The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius IX (1846-1878)
Consistory of September 30, 1850 (IV)

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(9) 1. ASTROS, Paul-Thérèse-David d'
(1772-1851)

Birth. October 15 (1), 1772, Tourves, diocese of Aix, France. His father was a notary and his mother, Marie-Madeleine-Angélique Portalis, was the daughter of a minister of Emperor Napoléon I of France, Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis.

Education. Initially, he was educated by a private tutor; and later studied in Marseille. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure, 1788. Military service, 1793-1794. Received the minor orders and subdiaconate, Paris, 1795.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 23, 1797, Marseille. Because of his relationship with Minister Portalis, he took part in the preparation of Concordat of 1801 between Emperor Napoléon and Pope Pius VII. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Paris, September 1805 to 1808; vicar capitular, 1808-1817; imprisoned in Vicennes for promulgating Pope Pius VII's bull excommunicating Napoleon, January 1811 to 1814.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Orange, October 1, 1817; the see was not erected. Transferred to the see of Saint-Flour, February 21, 1820. Transferred to the see of Bayonne, May 29, 1820. Consecrated, July 9, 1820, Paris, by Hyacinthe-Louis de Quélen, titular archbishop of Traianopoli, coadjutor of Paris, with right of succession, assisted by Jean de Coucy, archbishop of Reims, and by Marc de Bombelles, bishop of Amiens. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Toulouse, July 5, 1830. Promoted to the cardinalate at the request of Louis Napoléon, president of the French Republic.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 30, 1850; died before receiving the red hat and title.

Death. September, 29 (2), 1851, Toulouse. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Toulouse, October 7, 1851.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 266-286; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 171-172; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876. Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p.; 110-111; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 96, 103, 196 and 367; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 10.

Link. Biography, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 96; Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973, p. 171-172; and Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 266; La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 110, says that he was born on October 13, 1772.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 367 and VIII, 10; Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973, p. 171-172; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 285; and his biography in English, linked above; La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 111, says that he died on September 30, 1851.

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(10) 2. BONEL Y ORBE, Juan José
(1782-1857)

Birth. March 17, 1782, Pinos del Rey (1), archdiocese of Granada, Spain.

Education. University of Granada, Granada (doctorate in canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, 1805. Pastor of San Pedro y San Pablo Parish, Granada. In the diocese of Málaga, diocesan administrator, sede vacante; doctoral canon of its cathedral chapter. Presented by the King of Spain for the see of Ibiza in 1830 but not preconized by the pope.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Málaga, February 28, 1831. Consecrated, Sunday, June 12, 1831, metropolitan cathedral of Granada, by Blas Joaquín Álvarez de Palma, archbishop of Granada, assisted by Antonio Sánchez Mata, former bishop of La Paz and abbot of Alcalá la Real, and by José Uraga Pérez, bishop of Guadix. Transferred to the see of Córdoba, June 29, 1833. Member of the Chamber of Próceres of the kingdom, 1834-1835. Senator for Almería, 1837. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Granada, October 18, 1838. Senator for the provinces of Granada, 1838. Vice-president of the Senate, 1838-1839. Named patriarch of the West Indies in 1839, by the Spanish government without papal approval because the diplomatic relations were broken. That titular see was still occupied by Patriarch Antonio Allué y Sessé. Senator for Granada, 1840. Senator for life from 1845. Promoted to the primatial and metropolitan see of Toledo, October 4, 1847.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 30, 1850; received red hat and title of S. Maria della Pace, November 30, 1854.

Death. February 11 (2), 1857, Madrid. Exposed in Madrid and buried in the chapel of Santiago in the primatial and metropolitan cathedral of Toledo.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876. Rome : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, pp. 116-117; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 176; Orive, A. "Bonel y orbe, Juan José." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, I, 273; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 250; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 10, 50 and 558.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, p. 250; Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1700-1867), p. 176, says that he was born in Pinar.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 10; Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1700-1867), p. 176, indicates that he died on February 11/12, 1857; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia, p. 116, says that he died on February 12, 1857.

Link. Portraits, arms and biography, in Spanish, Ayuntamiento de Dúrcal.

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(11) 3. COSENZA, Giuseppe
(1788-1863)

Birth. February 20, 1788, Naples; baptized the same day. Of a noble family. Received the sacrament of confirmation, December 22, 1807.

Education. University of Naples, Naples (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 14, 1812. In the archdiocese of Naples, protector of the Urban Seminary; professor of dogmatic theology and Hebrew; archepiscopal lyceum; ordinary examiner; prosynodal examiner.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Andria, July 2, 1832. Consecrated, July 8, 1832, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Francesco Falzacappa. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Capua, September 30, 1850.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 30, 1850; received red hat and title of S. Maria in Traspontina, October 3, 1850.

Death. March 30, 1863, Capua. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Capua.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 123; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 74; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 10, 51 and 180; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 537, 547, 559, 585, 603, 617, 620, and 637.

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(12) 4. MATHIEU, Jacques-Marie-Adrien-Césaire
(1796-1875)

Birth. January 20, 1796, Paris, France.

Early life. Studied law and practiced as a lawyer for a brief time.

Education. Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris (1819).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 1, 1822. Secretary to Charles-Louis Salmon de Chatellier, bishop of Evreux. In the archdiocese of Paris, pastor of the parish of the Assumption; vicar general, 1828.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Langres, December 17, 1832. Consecrated, February 10, 1833, Paris, by Hyacinthe-Louis de Quélen, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Marie-Joseph de Prilly, bishop of Châlos, and by Romain Gallard, bishop of Meaux. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Besançon, September 30, 1834. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, February 14, 1843.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 30, 1850; received red hat and title of S. Silvestro in Capite, March 18, 1852. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870; opposed the dogmatic definition of papal infallibility but as soon as it was passed by the council, supported it without reservations.

Death. July 9, 1875, Besançon. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Besançon.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1194-1195; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 409-410; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 110 and 241; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 10 and 52; Surugue, René Charles Gustave Marcel. Les archevêques de Besançon. Biographies et portraits. Histoire densemble de las Franchecomte. Histoire générale du diocèse et de la Ville de Besançon. Besançon : Impr. Jacques et Demontrond, 1931.

Links. His photograph by Pierre Petit, musée d'Orsay, Paris, Réunion des musées nationaux Grand Palais.

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(13) 5. ROMO Y GAMBOA, Judas José
(1779-1855)

Birth. January 7, 1779 (1), Cañízar, archdiocese of Toledo, Spain.

Education. University of Huesca, Huesca (doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Canon of the cathedral chapter of Sigüenza.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Canarias, January 20, 1834. Consecrated, Thursday, May 1, 1834, Oratorian church of San Felipe de Neri, Madrid, by Pedro José Fonte y Hernández, archbishop of México. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 27, 1834. Senator for life from 1845. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, December 17, 1847.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 30, 1850; died before receiving the red hat and title.

Death. January 11, 1855 (2), Umbrete, Sevilla. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876. Rome : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 115; Cuenca, J.M. "Romo y Gamboa, Judas José." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, III, 5109-5110; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 179; "Romo y Gamboa, Judas José," Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeo-americana. 70 vols. Madrid : Espasa-Calpe, 1958, c1907?-1930, II, 226; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 130; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 10 and 308.

Link. His portrait by José María Romero, archiepiscopal palace of Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain (toward the end of the page).

(1) This is according to Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1700-1867), p. 179; and Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 130; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 115, says that he was born on January 9, 1779 in Cavixar, archdiocese of Toledo; Cuenca, "Romo y Gamboa, Judas José", Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, III, 5109, says that he was born on January 7, 1773; "Romo y Gamboa, Judas José," Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeo-americana, LII, 226, also says that he was born on January 7, 1773.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 10; and Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1700-1867), p. 179; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 115, indicates that he died on February 13, 1855.

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(14) 6. GOUSSET, Thomas
(1792-1866)

Birth. May 1, 1792, Montigny-les-Cherlieux, archdiocese of Besançon, France.

Education. Collége de Besançon, Besançon (bachelor's in letters, November 22, 1811; philosophy, at its Faculty of Letters, 1812); Grand Seminary of Besançon, Besançon, 1813-1817 (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 22, 1817. In the archdiocese of Besançon, vicar in the parish of Bouhans les Lure for nine months; professor of dogmatic theology and moral theology in its seminary for twelve years, 1818-1830; he followed and taught the opinions professed by the Blessed Alfonso Maria de Liguori in his theological works. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Besançon, August 22, 1830 until 1835. Member of the Académie de Besançon, January 28, 1831.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Périgueaux, February 1, 1836. Consecrated, March 6, 1836, church Des Carmes, Paris, by Hyacinthe-Louis de Quélen, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Charles de Forbin-Janson, bishop of Nancy, and by Eugène de Mazenod, titular bishop of Icosio and apostolic visitor of the missions of Tunis. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Reims, July 13, 1840. Founded the Académie des Sciences, Arts et Belles Lettres de Reims on December 15, 1841; he also established the archiepiscopal library. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne and Roman count, December 2, 1845. Member of the Superior Council of Public Instruction.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 30, 1850; received red hat and title of S. Callisto, April 10, 1851. Senator of the Empire, 1852. Attended in Rome the ceremony of the proclamation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, December 8, 1854. Commander of the Légion d'Honneur, 1858. He was a prolific writer.

Death. December 22, 1866, Reims. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Reims and buried in the church of Saint-Thomas which he had founded in that city. His heart, enclosed in a golden urn with his arms, was placed in one of the two bronze columns of the abbatial chapel of the cathedral.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 321-322; Du Saussois, Auguste. Cardinal Gousset. Paris : [s.n.], 1877. Note: En avant-titre : "Galerie des hommes utiles"; Fèvre, Justin Louis Pierre. Histoire de Son Éminence le Cardinal Gousset, archevêque de Reims. Paris : Lecoffre, 1882; Gourret, Jean. Le Cardinal Gousset canoniste et quelques problèmes religieux au XIXe siècle. [S.l.] : l'auteur, 1957. Dissertation: Thèse. Droit. Paris. 1957; Gousset, J. Le cardinal Gousset; sa vie, ses oeuvres, son influence. Besançon, H. Bossanne, 1903. Note: Ouvrage couronné par les Académies de Reims et de Besançon; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 303 and 322; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp.10 and 47.

Links. Biography, in English; and photograph and biography, in French.

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(15) 7. SOMMERAU BEECKH, Maximilian Joseph Gottfried
(1769-1853)

Birth. Vienna, Austria, and baptized, December 21, 1769. Son of Baron Gottfried Wilhelm Sommerau-Beeckh and Klara von Summer.

Early life. Jesuit college, Vienna, before entering the army; lieutenant of cavalry, 1788-1791.

Education. Studied theology in Vienna. Received the insignias of the clerical character and the minor orders, November 11, 1792; subdiaconate, August 24, 1797; diaconate, September 3, 1797.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 10, 1797. Parish cooperator in Pillichsdorf; in Vienna, at St. Florian and St. Angels Custodian; in Hernals, near Vienna; Matzleinsdorf; and in Wieden. Chaplain of the country legions of Vienna, 1809. Pastor of St. Leopold, Vienna, 1810. In archdiocese of Olomouc, non-resident canon of its cathedral chapter, August 27, 1813; canon capitular; archepiscopal counselor; resident canon, 1815; and consistorial assessor, 1815; prelate infulatus and provost of the parish of St. Maurice, October 1827; rural dean and archpriest; metropolitan prelate, 1831.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Olomouc by its chapter, November 21, 1836; elected by the pope, May 19, 1837. Consecrated, June 18, 1837, Brno, by Frantisek Gindl, bishop of Brno, Moravia. Privy councilor, 1842. Decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Leopold, 1842. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, August 17, 1847. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1849.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 30, 1850; died before receiving the red hat and title.

Death. March 31, 1853 (1), Olomouc. Exposed in the cathedral of Olomouc and buried, April 8, 1853, in the collegiate church of Kromeriz.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 112; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 291; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 10-11.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 11; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 112, says that he died on April 1, 1853.

Link. His portrait and biographical data, in Czech.

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(16) 8. GEISSEL, Johannes von
(1796-1864)

Birth. February 5 (1), 1796, Gimmeldingen, parish of Mussbach, diocese of Speyer.

Education. Imperial Lyceum of Mainz, Mainz, 1813; Seminary of Mainz, Mainz, 1815-1818. Received the minor orders, December 21, 1816; subdiaconate, May 31, 1817; diaconate, March 7, 1818.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 22, 1818. In the diocese of Speyer, curate at paris of Mussbach, September 15, 1818 to February 1, 1819; professor of religion, Catholic gymnasium, February 1, 1819 until 1836; pastoral assistant of its cathedral, 1819-1827; canon of the cathedral chapter, August 13, 1822; dean, May 25, 1836. He displayed notable literary activity and was an important contributor to the periodical the Katholik.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Speyer, May 19, 1837. Consecrated, August 13, 1837, Augsburg, by Joseph Maria Johannes von Fraunberg, archbishop of Bamberg. Apostolic administrator and coadjutor, with right of succession of Cologne, September 24, 1841. Promoted to the titular see of Iconio, May 23, 1842. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Cologne, October 19, 1845. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 2, 1845. Chairman of the Fulda Conference of Catholic Bishops (2), 1848.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 30, 1850; received red hat and title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, March 19, 1857.

Death. September 8, 1864, Cologne. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Cologne.

Bibliography. Baudri, Johann Anton Friedrich. Der Erzbischof von Köln : Johannes Cardinal von Geissel und seine Zeit. Köln : J. P. Bachem, 1881; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 124; Pfülf, Otto. Cardinal von Geissel : aus seinem handschriftlichen Nachlak geschildert. Freiburg im Breisgau : Herder, 1896; Remling, Franz Xaver. Cardinal von Geissel, Bischöf zu Speyer und Erzbischof zu Kvln im Leben und Wirken : sammt Urkundenbuche. Speyer : F. Kleeberger, 1873; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 156, 222 and 351; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 11 and 49; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 562, 603, 618, 620, 637 and 665.

Links. Biography by Friedrich Lauchert, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his image in stained glass; his portrait and biographical data, in Czech; and another his portrait.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 351; and his biographies in English and German, linked above; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 125; and Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, II, 603, say that he was born on February 4, 1796.
(2) As far as it has been able to ascertain, this was the first organized meeting of Catholic bishops in the world. The bishops met in 1848 in the episcopal city of Fulda at the grave of Saint Bonifatius, the patron saint of Germany, and established the conference. After the II Vatican Council (1962-1965), the German Catholic bishops created the German Conference of Bishops in 1966.

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(17) 9. MELO, Pedro Paulo de Figuereido da Cunha e
(1770-1855)

Birth. June 19, 1770, Taveiro, diocese of Coimbra, Portugal. Received the sacrament of baptism, June 20, 1770. His brother Luís da Cunha was bishop of Beja.

Education. University of Coimbra, Coimbra (doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, June 30, 1793). Received the subdiaconate, July 14, 1805.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Deputy of the Holy Office. Honorary archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Coimbra, 1806. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Elvas. Lector of canons, regent of the chairs of Natural Law, Public Law and International Law, Canon Law, Homeland Law, and Analytics, 1816. Doctoral canon of Portalegre, August 22, 1822. Elected the Chamber of Deputies, 1826. Primarius cathedraticus of canon law at the University of Coimbra, August 12, 1834; counselor, 1839. Named administrator of the archdiocese of Braga by the Portuguese civil government before the Holy See had confirmed his election, January 15, 1840.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Braga, April 3, 1843. Consecrated, April 10, 1843, by Jerónimo do Barco, O.F.M.Ref., bishop of Santiago do Cabo Verde.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 30, 1850; died before receiving the red hat and title.

Death. December 31, 1855 (1), Braga. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Braga.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 115; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 119; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 11.

Link. Brief biography, in Os Cardeais Portugueses, in Portuguese, patriarcado de Lisboa.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 11; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 115, says that he died in February 1856.

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(18) 10. WISEMAN, Nicholas
(1802-1865)

Birth. August 2, 1802, Sevilla, Spain. Son of James Wiseman, a Waterford merchant at the time residing in Seville, and his second wife, Xaviera Strange, who also was from Waterford. His baptismal name was Nicholas Patrick Stephen.

Education. First studies in Waterford; Ushaw College, Durham, England; Venerable English College, Rome (doctorate in theology, July 7, 1824). Received the minor orders a week before Christmas 1824.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 19, 1825, Rome. Vice-rector of the Venerable English College. Supernumerary professor of Hebrew and Syro-Chaldaic, La Sapienza University, Rome, 1827. Rector of the Venerable English College, Rome, June 1828 to May 1840.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Milopotamo and appointed coadjutor of the apostolic vicar of the Central District and president of Oscott College, May 22, 1840. Consecrated, June 8, 1840, chapel of the English College, Rome, by Cardinal Giacomo Filippo Fransoni, assisted by Jean Théodore Laurent, titular bishop of Chersoneso and by James Kyle, titular bishop of Germanicia. Granted the privileges of the bishops assistant at the Pontifical Throne, July 14, 1840. Pro-vicar apostolic of the London District, September 2, 1847. Coadjutor, with right of succession, of the vicar apostolic of London, July 28, 1848; succeeded to the vicariate February 18, 1849. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Westminster, September 29, 1850. Apostolic administrator of Southwark, September 29, 1850 to June 27, 1851.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 30, 1850; received red hat and title of S. Pudenziana, October 3, 1850. He was the first cardinal resident in England since the Reformation and the first archbishop of Westminster.

Death. February 15, 1865, London. Exposed in the metropolitan pro-cathedral of Westminster and buried, temporarily, in Kensal Green Cemetery, London, on February 23, 1865, Msgr. Henry Edward Manning preached the sermon. Transferred to the Crypt Chapel of St Peter of the metropolitan cathedral of Westminster, January 30, 1907.

Bibliography. Baxter, Dudley. England's cardinals. With an appendix showing the reception of the sacred pallium by the archbishops of Canterbury and Westminster. London : Burns & Oates ; New York : Benzinger, 1903, pp. 76-79; Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, pp. 116-123; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 125; Fothergill, Brian. Nicholas Wiseman. London : Faber and Faber, 1963; Gwynn, Denis. Cardinal Wiseman. New York : P.J. Kenedy & Sons, 1929; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 261; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 11, 52 and 597; Walsh, Michael J. The Westminster cardinals : the past and the future. London ; New York : Burns & Oates, 2008, p. 11-34; Ward, Wilfrid Philip. The life and times of Cardinal Wiseman. London : Longmans, Green & Co., 1898; Wiseman, Nicholas Patrick. Twelve lectures on the connexion between science and revealed religion. Delivered in Rome. 2 v. 1st American ed. New York : P. O'Shea, 1872.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); portrait and biography, in English; another biography, also in English; his portrait while he was rector of the Venerable English College, Rome; his photograph; three of his portraits and a photograph; and his photograph in 1861.

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(19) 11. PECCI, Giuseppe
(1776-1855)

Birth. April 13, 1776, Gubbio. Son of Count Luigi Pecci, gonfaloniere of justice of Gubbio, and Countess Anna Carbonana. Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 22, 1785. He was not related to the other two Cardinals Pecci of the 19th century: Gioacchino Pecci (1853), future Pope Leo XIII; and Giuseppe Pecci (1879).

Education. Seminary of Gubbio, Gubbio; University of Perugia, Perugia (doctorates in philosophy and theology, May 8, 1800).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 23, 1799. In the diocese of Gubbio, canon coadjutor; synodal examiner and pro-vicar general; provost of the cathedral chapter, 1820; vicar general, 1821.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Cesaropoli and administrator of Gubbio, November 22, 1839. Consecrated, December 8, 1839, Rome, by Cardinal Costantino Patrizzi. Transferred to the see of Gubbio, March 1, 1841. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, March 30, 1841.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 30, 1850; received red hat and title of S. Balbina, October 3, 1850.

Death. January 21 (1), 1855, Gubbio. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Gubbio.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 114; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. and 189; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 11 and 46; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 503.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 189; and VIII, 11 and 46; and Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, II, 503; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 114, says that he died on January 12, 1855.

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(20) 12. DIEPENBROCK, Melchior von
(1798-1853)

Birth. January 6 (1), 1798, Bocholt, diocese of Münster, Westphalia. Son of Anton Diepenbrock and Maria Katharina Franziska Kesting. Baptized, January, 9, 1798, with the names Melchior Ferdinand Joseph; confirmed, January 29, 1821, Münster; his sponsor was Christian Brentano.

Education. Military Academy, Bonn, 1810-1811; University of Landshut, Bavaria (public finance); Seminary of Wikinghege, near Münster; Seminary of Mainz, Mainz; Seminary of Regensburg (Ratisbon), Regensburg (theology); received the diaconate, December 26, 1823.

Early life. Unsalaried employee in the Prussian army, 1814-1817; took part in the campaign against France in 1815 as an officer of the militia; second lieutenant, 1817; left the Prussian army, November 7, 1818.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 27, 1823, Regensburg, by Johann Michael Sailer, titular bishop of Germanicopoli and coadjutor of Regensburg. In the diocese of Regensburg, chaplain of the Carmelite convent, January 6, 1824 to 1832; secretary of Bishop Sailer, 1824-1832; canon of the chapter of its cathedral, 1830-1835; dean of the chapter, 1835-1845; vicar general of the diocese, 1842 to 1844, when he resigned. The Bavarian crown granted him the title of baron.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Breslau by its chapter, January 15, 1845; at first declined the nomination, but finally accepted out of obedience to Pope Gregory XVI, who preconized him on April 21, 1845. Consecrated, June 8, 1845, Salzburg, by Cardinal Friedrich Johannes Jacob Celestin von Schwarzenberg, archbishop of Salzburg. Representative to the Frankfurt parliament, 1848. Apostolic delegate for the Prussian army, 1849-1853. Member of the Frankfurt national assembly, 1850.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 30, 1850; died before receiving the red hat and title.

Death. January 20, 1853, of intestinal cancer, Castle of Johannesberg, Breslau. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Breslau.

Bibliography. Stasiewski, Bernhard. ""Diepenbrock, Melchior Freiherr von." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1785/1803 bis 1945 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1983, pp. 126-130; Bröker, Elisabeth. Melchior von Diepenbrock, Fürstbischof von Breslau : Gedenkschrift anlässlich der 100. Wiederkehr seiner Todestages. Bocholt, Germany : s.n., 1953. Contents: Familie, Eltern und Geschwister / von M.G. Bäseler -- Johann Michael Sailer und Melchior von Diepenbrock / von H. Schiel -- Der Fürstbischof Kardinal Melchior von Diepenbrock und die Dienerin Gottes Anna Katharina Emmerich / von P. Neyer -- Von Sailers Tod bis zur Berufung nach Breslau / von J. Lehner -- Melchior von Diepenbrock als Dichter, Uberssetzer und Schriftsteller / von E. Reinhard -- Kardinal Fürstbischof Melchior von Diepenbrock und Annette von Droste-Hülschoff / von K. Schulte -- A te missus ibo : der "Mann des Papste" für Schlesien / von A. Perlick -- Der Heimat in Treue verbunden / von E. Bröker -- Der Heimgang des Kardinals / von H. Förster -- Melchior von Diepenbrocks Persönlichkeit / von J. Russwurm -- Dichtergrüsse an Melchior von Diepenbrock / von P. Neyer; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p.112; Förster, Heinrich. Cardinal und Fürstbischof Melchoir von Diepenbrock; ein Lebensbild. Regensburg : Georg Joseph Manz, 1878; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 400; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 11; Strobl, Wilhelm. Kardinal Melchior Freiherr v. Diepenbrock, Fürstbischof von Breslau und der fürstlich Thurn und Taxissche Rat und Prinzenerzieher Joseph Strobl. Nürnberg : Kommissionsverlag Die Egge, 1953.

Links. Biographyby Boniface Luebbermann, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions, James Chastain; his portrait and biographical data, in Czech, Václav Petera: Géniové církve a vlasti; his portrait; and chronicle of his life, in German.

(1) This is according to all the German printed sources listed in the bibliographic section as well as the electronic one linked above; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 112; and Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 400, say that he was born on January 9, 1798.

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(21) 13. ROBERTI, Roberto Giovanni F.
(1788-1867)

Birth. December 23, 1788, Monte San Giusto, archdiocese of Fermo. Of an ancient noble family. Son of Count Giovanni Roberti.

Education. (No information found).

Sacred orders. (No information found). He was never ordained a priest. Secretary of Giuseppe Bofondi, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota and future cardinal. Aiutante di studio of Zacchia, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1829. Counselor at Secondo Turno of the civil congregation of the Apostolic Chamber, 1832-1837. Prelate referendary, November 6, 1837. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, 1838. Lieutenant and vice-president of the Secondo Turno of the civil tribunal of the Apostolic Chamber, 1839-1841. Lieutenant and vice-president of the criminal tribunal of the Apostolic Chamber, 1842. Apostolic delegate in Perugia, 1843-1844. Under secretary of State for Internal Affairs, February 11, 1845. Protonotary apostolic participantium, 1845. Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, 1845-1849. Substitute pf the secretariat for the internal affairs of the State, 1845-1846. Minister of Grace and Justice, 1847 to March 10, 1848. Member of the Governmental Commission under Cardinal Castruccio Castracane degli Antelminelli, December 1848 to January 1849. Pro-president of Rome and its district, 1849-1850.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 30, 1850; received red hat and deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, October 3, 1850. President of Rome and its region, 1855-1860. Secretary of Petitions and Memorials, December 17, 1859. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria ad Martyres, March 16, 1863. He and Cardinal Giacomo Antonelli were the first cardinals who traveled by train.

Death. November 7 (1), 1867. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome; the funeral took place on November 10, 1867 with the participation of Pope Pius IX, and buried, according to his will, in the church of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Rome (2).

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 128-129; Marino, Giorgio. "Il primo cardinali che viaggiò in treno." Rivista Araldica, LXII (September 1964), pp. 284-287; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 11, 54 and 55; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 513, 537, 545, 566, 612, 614, 617, 619, 639 and 640.

Link. His tomb in the church of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Rome.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 11, same page note 60, and 55; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 129; and Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, II, 513, say that he died on November 6, 1867.
(2) This is the text of the inscription on his funeral monument taken from Marino, "Il primo cardinali che viaggiò in treno." Rivista Araldica, LXII, p. 287: HEIC. IN. PACE. QUIESCIT. ROBERTUS JOANNIS P. ROBERTIUS. DOMO MONTE. S. IUSTI. IN. PICENO. CARDINALIS. SCIENTIA. IURIS. PONTIFICII. ET CIVILIS. PRUDENTIA. IN. REBUS. GERENDIS. PRAESTITIT. DECESS. VII. IDUS. NOV. A. MDCCCLXVII. A. N. P. M. LXXVIII. PAULUS. FRATER. COMES. CUM JOANNE. FILIO. POSUIT. VIRO AMPLISSIMO. DECORI. DOMUS. ET PATRIAE. During the restoration of the church in 1963, the casket was taken out of the crypt and placed on a cataletto of iron with the inscription LOCUS CARDINALIS ROBERTI.

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GÓMEZ DE PORTUGAL Y SOLÍS, Juan Cayetano José María
(1783-1850)

Birth. July 7, 1783, San Pedro Piedra Gorda, Guanajuato, México; in a house situated at the corner of Portugal y Obregón streets.

Education. At a very young age, he was sent to the Seminary of San José, Guadalajara, to study; obtained a doctorate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Pastoral work in the diocese of Michoacán. He was a decided supporter of México;s independence and for many years dedicated his talent and activities to the service of his country; he was deputy for Guanajuato to the Congreso de la Unisn; senator for the sate of Jalisco; and later, when he was already a bishop, minister of Justice and Ecclesiastical Affairs during the government of Antonio López de Santa Anna.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Claudiopoli and appointed apostolic vicar of the diocese of Michoacá (now Morelia), October 19, 1830. Transferred to the see of Michoacán, February 28, 1831. Consecrated, August 21, 1831, México; took possession of the see by proxy on September 29, 1831.

Cardinalate. Pope Pius IX intended to name him a cardinal. In a letter written by Cardinal Giacomo Antonelli, secretary of State, the pope expressed his plan to the bishop. Unfortunately, he died on April 4, 1850, before the letter was received in Morelia. He would have been the first Latin American cardinal.

Death. April 4, 1850, early in the morning, Michoacán (Morelia). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Bravo Ugarte, José. Diócesis y obispos de la Iglesia Mexicana (1519-1965). Con un apéndice de los representantes de la S. Sede en México y viceversa. México : Editorial Jus, 1965 (Colección México heroico, 39). p. 72; Calderón, Cipriano. "El Papel de América Latina en la Nueva Evangelización Rumbo al Tercer Milenio" in Nueva Evangelización Rumbo al Tercer Milenio. V Congreso Internacional de la Reconciliación. Lima: Vida y Espiritualidad, 1996, p. 84; Guzmán Pérez, Moisés. Las relaciones clero-gobierno en Michoacán : la gestión episcopal de Juan Cayetano Gómez de Portugal y Solí, 1831-1850. México, D.F. : LIX Legislatura, Cámara de Diputados, H. Congreso de la Unión, 2005; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 153 and 259.

Links. His engraving and biography, in Spanish; brief biographical data, in English.

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