Birth. April 29 (1), 1803, Prospect, diocese of Kildare and Leighlin, Ireland. Son of Hugh Cullen, was a prosperous farmer, and his second wife, Mary Maher. Hugh married twice and had fifteen children (eight boys and seven girls); Paul was the third child. Uncle of Cardinal Francis Patrick Moran (1885), archbishop of Sydney, first Australian cardinal.
Education. He received his early education at Shackleton's Quaker Scool, Ballitore; then he studied at Saint Patrick's Seminary, Carlow; and later, from November 29, 1820, at the Pontifical Urban Athenaeum of Propaganda Fide, Rome; he defended his thesis on September 11, 1828, before Pope Leo XII. He received the diaconate on February 22, 1829.
Priesthood. Ordained, Easter Sunday April 19, 1829, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Caprano. Professor of Hebrew and Sacred Scripture in the schools of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, Rome, and director of the publishing branch of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide; edited and published a standard edition of the Greek and Latin Lexicon of Hedericus, and also the Acts of the Congregation of Propaganda in seven volumes as well as other important works; its rector for a brief time during the Roman Republic. Rector of the Irish College, Rome, from 1832 until December 19, 1849. In August 1834, he was nominated titular bishop of Orien and coadjutor bishop of Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada, on the recommendation of Bishop Aeneas Bernard McEachern of Charlottetown; he declined the nomination. In 1842, he was recommended as archbishop of Malta, but Rome did not agree (2). During the Irish Famine, he organized help abroad for its victims at home. In 1849, during the Roman Revolution, he was appointed rector of the Pontifical Urban Athenaeum of Propaganda Fide, retaining the rectorship of the Irish College.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Armagh, January 8, 1850. Consecrated, February 24, 1850, church of S. Agata dei Goti, Rome, by Cardinal Castruccio Castracane degli Antelminelli, bishop of Palestrina, assisted by Carlo Luigi Morichini, titular archbishop of Nisibi, and by John Thomas Hynes, O.P., titular bishop of Leros and apostolic vicar of Demerara. His episcopal motto was Ponit animam pro amicis. Apostolic visitor to all religious orders in Ireland, April 3, 1850. Apostolic delegate for the convocation and celebration of the Irish Synod of Bishops of Thurles, April 6, 1850. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Dublin, May 3, 1852. Apostolic administrator of Armagh, ad beneplacitum Sanctae Sedis, until October 4, 1852. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, November 2, 1854. Founder of the Catholic University of Dublin, he invited Father John Henry Newman, future cardinal and blessed, to be its first rector; Newman took up office in 1854, and stayed for seven years.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 22, 1866; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, June 25, 1866. First Irish cardinal resident in Ireland. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870; proposed the precise and accurate formula for the definition of papal infallibility which was accepted by the council. Granted faculty to convoke and preside over the Second Plenary Synod of the Irish Bishops, to be held in Maynooth in 1875, and appointed apostolic delegate to the same, May 30, 1873. Arrived in Rome after Pope Leo XIII had been elected in the conclave of 1878. He was the first Irish cardinal.
Death. October 24, 1878, in the archbishop's residence, Eccles street, Dublin. Exposed in St. Marry's pro-cathedral of Dublin; twenty six bishops and 759 clergy participated in his obsequies; and buried behind the main altar, chapel of Holy Cross College, Clonliffe, Dublin (3). This college, founded by him, was from 1859 the seminary for the archdiocese of Dublin. A memorial monument was erected in the pro-cathedral of Dublin (4).
Bibliography. Bowen, Desmond. Paul Cardinal Cullen and the shaping of modern Irish Catholicism. Dublin : Gill and Macmillan ; Waterloo, Ont., Canada : Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1983; Cardinal Paul Cullen and his world. Edited by Dáire Keogh & Albert McDonnell. Dublin : Four Courts Press, 2011. Contents: Paul Cullen: the great ultramontane / Emmet Larkin -- Converging worlds: Paul Cullen in the world of Mauro Cappellari / Christopher Korten -- The age of Pio Nono: the age of Paul Cullen / Eamon Duffy -- The ultramontane spirituality of Paul Cullen / Oliver P. Rafferty -- 'Strong views ... in very strong forms': Paul Cullen, archbishop of Armagh (1849-52) / Ambrose Macaulay -- Paul Cullen and the visual arts / Eileen Kane -- The pastoral vision of Paul Cullen / Ciaran O'Carroll -- Catholic Dublin: the public expression in the age of Paul Cullen / Mary E. Daly -- 'Attending to the wants of poverty': Paul Cullen, the relief of poverty and the development of social welfare in Ireland / Virginia Crossman -- Faith, famine and fenianism: Paul Cullen and the Irish emigrant world / Gerard Moran -- Amiens, Brisbane and Crimea: Paul Cullen and the Mercy Mission that led to the establishment of the Mater Hospital in Dublin / Margaret Ó hÓgartaigh -- Cardinal Cullen and the system of national education in Ireland / Joseph Doyle -- Paul Cullen in the Irish Conservative imagination / Andrew Shields -- A meeting of minds?: Margaret Aylward and Paul Cullen / Anne-Marie Close -- The conversion of Connemara and conflict between Paul Cullen and John MacHale / Miriam Moffitt -- His Excellency, His Eminence and the minister: Paul Cullen and channels of political communication during the first Gladstone administration, 1868-74 / James H. Murphy -- Paul Cullen, J.J. McCarthy and Holy Cross Church, Clonliffe: the politics and iconography of architectural style / John Montague -- 'Not ... an equal, but ... one of his subjects': John Henry Newman's perception of the archbishop of Dublin / Ian Ker -- Cardinal Cullen's other capital: Belfast and the 'devotional revolution' / S.J. Connolly -- Providence, revolution and the conditional defence of the union: Paul Cullen and the Fenians / Matthew Kelly -- The pope, the prelate, the soldiers and the controversy: Paul Cullen and the Irish Papal Brigade / Anne O'Connor -- Paul Cullen and the declaration of papal infallibility / Norman Tanner -- Paul Cullen and the Irish College, Paris / Liam Chambers -- Paul Cullen and the remaking of Catholicism in the Antipodes / Rory Sweetman -- Visualizing Ireland's first cardinal / Fintan Cullen -- 'An ambiguous awe': Paul Cullen and the historians / Colin P. Barr -- Reassessing Paul Cullen: an afterword / Gearóid Ó Tuathaigh; "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 172; Cullen, Paul. The pastoral letters and other writings of Cardinal Cullen, Archbishop of Dublin. 3 v. Edited by Patrick Francis Moran. Dublin : Browne & Nolan, 1882. Other Titles: Writings of Cardinal Cullen ; The writings of Cardinal Cullen by the Bishop of Ossory; MacSuibhne, Peadar. The good Cardinal Cullen. Dublin : Irish Messenger Publications, 1979; The Irish College, Rome, and its world. Edited by Dáire Keogh and Albert McDonnell. Dublin ; Portland, OR : Four Courts Press, 2008. Contents: The beginnings of the Irish College, Rome / Patrick J. Corish -- Luke Wadding's networks at home and abroad / Thomas O'Connor -- Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi (1595-1632) / Charles Burns -- Some Irish donors of books to the Irish College in Rome, 1611-1678 / Hugh Fenning -- 'The spiritual governance of the entire world' : a memorial for the Irish College, Rome, January 1783 / Clare Carroll -- Daniel O'Connell's Roman bequest / Fearghus Ó Fearghail -- The Irish College, Rome, and the appointment of Irish bishops to the United States, 1830-1851 / Colin Barr -- The archives of the Irish College, Rome : a source for the history of art in Ireland / Eileen Kane -- Tobias Kirby (1804-1895) : the man who kept the papers / Michael Olden -- An efficacious Irish triumvirate : Paul Cullen, Tobias Kirby and Joseph Dixon / Amy McKinney -- The papal brigade of St Patrick / Ciarán O'Carroll -- The Irish College, Rome, and the land war / Ambrose Macaulay -- 'Waving the green flag' in the southern hemisphere : the Kellys and the Irish College, Rome / Rory Sweetman -- Monsignor O'Riordan, the Irish College, Rome, and First World War military chaplaincy / Peter Anthony Boyle -- John Hagan and radical Irish nationalism, 1916-1930 : a study in political Catholicism / Dermot Keogh -- Life at the Irish College during the Second Vatican Council / Michael Smith -- The archives of the Pontifical Irish College, Rome : history and holdings / Vera Orschel; O'Carroll, Ciarán. Paul Cardinal Cullen : portrait of a practical nationalist. Dublin, Ireland : Veritas, 2008. Note: "Paul Cullen and his relationship with the Independent Irish Party of the 1850s and the Fenian Movement in Ireland of the 1860s"; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 17 and 122-123; Swayne, Peter ; Cullen, Paul. Paul Cullen and his contemporaries : with their letters from 1820-1902. 5 v. Naas, Ire. : Leinster Leader, 1961-1977. Reponsibility: by Peadar Mac Suibhne ; pref. by Dr. Keogh.
Links. Biography by Cardinal Patrick Francis Moran, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; Life, works, criticism, notes, in English, Princess Grace Irish Library (Monaco); portrait and biography by Donnchadh Ó Corráin, in English, University College Cork, Ireland; his monument, St. Mary's pro-catrhedral, Dublin, Wikipedia; portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is according to all the sources consulted, printed and electronic, except Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 17, which says that he was born on April 27, 1803 but adds that other sources, which he does not name, say that he was born on April 29, 1803.
(2) According to O'Carroll, Paul Cardinal Cullen : portrait of a practical nationalist, p. 27, "As early as 1830 Cullen's name was mentioned in connection with a nomination as coadjutor bishop to the See of Philadelphia. Cullen's name was discussed in relation to the offie of coadjutor of New York in 1834 and again in 1837. He was also suggested as a candidate in 1837 for a new diocese to be established in Pittsburgh."
(3) Holy Cross College at Clonliffe is no longer operating as a seminary. It closed as such in 2001. Dublin students for the priesthood now pursue their studies at St Patrick's College in Maynooth. Part of the college is now used by the growing "Mater Dei Institute of Education", a college of Dublin City University and a foundation of the Catholic archdiocese of Dublin for the training of religious education teachers and others who will work in the front line of Irish life as mediators, opinion formers, etc. It has approx. 500 students (mostly lay).
(4) This is the the text of the inscription in the base of the monument, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, London:
Birth. February 26, 1823, Rothenburg, diocese of Fulda, Germany. Son of Franz Joseph von Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst and Konstanze von Hohenlohe-Langenburg.
Education. Studied humanities at the gymnasiums of Ansbach and Erfürt; studied law in Bonn; Seminary of Breslau, Breslau (theology); Seminary of Münich, Münich (theology); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, Autumn 1846 to 1847.
Priesthood. Ordained, January 1849, Gaeta. Privy chamberlain participantium, 1850 to 1866. Secret almoner of His Holiness, November 7, 1857.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Edessa in Osrhoëne, November 13, 1857. Consecrated, November 22, 1857, Vatican, by Pope Pius IX. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, November 30, 1857. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 1, 1857. Plans for his appointment to a diocese in Germany could not be carried out.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 22, 1866; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, June 25, 1866. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870; opposed the definition of the dogma of papal infallibility but when the council passed the declaration, he accepted and supported it. After the dissolution of the Papal States in 1870, went to Germany. Otto von Bismarck tried 1872 to appoint him German ambassador to the Holy See but failed because of the opposition of the Curia. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII. He strived for the reconciliation between church and state in the cultural fight. Named archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, July 15, 1878. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and suburbicarian see of Albano, May 12, 1879. Differences with the Curia made him resign his diocese in September 1883. Pope Leo XIII accepted the resignation in December 1883 and allowed him to return to the order of cardinal priests occupying the place in seniority he had after Cardinal Antonio Maria Panebianco before opting for the order of cardinal bishops. Opted for the title of S. Callisto, November 10, 1884. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, December 2, 1895. Cardinal primo prete. He suffered a heart attack while at the baths of Tivoli in September 1896. He was saved from certain death by drowning by his personal chamberlain, Chev. Gustavo Nobili.
Death. October 30, 1896, at 7:30 a.m., in his residence near the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina; and buried in the Germanic cemetery Sanctæ Marthæ (Teutonic cemetery) in the Vatican (1).
Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 200; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 17, 43, 47, 49, 51 and 256; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 473-474, 548, 690, 704, 714, 715, 728, 737, 747 and 762.
Links. Biography, in German; biography, also in German; his genealogy, Section 4, 11a, 6b.
(1) This is the text of his epitaph, provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
Birth. March 25, 1826, Alessandria, Piedmont. From a modest family. Son of Giuseppe Bilio and Maddalena Burali. His baptismal name was Tommaso Francesco. His parents died when he was still a child.
Education. Entered the Congregation of the Clerics Regular of Saint Paul (Barnabites) when he was fourteen years old; professed in Genoa in 1842; took the name Luigi Maria.
Priesthood. Ordained in 1849 in Vercelli. Professor of Greek and philosophy at Collegio Ducale, Parma; and in Naples, where he was very appreciated by its archbishop, Cardinal Sisto Riario Sforza. In 1857, he was named professor of philosophy, theology and canon law at the studentato of his order at S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome. Assistant to the father general of his order. amed consultor of the S.C. of the Inquisition in 1864, at the suggestion of Cardinal Riario Sforza; and of the S.C. of the Index in 1865. He was the principal redactor of the Syllabus; and of the encyclical Quanta Cura.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 22, 1866 (1); received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, June 25, 1866. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870; president of the commission for the examination of doctrinal questions; named alternate president of the Council on December 29, 1869. He was one of the redactors of the enciclical that suspended the Council; and of another encyclical concerning the laws of guarantee with the new Italian monarchy.
Episcopate. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, December 22, 1873. Consecrated, January 12, 1874, at the Hall of the Consistory, at the Vatican, by Pope Pius IX, assisted by Frédéric-François-Xavier Ghislain de Mérode, titular archbishop of Melitene, almoner of the Apostolic Palace, and by Francesco Marinelli, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of the Apostolic Palace. Prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Relics, July 12, 1876. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites, December 20, 1876. Grand penitentiary, October 18, 1877 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Universal and Roman Inquisition, January 25, 1883 until his death.
Death. January 30, 1884, Rome. Exposed in the church of Ss. Carlo e Biagio ai Catinari, Rome; and buried in the tomb of his order in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.
Bibliography. Bilio, Luigi ; Baravelli, A. M. Omaggio poetico al reverendo padre Luigi Bilio barnabita creato cardinale di S. R. C. il dl XXII giugno MDCCCLXVI. Bologna : Tipografia mareggiani all'insegna di Dante, 1866; "Luigi Bilio" in "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 178-179; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 152-155; Pica, Ignazio-Maria. Le Cardinal Bilio, barnabite, un des prisidents du concile du Vatican (1826-1884). Paris : librairie de l'oeuvre de Saint-Paul, 1898; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 17, 45 and 49; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 440, 679, 690, 714, 718, 741, 748 and 751-753.
(1) He was created a cardinal at the suggestion of Father Giuseppe Carlo Vercellone, C.R.S.P., who declined the promotion offered to him by the pope.
Birth. March 15, 1802, Fermo. Of an ancient family of the provincial nobility. Eldest of the three sons of Marquis Giulio Cesare Matteucci and his wife, Elisabetta Brancadoro. The other children were Felice, who was vice-consul of France in Fermo and in Ascoli Piceno; and Giacomo. Nephew of Cardinal Cesare Brancadoro (1801), on his mother's side.
Education. (No information found).
Early life. Canon coadjutor of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in 1820; titular in 1826. Vice-president of the Circolo Popolare of Senigallia and commander of the local National Guard. Domestic prelate of His Holiness in April 1829. Referendary prelate, May 7, 1829. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, 1830. Judge of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's, 1830-1836. First assessor of the tribunal del Governo, 1832-1835. Prelate adjunct of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, 1833-1846. Relator of the Sacred Consulta, 1836. Economous and secretary of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's, 1837-1843. Secretary of the Sacred Consulta, 1844-1853. Director general of police, November 8, 1852 to 1865. Vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church and supreme moderator of public security in Rome and all pontifical jurisdiction, April 15, 1853 until 1865 (1).
Sacred orders. Ordained a deacon.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 22, 1866; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, June 25, 1866 (2). Died before taking possession of his deaconry. Because of his sudden death, there were rumors of poisoning.
Death. July 9, 1866, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Salvatore in Lauro, Rome, where the funeral took place on July 12, 1866, with the participation of Pope Pius IX, and buried in that same church.
Bibliography. "Antonio Matteucci" in "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876. Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 126; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 615-616; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 17 and 54; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 100 and IV, 693; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 484, 547 and 699.
Links. Biography by Lidia Pupilli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 72 (2008), Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) His biography in Italian, linked above, indicates that the figure of Monsignor Antonio as been the object of scathing and harsh assessments due to his notoriously opaque moral mostly following his known overwhelming weakness for women, in particular, his famous lover Nina - a married woman of humble origins already mistress of the Prince of Piombino, Antonio Boncompagni Ludovisi, known in Rome as "Nina Matteucci" - and the "police excesses" manifested even in the control of public shows (R. De Cesare, Roma e lo Stato del papa dal ritorno di Pio IX al XX settembre, Roma 1907, I, pp. 73).
(2) The circumstance of the elevation to cardinal of Monsignor Matteucci generated questions about the reasons that led Pope Pius IX - who, aware of his conduct, apparently had been on the point of inducing him to resign from governor of Rome - to promote a character so discredited; those questions created some difficulties in the beatification of the pope on September 3, 2000.
Birth. June 7, 1806, Senigallia. Of the marchises of Consolini. He was the the fourth son of Marchis Tommaso Consolini and Angela Grapelli. His baptismal name was Domenico Antonio Luigi Pacifico Nicola Baldassare.
Education. Studied in Senigallia; and later at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, from 1830 until 1832; he distinguished himself especially in the juridical studies.
Sacred orders. Ordained (no information found; he was never ordained a priest). He entered the Roman prelatureon December 20, 1832 as domestic prelate of His Holiness, referendary and protonotary apostolic. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, 1833-1834. First assessor of the criminal tribunal of the Apostolic Chamber, 1834. Adjunct prelate of the S.C. of the Council. Apostolic delegate in Camerino, February 1835 until 1837. Apostolic delegate in Fermo, April 1838 until 1842. Auditor of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, 1843-1847. Assessor of the tribunal of the S.C. of Loreto, 1844. Apostolic delegate in Perugia, toward the end of 1846; he distinguished himself for his moderation and impartiality. Vice-president of the Council of State, December 1850 until 1866.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 22, 1866; received red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, June 25, 1866. Prefect of the Economat of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide and of the Chamber of Despoilments, December 20, 1867 until March 26, 1877. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII. Archchancellor of the Roman University, Rome. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, March 24, 1884 until his death.
Death. December 20, 1884, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Eustachio, where the funeral took place on Deecember 24; and buried, temporarily, in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. Later, Countess Marcolini Solustri, daughter of Marchioness Teresa Consolini in Solustri, took his bones back to Senigallia, where he was reburied in the local Cimitero delle Grazie.
Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 180; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 260-262; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 17 and 55; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 452-453, 677, 692, 730, 742, 748 and 754.
Birth. January 10, 1814, Sordevolo, diocese of Biella, Piedmont.
Education. Entered the Order of the Clerics Regular of Saint Paul (Barnabites); took the habit, November 3, 1829, Genoa; professed, November 4, 1830; studied philosophy and theology in Turin, 1830; and in Rome under Aloysius Ungarelli, starting from 1832.
Priesthood. Ordained, July 17, 1836, Turin. He worked in different schools of his order, mostly as a lecturer in theology Turin, 1835; Alessandria, 1836; Perugia, 1837; Parma 1839; and again Turin, 1843. From 1844, he lived in the Barnabite Collegio S. Carlo in Rome; he was first a lecturer in theology; and then provost, 1847-1850. Since 1850, he functioned in the Roman general curia of the Barnabite order, first as a general assistant, April 30, 1850 until April 1853; then as general procurator, April 30, 1853 until May 18, 1865; and because of the absence of the superior general, also as vicar general of the order (1), May until October 1853; finally, again as a general assistant, August 8, 1866 until his death. In the years starting from 1850, he exercised his activity, besides his offices in the order's curia, also as a professor, 1844-1864, at Collegio S. Carlo; he read exegeses, Hebrew language, church history (using the texts of the Barnabite Cardinal Hyacinthe Sigismond Gerdil), moral theology and dogmatics. During the occupation of the Collegio by the soldiers of the Roman Republic in 1849, he remained in the house, in order to protect its precious library. His daily chronicle concerning this endeavor was published 1935. He became a member of several Roman academies such as the Pontificia Accademia dell'Immaculata Concezione, the Accademia di Archeologia, the Accademia di Religione Cattolica, and the Accademia Tiberina. Pope Pius IX appointed him consultor of the S.C. of the Index on July 11, 1850 and of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide for the Eastern Churches when it was established on January 6, 1862. From August 11, 1867 up to his death, he was consultor of the preparatory commission of the First Vatican Council for Eastern missions questions. At the Roman University of La Sapienza, he functioned as a member of the college of philosophy. He owes his celebrity to his research on Biblical manuscripts, such as his critical studies on the text of the Latin Vulgate, and especially, his editing of the Codex Vaticanus (B). As a consultor of the S.C. of the Index, he participated in the controversy concerning the emergence in France, Belgium and Italy, of the ideas frequently known under the name "Ontologismus" or "Traditionalismus" (passing on as source of realization of the ideas) which were opposed by the Neoscholastics .
Cardinalate. According to his biography in German, linked below; and to the article by Luigi M. Cagni, "Pie IX donne la pourpre à un Barnabite", in the French edition of L'Osservatore Romano, March 16, 1962, p. 4-5, Pope Pius IX wanted to name a Barnabite cardinal before the First Vatican Council opened on December 8, 1869. The best known Barnabite at that time was Father Vercellone but he refused because of his age and his state of health, and proposed the name of his pupil Father Luigi Bilio, C.R.S.P.
Death. January 19, 1869, Rome. Buried in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.
Bibliography. Martin, Daniel William. "Vercellone, Carlo." The New Catholic Encyclopedia. 19 vols. Prepared by an editorial staff at the Catholic University of America. New York : McGraw-Hill, 1967-2001, XIV, 611; Penna, Angelo. "Vercellone, Carlo Giuseppe." Enciclopedia Cattolica. 12 vols. Città del Vaticano: Ente per l'Enciclopedia cattolica e per il Libro cattolico, 1948-54, XII, cols. 1253-1254.
Link. Biography by Charles Souvay, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia.
(1) Martin, "Vercellone, Carlo", 610; Penna, Angelo. "Vercellone, Carlo Giuseppe" , col. 1253; and his biography in English, linked above, indicate that he was superior general of his order.
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