(3) 1. GAISRUCK, Karl Kajetan von (1769-1846)
Birth. August 7, 1769, Klangefurt, diocese of Gurk, archduchy of Austria. Son of Count Hans Jakob von Gaisruck, president of Carniola (Krain); and later, governor of Eastern Galicia (Ostgalizien) and Baroness Antonia dei Valvassori, dame della Croce Stellata. He was baptized on the same day of his birth. Received the sacrament of confirmation on September 10, 1780. He had the title of count. His first name is also listed as Carlo Gaetano; and his last name as Gaysruck.
Education. First studies at Academia Theresiana in Buda, Hungary; then, as a page at the court of Prince-Archbishop Hieronymus Joseph Franziskus von Colloredo of Salzburg, studied at the local high school; later, he attended Collegium Germanicum, Pavia; and later, he was sent to study at the University of Salzburg, where he earned doctorates in liberal arts and philosophy; he also studied theology and canon law.
Sacred orders. When he was nineteen years old, he entered the ecclesiastical state; Cardinal Franz Auersperg, prince-bishop of Passau, aggregated him to his diocese; received the insignias of the clerical character and minor orders on August 15, 1788; the subdiaconate on December 26, 1795; and the diaconate on December 23, 1797. Elected canon of the cathedral chapter of Passau, September 15, 1788; and capitular vicar in 1797.
Priesthood. Ordained, July 6, 1800, by Leopold Leonhard von Thun, prince-bishop of Passau. Pastor of Sankt Martin, Kallham, diocese of Linz.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Derbe and appointed suffragan of Passau, July 20, 1801. Consecrated, Sunday August 23, 1801, Passau, by Leopold Leonhard von Thun, prince-bishop of Passau (no information found about the co-consecrators). In 1803, the bishopric of Passau was secularized and the prince-bishop and his coadjutor could no longer live there. Bishop Gaisruck then took care of the parish of Kalham, in the diocese of Linz and worked earnestly to alleviate the dire consequences of the Austro-French war that was fought in its territory. Emperor Franz II nominated him for the metropolitan see of Milan on March 1, 1816, without the previous agreement of the Holy See, which delayed his promotion for two years. The see of Milan had united to it the title of cappellano della Corona del Lombardo-Veneto (1).The archdiocese had been vacant since the death of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Caprara on June 21, 1810. Promoted by the pope to that see on May 16, 1818. The new archbishop constituted an episcopal council composed of twelve priests to assist him in the reorganization and reform of the archdiocese. He reorganized the clergy, about 2000, that included several hundred foreigners and politicians, who were forced to live in ways that were not acceptable for lack of positions that provided them with the necessary means. The archbishop ordered a moral census of the priests and incardinated the best; sent to the diocese of origin the undisciplined; established homes for the old and the sick; and for the future, closed the doors to strangers. To have a clergy that was homogeneously formed, Archbishop Gaisruck reorganized the seminaries: he opened the minor seminary of S. Pietro Martire in 1818, replacing the one in Castello, above Lecco, that had become insufficient; and in Monza, in the old locale of the convent of S. Francesco, which was rebuilt and adapted, was opened the seminary for middle students. He resolved the dispute between the government of Milan, the Court of Vienna and the Swiss Confederation, concerning Collegio Elvetico, founded by St. Charles Borromeo in Milan, and suppressed by Napoléon Bonaparte on June 7, 1797, by proposing a settlement that gave the Swiss twenty three places at the expense of the state exchequer in the seminars in Milan in 1835; he also reformed and introduced new disciplines in the school curriculum such as mathematics, physics and ecclesiastical history; he endowed seminaries of a faculty distinguished for their knowledge and piety; and strongly opposed any government interference in the seminaries. Between 1823 and 1841, he had published four editions of the Breviario Ambrosiano.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 27, 1824; received the red biretta from the emperor on February 3, 1825. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Received the red hat on May 18, 1829; and the title of S. Marco on May 21, 1829. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. His charity became particularly evident in 1833, during the cholera epidemic that affected the archdiocese. In 1837, for the clergy, he had Father Luigi Biraghi prepare the Catechismus Ordinandorum ad usum Dioecesis Mediolanensis. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1838. Arrived at the conclave of 1846 bringing the veto of the emperor of Austria-Hungary, recommended by Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, foreign minister of the Austrian Empire, against the election of Cardinal Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti, but Cardinal Mastai Ferretti had already been elected and taken the name Pius IX (2). Cardinal Gaisruck was late because of health problems. In mid-November 1846, he solemnly received the viaticum; and on November 18, he was administered the last rites, serenely dying the following day. In his will, he had left all his possessions to the archdiocese of Milan, including 1500 works that he gave to the library of the major seminary.
Death. November 19, 1846, Milan. Exposed and buried in the south nave, in front of the altar of S. Agata, in the of the metropolitan cathedral of Milan.
Bibliography. Castiglioni, Carlo. Gaysruck e Romilli, arcivescovi di Milano. Milano : Editrice Áncora, 1938; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p.266-269; Furlani, Silvio. "Gaysruck, Karl Gaetan" in Enciclopedia Cattolica. 12 vols. Città del Vaticano : Ente per l'Enciclopedia cattolica e per il Libro cattolico, 1948-1954, V, col. 1970; Leidl, August. "Gaisruck, Karl Kajetan Graf von" in Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1785/1803 bis 1945 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1983, p. 225; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, III, 152, 156, 159-169, 173-179; Pippione, Marco. "Gaisruck, Carlo Gaetano" in Dizionario della Chiesa Ambrosiana. 6 vols. Milano: NED, 1988, II, 1303-1307; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 18, 42, 174 and 259.
Links. His engraving and biography, in English Wikipedia; Theatrical piece about him, Gruppo della Martesana; and brief biographical data, in German, Franz Mader 1995, "Tausend Passauer" Neue Presse Verlags-GmbH, Passau; portraits, engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan.
(1) The Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia was created at the Congress of Vienna, which recognized the House of Hapsburg-Lorraine's rights to Lombardy and Venetia after the Kingdom of Italy, proclaimed by Emperor Napoléon I in 1805, had collapsed. The new kingdom was founded in 1815. Lombardy was annexed to the Italian state in 1859, by the Treaty of Zurich after the Second Italian War of Independence; Venetia was ceded to the Kingdom of Italy in 1866 in the aftermath of the Seven Weeks War, by the Peace of Prague.
(2) Cazzani, Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano, p. 269, says that this is a rumor that has not been historically proven.
(4) 2. SILVA, O.E.S.A., Patrício da (1756-1840)
Birth. September 15, 1756, Pinheiros, diocese of Leiria, Portugal. Son of Jacinto da Fonseca e Silva and Maria Teresa Inácia de Sousa, wealthy farmers.
Education. Entered the Order of the Hermits of Saint Augustine; because of his intelligence, inclination towards studying, and his religious vocation, he was admitted to making the profession in the order. Studied at the University of Coimbra, where he earned a doctorate in theology, on July 31, 1785.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1780. Lector of theology and Sacred Scriptures, University of Coimbra, for many years. Rector of the school of his order in Lisbon. Royal preacher and, also, preacher of the house of the Infantado. Chaplain of the royal chapel of Bemposta Palace. Ecclesiastical censor of the patriarchate of Lisbon. Deputy to the Junta do Melhoramento. Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Lisbon. Professor of theology at the Seminary of Santarém. Inspector of studies of the patriarchate of Lisbon. It has been said that he was a mason.
Episcopate. Presented by King João VI of Portugal for the see of Castelo Branco, May 13, 1818. The canonical process was completed on April 27, 1819, but it did not take effect because on May 3, 1819, the king presented him for the metropolitan see of Évora; preconized, February 21, 1820. Consecrated, April 30, 1820, church da Graça, Lisbon, by José António Pinto de Mendoça Arrais, bishop of Guarda (the co-consecrators are not known). Member of the junta established by decree of June 18, 1823, to prepare the project of a new fundamental charter of the monarchy. When the Abrilada occurred on April 30, 1824, King João VI named him minister and secretary of ecclesiastical affairs and of justice, May 14, 1824 to January 15, 1825. Charged with delivering a message to Queen Carlota Joaquina from her husband urging her to leave the kingdom, June 22, 1824; she never complied. Royal counselor.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 27, 1824; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Transferred to the patriarchal see of Lisbon, March 13, 1826. He as the seventh cardinal patriarch of Lisbon. Member of the Council of Regency named by King João VI on April 6, 1826 to govern the kingdom after his death, which occurred four days later. Vice-president of the Chamber of Peers, 1826. Did not participate in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. In spite of the political unrest that took place in 1828 and 1834, he was never forced to emigrate, because of the high regard in which he was kept by both liberals and conservatives.
Death. January 3, 1840, Lisbon. Exposed in the patriarchal and metropolitan cathedral of Lisbon and buried in the church of São Vicente da Fora, Lisbon.
Bibliography. Azevedo, Ricardo Charters d'. Doutor D. Frei Patrício da Silva, O.S.A. : um Cardeal leiriense, Patriarca de Lisboa (1756-1840). Lisboa : Leiria, 2009; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 878-879; Moreira Azevedo, Carlos A. "D. Frei Patrício da Silva, O. S. A. (1826-1840)" in Os patriarcas de Lisboa. Coordenação D. Carlos Azevedo, Sandra Costa Saldanha, António Pedro Boto de Oliveira. Palavra de apresentação do Cardeal Patriarca, D. José da Cruz Policarpo. Lisboa : Centro Cultural do Patriarcado de Lisboa; Alêtheia Editores, 2009, p. 73-80; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, 18, 185 and 242; "Silva (D. Frei Patrício da)". Grande Enciclopédia Portuguesa Brasileira, 28, 837-838.
Links. Portrait and biography, in Portguese, Wikipedia; biographical data, in Portuguese; brief biographical entry, in Portuguese, in Os Cardeais Portugueses, under "D. FREI PATRÍCIO DA SILVA - 7º Cardeal Patriarca de Lisboa", patriarcado de Lisboa.
(5) 3. FERRERO DELLA MARMORA, Teresio (1757-1831)
Birth. October 15 (or 16), 1757, Turin, Piedmont. Fourth of the eleven children of Marquis Ignazio Ferrero della Marmora, lieutenant general of the armies of Sardinia, and Cristina San Martino d'Agliè, marchioness of San Germano. The other siblings were Celestino, Irene, Tommaso and seven more brothers and sisters. His baptismal name was Teresio Maria Carlo Vittorio. His first name is also listed as Carlo Vittorio.
Education. Studied at Collegio dei Nobili, Turin, where he earned a master's degree in 1775; and at the University of Turin, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, on April 28, 1779. At the same time, he devoted himself to the study of history and heraldry; and was passionate about numismatics, increasing the famous collection owned by his family.
Early life. In November 1779, he was appointed rector of the University of Turin.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 9, 1781. Synodal examiner in Turin. Almoner of Vittorio Amedeo II, king of Sardinia, in 1784. Member of Collegio di Filosofia in 1786. Proposed by King Vittorio Amedeo III for the diocese of Casale Monferrato.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Casale Monferrato, June 27, 1796. Consecrated, July 3, 1796, Rome, by Cardinal Giacinto Sigismondo Gerdil, B., assisted by Nicola Buschi, titular archbishop of Efeso, and by Michele Di Pietro, titular bishop of Isauriopoli. Took possession of the see in the following month of September. He demonstrated excellent pastoral skills in those difficult years, doing everything for the people, put to the test by the war between the French and the Austrians. When the inhabitants of Casale Monferrato rebelled against the French and the city was threatened with destruction, Bishop Ferrero intervened and the massacre was avoided; he was imprisoned and sent to Alessandria. He was released and returned to Casale and began to revive and help the population. During the French occupation, he welcomed Pope Pius VI, a prisoner of the French Revolution, and accompanied him to Turin. Resigned pastoral government of the diocese, May 18, 1803. Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte obtained from Pope Pius VII the reduction of the dioceses of Piedmont, therefore, with papal bull of June 1, 1803, were suppressed nine dioceses including Casale Monferrato, Pinerolo, Fossano, Susa, Biella, Aosta, Alba, Testona, and Bobbio. By virtue of that decree, the diocese of Saluzzo was united with the suppressed diocese of Pinerolo. Bishop Ferrara was nominated bishop of Saluzzo by the emperor on June 11, 1805. The pope transferred him to that see on February 1, 1805, in the consistory celebrated in Paris. Bishop Ferrero administered the diocese of Saluzzo, staying in Casale Monferrato until the day of the solemn entrance in Saluzzo. He worked to obtain that Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca and other Roman prelates had less harsh living conditions in the period in which they were exiled and imprisoned in the fortress of Fenestrelle. The emperor, even knowing the bishop's opposition to his government, appointed him knight of the Légion d'honneur; and baron of the empire in 1808. In 1815, he met Pope Pius VII in Turin on the occasion of the display of the Holy Shroud. He established the episcopal seminary of Saluzzo in the church of S. Nicola and the annexed convent. He also established the residence of the bishops in the former palace of the counts of Cravetta. Resigned pastoral government of the diocese, April 9, 1824. Abbot commendatario of the abbey of S. Benigno di Fruttuaria, 1824. At the request of King Carlo Felice he was promoted to the cardinalate.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 27, 1824; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Did not participate in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. He retired first to Villanovetta; and later, to S. Benigno di Fruttuaria. He died in poverty, after a life spent helping the poor and the suffering.
Death. December 30 (or 31), 1831, Turin, abbatial palace of S. Benigno di Fruttuaria. Exposed and buried in the abbatial church of S. Benigno (1).
Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 343-344; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXIV, 194-196; Notizie per l'anno 1834. Rome : G.F. Chracas, 1833, p. 65; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 151-152; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp.19 and 331; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 396.
Links. His portrait and biography, in Italian, Generazioni e Luoghi - Archivi Alberti La Marmora; small portrait and biography, in Italian, diocese of Saluzzo; biography, in Italian, Wilipedia.
(1) This is according to all the sources, printed and electornic, consulted, except Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 19, which says that he was buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Turin.
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