The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Gregory XVI (1831-1846)
Consistory of June 23, 1834 (VI)


(21) 1. TRIGONA E PARISI, Gaetano Maria (1767-1837)

Birth. June 2, 1767, Piazza Armerina, Sicily. From a family of the high baronial nobility. Baptized on that same day in the cathedral of Piazza Armerina with the names Gaetano Maria Giuseppe Benedetto Placido Vincenzo and Francesco di Paola.

Education. Studied in Piazza Armerina.

Priesthood. Junio 18, 1791. Dean of fourth dignity of Collegio San Giuliano, Palermo, August 14, 1817. Vicar apostolic of the cathedral of Piazza Armerina. Presented for the see of Caltaginore by the king of the Two Sicilies, Ferdinand I, on June 18, 1818.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Caltaginore, Sicily, December 21, 1818. Consecrated, January 24, 1819, in the cathedral of Monreale, by Domenico Benedetto Balsamo, O.S.B., archbishop of Monreale. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Palermo, April 15, 1833.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 23, 1834; died before receiving the red hat and the title.

Death. July 5, 1837, of the plague, Palermo. Buried in the Franciscan convent of Baida, Palermo.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 932-933; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 27, 126 and 298.

Webgraphy. His bust in his cenotaph, cathedral of Palermo, Sicily, Italy.

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(22) 2. BOTTIGLIA SAVOULX, Luigi (1752-1836)

Birth. February 16, 1752, Cavour, diocese of Turin, Piedmont.

Education. Doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, February 26, 1794. (No further educational information found).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 26, 1791. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1791. Governor of Todi, 1796. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta. Consultor of the SS.CC. of the Tridentine Council and of the Index. Protonotary apostolic. Apostolic delegate in Benevento, ca. 1812. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1816; dean.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Perge in Pamphilia Secunda, March 15, 1826. Consecrated, April 2, 1826, Rome by Cardinal Giuseppe Spina.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 23, 1834; received the red hat, June 26, 1834; and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, August 1, 1834. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Signature of Grace, November 27, 1834.

Death. September 14, 1836, Rome. Exposed and buried in his title.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 27, 44 and 302.

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(23) 3. POLIDORI, Paolo (1778-1847)

Birth. January 4, 1778, Iesi. Of a wealthy bourgeois family.

Education. Studied at the University of Perugia.

Early life. He went to Rome in 1797 and decided to enter the ecclesiastical state.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1800. Vicar general of Viterbo, 1803-1806. Assistant of study of Cardinal Leonardo Antonelli, grand penitentiary, and his vicar general for the diocese of Ostia. When the French occupied Rome, he was arrested and deported to Milan; freed, sought refuge in Lorento until 1814. Privy chamberlain honorary. Administrator, for Cardinal Alessandro Mattei, of the dioceses of Ostia and Velletri. Secretary of Latin Letters. Secretary of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council. Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial and of the Sacred College of Cardinals since 1823. Secretary of the conclaves of 1829 and 1830-1831. Pro-secretary for the affairs of State, February 2-10, 1831.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 23, 1834; received the red hat, June 26, 1834; and the title of S. Eusebio, August 1, 1834. Prefect of the S.C. of the Religious Discipline, November 21, 1834. Pro-prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, July 27, 1840; prefect, September 15, 1841 until his death. The title of S. Eusebio was suppressed by apostolic bull of Pope Gregory XVI on June 8, 1839, transferred to the church of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio al Monte Celio, and assigned to another cardinal at that time. But it was not until July 12, 1841 that Cardinal Polidori opted for the title of S. Prassede. Abbot commendatario of Subiaco.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tarso, January 22, 1844. Consecrated, February 11, 1844, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Pope Gregory XVI, assisted by Cardinal Costantino Patrizi Naro, vicar general of His Holiness for the City of Rome, and by Cardinal Gabriele Ferretti, prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Relics. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX.

Death. April 23, 1847, Rome. Exposed and buried, according to his will, in the church of S. Ignazio, Rome; Pope Pius IX attended his funeral.

Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 135; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 761-762; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 27, 41, 44 and 360.

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(24) 4. DELLA PORTA RODIANI, Giuseppe (1773-1841)

Birth. September 5, 1773, Rome. Related to Quasi-cardinal Augusto Negroni (1875). His last name is also listed as Porta Rodiani, della.

Education. (No information found).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 24, 1796. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Relator of the Sacred Consulta. Civil lieutenant of the tribunal of the vicariate of Rome. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Consultor of the S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. Vicegerent of Rome, September 30, 1821 until February 6, 1833.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Damasco, April 19, 1822. Consecrated, April 21, 1822, Rome, by Cardinal Annibale della Genga. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. President of the Extraordinary Apostolic Visit. Titular Latin patriarch of Constantinople, May 16, 1823. Pro-vicar of Rome, September 28, 1823 until January 2, 1824. Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, February 8, 1833.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of June 23, 1834; published, April 6, 1835; received the red hat, April 9, 1835; and the title of S. Susanna, July 24, 1835. Vicar of Rome, November 30, 1838.

Death. December 18, 1841, Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Susanna, Rome.

Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. Il vicegerente del vicariato di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romanu Editore, 1976, p. 70; Ilari, A. "I cardinali vicari. Cronologia biobibliografica." Rivista diocesana di Roma, (1962), pp. 285 and 287; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 763-764; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 28, 45, 161 and 172 .

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(25) 5. ALBERGHINI, Giuseppe (1770-1847)

Birth. September 13, 1770, Cento, archdiocese of Bologna. Of a family from the patriciate of Bologna that was attached to the service of the Roman Curia. Son of Francesco Alberghini and Clara Comi. Brother of quasi Cardinal Ignazio Alberghini.

Education. Clementine Seminary of Cento, Cento; University of Bologna, Bologna (doctorate in law); finished his studies in Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, (no information found). Member of the College of Avvocati Concistoriali. Auditor of the Tribunal of the Signature. Vice-dean of the Apostolic Chamber. Assessor of the S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of June 23, 1834; published in the consistory of April 6, 1835; received red hat, April 9, 1835; and the title of S. Prisca, July 24, 1835. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX.

Death. September 30, 1847, Rome. Exposed and buried, according to his will, in Gesù church, Rome; Pope Pius IX attended his funeral.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 87; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 28 and 44.

Link. His bust in the Gesù church, Rome.

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(26) 6. SPADA, Alessandro (1787-1843)

Birth. April 4, 1787, Rome.

Education. Collegio of Parma, Parma; Collegio Nazareno, Rome.

Sacred orders. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure, September 1815. Ordained (no information found). Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, January 1817; dean, June 1827.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of June 23, 1834; published in the consistory of April 6, 1835; received red hat, April 9, 1835; and the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, July 24, 1835. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1836 until May 19, 1837. Apostolic legate in the province of Forlì for three years, August 9, 1839.

Death. December 16, 1843, Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Maria in Vaillicella, Rome.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 896-897; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 28 and 46.

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(27) 7. FREZZA, Luigi (1783-1837)

Birth. May 27, 1783, Civita Lavinia (now Lanuvio), diocese of Albano.

Education. Collegio Romano, Rome; Archgymnasium of Rome, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 11, 1808. Prefect of studies of the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome. Consultor of the SS.CC. of Propaganda Fide and of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. Consultor of the Papal Chamber.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Terracina, Sezze e Piverno, October 2, 1826. Consecrated, November 19, 1826, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Francesco Galleffi. Promoted to the titular see of Calcedonia, December 15, 1828. Nuncio in Nueva Granada, December 1828. Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial. Secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, October 1, 1831, retaining the secretariat of the S.C. Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of June 23, 1834; published in the consistory of July 11, 1836; received red hat, July 14, 1836; and the title of S. Onofrio al Gianicolo, November 21, 1836 (1).

Death. October 14, 1837, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marcello, Rome, and buried in his title.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 374-375; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 28, 41, 147 and 363.

(1) This is the transcription of the text in the plaque, on the outside wall of he church S. Onofrio al Gianicolo, commemorating the cardinal:

MEMORIAE ET VIRTUTI
ALOISI FREZZA S E R PRESB CARDINALIS
DOMO LANVVIO
INGENIO EXCELLENTI DOCTRINA SINGULARI
QUI PHILOSOPHIAE THEOLOGIAE PONTIFICI CIVILISQUE IURIS
SCIENTIA PRAESTANTISSIMUS
IN PLURA SACRA CONSILIA COOPTATUS
ANTISTES TARRACINEN SETIN PRIVERNAT
STATOR AD SOLIUM
ARCHIEPISCOPUS CHALCEDONIUS
AB ACTIS CONSISTORI PRINCIPIS
A GRAVIORIBUS ECCLESIAE NEGOTIIS EXTRA ORDINEM
HISCE GRAVISSIMIS ALIISQUE AMPLISSIMIS MUNERIBUS
PROVIDE SCIENTER SANCTE PERFUNCTUS
MAGNO CHRISTIANAE REIPUBLICAE BONO
NOMINIS CELEBRITATEM NUMQUAM INTBRITURAM
PER EUROPAM ET AMERICAM ADEPTUS
A GREGORIO XVI PONT MAX
INTER PATRES CARDINALES ADLECTUS
VINDEX RELIGIONIS ADSERTOR PIETATIS
IUSTITIA COMITATE BENEFICENTIA
PRUDENTIA INTEGRITATE SOLLERTIA
CARUS OMNIBUS
SUMMIS PONTIFICIBUS TRIBUS PROBATISSMUS ACCEPTISSIMUS
SAMCTISSIMAM MORTEM OBIIT VITAE CONSENTANEAM
PRIDIE IDUS OCTOBR AN M DCCC XXXVII
VIXIT AN LIIII M III D XVII
CONDITUS HIC IN TEMPLO SEDE TITULI SUI
PHILIPPUS IOANNES BAPTISTA VINCENTIUS FRATRI DESIDERATISSIMO
ZACHARIAS IOSEPHUS IOANNES FELIX PATRUO OPTIMO INCOMPARABILI
AMORIS ERGO
HERMAM ET ELLOGIUM
CUM LACRIMIS POSUERE

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(28) 8. PATRIZI NARO, Costantino (1798-1876)

Birth. September 4, 1798, Siena. Received the sacrament of baptism, September12, 1798. Of a noble family. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Benedetto Naro (1816). His last name is also listed as Patrizzi Naro.

Education. Collegio dei Protonotari, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 16, 1819. Regent of the tribunal of the Apostolic Penitentiary. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Auditor of the S.C. of the Roman Rota.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Filippi, December 15, 1828. Consecrated, December 21, in the church of S. Caterina da Siena, Rome, by Cardinal Carlo Odescalchi, prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, assisted by Lorenzo Mattei, titular patriarch of Antioch, and by Paolo Agosto Foscolo, archbishop of Corfù. Nuncio in Tuscany, January 16, 1829. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace, July 2, 1832.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of June 23, 1834; published in the consistory of July 11, 1836; received red hat, July 14, 1836; and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, November 21, 1836. Prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, July 6, 1839. Protector of the Order of the Eremites of Saint Augustine, 1841. Vicar general of His Holiness for the City of Rome, December 22, 1841. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, May 24, 1845. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, April 20, 1849. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 15, 1852 until March 7, 1853. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites, June 27, 1854. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, October 10, 1860 until his death. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, December 17, 1860. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, September 21, 1867. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia and Velletri, October 8, 1870. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Ballff grand cross of honor and devotion of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.

Death. December 17, 1876, of the plague, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Apollinare, Rome; and buried in his family's chapel, Natività church, via Nomentana, Rome. The chapel was demolished in 1902 and replaced by the parish church of S. Giuseppe a via Nomentana. His remains were transferred to the patriarchal Lateran basilica (1). There is an inscription commemorating him in the metropolitan cathedral of Palermo (2).

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 716-719; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 28-29 and 44; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 43 and 44.

Links. His engraving and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his engraving and biography, in Italian, Wkipedia; his episcopal lineage by Mr. Charles N. Brnasom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his arms, engraving and biography, in Italian, Araldica Vaticana; his arms, engravings and photograph, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait, last on page, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

AD.PEDES
EXCELSAE.CAELORVM.REGINAE
CARNIS.RESVRRECTIONEM.EXSPECTAT
CONSTANTINVS.CARDINALIS
PATRIZI
ORATE.PRO.EO
MDCCCLXXVI

(2) This is the text of the inscription, also kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
+
Memoriae haud periturae emin. Card. Caietani Trigona et Parisi
Archiepiscopi Panormi
qui quinto archiepiscopatus anno pientissime per acto
beneficiis sapientia doctrina iustitia nulli cristianorum antistitum secundus
nonis iulii MDCCCXXXVII anno aetatis secundo ac septuagesimo
indica lue intercepto
moerentibus bonis clero civibus cunctis
quorum saluti ac bono vitam grassante morbo posthabuit
coenota phium
ossa dira luis contagione invidente
non huc at abhinc ad baidae coenobium translata

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(29) 9. FIESCHI, Adriano (1788-1858)

Birth. March 7, 1788, Genoa. Of the family of the Counts of Lavagna. The family gave the Church Popes Innocent IV and Adrian V; and Cardinals Guglielmo Fieschi (1244); Luca Fieschi (1300); Giovanni Fieschi (1378); Ludovico Fieschi (1384); Giorgio Fieschi (1439); Niccolò Fieschi (1503); and Lorenzo Fieshi (1706).

Education. Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, 1815.

Sacred orders. Ordained (no information found). Genoese cleric. Vice-legate in Bologna. Apostolic delegate in Spoleto, 1819-23; in Perugia; and in Macerata. Secretary of the S.C. of the Congregation of Roads and Waters. By pontifical bull of June 9, 1833, he was admitted to "grazie liberali" and was granted with "beneficio con tutti i diritti annessi" (1) which included the nomination as patron, canon and provost of the chapter of the basilica of S. Salvatore of Lavagna, abbot of S. Adriano of Trigoso, rector of the church of S. Maria in Via Lata of Genoa, archpriest of S. Maria of Rivarolo, and archpriest of S. Croce of Moneglia. Prefect of the Papal Household, July 1833. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace, July 1836.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of June 23, 1834; published in the consistory of September 13, 1838; received red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, September 17, 1838. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria ad Martyres (Pantheon), January 27, 1843. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX. Apostolic legate in the province or Urbino and Pisa, July 13, 1847. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, December 19, 1853. Grand prior of the Equestrian Order of St. John of Jerusalem, June 23, 1854. Last surviving member of Fieschi family of Genoa.

Death. February 6, 1858, Rome. Exposed in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, and buried in his title.

Bibliography. Federici, Federigo and Ugo Fieschi. Della famiglia Fiesca. Genoa : P[er] Gio. Mar.a Faroni, 1641; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 352-353; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 30 and 46; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 51.

(1) That "Beneficio" was created in 1252 by Pope Innocenzo IV, a member of the Fieschi family, and grew with other charges through the years. It gave the titular the charges listed above.

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