The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Leo XII (1823-1829)
Consistory of October 2, 1826 (VI)


(12) 1. CAPRANO, Pietro (1759-1834)

Birth. February 28, 1759, Rome. Only son of Matteo Caprano, rich merchant of nutritional products.

Education. Collegio Romano, Rome (doctorate in theology, September 9, 1780).

Priesthood. Ordained, February 23, 1782. Professor of liturgy in 1786; of moral theology in 1789; and of ecclesiastical history in 1794, at Collegio Romano; he abstained from all his functions during the Roman Republic and was confirmed as professor of ecclesiastical history on November 12, 1799. Theologian of the Apostolic Penitentiary before August 9, 1800. Coadjutor of Gianvincenzo Bolgeni, director of the library of Collegio Romano, August 13, 1800. Following the French occupation of Rome, he was arrested on June 1, 1812 for refusing to take the oath of loyalty and was imprisoned in Civitavecchia; he was later relegated to Milan. After the papal restoration, he was named consultor of the S.C. of the Holy Inquisition, July 3, 1814; of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, November 22, 1814. Canonist of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Penitentiary, 1814; guardian of the seal, April 17, 1816.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Iconio, March 8, 1816. Consecrated, Sunday March 17, 1816, church of S. Ignazio, Rome, by Cardinal Michele Di Pietro, grand penitentiary, assisted by Candido Maria Frattini, titular archbishop of Fiilippi, and by Giovanni Marchetti, titular archbishop of Ancira. Secretary of the S.C. for the Correction of the Books of the Oriental Church, June 30, 1816. Consultor of the S.C. of the Index, July 23, 1816. Examiner of bishops in canon law, April 6, 1817. Prelate of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, September 30, 1821. Secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, November 9, 1822. Secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, March 10, 1823. Secretary of the S.C. for the Examination of Bishops, March 22, 1823; he resigned the two latter posts when he was created cardinal.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of October 2, 1826; published in the consistory of December 15, 1828; received the red hat, December 28, 1828; and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, May 21, 1829. Took part in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, April 4, 1829. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI.

Death. February 24, 1834, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marcello, Rome, where the funeral took place; and buried, according to his will, in the church of S. Ignazio, Rome.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : Ecole française de Rome, 2002, pp. 335-335; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Voulmen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 20, 43 and 221-222.

Link. Biography by Francesco Raco, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 19 (1976), Treccani.

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(13) 2. RUDNAY DIVÉKÚJFALUSI, Alexander (1760-1831)

Birth. October 4, 1760, Szentkereszt, archdiocese of Esztergom, Hungary (Sväty Kriz, now Povazany, archdiocese of Bratislava-Trnava, Slovakia). Son of a rich landowner. Baptized on that same day of his brith. Received the sacrament of confirmation, June 3, 1770. His first name is also listed as Sándor.

Education. Gymnasium of Nitra, Nitra; Academy of Trnave, Trnave (philosophy); University of Buda, Buda (theology, 1780); University of Pest (doctorate in theology, April 3, 1784); received the subdiaconate, May 25, 1782; diaconate, March 26, 1783.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 12, 1783. Coadjutor in Császta. Chaplain in Éastej, January-October, 1785. In the general vicariate of Trnave and chaplain of Hronského Svätého Beòatika, 1785-1786; archivist of the vicariate, August 1786-1788; secretary of its chancery, 1788. In the archdiocese of Esztergom, pastor of Sankt Benedict, Krusov, 1789-1805; canon of its chapter 1805; rector and professor of theology of its seminary, 1806; archdeacon and vicar general, 1808. Counselor of the government of the principality of Transylvania. Referendary of the chancery of the Kingdom of Hungary.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Transylvania (or Alba Iulia, or Erdély, or Siebenbürgen), March 8, 1816, Consecrated, April 21, 1816, metropolitan cathedral of Sankt Stefan, Vienna, by Sigmund Anton von Hohenwart, archbishop of Vienna. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Esztergom, December 17, 1819. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1820. On April 8, 1823, Ludwig von Beethoven wrote him asking for financial help to publish the score of the "Missa solemnis"; the work was not published until 1825.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of October 2, 1826; published in the consistory of December 15, 1828; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Did not participate in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. A strong supporter of Slovakian schools and culture, he once said "I am Slovak and if I would be pope, I will remain Slovak."

Death. September 13, 1831, Esztergom. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Esztergom.

Bibliography. Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Voulmen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 20, 353and 374; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 208, 209, 272-274 and 329; Vyvíjalová, Mária. Alexander Rudnay v kontexte slovenského národnoobrodenského hnutia. Martin : Matica slovenská, 1998.

Links. Portrait in the archiepiscopal palace of Kalocsa, Hungary; and his effigy on a seal, Magyar Elektronikus Köyvtár.

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(14) 3. GIUSTINIANI, Giacomo (1769-1843)

Birth. December 20, 1769, Rome. Of a Roman patrician family. Son of Benedetto Giustiniani, prince of Bassano, and Countess Cecilia Carlotta Mahoni (Mahony) of Newburgh and Kinnaird. Uncle of Cardinal Carlo Odescalchi (1823).

Education. Collegio Urbano, Rome; La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, December 20, 1792).

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature, 1792. Protonotary apostolic de numero paticipantium, 1792. Referendary of the tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, January 24, 1793. Vice-legate in Romagna, 1793; entered his legation on December 14, 1793. Protonotary of the S.C. of Rites, before December 12, 1795. Expelled from Ravenna on July 25, 1796 by order of French General Augerau; he returned to Rome on July 3, 1797. Governor of Perugia, March 30, 1797 to 1798. President of the Commissione di Stato the day before of the French invasion of Rome. He sought refuge in Naples in 1798 after the French occupation of Rome and the proclamation of the Roman Republique. After the entrance in Rome of the Neapolitan forces on October 2, 1799, he was named president of the Giunta di Stato on November 10, 1799 and charged with pursuing the partisans of the Roman Republic. Left the prelature, lived as a layman and travelled throughout Italy and Europe from 1798 to 1814. After the papal restoration of Rome, he assumed, in the Commissione di Stato the functions of provisional governor of Rome, September 23, 1814. He was named pro-governor of Rome on September 23, 1814. He re-integrated himself into the Roman prelature as domestic prelate on October 1, 1814 and was named coadjutor of Pietro Maria Negroni, judge of the Capitoline curia, on November 19, 1814. During the flight of Pope Pius VII to Genoa, from March 22 to June 7, 1815, he was member of the Giunta di Stato presided by Cardinal Giulio Maria Della Somaglia. Apostolic delegate in Bologna, July 6, 1815; he restored the papal government.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1816.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tiro and appointed nuncio in Spain, April 14, 1817. Consecrated, Sunday April 20, 1817, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Alessandro Mattei, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Giovanni Francesco Guerrieri, titular archbishop of Atena, and by Candido Maria Frattini, titular archbishop of Filippi. Expelled from Spain by the Liberal revolution, he resided in Bordeaux from January to September 1823; later he reentered the court of King Fernando VII of Spain, who had been restored to the throne by the French army. Transferred to the see of Imola, with personal title of archbishop, May 13, 1826. He left Spain the following year.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 2, 1826, with dispensation for having a nephew in the Sacred College of Cardinals; received the red hat, July 5, 1827; and the title of Ss. Pietro e Marcellino, September 17, 1827. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI; Cardinal Juan Francisco Marco y Catalán presented the veto of King Fernando VII of Spain against his election. Abbot commendatario of Farfa, 1831-1833. Secretary of Memorials, February 4, 1831. Resigned pastoral government of the diocese, December 16, 1832. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, November 21, 1834. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and prefect of the S.C. of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's, July 1, 1837. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, October 2, 1837 until his death. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, November 22, 1839. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 24, 1842 to January 27, 1843.

Death. February 24, 1843, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, where the funeral took place with the participation of Pope Gregory XVI, and buried in his family's tomb in that church.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : Ecole française de Rome, 2002, pp. 393-395; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 122; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Voulmen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 20, 37, 42, 50, 223 and 382; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 373, 335 and 705.

Link. Biography by Simone Bonechi, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 57 (2002), Treccani.

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(15) 4. MACCHI, Vincenzo (1770-1860)

Birth. August 30, 1770, Capo di Monte, diocese of Montefiascone. Of a modest family. Son of Giovan Nicola Macchi and Maria Anna Gilda Vagni. Uncle of Cardinal Luigi Macchi (1889).

Education. La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iruis, both cvil and canon law, December 16, 1801).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 20, 1794. Auditor and abbreviatoris in the nunciature in Portugal, before October 22, 1803; later, internuncio and apostolic delegate, when Nuncio Lorenzo Caleppi went to Brazil on April 19, 1808, with the Braganza royal family after the French invaded the country; Msgr. Pacca returned to Rome in the first days of April 1818. Domestic prelate of His Holiness before April 15, 1818.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nisibis, October 2, 1818. Consecrated, October 4, 1818, Rome, by Cardinal Lorenzo Litta. Nuncio in Switzerland, October 6, 1818; he left Lucerne on October 22, 1819. Nuncio in France, November 22, 1819; he left for Paris on the following December 4 and presented his credentials to King Louis XVIII of France on January 6, 1820; he remained in Paris until the beginning of 1827.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 2, 1826; received the red hat, May 23, 1827; and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, June 25, 1827. Apostolic legate in the province of Ravenna, July 16, 1828; confirmed in the post by the new Pope Pius VIII in April 1829. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, December 11, 1834. Apostolic legate in the province of Bologna, July 5, 1836. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, December 14, 1840. Pro-prefect of the Tribunal of the Signature of Justice, September 15, 1841. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 27, 1843 until January 22, 1844. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina and Civittavecchia, January 22, 1844. Subdean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, April 25, 1844 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX. Opted for the see of Ostia and Vellteri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 11, 1847. Apostolic legate in Velletri and its province. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs, June 27, 1854. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Equestrian Orders.

Death. September 30, 1860, Rome. Exposed in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, where the funeral took place with the participation of Pope Pius IX; and buried, according to his will, in the church of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Rome.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : Ecole française de Rome, 2002, pp. 409-410; Del Re, Niccolò. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 134; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, pp. 125-126, 211 and 244; Fink, Urban. Die Luzerner Nuntiatur 1586-1873 : Zur Behördengeschichte und Quellenkunde der päpstlichen Diplomatie in der Schweiz. Luzern ; Stuttgart : Rex Verlag, 1997. (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani ; Bd. 40) (Luzerner Historische Veröffentlichungen ; Bd. 32), pp. 186 and 196-197; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Voulmen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 20, 38, 41 and 284; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 43.

Links. Biography by Giuseppe Monsagrati, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 67 (2007), Treccani; brief biographical data, in German; and his tomb in the church of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Rome.

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(16) 5. FRANSONI, Giacomo Filippo (1775-1856)

Birth. December 10, 1775, Genoa. Of an ancient patrician family. Son of Marquis Domenico Fransoni, senator of the Republic of Genoa, and Bettina Carrega. His last name is also listed as Franzoni. Another cardinal of the family was Giacomo Franzoni (1658).

Education. Initial studies in Genoa. Went to Rome to continue his formation and obtained a doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, July 20, 1806. (No further educational information found).

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature on December 4, 1806 as referendary. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 14, 1807. Abbreviatore di parco maggiore, 1808. Expelled from Rome during the French occupation because he was a foreigner. Returned to Rome at the restoration of the papal government and was named domestic prelate in 1816. Relator of the Sacred Consulta, March 9, 1816. Secretary of the Congregation ad referendum for the indemnization of the buyers of ecclesiastical properties, October 4, 1817. Secretary of the Congregation for Waters before June 19, 1822.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nazianzo, September 7, 1822. Consecrated, December 8, 1822, church of the Benedictines in Campo Marzio, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Francesco Galleffi, assisted by Gianfrancesco Falzacappa, titular archbishop of Atena, and by Giuseppe Della Porta Rodiani, titular archbishop of Damasco. Nuncio in Portugal, January 21, 1823; he remained in the post until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 2, 1826; received the red hat, January 31, 1828; and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, June 23, 1828. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Prefect of the S.C. of the Ecclesiastical Immunity, July 6, 1830. Prefect of the economy of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, August 10, 1830. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. Prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, November 21, 1834 until his death. Protector of the Sovereign Order of Malta, March 28, 1843. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, September 28, 1855. Cardinal protoprete.

Death. April 20, 1856, Rome. Exposed and buried in his title.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : Ecole française de Rome, 2002, pp. 384-385; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, p. 212; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Voulmen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 20, 42 and 278.

Links. Biography by Giuseppe Monsagrati, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 50 (1998) his episcopal lineage, in English.

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(17) 6. BARBERINI, Benedetto (1788-1863)

Birth. October 22, 1788, Rome. Youngest of the ten children of Carlo Maria Barberini, duke of Montelibretti and prince of Palestrina, and Countess Giustina Borromeo Arese. His father assumed the last name Colonna di Sciarra. He is also listed as Benedetto Barberini Colonna di Sciarra. Grand-nephew of Cardinals Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra and Prospero Colonna di Sciarra, both promoted in 1743. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Casali del Drago (1899), on his mother's side.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature and was named domestic prelate of His Holiness, January 17, 1820; and protonotary apostolic non participantium before February 12, 1820. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government before February 12, 1820. Secretary of the S.C. of the Discipline of the Regulars, March 5, 1822. Prefect of the Household of His Holiness, March 10, 1823; he occupied the post for five years.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of October 2, 1826; published in the consistory of December 15, 1828; received the red hat, December 18, 1828; and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, May 21, 1829. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, July 2, 1832. Prefect of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, November 28, 1834; occupied the post until his death. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, April 28, 1844. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, retaining in commendam the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, June 16, 1856. Cardinal protoprete. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1856 to 1857. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs and grand chancellor of the Pontifical Equestrian Orders, February 5, 1862.

Death. April 10, 1863, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome, where the funeral took place with the participation of Pope Pius IX; and buried, according to his will, in his family's chapel in the church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome. Last surviving cardinal of Pope Leo XII.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : Ecole française de Rome, 2002, pp. 309-310; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Voulmen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 21 and 43; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 49.

Link. His genealogy, M10.

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(18) 7. BENVENUTI, Giovanni Antonio (1765-1838)

Birth. May 16, 1765, Belvedere, diocese of Senigaglia. Of a noble family. Son of Giuseppe Benvenuti and Maddalena Tosi.

Education. La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, November 28, 1793).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 20, 1788. He entered the Roman Curia in 1789. Secretary and later, auditor of the nunciature in Poland. He accompannied Nuncio Lorenzo Litta to Saint Petersburg, Russia, in 1797; he stayed there by himself from April 1799 until April 1809 when Nuncio Tommaso Arezzo arrived; he left Russia on January 20, 1804. Abbot commendatario of S. Ginesio di Rocca Contrada, diocese of Senigaglia, before March 18, 1801. Expert for Russian affairs in the Secretariat of State and agent of the Republic of Ragusa. Charged with a mission to the Anglo-Russian troops stationed in Naples, November-December 1805. Entered the Roman prelature as domestic prelate of His Holiness before June 21, 1806; and referendary, June 26, 1806. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government before September 13, 1806. At the restoration of the papal government in Rome after the end of the French occupation, he was named member of the commission of ecclesiastical properties on September 22, 1814; and relator of the Sacred Consulta on December 12, 1814. Named by the Giunta di Stato that governed Rome during the flight of Pope Pius VII to Genoa, apostolic delegate in Camerino, before May 27, 1815. With the return of Cardinal Ercole Consalvi, he was named apostolic delegate in Civitavecchia on July 2, 1815. Apostolic delegate in Ancona on June 5, 1820; he was aggregated to the nobility of the city on October 4, 1821. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Protonotary apostolic. During the conclave of 1823, he was extraordinary delegate to the four legations, August 25 to December 17, 1823; the four legations were Bologna including Ferrara and Romagna, Urbino including The Marche, Perugia covering Umbria, and Velletri covering southern Lazio. Secretary of the S.C. of Good Government, March 19, 1824. Member of the Congregation for Economics, April 7, 1824; and of the Congregation for the Census, August 7, 1824. Extraordinary legate in Frosinone for the provinces of Marittima e Campagna, with full powers to stop th expansion of the brigands, July 2, 1824. Pro-legate in the province of Forlì, August 27, 1826, after the attempt on the life of Cardinal Agostino Rivarola; he directed the repression aginst the Carbonari. Secretary of the S.C. of Good Government, March 19, 1824.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of October 2, 1826; published in the consistory of December 15, 1828; received the red hat, December 18, 1828; and the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, May 21, 1829.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Osimo e Cingoli, December 15, 1828. Consecrated, January 25, 1829, Rome, by Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. Legate a latere to pacify the rebellion in Romagna and the ecclessiastical provinces, February 12, 1831; he was arrested in Osimo on the following February 18; and retained as hostage by the provisional governor of Ancona; he negotiated on March 25 a convention for the capitulation and safeguard of the insurgents; the convention was not recognized by Rome; disavowed officially by the cardinal secretary of State, Tommaso Bernetti, he pursued his peace mission on the Marches and in Umbria until April 9; he retired to Osimo on April 10 and never again played any political role.

Death. November 14, 1838, Osimo. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Osimo.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : Ecole française de Rome, 2002, pp. 313-314; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Voulmen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 21, 44 and 98.

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(19) 8. MARAZZANI VISCONTI, Giovanni Francesco (1755-1829)

Birth. August 11, 1755, Piacenza. Of a patrician family. Son of Count Antonio Camillo Marazzani Visconti and Costanza Terzi, of the counts of Sissa. Nephew of Camillo Marazzani, bishop of Parma.

Education. Collegio Nazareno, Rome, 1766-1776; Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, 1776-1781.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature as abbreviatore de parco maggiore of the Apostolic Chancery, 1780. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, March 15, 1781. Governor of Sabina, November 8, 1782 until 1785. Governor of Fabriano, February 25, 1785 until March 1794. Governor of Orvieto, March 7, 1794 until March 1797. Assessor of the tribunal of the governor of Rome before March 11, 1797. Relator of the Sacred Consulta, 1798. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, October 30, 1800. Governor of Fermo and August 24, 1802 until 1808, when the French troops occupied the Marches. He stayed in Parma during the Napoleonic occupation of Rome. Apostolic delegate in Fermo, May 27, 1815; the appointment was not ratified by Cardinal Secretary of State Ercole Consalvi when he returned from Vienna and did not take effect. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, March 9, 1816 until 1822. Vicar of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, 1819. Majordome and prefect of the Apostolic Palace, March 10, 1823.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of October 2, 1826; published in the consistory of December 15, 1828; received the red hat, December 18, 1828; died before receiving the title.

Death. January 18 (1), 1829, Rome. Exposed in the church of Ss. Ambrogio e Carlo de' Lombardi, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in that same church.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : Ecole française de Rome, 2002, pp. 415-416; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Voulmen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 21; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 226, 248, 324, 378 and 758.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 21, n. 51; the same source, VII, 21, says that he died on February 18, 1829 If he had died on the latter day, it would have been two days after the beginning of the 1829 conclave and he is not mentioned at all in its chronicle in the same source, VII, 22; "L'ami de la Religion" not only gives January 18, 1829 as the date of his death but published it on the issue of February 7, 1829 thus making it impossible that the cardinal would have died on the following February 18; Boutry, Souverain et Pontife, p. 313, also says the he died on January 18, 1829.

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(20) 9. BERNETTI, Tommaso (1779-1852)

Birth. December 29, 1779, Fermo. Of one of the premier patrician families of Fermo. Son of Count Salvatore Bernetti and Countess Judith Brancadoro. Nephew of Cardinal Cesare Brancadoro (1801), on his mother's side.

Education. University of Fermo, Fermo (literature and law).

Early life. Went to Rome and received the ecclesiastical tonsure on February 21, 1801. Acquired the legal practive as ajutante di studio of lawyer Vincenzo Bartolucci. Secretary of Dionisio Bardaxí y Azara, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for Aragón, future cardinal. Went to Paris, later to Reims and finally to Fountainbleau, with his uncle Cardinal Brancadoro, when the French invaded Rome in 1809 and the cardinal was forced into exile. Successfully carried out a secret mission from Pope Pius VII to Emperor Franz I of Austria concerning the former possessions of the Holy See, July 24, 1813. Returned to Rome with his uncle the cardinal in 1814. Named domestic prelate on May 3, 1815. The Giunta di Stato, put in place during the flight of Pope Pius VII to Genoa, named him, against the the advice of Cardinal Ercole Consalvi, apostolic delegate extraordinary for the provinces of Macerta, Fermo and Ascoli and the duchy of Camerino in the Marches, May 3, 1815; he occupied the post until the reestablishment of the papal government in July 1815. Charged with the negotiation for the retirement of Joaquim Murat after the French were defeated by the Austrians in 1815, and the preparation of the definitive return of Pope Pius VII to Rome. Pro-legate in Ferrara, July 6, 1815 until September 6, 1816. After his return to Rome, he was named assessor of the Congregation for the military, February 2, 1817; and referendary prelate, March 3, 1817. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, June 7, 1820 until October 2, 1826. Extraordinary ambassador to the coronation of Czar Nicholas I of Russia, 1826 (1); he left Rome on June 13, 1826 and in Ferrara joined Cardinal Tommaso Arezzo, the last representative of the Holy See in Russia; met with Prince Klemens Metternich in Vienna; but was not able to attend the coronation in Moscow on September 3, 1826; he was received by the czar in Moscow on August 7 and in Saint Petersburg on October 22. In his return trip, he went to Paris and unsuccessfully tried to obtain the compensation for the cessation of Avignon; he was received by King Charles X of France. In Paris, he received the news of his elevation to the cardinalate, which he initially refused; he arrived in Rome on January 27, 1827.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 2, 1826; received red hat, May 23, 1827; and the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, June 25, 1827. Legate in Ravenna, June 27, 1827; he did not occupy the post and remained in the Roman Curia. Secretary of State, June 17, 1828 until February 10, 1829. Granted a prorogation of two years to receive the sacred orders, August 29, 1828; for six months, June 8, 1830; for five years, February 3, 1832. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII. Apostolic legate in the province of Bologna, April 7, 1829. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI. Pro-secretary of State, February 21, 1831; secretary, August 10, 1831 until January 20, 1836, when he resigned because of the political crisis in the Papal States. Named plenipotentiary of the Holy See on May 15, 1838, he was charged with the conclusion of an agreement with the representative of the kingdom of Naples to draw the borders of that kingdom.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1839, by his brother Alessandro Bernetti, bishop of Recanati e Loreto. Member of the congregation for the reconstruction the basilica of S. Paolo fuori le Mura, 1841. Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church and sommista of apostolic letters, December 24, 1843 until his death. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, pro illa vice deaconry, proper of the vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, January 22, 1844. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX. He sought refuge in Sant'Elpidio after the assassination of Pellegrino Rossi and joined Pope Pius IX in Gaeta in 1848. Resided in Fermo since 1849.

Death. March 21, 1852, Fermo. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Fermo (2).

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : Ecole française de Rome, 2002, pp. 314-316; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 124; La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 111; Morelli, Emilia. La politica estera di Tommaso Bernetti, segretario di state di Gregorio XVI. Rome : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1953; Pásztor, L. "I cardinali Albani e Bernetti e l'intervento austriaco nel 1831." Rivista di storia della Chiesa in Italia, 8 (1954), 95-128; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Voulmen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 20, 42, 45 and 48; Ugolini, P. "La politica estera del cardinale Tommaso Bernetti, segretario di Stato di Leone XII (1828-1829)." Archivio della Società Romana di Storia Patria, 92 (1969), 213-320; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 100.

Link. Biography by Giuseppe Pignatelli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 9 (1967), Treccani.

(1) During his absence, he was substituted by Pro-governor Nicola Paracciani Clarelli.
(2) This information is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 20; and Boutry, Souverain et Pontife, p. 315; La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 111, indicates that he was buried, according to his will, in his family's tomb, in the church of Carmine, Fermo.

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(21) 10. CRISTALDI, Belisario (1764-1831)

Birth. July 11, 1764, Rome. Of a noble family. Youngest and only son of the four children of Ascanio Cristaldi, baron of Noha, and Marianna Guglielmi, of a noble family from Nardò.

Education. Collegio Romano, Rome (philosophy); La Sapienza University, Rome, (doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law in 1787 or 1788).

Early life. Pursued his juridical formation as segreto of the tribunal of the Sacred Roman Rota; and auditor of Cardinal Giulio Maria della Somaglia. Director of orphanage Tata Giovanni, Rome, after the death of its founder Giovanni Borgi and during the French occupation of that city, June 1, 1798. In the fall of 1799, he was named pro-secretary, and later assessor, of the provisional junta put in place by the Neapolitan authorities. Together with Prince Pietro Gabrielli and Marquis Camillo Massimo, member of a special mission of the city of Rome to the newly elected Pope Pius VII, Venice, April 1800. Consistorial lawyer, before April 26, 1800. Named advocat of the poor, December 19, 1800; he had been exercising this function since October 4, 1799. During the Napoleonic occupation of Rome, he resigned all his posts; he was expelled from Rome by the French authorities in October 1813 and sent to Bologna. After the restoration of the papal government in Rome, he was named member of the Commissione di Stato, put in place on May 11, 1814 by Msgr. Agostino Rivarola; placed in charge of all the affairs of the S.C. of Good Government as well as of the public assistance. Member of the commission of ecclesiastical properties, May 15, 1814. Named domestic prelate by Pope Pius VII on June 19, 1814. Fiscal lawyer of the Apostolic Chamber and advocate of the Roman People, June 19, 1814; ajutante di studio, December 8, 1814. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure, September 25, 1814. In July 1815, he participated with Cardinal Ercole Consalvi in the preparation of the reestablishment of the papal government in the provinces di seconda recupera, the Marches and the Legations; and later, in December 1815, he was named member of the commission for the reorgazation of the works of assistance. He was sent to Milan for the settlement of the debts contracted by the former kingdom of Italy, April 1816. Member of the commission for the composing of the new code of criminal procedure, before July 24, 1816. Rector of La Sapienza University, Rome, before October 8, 1817 until his elevation to the cardinalate. Refrendary prelate, January 12, 1818. Auditor of His Holiness, June 6, 1818. Named canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica before June 17, 1818. Treasurer of the Apostolic Chamber, June 4, 1820. Abbot commendatario and ordinary of S. Maria di Farfa and of S. Salvatore Maggiore, 1827.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of October 2, 1826; published in the consistory of December 15, 1828; received the red hat, December 18, 1828; and the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, May 21, 1829. Received the diaconate, February 23, 1829. Participated in the conclave of 1829, which elected Pope Pius VIII.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 6, 1829. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 15, 1830 to February 28, 1831. Participated in the conclave of 1830-1831, which elected Pope Gregory XVI.

Death. February 25, 1831, Rome. Exposed in Gesù church, Rome, and buried in the church of S. Caterina di Siena (della Rota) in Via Giulia, Rome.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : Ecole française de Rome, 2002, pp. 352-353; Del Re, Niccolò. Il Cardinale Belisario Cristaldi e il can. Antonio Muccioli. Città del Vaticano : Pontificia Accademia Teologica Romana : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1980. (Studi e ricerche sul clero Romano ; 4); Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Voulmen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 21, 46 and 50.

Link. His engraving and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia.

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LINGARD, John (1771-1851)

Birth. February 5, 1771, Winchester, England. Son of Lincolnshire yeomen. He was baptized on the following day.

Education. Studied at the English College, Douai, France, from September 30, 1782; appointed a doctor of theology and of utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, by Pope Pius VII in 1821.

Priesthood. Escaped to England because of the French Revolution, and in May, 1794 was charged with the caring of a group of Douai refugees, becoming professor of philosophy, vice-president, prefect of studies, procurator, and professor of church history. Thus, he was one of the founding fathers of Ushaw College (the descendant of the English College, Douai). Ordained, April 18, 1795, York. Declined the presidency of Maynooth College, 1811, went to Hornby, a country mission about eight miles from Lancaster, where he was the resident Catholic priest for forty years, until his death in 1851. In a visit to Rome in the spring of 1817, he successfully negotiatiated the restablishment of English College. Declined the title and dignity of monsignor as "too foreign", 1821. His sympathies were somewhat cisalpine, as the English preferred to call Gallicanism. He was a central figure in the English Catholic Enlightenment and his History of England, was a model of scholarly erudition in his time. Throughout his life he was a trusted advisor of the English hierarchy. He was an associate of the Royal Society of Literature and in 1839, a corresponding member of the Académie Française.

Cardinalate. It had been generally believed, until Cardinal Nicholas Wiseman, archbishop of Westminster, contradicted it many years later, in his Recollections of the last four popes and of Rome in their times, that Pope Leo XII, in the consistory of October 2, 1826, had created Fr. Lingard cardinal in pectore, postponing the publication until he could finish his History of the Anglo-Saxon Church and be free to go to Rome. The cardinal considered that the French theologian François de Lamennais was the secret cardinal. A controversy between Canon Mark Aloysius Tierney (Was Dr. Lingard actually a cardinal? To the editor of the Rambler) and Cardinal Wiseman followed the publication of the cardinal's book. Although the matter was almost impossible to ascertain, Canon Tierney seemed to have had the strongest reasons in the controversy. Fr. Lingard's own words seemed to confirm his secret promotion: "Whatever I might have done twenty years ago", he wrote on January 27, 1829 to John Bradley, a priest at Ushaw, "I should now feel extremely unwilling to go to Rome, and there have to undergo all the fuss and parade, and ceremony of a cardinal's life." In a letter to John Walker, dated September 14, 1840, he wrote referring to Pope Leo XII, "...he made me a cardinal in petto, he described me in his consistory as not one of the servile pecus of historians, but one who offered the world historiam ex ipsis haustam fontibus".

Death. July 17, 1851, Hornby. Buried, cemetery cloister, Ushaw.

Bibliography. Bellenger, Dominic Aidan; and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Gloucestershire : Sutton, 2001, pp. 108-109; Chinnici, Joseph P. The English Catholic enlightenment : John Lingard and the Cisalpine movement, 1780-1850. Shepherdstown, [W. Va.] : Patmos Press, 1980; Haile, Martin, and Edwin Bonney. Life and letters of John Lingard, 1771-1851. St. Louis : B. Herder, 1911; Hilton, J. A. A Catholic of the enlightenment : essays on Lingard's work and times. Wigan : North West Catholic History Society, 1999; Jones, Edwin. John Lingard and the pursuit of historical truth. Brighton [England] ; Portland, Or. : Sussex Academic Press, 2001; Lingard remembered: essays to mark the sesquicententenary of John Lingard's death. Edited by Peter Phillips. London : Catholic Record Society, 2004.(Catholic Record Society publications. Monograph series ; v. 6; Variation: Catholic Record Society publications.; Monograph series ; v. 6). Contents: Natural philosophy at Douai, Crook Hall and Ushaw /; Michael Sharratt --; Lingard's Anglo-Saxonism: a post-colonial reading /; J.A. Hilton --; Lingard v. Barrington, et al.: ecclesiastical politics in Durham, 1805-1829 /; Leo Gooch --; John Lingard and the English Catholic Periodical Press, 1809-1841 /; Paul Richardson --; John Lingard: historians and contemporary politics, 1780-1850 /; Rosemary O'Day --; John Lingard and the Simancas archives /; Edwin Jones --; Every picture tells a Catholic story: Lingard's History of England illustrated and the 1850s transition in Catholic historiography /; Rosemary Mitchell --; John Lingard and the liturgy /; Emma Riley --; The new version of the Four Gospels /; Peter Phillips --; Off duty: Lingard's letters to women /; John Trappes-Lomax --; Appendix 1: Lingard's published works --; Appendix 2: Lingard's letters and papers --; Appendix 3: Portraits of Lingard; Shea, Donald Francis. The English Ranke: John Lingard. New York : Humanities Press, 1969; Tierney, Mark Aloysius. Memoir of the Rev. John Lingard, D.D. London, [s.n.], 1855; Tierney, Mark Aloysius. Was Dr. Lingard actually a cardinal? To the editor of the Rambler. London : Robson, Levey, and Franklyn, 1858; Wiseman, Nicholas Patrick. Recollections of the last four popes and of Rome in their times. Boston : P. Donahoe, 1858.

Links. Biography by Edwin Bonney, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; and his portrait by Thomas Skaife, 1848, National Portrait Gallery, London.

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