The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius IX (1846-1878)
Consistory of June 11, 1847 (II)

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(5) 1. GIRAUD, Pierre
(1791-1850)

Birth. August 11, 1791, Clermont, France. Of a middle class family.

Education. Lycée of Clermont, Clermont (1804-1806); Seminary of Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand (1807-1812); Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris (October 1812-1815).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 23, 1815, chapel of of the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Issy, by Étienne-Antoine de Bolougne, bishop of Troyes. In the diocese of Clermont, 1815-1830, professor of its Minor Seminary; pastor for many years; pastor of the cathedral, January 1823; vicar general. Preached Lent sermons at the Tuileries, before the King of France, 1825.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rodez, July 5, 1830. Consecrated, November 30, 1830, episcopal chapel of Versailles, by Luigi Emmanuele Nicolo Lambruschini, C.R.S.P., titular archbishop of Berito, nuncio in France, assisted by Jacques Du Pont, bishop of Saint-Dieu, and by Pierre Cottret, titular bishop of Caristo. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Cambrai, January 24, 1842.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 11, 1847; received red hat, September 23, 1847; and title of S. Maria della Pace, October 4, 1847.

Death. April 17, 1850, Cambrai. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Cambrai.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 991-1009; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 109; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 317-318; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 129 and 328; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 9 and 50.

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(6) 2. DUPONT, Jacques-Marie-Antoine-Célestin
(1792-1859)

Birth. February 1 (1), 1792, Iglésias, Sardinia (or Villefranche, diocese of Nice, Sardinia). His last name is also listed as Du Pont. Only child of Benoît Dupont and Thèrése Siga.

Education. Initial studies (Classics) at a school of Pères Doctrinaires in Italy; member of the Académie des Arcades; ; Seminary of Nice, Nice for four years; (theology); Seminary of Lyon, Lyon (for one year); Univesrity of Turin, Turin (doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law). Received the subdiaconate, January 6, 1813, Lyon; and the diaconate, July 2, 1813, also in Lyon.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 1815 (2). Personal secretary of the bishop of Nice. In the archdiocese of Sens, canon of its cathedral chapter, November 2, 1821; archdeacon and vicar general, June 4, 1822 to December 10, 1829; priest administrator of the parishes of the Assumption and of Saint-Louis d'Antin. Honorary canon of the royal chapter of Saint-Denis, Paris, 1822. Conclavist of Cardinal De La fare in the conclave of 1823.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Samosata and appointed auxiliary of Sens, May 3, 1824. Consecrated, June 29, 1824, orphanage of Enfant-Jésus, Paris, by Anna-Louis-Henri de La Fare, archbishop of Sens, assisted by Mathias de la Romagère, bishop of Saint-Brieuc, and by Jean-Baptiste Millaux, bishop of Nevers. Took the French citizenship, June 23, 1824. Transferred to the see of Saint-Dié, July 5, 1830. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Avignon, July 24, 1835. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Bourges, January 24, 1842.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 11, 1847; received red hat, September 23, 1847; and title of S. Maria del Popolo, October 4, 1847.

Death. May 26, 1859, Bourges. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Bourges.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 859-863; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 109; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 279-280; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 100, 113, 172 and 332; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 9 and 50.

Link. His biography, in French.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 332; La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 119, indicates that he was born on February 2, 1792; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 859, says that he was born on February 22, 1792.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 332; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 860, says that he was ordained on September 24, 1814 in Nice (by mistake he refers to the ordination as episcopal consecration).

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(7) 3. ANTONELLI, Giacomo
(1806-1876)

Birth. April 2, 1806, Sonnino, diocese of Terracina, Sezze e Priverno, Papal States. From a family of mercanti di campagna, recently enriched. Son of Domenico Antonelli and Loreta Mancini.

Education. Studied at Collegio Romano, Rome, 1820-1824; at Seminario Romano, Rome (philosophy and law); at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, on February 22, 1830.

Sacred orders. Received the minor orders on September 20, 1829, in Rome. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See and was a secular prelate, 1830. Referendary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Signature of Grace, July 15, 1830. Substitute of the congregation of prelates of the Apostolic Chamber, 1832-1833. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, 1832-1834; dean of the relators, 1833. Second assessor of the Supreme Tribunal of the Signature of Justice, 1834. Papal delegate to the cities of Orvieto, 1835; Viterbo, July 4, 1836; and Macerata, 1839. Received the diaconate in 1840; was never ordained to the priesthood. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1841. Substitute of the Secretariat of State for Internal Affairs, August 13, 1841. Under treasurer (1844); pro-treasurer, 1845; and later, general treasurer (minister of Finance), April 22, 1845 until August 1847.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 11, 1847; received red hat and deaconry of S. Agata alla Suburra, June 14, 1847. Pro-general treasurer of the Apostolic Chamber ad beneplacitum Sanctitatis Sua, June 11, 1847. President of the College of Consultors of the State, November 2, 1847. Member of the prefecture of Public Affairs of the Church, president moderator of the Supreme Council of Public Affairs, and president of the Supreme Council of External Affairs with the States, March 10 to May 3, 1848 when he was forced out by the revolution. After the murder of Pellegrino Rossi, minister of the Interior, he advised the pope to escape to Gaeta. Prefect of the S.C. Lauretana, May 5, 1848. Charged with the conclusion of the convention with Sardinia concerning the ecclesiastical residence, October 14, 1848. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace, November 1, 1848. Pro-prefect of the Public Ecclesiastical Affairs (pro-secretary of State), December 6, 1848. After French and Austrian troops defeated the revolutionary movement in 1850, he returned with the pope to Rome. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1850. Prefect of the Public Ecclesiastical Affairs (secretary of State), March 18, 1852 until his death. He opposed the Italian unification and tried to find support for his case in other European countries. He endeavored for the reorganization and preservation of the Papal States but was unable to prevent their loss. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, retaining in commendam the deaconry of S. Agata alla Suburra, March 13, 1868. Cardinal protodeacon. After the loss of Rome in 1870, he remained at the side of Pope Pius IX as a "prisoner" in the Vatican. During his tenure as papal secretary of State, he had to deal with Giuseppe Mazzini, Giuseppe Garibaldi and Camillo Cavour in Italy, with Napoleon III in France, and with Otto von Bismarck in Germany. He was also embroiled in the diplomacy of the American civil war for a brief time. He had to explain to rulers and their ministers the meaning and extent of the dogma of papal infallibility defined by Pope Pius IX in 1870 during the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. He and Cardinal Roberto Giovanni F. Roberti were the first cardinals who traveled by train.

Death. November 6, 1876, Rome. Buried in his family's tomb, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. There was a scandalous process after his death between his heirs and Countess Lambertini, who claimed to be his natural daughter.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, p. 496-498; Coppa, Frank J. Cardinal Giacomo Antonelli and papal politics in European affairs. Albany : State University of New York Press, 1990; Falconi, Carlo. Il Cardinale Antonelli. Vita e c arriera del Richelieu italiano nella chiesa di Pio IX. Milan : Mondadori, 1983; Pirri, Pietro. "Il Cardinale Antonelli tra il mito e la storia." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, XII (1958), 81-120; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 9-10, 54 and 55; Veuillot, Eugène. Son éminence le cardinal Antonelli. Paris : Palmi, De Soye et Bouchet, 1862. (Célébrités catholiques); Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 429-431, 537, 543, 545-551, 553, 555, 559, 561, 564, 567, 573, 589-591, 594-596, 605, 608, 613-616, 618, 638, 641, 650, 673, 675, 690, 697, 700, 711, 715, 717, 719, 723, 741.

Links. His biography by F.M. Rudge, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his biography by Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; his biography by Frank J. Coppa, in English, Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions; his engraving by August Weger, Antiquariat Hille / Berlin; his photograph by D'Allesandri, Rome, ca 1861-62, The Eastern Window; and his engraving, Victorian and Edwardian Photographs - Roger Vaughan Photograph Collection.

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