The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Gregory XVI (1831-1846)
Consistory of September 30, 1831 (I)


(1) 1. LAMBRUSCHINI, C.R.S.P., Luigi (1776-1854)

Birth. May 16, 1776, Sestri Levante, diocese of Brugnato. His baptismal name was Emmanuele Niccolò. Brother of Giambattista Lambruschini, bishop of Orvieto.

Education. Entered the Congregation of the Clerics Regular of St. Paul (Barnabites); took the name Luigi; studied philosophy at Macerata (1794-1796); theology at Rome and Genoa (1796-1798); forced to leave Rome by the edict of May 14, 1798 of the Consulate of the Roman Republic; went to his native town; Seminary of Brugnato, Brugnato.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 1, 1799, Sestri Levante. Lector of philosophy, Collegio S. Paolo, Macerata; lector of theology, Collegio Ss. Biagio e Carlo, Rome. Secretary of Cardinal Ercole Consalvi in his mission to the Congress of Vienna, 1815. Secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs; was very instrumental in concluding concordats with several states, notably with Naples and Bavaria. Vicar general of his order, 1816, when Fr. Francesco Fontana, superior general of the Barnabites, was created cardinal.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Genoa, September 27, 1819. Consecrated, October 3, 1819, church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, by Cardinal Giulio Maria della Somaglia, assisted by Francesco Bertazzoli, titular archbishop of Edessa, and by Gianfranco Guerrieri, archbishop-bishop of Rimini. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, October 5, 1819. Ecclesiastical administrator of Brugnato, March 10, 1820. Nuncio in France, November 14, 1826. Resigned pastoral government of the archdiocese, June 26, 1830. Transferred to the titular see of Berito, July 5, 1830. Had to leave his diplomatic post because of the Revolution of July, 1830 and returned to Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 30, 1831; received the red hat, October 3, 1831; and the title of S. Callisto, February 24, 1832. Prefect of the S.C. of Religious Discipline 1833-1834. Prefect of the S.C. of Studies, November 21, 1834. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, December 11, 1834 until June 27, 1853. Secretary of State, January 12, 1836 to June 1, 1846. Secretary of Secret Briefs, November 12, 1839. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, January 24, 1842. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 22, 1844 until January 20, 1845. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites, June 8, 1847. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina and Civitavecchia, June 11, 1847. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Grand prior of the Sovereign Equestrian Order of St. John of Jerusalem and grand chancellor of the Pontifical Equestrian Orders. Prefect of the S.C. of Religious Discipline (?).

Death. May 12, 1854, Rome. Exposed and buried, according to his will, in the Barnabite church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 507-512; Manzini, Luigi M. Il cardinale Luigi Lambruschini. Città del Vaticano : Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1960; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 25, 39, 41, 110 and 220; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 44.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; his engraving; and his portrait and another biography, also in English, fourth entry on the page.

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(2) 2. GIUSTINIANI, Alessandro (1778-1843)

Birth. February 3, 1778, Genoa.

Education. Studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, on July 17, 1816. Received the insignias of the clerical character, April 23, 1818.

Early life. Vice-legate in Ferrara. Internuncio in Naples. Protonotary apostolic honorary.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 6, 1822.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Petra in Palestina, April 19, 1822. Consecrated, April 21, 1822, Rome, by Cardinal Giulio Maria della Somaglia. Nuncio in Sicily, April 26, 1822. Nuncio in Portugal, April 24, 1827.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of September 30, 1831; published in the consistory of July 2, 1832; received the red hat, December 18, 1834; and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, December 19, 1834. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 24, 1842 until January 27, 1843.

Death. October 11, 1843, Genoa. His funeral took place on October 14, 1843 and was buried in the church of S. Francesco in Albaro, Genoa.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 425-427; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 25, 41 and 303-304.

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(3) 3. TIBERI, Francesco (1773-1839)

Birth. January 4, 1773, Contigliano, diocese of Rieti. Of a patrician family of Sabina and the Republic of San Marino. Second child of Antonio Tiberi and Teresa Orsini.

Education. Collegio Nazareno of the Piarist Fathers, Rome, 1741; Archgymnasium La Sapienza, Rome (1790-1791); practiced as ajutante di studio with lawyers Bernardino Ridolfi (1791-1793); and Nicola Riganti (1793-1794); obtained a doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, March 17, 1795. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure, March 17, 1795.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, May 21, 1795. Consultor of the S.C. of Indulgences, July 11, 1795. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, November 30, 1800. Codajutor of Paolo Emilio Petrucci, voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, March 28, 1801. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Received the subdiaconate, November 2, 1806. During the French occupation of Rome, he was deported to Piacenza; and later, in 1812, to Bastia, Corsica, for refusing to take the oath. Returned to Rome in 1814 and resumed his functions in the Signature of Justice. Protonotary apostolic non participante, before August 6, 1814. Apostolic delegate to the province of Macerata e Camerino, July 1815. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota and consulto of the S.C. of Rites, March 9, 1816. Regent of the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, June 10, 1823. On December 9, 1823, he was named member of the commission of jurisconsults charged with the revision of the motu proprio of July 6, 1816; as such, he participated in the elaboration of the new civil code promulgated on October 5, 1824. Vice-dean of the auditors of the Apostolic Palace.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Athenae, October 2, 1826.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 1826. Consecrated, December 27, 1826, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Saverio Castiglioni. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, January 9, 1827. Nuncio in Spain, January 9, 1827.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of September 30, 1831; published in the consistory of July 2, 1832; received the red hat, June 26, 1834; and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, August 1, 1834. Transferred to the see of Iesi, with personal title of archbishop, July 2, 1832; resigned the pastoral government of the diocese, May 18, 1836. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Signature of Grace, February 22, 1837.

Death. October 28, 1839, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, Rome, and buried in his title.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : Ecole française de Rome, 2002, pp. 476-477; Correspondencia diplomática del nuncio Tiberi. Edited by Vicente Cárcel Ortí. Pamplona : Ediciones Universidad de Navarra, 1976, pp. XXXI ff.; Fabi Montani, Francesco. Vita del card. Francesco Tiberi. Roma : A. Monaldi, 1840; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 925-927; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 25, 45 and 93.

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(4) 4. SPINOLA, Ugo Pietro (1791-1858)

Birth. June 29, 1791, Genoa. Eldest of the seven children of Francesco Maria Spinola and Eugenia Pallavicini. The other children were Giulia, Maria, Giacomo, Teresa and two other children, who died issueless. Great-great-grand-nephew of Cardinal Giambattista Spinola, iuniore (1695). Other cardinals of the various branches of the Spinola family were Agostino Spinola (1527); Filippo Spinola (1583); Orazio Spinola (1606); Agustín Spínola (1621); Giandomenico Spinola (1626); Giulio Spinola (1666); Giambattista Spinola, seniore (1681); Niccolò Spinola (1715); Giorgio Spinola (1719); Giovanni Battista Spinola (1733); and Girolamo Spinola (1759).

Education. Studied at Collegio dei Protonotari, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, on December 29, 1814.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1815. Relatore of the S.C. of Good Government and of the S.C. Consistorial. Papal delegate in the cities of Ascoli, 1816; Viterbo; Perugia, 1818; Macerata, 1823 and 1825; and Camerino, 1825. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Protonotary apostolic supernumerary.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tebe, October 2, 1826. Consecrated, November 12, 1826, Rome, by Cardinal Giuseppe Spina. Nuncio in Austria, November 14, 1826.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of September 30, 1831; published in the consistory of July 2, 1832; received red hat and the title of S. Martino ai Monti, December 17, 1832. Commisary extraordinary in the legations and legate in Bologna, 1833-1835. Abbot commendatario of Subiaco, 1838-1842. Again, apostolic legate in the province of Bologna, September 15, 1841 until 1843. Pro-datary of His Holiness, April 29, 1844 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1857 until his death.

Death. January 21, 1858, Rome (1). Exposed and buried in his title.

Bibliography. La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 118; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 899-900; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 25-26, 43 and 365; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, pp. 201-203; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 921.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 26; La Gerarchia Cattolica per l'anno 1876, p. 118, indicates that he died on January 23, 1858; Squicciarini, Nunzi apostolici a Vienna, 202, says that he died on January 24, 1858.

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(5) 5. SERRA, Francesco (1783-1850)

Birth. February 21, 1783, Naples. Son of Luigi Serra, duke of Cassano, and Giulia Carafa Cantelmo Stuart, of the princes of Roccella. Great-great-grand-nephew of Cardinal Giacomo Serra (1611). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Niccolò Serra (1766). His last name is also listed as Serra Cassano; and as Serra di Cassano.

Education. Studied at the University of Camerino, where he earned a doctorate on October 24, 1816); and at Collegio dei Protonotari, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, on June 17, 1817.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 1, 1806.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicea, March 16, 1818. Consecrated, March 23, 1818, Rome, by Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca. Nuncio in Bavaria, October 6, 1818. Archbishop coadjutor, with right of succession, of Capua, July 3, 1826. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Capua, July 26, 1826.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of September 30, 1831; published in the consistory of April 15, 1833; received red hat, April 18, 1833; and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, July 29, 1833. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX.

Death. August 17, 1850, Capua. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Capua.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 872-873; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 26, 40, 132 and 281-282; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 873.

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(6) 6. CANALI, Francesco (1764-1835)

Birth. October 14, 1764, parish of S. Fortunato, Perugia (1), Papal State. From a non-noble but well to do family. Son of Giuseppe Canali and Antonia Dati. He was baptized on the same day of his birth in the cathedral of S. Lorenzo. Received the sacrament of confirmation on June 8, 1772. He had two brothers, Pietro, an architect, inventor and director of Accademia del Disegno ; and Luigi, librarian, professor and rector of the University of Perugia.

Education. Attended the University of Perugia, where studied Latin under Claudio Errighi; humanities under Vincenzo Marcarelli; and where he earned doctorates in philosophy and theology on December 30, 1790. He also studied philosophy at the Seminary of Perugia, directed by the Augustinian friars. He also studied canon law. Received the insignias of the clerical character on September 6, 1783, from Bishop Alessandro Maria Odoardi of Perugia, who conferred him all the sacred order; received the minor orders on May 2, 1874 (lector); and December 18, 1784 (acolyte); the subdiaconate on December 17, 1785; and the diaconate on December 23, 1786. On August 5, 1784, he was admitted into the confraternity called Gonfalone di S. Francesco, which distinguished itself for the poetic and literary activities of its members. He was member of the Arcadia of Perugia under the name Giuseppe Stomiano.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1788. Professor of theology in the Seminary of Perugia in 1793. Rector of the Seminary of Perugia from October 4, 1797 until April 1806. Elected prior of Collegio dei Teologi in 1797; occupied the post until 1800, when he became its camerlengo. Synodal examiner of the clergy of Perugia from 1801 to 1802. Between 1808 and 1814, Perugia was under the administration of the French Empire. On June 14, 1809, together with another fifteen canons of the cathedral chapter of Perugia, he refuses to take the oath of obedience to the imperial government. They were deported and their property confiscated. During his exile, in Parma, Piacenza, Corsica and Bastia (at the end of March 1811), Canon Canali devoted his time to the study of the Sacred Scriptures and the original languages in which they were written. He was able to return to Perugia in August 1814. The inhabitants of Spoleto, after the Napoleonic vicissitudes, wanted Mario Ancaini, a native of the city, as their bishop but he was named for the see of Gubbio, On September 22, 1814, Canon Canali was given the see of Spoleto; and he took the oath of fidelity to the pope on the following day and received the congratulations of the municipal representatives.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Spoleto, September 26, 1814. Consecrated, probably in Rome (no further information found). Took possession of the see of Spoleto, November 30, 1814. In a pastoral letter, he recommended to the pastors to remain always in their parishes; and to the women, to always maintain peace in their families. On November 9, 1815, he started the pastoral visitor to the diocese, which, because of several interruptions due mostly to economic reasons, extended itself until 1820. In that same year, he published the constitutions and rules of the Seminary of Spoleto. Named administrator ad nutum Sanctae Sedis of the see Tivoli with the apostolic brief Apostolici nostri of July 23, 1820, when Father Mauro Cappellari, O.S.B.Cam., future Pope Gregory XVI, declined the see. On August 3, 1820, he administered the sacrament of confirmation to the faithful of the diocese. Transferred to the see of Tivoli on August 28, 1820 took possession on the following October 22. In first pastoral letter, written in an elegant Latin, published in October 1820, he recommended exemplarity to the clergy and charity to the laity. He realized a pastoral visit to the diocese which was finished in 1822; he submitted to Rome the report of the visit in July 1824. Between May and October 1826, he realized another pastoral visit to the diocese. During his episcopate, he frequently visited Rome. Resigned pastoral government of the diocese of Tivoli on April 24, 1827. Promoted to the titular see of Larissa on May 21, 1827. Named secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Religious in 1827, succeeding Monsignor Giovanni Marchetti. Named canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in May 1827.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of September 30, 1831; published in the consistory of June 23, 1834; received red hat on June 26, 1834; and the title of S. Clemente on August 1, 1834. When his promotion to the cardinalate was published, the Collegio dei teologi of Perugia, of which the new cardinal was a member, celebrated a solemn pontifical in the cathedral with the participation of Bishop Carlo Silesio Cittadini of Perugia and of the apostolic delegate, Antonio Maria Cagiano de Azevedo, future cardinal. The collegio decided to send him a dedicatory letter accompanying Latin allocution by Perugine poet Francesco Maturanzio written on the occasion of the promotion to the cardinalate of Francesco della Rovere, future Pope Sixtus IV. Because of delays in the printing, when the work was ready, the news of the death of the cardinal arrived in Perugia.

Death. April 11, 1835, after a very brief illness, in Rome. His brother Luigi was not able to arrive in Rome before the cardinal died in spite of his prompt departure. Exposed in the church of S. Marcello, Rome, where the funeral took place; and buried in the subterranean of his title, S. Clemente (2). In Perugia, a solemn funeral was celebrated in the cathedral with music by celebre composer Francesco Morlacchi. The funeral eulogy was delivered on May 12, 1834 in the cathedral of S. Lorenzo by Canon Luigi Mattioli, his old condisciple, and published in Perugia in that same year by Collegio dei teologi.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, p. 331-332; Cascioli, Giuseppe. "Nuova serie dei vescovi di Tivoli LXXVIII - Francesco III Canali (1820-1827)", Atti e memorie della Società tiburtina di storia d'arte, XI-XII (1931), p. 82; Chiacchella, Rita. "Il cardinale Francesco Canali (1764-1835)", Atti e memorie della Società tiburtina di storia e d'arte, 51, 1978, pp. 7-50; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 197-198; Mattioli, Luigi. Dell'eminentissimo e reverendissimo signor cardinale Francesco Canali defunto in Roma il di' 11 aprile 1835 elogio funebre che nelle solenni essequie per lui celebrate dal reverendissimo Capitolo di Perugia nell'insigne Basilica Laurenziana il di 12 maggio trigesimo dalla deposizione del medesimo / fu detto dal reverendissimo canonico don Luigi Mattioli. - Perugia : dalla Tipografia di G. Balducci, 1835; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VII, 151; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 27, 41, 232, 351 and 369.

Webgraphy. His engraving, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Canali Family Crest and Name history, The House of Names.

(1) This is according to LeBlanc, Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle, p. 197; Boutry, Souverain et Pontife, p. 331, who adds that some sources say that he was born on October 20, 1764; and Cascioli, "Nuova serie dei vescovi di Tivoli LXXVIII - Francesco III Canali (1820-1827)", Atti e memorie della Società tiburtina di storia d'arte, p. 82. Chiacchella, "Il cardinale Francesco Canali (1764-1835)", Atti e memorie della Società tiburtina di storia e d'arte, p. 9, says that he was born on October 20, 1764. Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica, VII, 151, says that he was born on October 19, 1764. Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, p. 351, indicates that he was born on October 20, 1764.
(2) The is the inscription on his tomb, taken from Cascioli, "Nuova serie dei vescovi di Tivoli LXXVIII - Francesco III Canali (1820-1827)", Atti e memorie della Società tiburtina di storia d'arte, p. 82:

CORPUS FRANCISCI CANALI
CARD. HVIVS ECCLESIAE TIT.

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(7) 7. OSTINI, Pietro (1775-1849)

Birth. April 27, 1775, Rome. Of a family of ceto civile.

Education. Roman Seminary, Rome; Collegio Romano, Rome (doctorate in theology, 1796); Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 3, 1798. Temporary professor of mathematics. Professor of ecclesiastical history at Collegio Romano for many years. Member of the Pia Unione Sacredotale di S. Paolo Apostolo; confessor and preacher; animator of works of charity and spiritual circles; he was the artisan of the conversion of the painter Johann Friedirch Ovebeck on Palm Sunday 1813; professor and counselor of numerous prelates; theologian to several Roman cardinals; at the eve of the papal restoration, he was an influential personality of priestly Rome. Censor emeritus of the Archgymnasium of Rome. Professor of theology at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, after the restoration of the papal government in Rome, November 28, 1814. Examiner of the Roman clergy, July 13, 1816. Entered the service of the Roman Curia and was named relator of of the S.C. of the Index before January 29, 1817; later, on January 30, 1820, its consultor. Consultor of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, May 6, 1817. Consultor of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, July 4, 1818. Qualificator of the S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition before March 27, 1819. Member of Accademia della Religione Cattolica, April 9, 1820. In 1823, Pope Pius VII named him apostolic vicar in Chile but he declined because of the opposition of his brother and other relatives. Internuncio in Austria, February 4, 1824 to November 1826. Privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness, May 11, 1824. Consultor of the SS.CC. of Propaganda Fide and of the Index. Nuncio in Switzerland, January 30, 1827.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tarso, April 9, 1827. Consecrated, August 12, 1827, Rome, by Cardinal Giacomo Giustiniani. Nuncio in Switzerland, January 1827 to July 1829. Nuncio in Brazil, July 17, 1829 to September 1832. Nuncio in Austria, September 2, 1832 to July 11, 1836.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of September 30, 1831; published in the consistory of July 11, 1836; received red hat and the title of S. Clemente, November 21, 1836. Transferred to the see of Iesi, with personal title of archbishop, July 11, 1836. Resigned government of the diocese, December 19, 1841. Prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, January 25, 1842 until 1847. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, April 3, 1843. Protector of the Academy of Theology of the University of Rome, April 28, 1844. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 20, 1845 until January 19, 1846. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, May 2, 1847 until his death. Protector of the Cistercian Order, March 15, 1847. Member of the Commission for the Reform of the Institutuions of the Papal States, February 12, 1848. During the Roman Republic, he followed Pope Pius IX in exile in Gaeta in November 1848.

Death. March 4 (or 5, or 9), 1849, of an illness produced by accidentally hitting his head while visiting the admiral of the British fleet in Naples. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples.

Bibliography. Accioly, Hildebrando Pompeo Pinto, Os primeiros núncios no Brasil. São Paulo : Instituto Progresso Editorial, 1949. (Coleção Tropico, 2). Contents : Mons. Lorenzo Caleppi.--Mons. Giovanni-Francesco Marefoschi.-- Mons. Pietro Ostini, pp. 211-326; Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, pp. 438-439; Del Re, Niccolò. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 135-136; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 699-701; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 28, 41, 38, 50, 61 and 360; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, pp. 204-206.

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(8) 8. SALA, Giuseppe Antonio (1762-1839)

Birth. October 27, 1762, Rome.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in theology in Rome (no further educational information found).

Priesthood. Ordained, (no information found). Secretary of the papal legation in Paris, 1801-1804; took part in the negotiations of the Concordat of 1801 between France and the Holy See to regulate the life of the Church in the country after the French Revolution. Secretary of the apostolic delegation that Pius VII established in Rome when he was forced to leave the city by the French, 1809; expelled to Umbria. Secretary of the S.C. of Reform and of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, 1814. Secretary of the S.C. of Rites and of the Tridentine Council, December 1825.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 30, 1831; received the red hat, October 3, 1831; and the title of S. Maria della Pace, February 24, 1832. President of a commission of public health for the reform hospitals, 1834. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, March 21, 1834. Prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, November 21, 1834. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lliberian basilica, December 11, 1838.

Death. June 23, 1839, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, and buried in his title.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 822-824; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 25 and 43.

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(9) 9. CAPPELLETTI, Benedetto (1764-1834)

Birth. November 2, 1764, Rieti. From a family of barons of the local nobility.

Education. Studied humanities at the Benedictine Abbey of Montecassino and entered the ecclesiastical state.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Privt chamberlain. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in the pontificate of Pope Pius VI. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1802. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government. Protonotary apostolic. Apostolic delgate in Viterbo. Apostolic delegate in Macerata, 1822. Apostolic delegate in Urbino, 1823. Aportolic delegate in Pesaro. Governor of the city of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, February 1, 1829; confirmed by the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 11, 1829, during the sede vacante; remained in the post until July 2, 1832.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of September 30, 1831; published in the consistory of July 2, 1832; received red hat, July 5, 1832; and the title of S. Clemente, December 17, 1832.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rieti, July 29, 1833. Consecrated, August 15, 1833, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Francesco Galleffi.

Death. May 15, 1834, Rieti. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Rieti.

Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 125; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 214-215; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 26, 41 and 319.

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(10) 10. DEL DRAGO, Luigi (1776-1845)

Birth. June 20, 1776, Rome. His first name is also listed as Luigi Filippo; and his last name is listed under Drago.

Education. Seminary of Frascati, Frascati.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Prelate referendary, 1816. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace, December 15, 1828.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of September 30, 1831; published in the consistory of July 2, 1832; received red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, December 17, 1832. Prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Relics, July 19, 1832. President of the Commission of Subsidies, December 11, 1834. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, June 29, 1839. Pro-secretary of Memorandums, November 15, 1839.

Death. April 18 (1), 1845, Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Marcello, Rome.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni .... Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861. 103 v. in 53, XLI, 278.; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 26 and 42.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 26; Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica, XLI, 278, says that he died on April 28, 1845.

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(11) 11. PANDOLFI ALBERICI, Francesco Maria (1764-1835)

Birth. March 18, 1764, Orvieto. From a family of the ancient nobility.

Education. (No information found).

Priesthood. Ordained, (no information found). Canon rebendary of the cathedral chapter of Orvieto. Referendary of both Signatures, 1814. Member of the tribunal of the Sacred Consulta. Prefect of the Pontifical Household, 1830.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of September 30, 1831; published in the consistory of July 2, 1832; received red hat, July 5, 1832; and the title of S. Prisca, December 17, 1832.

Death. June 3, 1835, Rome. Exposed in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli and buried in his title.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 711-712; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 26 and 44.

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(12) 12. GAZZOLI, Ludovico (1774-1858)

Birth. March 18, 1774, Terni. From a noble family. Nephew of Cardinal Luigi Gazzoli (1803).

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Frascati; and at the University of Perugia, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Sacred Orders. Received the tonsure in Rome in 1758. After finishing his studies, he entered the pontifical administration.

Early life. Privy chamberlain of Pope Clement XIII in 1759. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Lateran basilica in January 1762. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, June 3, 1802. Governor of Fabriano, July 20, 1802. Governor of Spoleto, December 16, 1808. Governor of Rieti, 1809. Apostolic delegate in Ancona, 1815; and in Urbino-Pesaro, 1820. Preceptor of the S. Spirito in Sassia Hospital, Rome, 1823. Pro-legate in Forlì, 1823-1827. President of the Comarche, 1828.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of September 30, 1831; published in the consistory of July 2, 1832; received red hat, July 5, 1832; and the deaconry of S. Eustachio, December 17, 1832. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, April 15, 1833 until January 20, 1834. Prefect of Roads, Aqueducts, Tiber River, and Waters, September 7, 1833. Prefect of the S.C. of Good Government, April 3, 1843. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, March 19, 1857. Cardinal protodeacon.

Death. February 12, 1858, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marcello, Rome, and buried in his deaconry.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 398-399; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 26, 45 and 46; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 226, 390 and 691.

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