The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Leo XII (1823-1829)
Consistory of May 3, 1824 (I)


(1) 1. BUSSI, Giovanni Battista (1755-1844)

Birth. January 29, 1755, Viterbo. Of a patrician family from Viterbo. Son of Domenico Bussi, count of Poggio Aquilone, and Countess Olimpia Melchiorri. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Bussi (1712); nephew of Cardinal Pierfrancesco Bussi (1759).

Education. La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, March 8, 1780); completed his juridical formation under Giovanni Battista Quarantotti, voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice; and under lawyers Niocla Riganti and Francesco Mazzei.

Early life. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure, January 13, 1781; the subdiaconate, February 23, 1782; and the diaconate, May 25, 1782. Prelate referendary in the Roman Curia, March 8, 1781.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 21, 1782. Prelate referendary, March 1781. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government. Secretary of the S.C. of Indulgences, June 1, 1795. Governor of Viterbo, October 12, 1799 to July 1800. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, February 9, 1801. Regent of the Apostolic Penitentiary, June 29, 1809. Arrested by the French authorities that had invaded Rome, July 15, 1809; imprisoned in Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome; released and re-arrested, August 28,1809; deported to Paris, where he remained until 1814. After the restoration of the papal government, he was named president of the commission of hospitals of Rome by extraordinary legate Cardinal Agostino Rivarola, May 15, 1814; restored to his functions of auditor of the Rota and regent of the Penitentiary; confirmed in the latter post by Cardinal Michele Di Pietro, grand penitentiary, May 1, 1815; he kept both posts until his appointment as auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites, 1815. Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, March 10, 1823.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 3, 1824; received the red hat, May 6, 1824; and the title of S. Pancrazio, May 24, 1824.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Benevento, May 3, 1824. Consecrated, May 23, 1824, Rome, by Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, assisted by Giuseppe della Porta Rodiani, titular Latin patriarch of of Constantinople, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Lorenzo irolamo Mattei, titular Latin patriarch of Antioch, secretary of the S.C. of the Apostolic Visit. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI.

Death. January 31, 1844, Benevento. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Benevento. At the time of his death, he was the oldest living cardinal.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : Ecole française de Rome, 2002, p. 324-325; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 185-186; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 18, 44 and 109-110; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 157; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 434 and 531.

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(2) 2. GAZZOLA, O.F.M.Ref., Bonaventura (1744-1832)

Birth. April 21, 1744, Piacenza. His baptismal name was Domenico Giuseppe. His last name is also listed as Gazola.

Education. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor Reformed, June 7, 1761; took the name Bonaventura; Franciscan convents of Piacenza and Parma (philosophy and theology); University of Urbino, Urbino (doctorate in canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 4, 1767. Lector of canon law and experimental physics, University of Cesena. Commissary of the Cisalpine Franciscans for ten years. Commissary general of his order, December 5, 1783.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cervia, June 1, 1795. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 1, 1795. Consecrated, June 7, 1795, choir chapel, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Francesco Albani, assisted by Gregorio Bandi, titular archbishop of Edessa, and by Saverio Cristiani, O.E.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan. Host to Pope Pius VII in Cervia, April 19, 1814. Apostolic administrator of Montefiascano e Corneto, June 1814. Transferred to the see of Montefiascone e Corneto, February 21, 1820.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 3, 1824; received the red hat, May 6, 1824; and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, May 24, 1824. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI (1).

Death. January 29, 1832, Montefiascone. Exposed in the cathedral of Montefiascone and buried in the church of the seminary of Montefiascone.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : Ecole française de Rome, 2002, p. 391-392; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 160; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 18, 40 and 270.

(1) This is according to Giuseppe M. Cacciamani, Storia del conclave di Papa Gregorio XVI (15 decembre 1830 - 2 febbraio 1831) (s.l. : Edizioni Camaldoli, 1960), p. 20. Boutry, Souverain et Pontife, p. 392, says that he participated in the conclave of 1830-1831. Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 24, in the chronicle of the conclave, does not mention Cardinal Gazzola among the 35 cardinals that entered the conclave initially; then, he says that later another 10 cardinals joined the conclave but does not give their names. Ritzler also indicates that Cardinal Gazzola received one vote for the papacy.

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