

Link. Biography by David Armando, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 80 (2014), Treccani.

(1) This is according to Del Re, Monsignor governatore di Roma, p. 123; De Rienzo, "Tiberio Pacca," p. 149, indicates that in a secret accord in the Congress of Vienna, Austria and Naples planned, at the death of Pope Pius VII, to annex the legations to the first one and the Marche to the second. The grave illness of the pope in 1819 accelerated the plan, but he recovered and the protest of the Secretariat of State made public the secret political machinations. Tiberio Pacca, according to this author, sapendose compromesso, knowing that he was compromised in the plan, secretly escaped on the night of April 7, 1820 to avoid arrest. He adds that there were suspicions that Cardinal Consalvi, who appreciated Tiberio, facilitated the escape. It was later reported by those who were not well informed that the reasons had been financial embarrassment, illegal appropriation of money, or the fact that he had illegitimate progeny.
(2) "With his thoughtless escape from the capital, Msgr. Tiberio Pacca, Governor of Rome, Vice-Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church and Director General of the Papal Police, had unfortunately shattered a brilliant career, that had its happy and promising beginning on May 1, 1814, namely, the immediate day after the second restoration of the Papal States, which would have led him in a few years directly to the threshold of the resplendent cardinalate."
(3) After the customary year of vedovanza, widowhood, on September 8, 1838, she married Marquis Luigi Maria Andreassi, from Naples.

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