The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius IX (1846-1878)
Consistory of March 15, 1858 (X)

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(45) 1. ALAMEDA Y BREA, O.F.M.Obs., Cirilo de
(1781-1872)

Birth. July 9 (1), 1781, Torrejón de Velasco, archdiocese of Toledo, Spain.

Education. Entered the Order of Friars Minor Observants when he was fifteen years old; professed, 1805; studied at Colegio "San Isidro", Madrid (philosophy); at the Franciscan convent of Pastrana and Guadalajara (theology); and at the University of Zaragoza, where he earned a doctorate in theology in 1818.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Went to the Franciscan mission of Moqugua, Uruguay, 1811; editor of La Gaceta; for political reasons, went to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1814; returned to Spain to arrange the matrimony of two Portuguese princesses to the sons of King Charles IV of Spain; returned in 1815 having accomplished his mission successfully; royal preacher; honorary commissary of the Royal Council of the Supreme Inquisition. Minister general of his order for six years, November 28, 1817 to 1823; named Grande de España, March 9, 1818; vicar general of the Cisalpine family of his order for another six years. After the fall of the second constitutional government in 1832, was named counselor of State.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Santiago de Cuba, September 30, 1831. Consecrated, March 12, 1832, cathedral of Sevilla, by Cardinal Francisco Javier de Cienfuegos y Jovellanos, archbishop of Sevilla, assisted by Domingo de Silos Moreno, O.S.B., bishop of Cádiz, and by Vicente Román Linares, O.Prem., titular bishop of Dausara, auxiliary of Sevilla. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 9, 1842. The third constitutional government ordered his detention but he escaped to Jamaica in December 1837. Went to England, then to France to join Don Carlos, pretender to the Spanish throne; and later went to Italy. After the civil war ended in 1839, he reconciled with Queen Isabel II. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Burgos, April 20, 1849. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo, August 3, 1857.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 15, 1858; never went to Rome and died before receiving the red hat and the title.

Death. June 30, 1872, Toledo (2). Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Toledo; and buried in the chapel of Bienaventurada Virgen María del Sagrario, in that cathedral.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876. Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 133; Chapeau, O.S.B., André, and Charles Branson. "Franciscan bishops." Franciscan studies, XLVII (1987), 325; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 177; Martín Tejedor, J. "Alameda y Brea, Cirilo, OFM." Diccionario de Historia Eclesiástica de España. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975. 4 vols., and supplement, 1987, I, 26-28; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 219; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 14, 163 and 558; Roca, C. Alberto. Vida del Cardenal Arzobispo Cirilo de Alameda y Brea, Montevideo : Biblioteca Nacional, 1974.

Links. Biography by Salvador Miranda, in Spanish, Episcopologio de la Iglesia Católica en Cuba, his arms, photograph and engraving, Aralidca Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholic Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 219; Chapeau, "Franciscan bishops." Franciscan studies, 325; and Episcopologio Español (1700-1867), p. 177; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 133, says that he was born on July 14, 1781.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholic Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 219, and VIII, 14, n. 25; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 133, also says that he died on June 30, 1872, in Toledo; Chapeau, "Franciscan bishops." Franciscan studies, p. 325; and Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1700-1867), p. 177, indicate that he died on June 30, 1872 in Madrid; Martín Tejedor, J. "Alameda y Brea, Cirilo, OFM." Diccionario de Historia Eclesiástica de España, I, 26, says that he died in Toledo or Madrid on July 1, 1872; Roca, Vida del Cardenal Arzobispo Cirilo de Alameda y Brea, p. 20, says that he died at 12:30 a.m., a.m., the night between June 30 and July 1, 1872, in Madrid; the same source on p. 160 translates into Spanish the text of the commemorative plaque placed at the entrance of the sacristy of the cathedral of Toledo and it says that he died on July 1, 1872, as does the epitaph on his tomb, pictured on p. 169.


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(46) 2. ANTONUCCI, Antonio Benedetto
(1798-1879)

Birth. September 17, 1798, Subiaco. The family was originally from Gubio and some of its members had occupied the post of gonfaloniere. Received the sacrament of baptism on that same day; confirmation, 1803.

Education. Studied humanities and philosophy at Subiaco; Collegio Romano, Rome (doctorate in theology, September 7, 1823); La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, July 22, 1826).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 22, 1821. Professor of civil and criminal law, Archgymnasium of Rome, July 23, 1824. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness. Secretary of internuncio Francesco Capaccini in Holland, 1829-1831; chargé d'affaires in The Hague, 1831-1840.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Montefeltro, December 17, 1840. Assistant at the Pontifical Thorne, July 17, 1841. Consecrated, July 18, 1841, Rome, by Cardinal Luigi Lambruschini, B, assisted by Fabio Maria Asquini, titular archbishop of Tarso, secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, and by Lodovico Altieri, titular archbishop of Efeso, nuncio in Austria. His episcopal motto was Pax vobis. Transferred to the see of Ferentino, July 22, 1842. Promoted to the titular see of Tarso, July 25, 1844. Nuncio in Sardinia, September 13, 1844. Transferred to the see of Ancona, with personal title of archbishop, September 5, 1851.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 15, 1858; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, March 18, 1858. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII.

Death. January 29, 1879, Ancona (1). Exposed in the cathedral of Ancona and buried in the city's cemetery, Ancona.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 173; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 193 and 360; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 14, 53 and 99; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 431-432, 538, 547, 555, 585, 607, 617, 619, 622, 651, 676, 687, 695, 727, 742 and 755.

Link. His engraving, photograph and arms, Araldica Vatican.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 18 and 54; and "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, 173; Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, II, 431, says that he died on January 19, 1879.


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(47) 3. TARANCÓN Y MORÓN, Manuel Joaquín
(1782-1862)

Birth. March 20, 1782, Covarrubias, diocese of Sigüenza, Spain.

Education. Studied at the University of Valladolid, where he obtained a doctorate in civil law; and at the University of Osma, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law in 1807.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). In Valladolid, for twenty years, professor, rector October 18, 1807), and grand chancellor of its university; doctoral canon of its cathedral chapter, 1810; lectoral canon, 1818; provisor and vicar general, 1819-1829; vicar capitular, 1819-1824, and 1830-1831. Proposed for the see of Zamora, July 8, 1834, was not elected. Deputy to the Spanish Courts, 1834. Member of the consultative junta of the Ministry of Justice, 1839. President of Caja de Ahorros and Monte de Piedad of Valladolid, 1841. Senator for the province of Valladolid, 1843. Preceptor of Princesses Isabel (future queen) and Luisa Fernanda, 1844. Senator for life, 1845.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Córdoba, October 4, 1847. Consecrated, January 2, 1848, church of San Isidro, Madrid, by Giovanni Brunelli, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, nuncio in Spain, assisted by Juan José Bonel Orbe, archbishop of Toledo, and by Ramón Montero, archbishop of Burgos. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, March 13, 1855. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, August 3, 1857.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 15, 1858; died before receiving the red hat and the title. Member of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences, 1861.

Death. August 25, 1862, Sevilla (1). Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876. Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 123; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 182; Orive, A. "Tarancón y Morón, Manuel Joaquín." Diccionario de Historia Eclesiástica de España. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975. 4 vols., and supplement, 1987, IV, 2522; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 14, 225 and 308.

Link. His engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 14; and Orive, "Tarancón y Morón, Manuel Joaquín." Diccionario de Historia Eclesiástica de España, IV, 2522; "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 123; and Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1700-1867), p. 182, say that he died on August 26, 1862.


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(48) 4. ORFEI, Enrico
(1800-1871)

Birth. October 23, 1800, Orvieto. Son of Bonaventura Orfei.

Education. tudied at the Seminary of Orivieto; at the Jesuit College of Orvieto, whe he studied dogmatic and moral theology; and at the University of Perugia, where he arned a doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, on November 15, 1832.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1823. Canon of the collegiate church of Ss. Andrea e Bartolomeo, Orvieto, 1831. Chamberlain d'onore in abito paonazzo, June 1, 1831. Prelate referendary and relator of the S.C. of Good Government, March 7, 1833. Apostolic delegate of Benevento, 1834-1837. Commissary apostolic of the Holy House of Loreto, 1838-1841. Apostolic delegate in Ancona, 1842-1843. Secretary of the cardinalitial commission of the Archhospital S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, 1845; commendatary of the hospital, 1846-1848. Secretary of the S.C. of the Apostolic Visit. Domestic prelate of His Holiness.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cesena, September 11, 1848. Consecrated, September 17, 1848, Rome, by Cardinal Vincenzo Macchi. Assistant at the Pontifical Thorne, October 3, 1848.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 15, 1858; received the red hat and the title of S. Balbina, March 18, 1858. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Ravenna, March 23, 1860. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870.

Death. December 22, 1871 (1), Ravenna. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Ravenna and buried in the public oratory, Villa detta Casemurate, Ravenna.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876. Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, pp. 132-133; "Cardinaux créés par Pie IX." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1904, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1905, p. 207; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 126; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 14, 46, 168 and 477; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 494-496, 538, 547, 564, 585, 607, 617, 620, 649, 674 and 758.

Link. His engravings, photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 132; "Cardinaux créés par Pie IX." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1904, p. 207; Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 126; and Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, II, 494; Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 14, 46 and 477; and his brief biographical data in Italian, linked above, say that he died on December 22, 1870.


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(49) 5. MILESI PIRONI FERRETTI, Giuseppe
(1817-1873)

Birth. March 9, 1817, Ancona.Of a noble family. Son of Count Francesco Milesi Pironi Ferretti, a Venetian consul and standard-bearer of Ancona, and Laura Strina, a noblewoman.

Education. Studied in Ancona; and later, at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome; and at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Referendary prelate and relator of the S.C. of Good Government, February 22, 1839. Second assessor of the criminal tribunal of the Apostolic Chamber, November 1839; first assessor, 1842.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1842. Governor of Ascoli, 1843; of Civitavecchia, 1844; of Macerata, 1845-1847. Pro-legate in Urbino, 1847-1851. Pro-legate in Forlì, 1852-1854. Minister of Commerce, Fine Arts and Public Works of the Papal States, 1854-1858.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 15, 1858; received red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, March 18, 1858. President of the Supreme Council of Commerce and Public Works, March 15, 1858. Apostolic legate in the province of Bologna, March 18, 1858 to 1859. Abbot commendatario of Ss. Vincenzo ed Anastasio ad Aquas Salvias, Rome, September 26, 1860. President of the Council for subsidiorum procurandorum, May 1, 1867 to 1870. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 25, 1869 until March 21, 1870. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, March 21, 1870. Consecrated April 3, 1870, Rome, by Cardinal Costantino Patrizi Naro, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina.

Death. August 2, 1873, Rome. Exposed in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli and buried, temporarily, in the chapel of Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876. Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 135; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 14-15, 45 and 50; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 487, 537, 544, 564, 618, 640 and 675.

Link. Engravings, photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(50) 6. DE SILVESTRI, Pietro
(1803-1875)

Birth. February 13, 1803, Rovigo. From a noble family. Son of Count Francesco De Silvestri and Countess Antonia Dottori Sanson. He is also listed as Silvestri, Pietro de.

Education. Studied letters and philosophy at the Diocesan Seminary of Rovigo; and then attended the University of Padua at the University of Padua, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). He lectured in Biblical studies, hermeneutics, Hebrew and exegesis at the Seminary of Rovigo while serving at the parish church of Ss. Francesco e Giustina following his graduation. Named auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, November 28, 1835, at the request of the Austrian court; took the oath on June 20, 1836; its pro-dean, November 14, 1851; its dean, April 26, 1853-1858. Regent of the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, 1852-1858. Elected member of the Accademia di Religione Cattolica in 1853. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Inquisition, May 2, 1853 to 1858. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites. Superior of the pious establishment of Germany in Rome. Vicar of the chapter of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. Member of the S.C. for the Reconstruction of the basilica of S. Paolo fuori le mura. Judge of the tribunal of the Fabric of Saint Peter's basilica.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 15, 1858; received red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, March 18, 1858. Named protector of the Austrian nations by Emperor Francis Joseph I on October 17, 1858; occupied the post until 1867. On September 21, 1858, he transferred the family library, consisting of some 40,000 volumes, to the Municipio of Rovigo and the Accademia dei Concordi. From October 8, 1860 until 1867, he presided the Commission of subsidies and public welfare. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Marco, September 27, 1861. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 21, 1870 until August 1871. He owned the mansion of Petrarch in Arqua.

Death. November 19, 1875, in the evening, in Rome. Canon Pietro Taileti, his secretary, refused to be the executor of his testament. Exposed in his title, where the funeral mass was celebrated on November 24 by Giovanni Felice Jacovazzi, titular bishop of Eritre, suffragan of Palestrina; and buried, temporarily, in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. In his will, left the family picture gallery to the Seminary of Rovigo. His body was transferred by train to Rovigo and buried in the family plot in that city on January 21, 1876.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876. Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 137; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, XV, n. 266 (November 21, 1875), p. 2; XV, n. 267 (November 23, 1875), p. 2; and XV, n. 268 (November 24, 1875), p. 3; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 879-880' Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 15, 50, 54 and 63; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 458, 536, 538-540, 561, 570, 608, 612, 617, 619, 646, 675, 687 and 733.

Link. His engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(51) 7. MERTEL, Teodolfo
(1806-1899)

Birth. February 9, 1806, Allumiere, diocese of Civitavecchia (1).

Education. Studied with the Capuchins of Tolfa; Seminary of Montefiascone, Montefiascone (humanities); La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, July 16, 1828).

Early life. Lawyer in the Roman Curia, 1831. Substitute judge in the tribunal of the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, 1833- 1834. Assistant di Studio of Msgr. Marullo, voter of the tribunal of the Apostolic Signature and lieutenant of the Apostolic Chamber. Assistant di Studio of Mons. Quaglia, 1839-1843. Referendary prelate, August 29, 1843. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, 1844. Advocate a beneficio of Allumiere. Prefect of the congregation of S. Ivo, Roman institute of lawyers and procurators, for the pro bono defense of the poor. Lieutenant and vice-president of the civil congregation of the Apostolic Chamber, 1844-1847. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for the province of Romandiola, 1847. Secretary of the commission for the preparation of the fundamental statute of the Papal State, 1847-1848. Counselor of the High Council. Member of the Commission of State, December 7, 1848. Consultor of the Gubernative Commission of State, 1849. Minister without portfolio, June 1850 to 1853. Minister of the Interior and of Grace and Justice, March 10, 1853 to 1858.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 15, 1858; received red hat and the deaconry of S. Eustachio, March 18, 1858. President of the Supreme Council for Internal Affairs of the State, March 15, 1858. Ordained a deacon, May 16, 1858, Castelgandolfo, by Pope Pius IX; never ordained to the priesthood; last surviving cardinal to be only a deacon. Minister without portfolio, 1858-1863. Prefect of the economy of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide and the Reverend Chamber of Despoilments, September 26, 1860 to 1863. President of the Supreme Council of State, August 26, 1863 to 1871. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. Visitor and protector of the Order of St. Benedict Camaldolense, May 2, 1875. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Signature of Justice, June 2, 1877. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII. Secretary of Memorials and Petitions, July 15, 1878 to 1879. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs, June 29, 1879 to 1884. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, November 18, 1881. Cardinal protodeacon. Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church and Sommista of apostolic letters, March 24, 1884 until his death. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, pro illa vice deaconry, proper of the office of vice-chancellor, March 24, 1884.

Death. July 11, 1899, Allumiere. Exposed in the main church of Allumiere and buried in his family's tomb in the Shrine Madonna delle Grazie al Monte, Allumiere.

Bibliography "Cardinaux créés par Pie IX." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1904, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1905, p. 209; "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 203; Pásztor, Lajos. "Il Card. Mertel e il Concilio Vaticano I." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, XXIII (1969), 441-447; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 15, 49, 54 and 55; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 484-485, 536, 539, 564, 612, 615-617, 619, 651, 678, 692, 733, 741, 743, 748 and 751.

Link. Biography by Carlo Fantappiè, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 73 (2009), Treccani; biography and photograps, in Italian, Allumiere; engravings, portraits, photograps and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to all the printed sources consulted; and his first biography in Italian, linked above; Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 15, adds that besides this date, other sources, which he does not mention, say that he was born on February 6, 1806; his second biography in Italian, linked above, also says that he was born on February 6, 1806.

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