The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Gregory XVI (1831-1846)
Consistory of July 29, 1833 (IV)


(17) 1. MONICO, Jacopo (1778-1851)

Birth. June 26, 1778, Riese, diocese of Treviso (1). Son of Adamo Monico and Angela Cavallini. Received the sacrament of confirmation in 1787. His first name is also listed as Giacomo.

Education. Received his initial education from Don Canil, pastor of Altivole; then, from 1789, he studied at the Seminary of Treviso; from 1791 until 1800, he taught rhetoric. world history and Classical languages at the seminary.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 21, 1801, Treviso. In the diocese of Treviso, professor at its seminary; archpriest of the parish of S. Pietro, Asolo, 1818-1822. Chaplain of the crown of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia. Abbot commendatario of S. Cipriano di Murano. Emperor Francis I of Austria nominated him bishop of Ceneda on February 22, 1822. At the suggestion of Patriarch Giovanni Ladislao Pyrker of Venice, Emperor Francis I nominated him to the see of Ceneda on February 22, 1822.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ceneda, May 16, 1822. Consecrated, November 9, 1822, Venice, by Giovanni Ladislao Pyrker, O. Cist., patriarch of Venice, assisted by Giuseppe Grasser, bishop of Treviso, and by Giuseppe Manfrin Provedi, bishop of Chioggia. Took possession of the see the following November 23. He delivered the funeral oration of famous sculptor Antonio Canova in Possagno. From September 1825 to November 1826, he realized a pastoral visit to the 114 parishes of the diocese, and insisted particularly in the teaching of catechism. He devoted himself to the restoration of the cathedral, the seminary and the episcopal castle, works that were completed by his successors. Presented by Emperor Francis I of Austria for the patriarchal see of Venice on November 9, 1826. Promoted to the patriarchate of Venice, April 9, 1827; received the pallium on that same day. Took possession of the see on the following September 8. He realized three pastoral visits to the diocese in 1829-1831; 1836-1840; and 1842-1846; also, he reorganized the seminary; and celebrated a diocesan synod.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 29, 1833; the pope sent him the red biretta with Monsignor Antonio Traversi and he received it on September 15, 1822 at the patriarchal cathedral of Saint Mark, Venice; received the red hat on May 22, 1834; and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, June 23, 1834. On March 6, 1835, he consecrated the main altar of the basilica of S. Marco, after having previously recognized the relics of the saint. He commemorated in the cathedral basilica of Venice the late Emperor Francis I on March 12, 1835. On September 6, 1838, in Milan, he participated in the investiture, with the iron crown, of Emperor Ferdinand I; and later, received him in Venice on the following September 27 with a Te Deum; on October 14, he was invested as first knight of the iron crown. Did not participate in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX; he arrived in Rome after the election had taken place. On March 14, 1847, he received the title of apostolic delegate of Udine for life. Cardinal Monico demonstrated great restraint and caution during the revolution of 1848-1849, which drove the Austrians from Venice on March 22, 1848. The Repubblica di San Marco was established and the new provisional government asked the patriarch to bless the flags and to sing a Te Deum, which he did on the following March 25; he also encourage the citizens to participate in the elections. Because of some measures that the cardinal considered too liberal, he started challenging the government. The devastation caused by famine and cholera resulting from the siege of the city by the imperial troops, led him to advise to deal with the Austrians and provoked the wrath of the more populist wing republicans who accused the clergy of being undemocratic. The rebels invaded the episcopal palace on August 3, 1849. Cardinal Monico took refuge in the convent of the Armenian Mechitarists in the isle of S. Lazzaro, which enjoyed extraterritoriality. After the surrender of the Repubblica on August 23, 1849, and the return of the Austrians on the following 27, Cardinal Monico had a Te Deum sung in the basilica on the 30, to which he did not attend. He went in the following months to Vienna and Trieste to intercede with the imperial authorities to soften the response measures. He was a benefactor of Giuseppe Sarto, future cardinal, patriarch of Venice and Pope Pius X, granting him a scholarship in 1850 to continue his studies. He was an ardent defender of the temporal power of the Church and condemned extremism, rationalism and fideism. He published several works on culture, religion, literature and poetry, among them Opere sacre e letterarie in three volumes; Indizione della sacra visita pastorale per la città e diocesi di Ceneda, 1825; Degli avvenimenti del pontificato di Pio IX, Venezia, 1859; Allocuzione tenuta al suo clero nella chiusa degli esercizi ecclesiastici dell'anno 1850, Verona 1861. Among the churches that he consecrated were S. Chiara (1834); S. Maria di Grisolera (1836); S. Geremia e S. Polo (1839); S. Angelo di Contorta (1841); S. Giovanni di Malta (1843); S. Lorenzo (1843); S. Maria, of the Jesuits (1844), and S. Silvestro (1844). In 1850, he went to reside at the new patriarchate, next to the basilica of S. Marco. He suffered a cardiac crisis while preaching at the cathedral of S. Marco on Easter Sunday April 20, 1851.

Death. April 25, 1851, in the patriarchate, Venice. Exposed in the patriarchal cathedral of Venice and buried, according to his will, in the Oratory of the Most Holy Trinity, next to the patriarchal seminary, Venice. In November 1957, by disposition of Cardinal Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, patriarch of Venice, his remains were transferred to the crypt of the patriarchal cathedral of Venice and buried next to the tomb of S. Marco Evangelista. There is a street in Venice, Via Cardinale Jacopo Monico, named after him.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 653-655; Niero, Antonio. I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni. Venice : Studio Cattolico Veneziano, 1961, pp. 173-178; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 27, 43, 144 and 391.

Links. Biography by Michele Gottardi, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 75 (2011), Treccani; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; portrait and brief biographical data, in Italian, at the bottom of the page, Museo San Pio X; his arms and engravings, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to all the souces consulted, printed and electronic, except Niero, I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni, p. 173, that says he was born on December 24, 1769.

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(18) 2. GIUDICE CARACCIOLO, Orat., Filippo (1785-1844)

Birth. March 27, 1785, Naples. Of an ancient and noble family. Son of Francesco Giudice Caracciolo, duke of Gesso and prince of Villa, and Maria Vittoria Palma Artois, duchess of S. Elia. Baptized the following day by Bishop Filippo Lopez y Roja of Nola. Other cardinals of the family were Marino Ascanio Caracciolo (1535); Innico Caracciolo, seniore (1666); Innico Caracciolo, iuniore (1715); Niccolò Caracciolo (1715); Giovanni Costanzo Caracciolo (1759); and Diego Innico Caracciolo (1800). His last name is also listed as Del Giudice.

Education. Initial studies under Father Nicola Rossi, professor of rhetoric at the Royal University of Naples. In 1799, in Palermo, he studied under Theatine Father Giuseppe Re; and then under Father Silvestro Gorgone. Entered the Congregation of the Oratory of Naples, 1802. University of Naples, Naples (doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, 1816; in theology, February 1, 1820).

Early life. When he was ten, he was afflicted by a grave illness in Pozzuoli that almost caused his death; his parents, who had a great devotion for St. Filippo Neri, attributed the cure of his son to the saint and made him wear the habit of the order for a year; at the end of the promise, he decided to enter the Oratory. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure from Msgr. Giacomo Fransoni, his maternal grand-uncle; and the minor orders from Domenico Jorio, bishop of Samaria. Received the subdiaconate from Bishop Enrico Capecce Minutolo, Orat., of Mileto. Went to Rome in 1807 for the canonization of S. Francesco Caracciolo and S. Buono, founder of the clerics minor regular. Returned to Naples and received the diaconate from Bernardo della Torre, bishop of Lettere.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 18, 1809, Naples, by Bernardo della Torre, bishop of Lettere. Exercised his pastoral ministry in several houses of the order; he worked tirelessly during the epidemic of the plague that affected Naples, without regard for his own health.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Molfetta, February 21, 1820. Consecrated, February 27, 1820, Rome, by Cardinal Lorenzo Litta (1). Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 18, 1824. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Naples, April 15, 1833; the molfettesi were very unhappy when they learned of the transfer of their bishop to Naples; he did not know how to resist the commotion and left secretly from Molfetta.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 29, 1833; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, September 30, 1833. He was decorated with the Gran Croce del Reale Ordine di Francesco I.

Death. January 29, 1844, Naples. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples. The funeral oration was delivered by Canon Luigi Monforte.

Bibliography. Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 27, 39, 262 and 278; Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli: Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, pp. 270-288.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 262. Zigarelli, Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli, p. 272, says that he was consecrated on February 23, 1820.

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