The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius IX (1846-1878)
Consistory of December 17, 1855 (VIII)

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(36) 1. RAUSCHER, Joseph Othmar von
(1797-1875)

Birth. October 6, 1797, Vienna, Austria.

Education. Initially, educated by preceptors; Lyceum of Vienna, Vienna; later, he studied at the University of Vienna, where he earned doctorates in philosophy, law and theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 21 (1), 1823. Chaplain in Hütteldorf. Professor of ecclesiastical history and canon law, Salzburg, 1825. Director of the Oriental Academy, Vienna, and of the abbeys of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Monostra and Komorn, September 15, 1832.

Episcopate. Nominated bishop of Seckau, January 29, 1849; confirmed, April 12, 1849. Consecrated, April 15, 1849, by Cardinal Friedrich Johannes Jacob Celestin von Schwarzenberg, archbishop of Salzburg. Diocesan administrator of Leoben. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Vienna, June 27, 1853. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1855.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 17, 1855; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, December 23, 1858. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870.

Death. November 24, 1875, Vienna. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Vienna.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876. Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 137; Gatz, Erwin. "Rauscher, Joseph Othmar von." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1785/1803 bis 1945 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1983, p. 596-601; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 13, 51, 508 and 590; Wolfsgruber, Cölestin. Joseph Othmar Cardinal Rauscher, Fürsterbischof von Wien. Sein Leben und sein Wirken. Freiburg im Breisgau : Herder, 1888.

Links. Biography by Cölestin Wolfsgr|ber, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia, and his image and biography, in German; lithograph by J. Kriehuber, Österreich-Lexikon.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 508; Gatz, "Rauscher, Joseph Othmar von", Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder 1785/1803 bis 1945, p. 596; and his biography in German, linked above, indicate that he was ordained on August 21, 1823.


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(37) 2. REISACH, Karl August von
(1800-1869)

Birth. July 6, 1800, Roth, diocese of Eischstätt, Bavaria. Son of Johann Adam von Reisach and Therese Freiin von Grumppenberg. Received the sacrament of confirmation, September 2, 1810.

Education. Initially, educated by preceptors; secondary school at Neuburg and Münich, philosophy at Munich (1816); University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (law); University of Landshut, Landshut (doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, August 23, 1821); Collegio Romano, Rome (doctorate in theology, September 5, 1828); Germanic College, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 10, 1828. Professor of canon law; and rector of the Urban College of Propaganda Fide, Rome, December 1, 1830. Consultor of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, November 14, 1832. Qualificator of the Supreme S.C. of the Inquisitions, February 13, 1835 to 1855. Consultor of the S.C. of the Index, February 5, 1836 to 1855.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Eischtätt, July 11, 1836. Consecrated, July 17, 1836, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope Gregory XVI. Coadjutor, with right of succession, of München und Freising, retaining the see of Eischtätt during the coadjutorship, July 12, 1841. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of München und Freising, October 1, 1846.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 17, 1855; received the red hat and the title of S. Anastasia, December 20, 1855. Resigned pastoral government of the archdiocese, June 19, 1856 and took residence in Rome. Negotiator of the concordat with Baron Adolph von Ow of Würtember, July 7, 1856. Negotiator of the concordat with Baden, May 1, 1859. Prefect of the S.C. for the Correction of Books of the Oriental Church, May 14, 1859. Prefect of the S.C. of Studies, September 25, 1861. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, retaining in commendam the title of S. Anastasia, September 27, 1861. Member of the preparatory council of the First Vatican Council, March 1865. Negotiator of the agreement with the Emperor of France concerning the political affairs with the Papal States, August 11, 1866. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 22, 1867 until March 13, 1868. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, retaining in commendam the title of S. Anastasia, June 22, 1868. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869; member of its presidency, December 2, 1869.

Death. December 22 (1), 1869, in the convent of the Redemptorist Fathers, La Contamine-sur-Arve, Upper Savoy. Buried in the church of S. Anastasia, Rome, his former title.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti". La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876. Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 131; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 191 and 268; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 13, 45, 46 and 47; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 511-512; 561, 606, 618 and 643; Zeis, Anton. "Reisach, Karl August Graf von." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1785/1803 bis 1945 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1983, p. 603-606.

Link. Biography, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 13; Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, II, 511; and his biographies in English and Czech linked above; "Cardinali defunti". La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 131, indicates that he died on December 29, 1869.


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(38) 3. VILLECOURT, Clément
(1787-1867)

Birth. October 9, 1787, Lyon, France.

Education. Lyceum of Lyon, Lyon; Seminary of Lyon, Lyon (theology, 1808-1811).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1811. In the archdiocese of Lyon, icar in Saint-Chamond and in Roanne-en Forez; pastor in Bagnols-en-Lyonnais, 1815; pastor of Saint-François de Sales; chaplain in several hospitals, 1818; superior of its seminary. In the diocese of Meaux, 1823, canon theologian of its cathedral chapter; superior of the auxiliary priests; vicar general; superior of its major seminary; preacher of pastoral retreats in several French dioceses. Transferred to the archdiocese of Sens in 1832; vicar general, 1835, and as such, superior of all the religious houses.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of La Rochelle, February 1, 1836. Consecrated, March 13, 1836, cathedral of Sens, Jean-Joseph-Marie-Victoire de Cosnac, archbishop of Sens, assisted by Jacques Seguin des Hons, bishop of Troyes, and by Roman Gallard, bishop of Meaux. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 20, 1843.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 17, 1855; received the red hat and the title of S. Pancrazio fuori le mura, December 20, 1855. Resigned pastoral government of the diocese, June 7, 1856 and resided in the Roman Curia.

Death. January 17, 1867, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Salvatore Lauro, Rome, and buried in his title.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1615-1620; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876. Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 128; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, pp. 519-520; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 327; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 13 and 51.


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(39) 4. GAUDE, O.P., Francesco
(1809-1860)

Birth. April 5, 1809, Cambiano, archdiocese of Turin, and was baptized on that same day.

Education. Scuole Pie, Carmagnola (humanities and rhetoric); entered the Order of Preachers, novitiate of Turin, August 3, 1823. Dominican convent of Bosco, near Marengo, diocese of Alessandria; solemn profession, April 20, 1825, Dominican convent of S. Agnese, Montepulciano, where he studied philosophy; Dominican convents of Bosco and Turin (theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, November 1832, convent of Bologna. Professor of theology, Dominican convent of Forlì, 1832-1833. In Lugo, diocese of Imola, 1833-1839, professor of theology; superior of the convent of his order; vicar of the Holy Office; pastoral work. In Macerata, 1839-1844, professor of dogmatic theology and Sacred Scriptures in its university; superior of the convent of his order; vicar of the Holy Office; examiner of the new ordinands; pastoral work. In Rome, 1844-1846, further studies. Provincial of his order in Lombardy, March 1846. Procurator general of his order, October 1846. Professor of dogmatic theology, Sapienza University, Rome. Apostolic examiner of the Roman clergy, February 10, 1851. Vice-president of the papal commission for the reconstruction of the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome (inaugurated on August 4, 1855). Member of the commission to revise the plan of studies of his order, March 13, 1852. Consultor of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, March 15, 1853. Secretary of the congreagation for the establishment of Seminario Pio, Rome, June 9, 1853. First rector and professor, Seminario Pio, October 1853.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 17, 1855; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, December 20, 1855. Opted for the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, December 21, 1857.

Death. December 14, 1860, Rome. Exposed and buried in his title, S. Maria sopra Minerva. The funeral took place in that church on December 18, 1860, with the participation of Pope Pius IX.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876. Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 120; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 13 and 50; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 468-469, 541 and 611.


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GUÉRANGER, O.S.B., Prosper-Louis-Pascal
(1805-1875)

Birth. April 4, 1805, Sablé-sur-Sarthe, France, a small town two miles from the village of Solesmes with its small abandoned Priory.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint-Benedict (Benedictines).

Priesthood. Ordained, October 7, 1827. He served for a time as parish priest in Le Mans. Founder of the Benedictine Congregation of France and first abbot of Saint Pierre de Solesmes after the French revolution. He wrote in 1840 his Liturgical Institutions in fifteen volumes to restore among the clergy the knowledge and the love for the Roman Liturgy.

Cardinalate. According to Dom Guy-Marie Oury, O.S.B., Dom Guéranger : moine au coeur de l'église, 1805-1875 (Solesmes : Editions de Solesmes, 2001), pp. 326-327, Prosper-Louis-Pascal Guéranger, in a letter addressed to Dom Léandre Fonteinne, O.S.B., on March 6, 1856, said that in November 1855, Pope Pius IX wanted to name him a cardinal but that he refused because he did not want to live in Rome. The pope, instead, promoted Bishop Clément Villecourt of La Rochelle.

Death. January 30, 1875, Solesmes.

Beatification. On December 21, 2005, Jacques Faivre, bishop of Le Mans, proceeded with the official introduction of the cause of beatification of Dom Prosper Guéranger, O.S.B. In the presence of the Very Reverend Father Dom Phillippe Dupong, O.S.B., abbot of Solesmes, he responded to the petition presented by the postulator of the Cause, Dom Jacque de Preville, O.S.B., in order to open the inquiry on the life, virtues and reputation of holiness of the Servant of God. To this end, he established a tribunal with canon Olibier le Jariel as judge, canon Jean Lusseau promoter of justice, Father Camille Moulin notary, and Father Yves Thorin notary assistant. One of the last acts of Pope John Paul II was to mark the occasion of the bicentenary of the birth of Dom Prosper Guéranger, who restored monastic life at Solesmes and whose writings on liturgy, ecclesiology and monastic life would leave a rich legacy. In a letter to the Abbot of Solesmes signed in a shaky hand and dated March 23, 2005, ten days before he died, Pope John Paul II gave thanks for the work accomplished by this religious.

Bibliography. Le centenaire de la mort de Dom Guéranger, 1875-1975. Sablé : L. Soltner, 1975. Note: "Lettre aux amis de Solesmes 1975 nos 3 et 4"; Cozien, Germain. L'oeuvre de dom Guéranger. Paris : Tolmer, 1933; Delatte, Paul. Dom Guéranger, abbé de Solesmes. 2 vols. Paris :Plon-Nourrit, 1909-1910; Guéranger, Prosper . Dom Guéranger. Paris : Desclée de Brouwer, 1937. (Choisir, les meilleurs texts); Johnson, Cuthbert. Dom Guéranger et le renouveau liturgique : une introduction à son oeuvre liturgique. Gillet, André, trad. Paris : Téqui,1988. (Collection "Croire et savoir" ; 8); Johnson, Cuthbert. Prosper Gueranger (1805-1875): A liturgical theologian. An introduction to his liturgical writings and work. Roma : Pontificio Ateneo S. Anselmo, 1984. (Studia Anselmiana 89 - Analecta Liturgica 9); Oury, Guy-Marie. Dom Guéranger et le cardinal Taschereau : la vocation monastique du premier cardinal canadien. s.l. : s.m., 1979. Note: In Les Dix. Les cahiers des Dix. Québec. (1979); Oury, Guy-Marie. Dom Guéranger : moine au coeur de l'église, 1805-1875. Solesmes : Editions de Solesmes, 2001; Sevrin, Ernest. Dom Guéranger et La Mennais : essai de critique historique sur la jeunesse de Dom Guéranger. Paris : J. Vrin, 1933; Soltner, Louis. Solesmes & dom Guéranger, 1805-1875. Préf. du T. R. P. dom Jean Prou. Sablé-sur-Sarthe : Saint-Pierre de Solesmes, 1974. Other Title: Solesmes et dom Guéranger, 1805-1875.

Links. Biography by Henri Leclercq, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his image and biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Brittanica; Pope to Beatify Dom Prosper Guéranger?, in English, The Remnant Online; Saint Peter's Abbey of Solesmes, in English.

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