The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius IX (1846-1878)
Consistory of June 16, 1856 (IX)

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(40) 1. LEWICKI, Mihail
(1774-1858)

Birth. August 16, 1774, Pokucie (o Pokutya), a region in the frontier between Bukovina and Galitzia (now Ukraine), Austrian Empire. Of a family of the small nobility. Son of parish priest of the Ukrainian rite Stefan Lewicki. His first name is also listed as Michajl, Mykhajlo, Mykhailo, Michał, and Михaйjiо; and his last name as Levytsky, Lewickij, Levytskyi, Lewichi and Левицъкий.

Education. Studied in Lviv (philosophy and theology); and later, in Vienna.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1798. Professor of pastoral theology, University of Lviv, 1800. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Lviv, 1808. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Lodz from 1808.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Przemyśl of the Ruthenians, September 20, 1813 (1). Consecrated, September 20, 1813, cathedral of Saint George, Lviv, by Antoni Angelowicz, archbishop of Lviv of the Ruthenians, assisted by Jan Jakub Szymonowicz, archbishop of Lviv of the Armenians (the second co-consecrator is not known). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lviv, Halicz and Kamieniec of the Ruthenians, March 8, 1816; received the pallium on that same day; took possession of the see in May 1818. Named primate of Galizia and Lodomeria on June 17, 1848 (2). In poor health, he went to reside at the monastery (lavra) of Univ, in the region of Lemberg, which until then had been his summer residence; and delegated the government of the archdiocese.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 16, 1856; received the red biretta from the apostolic delegate in the monastery of Univ; died before going to Rome to receive the red hat and the title.

Death. January 14, 1858, in the monastery of Univ. Buried in the monastery Univ, according to his will. (3)

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, GrégoireXVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 542-543; Polski slownik biograficzny. Komitet redakcyjny, Wladyslaw Konopczynski... [et al.]. Kraków : Nakl. Polskiej Akademii Umiejetnosci, 1935- , 17, 223; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 237; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 14.

Links. His engraving and biography, in English, Wikipedia.

(1) This is according to Polski slownik biograficzny, pp. 17 and 223; Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 237, indicates that this was the date of his election.
(2) The primatial title was not canonical but granted by the emperor; until 1848, the title was given to the Latin archbishops of Lemberg, but in that year, the emperor gave it to the Ruthenian archbishop of Lviv, Halicz and Kamieniec. After Cardinal Lewicki's death, it was not granted anymore.
(3) This is according to LeBlanc, Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle, p. 542; and Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 14 La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia, 1876, p. 118, indicates that he died in Lviv and was buried in its metropolitan cathedral.


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(41) 2. HAULIK VÁRALYAI, Juraj
(1788-1869)

Birth. April 20, 1788 (1), Trnava, then archdiocese of Esztergom, Hungary, now in the archdiocese of Bratislava-Trnava, Slovakia; He was baptized on that same day.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Trnava (humanities); at the University of Vienna (theology, for three years as student in Collegio Pazmanian); at the Archiepiscopal Lyceum of Esztergom (doctorate in theology). Received the insignias of the clerical character and the minor orders on December 29, 1805; the subdiaconate on December 1, 1810; and the diaconate on December 3, 1810.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 18, 1811. Dean of the theological faculty of Pest. Cooperator in the parish of Komárno for five years. In the office of the general vicariate of Buda, archivist for three years; consistorial notary for two years; and vicarial secretary for four years. In Esztergom, secretary of the archiepiscopal notary, 1820-1825; canon of the cathedral chapter, 1825. Counselor, Hungarian Royal Governor's Office, Buda, 1830. Counselor, Hungarian Royal Court Office, 1831. Provost major of the cathedral of Zagreb, 1832.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Zagreb, October 2, 1837. Consecrated, December 10, 1837, Vienna, by Ludovico Altieri, titular archbishop of Efeso, nuncio in Austria. Promoted to archbishop when that see was elevated to the rank of metropolitan archdiocese, December 11, 1852.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 16, 1856; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, March 19, 1857. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1859. He was the first cardinal resident of Croatia and strongly supported Slovakian and Croatian schools and culture in the times when the Kingdom of Hungary tried to suppress other nationalities in its territory.

Death. May 11, 1869, Zagreb. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Zagreb.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876. Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 130; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 401; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 14 and 52.

Links. Biography, in Hungarian; and two portraits and biography, in Croatian.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted, except "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 139, which indicates that he was born on April 28, 1787.


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(42) 3. BARNABÒ, Alessandro
(1801-1874)

Birth. March 2, 1801, Foligno. Of a noble family. Son of Enrico Barnabò, marquis of Palombaro.

Education. Studied at École militaire de La Flèche from 1812 to 1814 (1); at the Seminary of Foligno, 1815; at the Seminary of Camerino, 1817; studied law in Foligno, 1822; and at La Sapienza University, Rome, 1827 (law).

Early life. Canon coadjutor of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, October 30, 1831; ajutante di studio of future Cardinal Paolo Polidori, secretary of the S.C. of the Council.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 1833. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, January 6, 1836. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, before May 5, 1838. Consultor of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, April 3, 1838; canonist, 1838-1839. Keeper of the seals of the Apostolic Penitentiary, 1839-1856. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 4, 1843. Referendary of the Roman Curia, July 13, 1843. Civil lieutenant of the tribunal of the Vicariate of Rome, before December 16, 1843. Consultor of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, August 1, 1843. Prelate of the S.C. of Religious Immunity, before August 6, 1844. Consultor of the S.C. of the Holy Office, May 22, 1845. Pro-secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, July 12, 1847; secretary, August 13, 1848 until his promotion to the cardinalate. Member of the Commission for the reform of the institutions of the Papal States, February 12, 1848. Member of the Council of Censure, August 14, 1849.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 16, 1856; received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, June 19, 1856. Prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, June 20, 1856 until his death. Protector of the Pontifical North American College, Rome, 1856-1874. Camerlengo of the S.C. of Cardinals, March 13, 1868 until June 25, 1869. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870; president of the congregation for the affairs of the Oriental rites and the apostolic missions.

Death. February 24, 1874, Rome. Exposed in the church of the Urban College of Propaganda Fide, Rome, and buried in the church del suburbano, property of his family, Foligno.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876. Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 135; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 14, 53 and 63; Boutry, Philippe Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : Ecole française de Rome, 2002, p. 508.

Link. Church of S. Onofrio, Rome: The Interior with a Cardinal by Aleksandr Antonovich Rizzoni (1872), Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Idle Speculations.

(1) Many of the sons of the Italian nobility were forced by Napoleon to attend military schools in France between 1800 and 1814.


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(43) 4. GRASSELLINI, Gaspare
(1796-1875)

Birth. January 19, 1796, Palermo, Sicily. Of a noble family. Son of Domenico Grassellini, a High Court judge, and Silvia Campagnone. Uncle of Domenico Gaspare Lancia di Brolo, O.S.B., archbishop of Monreale.

Education. First studies with the Oratorians (1) of his native city; and then, at the University of Palermo (history and law).

Sacred orders. (No information found). Referendary prelate and relator of the S.C. of Good Government, June 17, 1830. Apostolic delegate in Ascoli, 1832; and in Ancona, 1833-1836. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1837-1847; later its dean, 1846-1847. President delle Acque e Strade, 1839-1847. Pro-president of the Congregation of the Census, 1841-1847. Apostolic delegate in Ancona, fall of 1846 to December 21, 1846. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, December 21, 1846 until July 18, 1847 (2). Commissary extraordinary in the four legations in Bologna, May 1852 to 1856. Pro legate in Bologna.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 16, 1856; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Vito e Modesto, June 19, 1856. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria ad Martyres, December 20, 1867. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. He was a renowned scholar mainly in the academics of history and humanities; he published several books and delivered numerous conferences and speeches which had in the audience sometimes was the pope himself.

Death. September 16, 1875, Frascati, after a long and painful illness. Exposed in the cathedral of Frascati; the funeral mass was celebrated by Giovanni Felice Iacovazzi, titular bishop of Eritre and suffragan of Palestrina; Cardinal Filippo Maria Guidi, O.P., bishop of Frascati, who had given him the papal blessing before his death, imparted the final absolution. Buried in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Boglino, L. La Sicilia e i suoi cardinali. Palermo : 1884, pp. 92-93; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876. Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 136; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 128; "Grassellini, Gaspare." Enciclopedia Cattolica, VI, cols. 1004-1005; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, XV, n. 218 (September 24, 1875), p. 2; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 14 and 53; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 472-473, 536, 540, 562, 589, 615, 618, 642, 678 and 692.

(1) Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 14, indicates that he was a member of the Oratory of S. Filippo Neri but none of the other sources consulted mention it, except Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, who does not mention it either in the cardinal's biographical entry, II, 472-473, but on a report by Deputy and Senator Diomede Pantaleoni, dated June 2, 1861, concerning the cardinals living at the time, that he transcribes, says on II, 540, that Cardinal Grasselini was an ancien prêtre de l'Oratoire (former priest of the Oratory).
(2) According to Del Re, Monsignor governatore di Roma, p. 128, n. 2, citing Diario di del principe D. Agostino Chigi dall'anno 1820 al 1850, he left for Naples on Sunday July 18, 1847, after requesting, not del tutto spontaneamente, a six month leave.


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(44) 5. MEDICI DI OTTAIANO, Francesco de'
(1808-1857)

Birth. November 28, 1808, Naples. Son of Michele de' Medici and Isabella Albertini, of the princes of Cimitile. Neapolitan patrician. Of the same family of Cardinal Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici (1583), future Pope Leo XI.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles from 1828 to 1831.

Sacred orders. Ordained (no information found). Prefect of the Pontifical Household, January 28, 1842. Prefect of the Sacred Apostolic Palace, May 17, 1850.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 16, 1856; received red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, June 19, 1856.

Death. October 11, 1857, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marcello, Rome, and buried in his deaconry.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876. Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 117; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 14 and 54.

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