The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius IX (1846-1878)
Consistory of March 15, 1875 (XVIII)

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(94) 1. ANTICI MATTEI, Ruggero Luigi Emidio (1811-1883)

Birth. March 23, 1811, Recanati. Son of Carlo Teodoro Antici, marquis and baron of Pescia, and Anna Maria Mattei. Received the sacrament of confirmation, July 4, 1813. Another cardinal of the family was Girolamo Mattei (1586).

Education. Collegio Nazareno, Rome, 1818; Collegio Romano, Rome, 1826-1832. Received the insignias of the clerical character, May 12, 1831; minor orders, September 8, 1831; subdiaconate, February 2, 1834; diaconate, March 25, 1834.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 7, 1834, Rome. Examiner of the clergy of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Curate in the abbey of Forlimpopoli. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1837; later, its dean. Referendary prelate, July 13, 1843. Judge of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's, 1843-1847. Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial and of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1850-1875. Prelate adjunct of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, 1851.

Episcopate. Elected titular Latin patriach of Constantinople, January 8, 1866. Consecrated, February 25, 1866, Rome, by Cardinal Costantino Patrizi. Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, March 31, 1875.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal in the consistory of March 15, 1875, and reserved in pectore; published, September 17, 1875; received the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, January 28, 1876; and the red hat, March 15, 1877. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII.

Death. April 21, 1883, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Angelo in Pescheria and buried in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 177; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 20, 49 and 224; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 428-429, 731, 742, 747, 749 and 755.


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(95) 2. GIANNELLI, Pietro
(1807-1881)

Birth. August 11, 1807, Terni. Son of Pietro Giannelli, from a patrician family originally from Nepi, and Olimpia Petroni.

Education. Studied at the Jesuit Collegio of Terni (humanities); and at La Sapienza University, Rome (philosophy), and obtaining a master's in theology: and later, earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on May 25, 1831. At the beginning of his ecclesiastical career, he had joined the Society of Jesus, but later, he left the order.

Priesthood. Ordained on October 3, 1830 for the diocese of Terni. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Auditor for several years of the Apostolic Chamber under the presidency of Msgr. Lavinio Spada Medici. Auditor of the nunciature in Naples, 1851. Auditor of the nunciature in France 1852-1853. Named auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota on December 10, 1852; took possession on February 21, 1853. Named nuncio in Naples, March 18, 1858 (1).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sardes, April 5, 1858. Consecrated, June 6, 1858, Montecitorio, Rome, by Cardinal Costantino Patrizi, assisted by Antonio Ligi Bussi, titular archbishop of Iconio, and by Giuseppe Cardoni, titular bishop of Caristo. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 25, 1858. During his nunciature in Naples, he maintained excellent relations with King Ferdinando II and when the monarch had to flee to Gaeta in eptember 1860, the nuncio accompanied him until his return in February 1862. Pro-secretary of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, September 30 (2), 1861; secretary, March 14, 1868 to 1875. Secretary of the Preparatory Commission of the First Vatican Council, 1864-1869. On December 16, 1869, the pope named him among the twenty six members of the commission Pro recipiendis et expendendis PP. propositionibus, in charge of the examination of the propositions submitted by the bishops for discussion. On February 5, 1870, he pronounced himself in favor of placing in the council's agenda of the day the question of papal infallibility.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 15, 1875; received the title of S. Agnese fuori le Mura, March 31, 1875; and the red hat, March 15, 1877. Named president of the Supreme Council of Public Affairs (Consilium supremum publicae rei moderandae ) on June 2, 1877. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII. Secretary de' memoriali, June 29, 1879.

Death. November 5, 1881 (3), Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari and buried in Campo Verano cemetery.

Bibliography. Cerchiari, Emmanuele. Capellani papae et apostolicae sedis auditores causarum sacri palatii apostolici : seu sacra Romana Rota ab origine ad diem usque 20 septembris 1870. Relatio historica - iuridica. Syntaxis capellanorum auditorum.. Romae : Typis Polyglotis Vaticanis, 1920, p. 318; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, pp. 177; "Pietro Giannelli" in "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 176; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 20, 46 and 501; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 470, 732, 743, 748 and 756.

Links. Biography by Carlo M. Fiorentino, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 54 (2000), Treccani; The Giannelli family, Fabrizio Giannelli; his photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) According to De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 177, Nuncio Giannelli closed the nunciature on September 6, 1860, the same day in which the king of Naples left the capital city because of Garibaldi's invasion. Two days later, the nuncio followed to court to Gaeta. On November 18, 1860, after having expressed his recognition to the nuncio for his loyalty, he invited him to retire to Rome. The nuncio transferred himself definitively to Rome in the Spring of 1861.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 20; the same source, VIII, 501, says that he was named on October 1, 1861.His biography by Fiorentino, linked above, also says that he was named on October 1, 1861.
(3) This is according to "Pietro Giannelli" in "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, p. 176; and Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 20 and 46. His biography by Fiorentino, linked above, says that he died on May 5, 1881.


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(96) 3. LEDÓCHOWSKI, Mieczysław Halka
(1822-1902)

Birth. October 29, 1822 (1), Górki, diocese of Sandomierz, Poland, Russian Empire. Son of Count Josef Ledóchowski and Maria Zakrzewska. Baptized, October 31, 1822, in Górki, by Fr. Wincenty Zachorski. He had three brothers Julian Andrzej, Jan Józef and Antoni Franciszek; and a sister, Helena Anna. His grandfather, Anthony, after his wife's death, in 1822, joined the Order of the Missionaries of St. Vincent de Paul. Uncle of St. Urszula Ledóchowska, Bl. Marija Teresa Ledóchowska and Fr. Wladimir Ledóchowski, superior general of the Society of Jesus.

Education. Studied in the gymnasium in Radom and in Warsaw; at the Seminary of Warsaw from 1841 until 843 (had to leave because of illness); at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, from 1844; at Collegio Romano, Rome, where he earned doctorates in theology on March 13, 1847; and in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on July 12, 1847. Received the subdiaconate on February 9, 1845, and the diaconate the following February 15.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 13, 1845, Rome, by Cardinal Luigi Lambruschini, C.R.S.P. Attached to the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1846. Decorated Order of Isabel la Católica, November 19, 1850. Auditor of the nunciature in Portugal, June 8, 1852 to 1856. Protonotary apostolic ad instar participantium, August 22, 1856. Apostolic delegate to Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Perú and Venezuela, September 26, 1856 (2); expelled from Colombia, July 25, 1861. Decorated with the knighthood of the Order of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 1856.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tebe, September 30, 1861. Nuncio in Belgium, October 1, 1861 (3). Consecrated, November 3, 1861, church of SS. Trinità a Montecitorio (no longer a church, it is the actual parliament building), Rome, by Cardinal Camillo Di Pietro, assisted by Alessandro Franchi, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, and Salvatore Nobili Vitelleschi, titular archbishop of Seleucia. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Gniezno and Poznań, January 8, 1866. For his opposition to the regulations imposed on the church by the Prussian government's Kulturkampf, he was ordered on November 24, 1873, to present his resignation. When he refused, he was arrested between 3 and 4 a.m., February 3, 1874, and taken to the dungeon of Ostrowo. The Prussian government deposed him on April 15, 1874. While still in prison, he was created cardinal.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 15, 1875. On February 3, 1876, he was released from prison and ordered to leave Prussia. He continued to rule his diocese from Rome. Received the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, April 7, 1876; and the red hat, March 15, 1877. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII. Secretary of Petitions and Memorials, March 24, 1884. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 24, 1884 until March 27, 1885. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs, March 4, 1885. Voluntarily resigned pastoral government of the archdiocese for the sake of peace, February 2, 1886. Prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide and of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide for the Affairs of the Oriental Rite, January 26, 1892 until his death. Protector of the Pontifical North American College, Rome, 1892-1902. The cardinal and the Prussian Government reconciled when Emperor William II visited Rome in 1893. President of the Missionary Seminary of the Saint Apostles Peter and Paul, Rome, February 9, 1894. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1895. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, November 30, 1896. Cardinal protoprete. He declined the promotion to the order of cardinal bishop in 1896.

Death. July 22, 1902, in the morning, suddenly, in Rome (4). Exposed in his title and buried in the chapel of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. His remains were transferred to the metropolitan cathedral of Poznań on October 30, 1927.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 207; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, pp. 63 and 96; Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 242-243; Restrepo Posada, José. "Galería de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia." Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica, V (January-June, 1970), pp. 203-211; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 20, 49, 50, 287 and 545; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 476-477, 723, 737, 749 and 762.

Links. Biography by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Wikipedia; his photograph and biographical data, in Czech; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; and catalog of the archbishops of Gniezno and primates of Poland, in English, Wikipedia.

(1) This is according to "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, p. 207. Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 545; Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, II, 476; and his biography in English, linked above. De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 63; and Restrepo, "Galería de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia," Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica, p. 203, indicate that he was born on October 22, 1822.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 545; De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 96; Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, II, 476; and Restrepo, "Galería de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia," Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica, p. 203, say that he was named nuncio in Colombia on June 17, 1856.
(3) This is according to De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 63 (taking the information from the communication of the Secretariat of State to the Secretariat of Brief to the Princes); and Restrepo, "Galería de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia," Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica, p. 203; and Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, II, 476; Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 545, says that he was named on October 1, 1861 (taking the information from Secretariat of Briefs, 5647 f. 82).
(4) He was out driving as usual the evening before. When his valet entered his room at around 9 am., the cardinal had a sudden paralytic stroke and succumbed. He had been in ill health for a long time.


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(97) 4. MCCLOSKEY, John
(1810-1885)

Birth. March 10 (1), 1810, Brooklyn, diocese of New York, United States of America. Son of Irish immigrants Patrick McCloskey and Elizabeth Harron (some records say Hassan). He was baptized on May 6, 1810 in St. Peter's Church in Manhattan by Rev. Benedict Joseph Fenwick, S.J., future bishop of Boston and one of his co-consecrators.

Education. Studied at Mount St. Mary's College and Seminary, Emmitsburg, Maryland; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 12, 1834, New York, by John Dubois, bishop of New York. In the diocese of New York, pastoral work, and professor of philosophy and vice president of St. Joseph's Seminary, Nyack, 1834. Further studies, Rome, 1834-1837. In the diocese of New York, pastoral work, 1837-1843; acting president, St. John's College, Fordham, 1841-1842. Rector of St. Joseph's Seminary, Fordham, 1842-1843.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Axiere and appointed coadjutor of New York, with right of succession, November 21, 1843. Consecrated, March 10, 1844, New York, by John Joseph Hughes, bishop of New York, assisted by Benedict Joseph Fenwick, S.J., bishop of Boston, and by Vincent Richard Whelan, bishop of Richmond. In the same ceremony were consecrated William Quarter, first bishop of Chicago; and Andrew Byrne, first bishop of Little Rock. His episcopal motto was In spem vitae aeternae. The assistant priest was the Rev. Félix Varela, a famous Cuban patriot, then an exile in New York, whose cause of beatification has been introduced. Instrumental in the conversion of Isaac Hecker, founder of the Paulist order of priests, and of James Roosevelt Bayley, later archbishop of Baltimore. Transferred to the see of Albany, May 21, 1847. Attended the Seventh Provincial Council of Baltimore, 1849. Attended the First Plenary Council of Baltimore, 1852. Convened and presided over the First, Second, and Third Provincial Councils of New York in 1854, 1860, and 1861, respectively. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, 1862. Promoted to the metropolitan see of New York, May 6, 1864. Attended the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore, 1866. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 15, 1875; received the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, September 17, 1875; and, from Pope Leo XIII, the red hat, March 28, 1878. First cardinal from the United States. Member of the SS. CC. of Bishops and Regulars, Council, Index and Rites. Arrived after Pope Leo XIII had been elected in the conclave of 1878. Dedicated St. Patrick's cathedral in May 1879. He was in ill health throughout 1885 (2).

Death. October 10, 1885, New York. Exposed in Saint Patrick's metropolitan cathedral, New York; over 150,000 people passed the bier while he was laid out in state. His funeral mass was held at the metropolitan Cathedral on October 25, 1885. During the eulogy, Archbishop James Gibbons of Baltimore described him as "a kind father, a devoted friend, a watchful shepherd, a fearless leader and, above all, an impartial judge." He was buried in its crypt, under the high altar; a simple inscription on the door of the vault reads: "John Cardinal McCloskey, died October 10, 1885." (3)

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 10; "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 182; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, pp. 185-186; Farley, John. The life of John Cardinal McCloskey, first prince of the church in America, 1810-1885. New York : Longmans, Green, 1918; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, XXV, n. 231 (October 11,, 1855), p. 3; Ritzler, Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 101 and 280; Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 20, 50, 85 and 407; Thornton, Francis Beauchesne. Our American princes. The story of the seventeen American cardinals. New York : Putnam's, 1963, pp. 19-43.

Links. Biography, in English, Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL); his bust, photograph and biography, in English, Cardinal McCloskey Services; his photograph, New York Public Library, New York, United States of America; another photograph, Mathew Brady Studio (active 1844-1883), Frederick Hill Meserve Collection, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., United States of America; another photograph, havelshouseofhistory.com; daguerreotype, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., United States of America; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Farley, The life of John Cardinal McCloskey, first prince of the church in America, 1810-1885, p. 2; Bransom, Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989, p. 10; Code, Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964), p. 185; Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 280; and his second biography in English, linked above. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, p. 182; Thornton, Our American princes, p. 20; and his first biography in English, linked above, indicate that he was born on March 20, 1810.
(2) He suffered from bouts of fever, intense pain, loss of sight, and a recurrence of malaria that aggravated what appeared to be signs of Parkinson's disease. Within a few months, he was hospitalized and later died.
(3) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

+
JOANNES
TIT S MARIAE SUPRA MINERVAM
S.R.E. PRESB.
CARDINALIS MCCLOSKEY,
ARCHIEPISCOPUS SECUNDUS
NEO. EBORACENSIS.
VIXIT AN. LXXV.
OBIIT X OCT. MDCCCLXXXV.


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(98) 5. MANNING, Henry Edward
(1808-1892)

Birth. July 15, 1808, Totteridge, apostolic vicariate of London, England. Youngest son of William Manning, a Tory MP for almost forty years, and his second wife, Mary Hunter.

Education. Harrow Public School (1822-1827); Balliol College, Oxford University, Oxford (1827); Merton College, Oxford University, Oxford (fellow, 1832); Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome (1851).

Early life. Ordained a priest in the Church of England, December 23, 1832. Rector of Lavington-with-Graffham, Sussex, 1833-1850. Married Caroline Sargent in 1833; she was the third daughter of his predecessor and died in 1837 (when he died, a locket containing his wife's picture was found on a chain around his neck); later on, two of her sisters and their families joined the Roman Catholic Church. Archdeacon of Chichester, 1840. Became one of the leaders of the Tractarian revival, early phase of the Oxford Movement. Visited Rome and had a private audience with Pope Pius IX, May 11, 1848. "The Gorham Judgment", of 1850, which showed him clearly that the Church of England was at the mercy of the state, was decisive in his long road towards Roman Catholicism. He was received into the Catholic Church by Father Brownbill, S.J., in the Jesuit church in Fram Street, London, April 6, 1851.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 14, 1851, London, by Cardinal Nicholas Wiseman, archbishop of Westminster. Further studies in Rome, 1852-1855. Founded the Congregation of the Oblates of St. Charles Borromeo, St. Mary of the Angels, Bayswater, 1857. Provost of the cathedral chapter of Westminster, 1857. Domestic prelate of His Holiness.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Westminster, May 16, 1865. Consecrated, June 8, 1865, Church of Saint Mary, Moorfields, London, by William Bernard Ullathorne, bishop of Birmingham, assisted by William Turner, bishop of Salford, and by Thomas Joseph Brown, bishop of Newport and Menevia. Took part in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 15, 1875; received the title of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio al Monte Celio, March 31, 1875; and the red hat, December 31, 1877. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII.

Death. January 14, 1892, London. Exposed in the chapel of the Oratory of Brompton and buried in the cemetery of Kensal Green, London. Transferred to the Crypt Chapel of St Peter of Westminster metropolitan cathedral, London, January 25, 1907 (1).

Bibliography. Arx, Jeffrey von. "Cardinal Manning and his Political Persona: The Education Act of 1870", in Victorian churches and churchmen : essays presented to Vincent Alan McClelland. Edited by Sheridan Gilley. Woodgridge, UK ; Rochester, NY : Published for the Catholic Record Society by the Boydell Press, 2005. (Catholic Record Society publications. Monograph series ; v. 7; Variation: Catholic Record Society publications.; Monograph series ; v. 7), 1, p. 1-11; Baxter, Dudley. England's cardinals. With an appendix showing the reception of the sacred pallium by the archbishops of Canterbury and Westminster. London : Burns & Oates ; New York : Benzinger, 1903, pp. 79-81; Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, pp. 124-130; "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, pp. 190-191; Erb, Peter C. "Henry Edward Manning, Priscilla Maurice, and the Pastoral Care of the Sick", in Victorian churches and churchmen : essays presented to Vincent Alan McClelland. Edited by Sheridan Gilley. Woodgridge, UK ; Rochester, NY : Published for the Catholic Record Society by the Boydell Press, 2005. (Catholic Record Society publications. Monograph series ; v. 7; Variation: Catholic Record Society publications.; Monograph series ; v. 7), 2, p. 12-27; Gard, Robin. "The Cardinal and the Penitent: Cardinal Manning and Virginia Crawford", in Victorian churches and churchmen : essays presented to Vincent Alan McClelland. Edited by Sheridan Gilley. Woodgridge, UK ; Rochester, NY : Published for the Catholic Record Society by the Boydell Press, 2005. (Catholic Record Society publications. Monograph series ; v. 7; Variation: Catholic Record Society publications.; Monograph series ; v. 7), 3, p. 28-57; Gooch, Leo. "Henry O'Callaghan: Manning's Reluctant Episcopal Protégé", in Victorian churches and churchmen : essays presented to Vincent Alan McClelland. Edited by Sheridan Gilley. Woodgridge, UK ; Rochester, NY : Published for the Catholic Record Society by the Boydell Press, 2005. (Catholic Record Society publications. Monograph series ; v. 7; Variation: Catholic Record Society publications.; Monograph series ; v. 7), 4, p. 58-74; Lemire, Jules. Le Cardinal Manning et son action sociale. Paris : V. Lecoffre, 1893; Leslie, Shane. Cardinal Manning, his life and labours. New York : P. J. Kenedy, 1954; McClelland, Vincent Alan. Cardinal Manning, his public life and influence, 1865-1892. London; New York : Oxford University Press, 1962; Pressensé, Francis de Hault de; Furey, Francis T. Purcell's "Manning" refuted. Life of Cardinal Manning with a critical examination of E.S. Purcell's mistakes. Philadelphia : J.J. McVey, 1897; Purcell, Edmund Sheridan. Life of Cardinal Manning, archbishop of Westminster. 2 vols. New York; London : Macmillan, 1895-1896; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 20, 46 and 598; Taylor, Ida A. The Cardinal Democrat, Henry Edward Manning". London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1908; Walsh, Michael J. The Westminster cardinals : the past and the future. London ; New York : Burns & Oates, 2008, p. 35-59.

Links. Biography by William Kent, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; his portrait by George Frederick Watts, National Portrait Gallery, London; same portrait enlarged; his photograph, Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France; his photograph from 1870; banner of the The Amalgamated Society of Watermen, Lightermen and Bargemen; his engraving; another photograph; his effigy on a medal by Alphonse Legros, Tate Gallery, London, England; his bust by James Harvard Thomas, Tate Gallery, London, England; his caricature in Vanity Fair; his portrait and biographical data, in English; his bust by John Adams-Acton, National Portrait Gallery, London, England; and his photograph by Bassano, National Portrait Gallery, London; his portrait by Gerald Moira (1906), Victoria and Albert Museum, London, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC; his portrait by Charles Goldsborough Anderson, Merton College, University of Oxford, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC; engravings. portraits, photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

CARDINAL HENRY EDWARD MANNING
SECOND ARCHBISHOP OF WESTMINSTER. BORN JULY 15, 1808:
CONSECRATED ARCHBISHOP JUNE 8, 1865: CREATED CARDINAL PRIEST
MARCH 15, 1875: DIED JANUARY 14, 1892, AND BURIED AT KENSAL GREEN,
HIS BODY WAS TRANSLATED TO THIS TOMB JANUARY 25, 1907


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(99) 6. DECHAMPS, C.SS.R., Victor-Auguste-Isidore
(1810-1883)

Birth. December 6, 1810, Melle, diocese of Gand, Belgium. His father was a school director. His brother Adolphe was minister of foreign affairs of Belgium from 1845 to 1847.

Education. Initial studies under his father in his native twon and later in the châteaux of Scailmont-lez-Manage, Hainaut; after taking courses of law at Brussels, he began as a Catholic journalist in the political movements born from the revolution of 1830 in impassioned defense of Belgian nationalism, publishing articles reflecting his sympathies, which he renounced after the condemnation from Rome; studied at the Seminary of Tournai from 1832 (theology); and at the Catholic University of Mechelen (later at Louvain) from 1834 to 1835. Doctor in theology, by apostolic brief, September 26, 1865.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1834, Mechelen, by Engelbert Sterckx, archbishop of Mechelen. Entered the Congregation of the Most Holy Redemptor (Redemptorists), August 1835, in Saint-Trond; took his vows, June 13, 1836. Professor of theology and Holy Scriptures and prefect of studies at the scholasticate of Wittem, Dutch Limbourg, near Aix-la-Chapelle, 1836-1840. From 1840, he dedicated himself to preaching and the intellectual apostolate. From 1841 to 1845, he was rector of the Redemptorist house of Liège. For reasons of health, he had to interrupt his activities in 1847 and taking a trip to rest, he went to Rome, Naples, Vienna and Münich. Returned to Belgium and became director of the house of his order in Torunai in 1849. He taught the Christian doctrine to the princes of the royal family (particularly future King Leopold II and future Empress Charlotte of Méjico), from 1851 to 1855. Consultor general of his order, Pagani, Italy, 1849; provincial superior in Belgium, 1851-1854; declined episcopal promotion to the diocese of Liège, 1852; also declined the rectorate of the University of Louvain because he preferred to dedicate himself to his work in apologetics, particularly between 1857 and 1861; rector of the Redemptorist house in Brussels, 1855-1858; participated in the first general chapter of his order in Rome, 1855.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Namur, September 25, 1865. Consecrated, October 1, 1865, church of S. Alfonso Maria de Ligorio, Rome, by Cardinal Karl August von Reisach. His episcopal motto was Per via coeli porta manes. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 17, 1867. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Mechelen, December 20, 1867; he received the pallium on the same day that he took possession of the see, January 28, 1868. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870; he was one of the leading supporters of papal infallibilty.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 15, 1875; received the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, March 31, 1875; and the red hat, June 25, 1877. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII.

Death. September 29, 1883, suddenly, in the arms of a Redemptorist father who happened to be present, in Mechelen. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Malines, where the funeral took place on October 4; and buried, as he had wished, next to the Venerable Joseph Passerat, in the cemetery of Rumilliers. His remains were transferred to the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Mechelen, June 5, 1923 (1).

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 178; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 295-298; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 20, 47, 374 and 400; Saintrain, Henri. Vie du Cardinal Dechamps, C.SS.R. Archevêque de Malines et Primat de Belgique. Tournai : Casterman, 1884.

Links. Biography by John Magnier, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

VICT. AUG. CARD. DECHAMPS
XIV ARCHIEP. MECHL.
1867
+ 29 SEPT. 1883


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(100) 7. NOBILI VITELLESCHI, Salvatore
(1818-1875)

Birth. July 28 (1), 1818, Rome. From a patrician family of the most ancient nobility and titular of a marchisate. Eldest of the five children of Pietro Nobili Vitelleschi, marquis of Rigatti, and Maddalena Ricci Paracciani. Great-grand-nephew of Cardinal Urbano Paracciani (1766), on his mother's side. Second cousin of Cardinal Niccola Paracciani Clarelli (1844). Cousin of Cardinal Francesco Ricci Paracciani (1880). Other cardinals of the family were Giovanni Vitelleschi (1437); Roberto de' Nobili (1553); and Pseudocardinal Bartolomeo Vitelleschi (1444). Another member of the family was Fr. Muzio Vitelleschi, S.J., seventh superior general of the Society of Jesus from 1615 to 1645 (2).

Education. Studied at Collegio S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome; and at the Archgymnasium of Rome (La Sapienza University), (philosophy; theology); and where he earned a licentiate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on September 24, 1841.

Early life. Privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness, December 12, 1837. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, ad beneplacitum Sanctis Sedis et Apostolicae Sedis, April 6, 1839.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 27, 1841, Rome, by Cardinal Giacomo Giustiniani, bishop of Albano. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, October 11, 1841. Referendary prelate, December 2, 1841. Relator in the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, January 24, 1842. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, 1842-1845. Assessor of the criminal tribunals, May 28, 1845. Assessor of the Criminal Tribunal, May 28, 1845 to 1847. Relator in the Sacred Consulta, December 6, 1850. Prelate adjunct of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, 1851-1854. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, March 18, 1852 to December 10, 1852. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, June 21, 1852 to 1854. Preceptor of the Archhospital S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, December 9, 1854 (3). Deacon in the Pontifical Chapel, April 26, 1856.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Seleucia, June 19, 1856. Consecrated, July 6, 1856, Pauline Chapel of the Apostolic Palace of the Quirinale, Rome, by Pope Pius IX, assisted by Alessandro Macioti, titular archbishop of Colosso, assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, and by Giuseppe Palermo, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Flavio III Chigi and Alessandro Franchi. Declined the appointment to be nuncio in Naples. Secretary of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, June 8, 1858. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 18, 1858. Member of the Council of State, 1861-1864. Transferred to the see of Osimo e Cingoli, with personal title of archbishop, December 21, 1863; unable to occupy his see because the Italian government never granted the exequator; had to govern it through vicars general. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, August 24, 1871. Resigned pastoral government of the diocese, November 20, 1871. Appointed again to the titular see of Seleucia, November 24, 1871.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal in the consistory of March 15, 1875 and reserved in pectore; published on September 17, 1875; received the title of S. Marcello, September 23, 1875. Died before receiving the red hat and taking possession of his title.

Death. October 17, 1875, at 2:30 a.m., after a brief illness, in Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marco, Rome, where the funeral mass took place on October 21, 1875 at 10:30 a.m., celebrated by Alessandro Sanminiatelli-Zabarella, titular archbishop of Tiana, almoner of His Holiness; and buried, temporarily, in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876. Roma : Tipografia dei Fratelli Monaldi, 1875, p. 137; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, p. 177, n. 1; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 685-686; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, XV, n. 238 (October 19, 1875), p. 2; and XV, 241 (October 22, 1875), p. 2; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 21, 49, 134 and 511; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 492-493; 723 and 741.

Links. Biography by Carlotta Benedetti, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (2013), Treccani; his photography, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 511; and Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, II, 492; "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1876, p. 137, says that he was born on July 21, 1818.
(2) The sister of Fr. Muzio Vitelleschi, S.J., Marchioness Virginia Vitelleschi, married, ca. 1600, Marchis Girolamo di Nobili. Virginia's and Fr. Muzio's brother died unmarried and childless. He was the only male family successor. The children from the marriage of Virginia and Girolamo called themselves, from approximately 1623 until now, with the surname Nobili Vitelleschi, in order to keep the name Vitelleschi.
(3) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 511; Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, II, 492, says that he was named on December 9, 1850.


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(101) 8. SIMEONI, Giovanni
(1816-1892)

Birth. July 12, 1816, Paliano, diocese of Palestrina. His father was a majordome of the Colonna family.

Education. Seminary of Palestrina, Palestrina; Collegio Romano, Rome; La Sapienza University, Rome (theology and canon law). The Colonna family subsidized his studies.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1839. Preceptor of the children of Prince Colonna. Professor of philosophy and theology, Pontifical Urban Athenaeum of Propaganda Fide, Rome. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness. Auditor of the nunciature in Spain. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1857. Adiutor ab actis, S.C. of Propaganda Fide; secretary of the congregation, 1868-1875.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Calcedonia, March 5, 1875. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, March 16, 1875. Consecrated, April 4, 1875, chapel of the Urbanian College of Propaganda Fide, Rome, by Cardinal Alessandro Franchi, assisted by Edward Henry Howard of Norfolk, titular archbishop of Neocesarea, suffragan of Frascati, and by Pietro Villanova Castellucci, titular archbishop of Petra, vicegerent of Rome. Nuncio in Spain, with faculties of legate a latere, April 4, 1875; pro-nuncio, 1875-1876.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal in the consistory of March 15, 1875 and reserved in pectore; published, September 17, 1875; received the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, December 18, 1876; and the red hat, March 15, 1877. Secretary of State, prefect of the S.C. of Public Ecclesiastical Affairs, prefect of the Apostolic Palace, and administrator of the patrimony of the Holy See, December 18, 1876 until the death of Pope Pius IX on February 7, 1878. Pope Pius IX designated him as executor of his will. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII. Protector of the Pontifical North American College, Rome, 1878-1892. The new pope, Leo XIII, confirmed him as prefect of the Apostolic Palace and administrator of the patrimony of of the Holy See. Prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide and of the Propaganda Fide for the Affairs of the Oriental Rite, March 5, 1878 until his death. President of the missionary seminaries, Rome, January 1, 1885. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 27, 1885 to January 15, 1886.

Death. January 14, 1892, of an attack of influenza, from which he had been suffering from several days, in Rome. Exposed in the church of the Pontifical Urban Athenaeum of Propaganda Fide, Rome; and buried in the chapel of that athenaeum in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. Left his notable art collection to the pope.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 190; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, pp. 12 and 238; Montini, Renzo U. "Simeoni, Giovanni." Enciclopedia Cattolica, 12 vols. Città del Vaticano: Ente per l'Enciclopedia Cattolica e per il Libro Cattolico, 1949-1954, vol. XI, 628; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, .

Links. His engraving and biography, in English, Wikipedia; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(102) 9. BARTOLINI, Domenico
(1813-1887)

Birth. May 16 (1), 1813, Rome. Illegitimate son of a merchant of Campania (2).

Education. Studied at Seminario Romano.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Chamberlain d'onore in abito paonazzo, 1838. Canon of the minor basilica of S. Marco, Rome, 1838; where he made notable archeological discoveries in 1843. Referendary prelate, November 18, 1847. Canon of the patriachal Lateran basilica, 1847. Relator of the Sacred Consulta, 1851-1856. Auditor of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, 1857-1861. Protonotary apostolic supernumerary, 1858. Secretary of the S.C. of Rites, March 30, 1861, retaining the auditorship; occupied the post until 1875. Protonoatary apostolic participantium, November 10, 1863 to 1875.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 15, 1875; received the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano, March 31, 1875; and the red hat, March 15, 1877. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Marco, April 3, 1876. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites, July 15, 1878. Secretary of Memorials, July 15, 1878. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 15, 1886 to March 14, 1887. Author of numerous works in archeology, hagiography and history.

Death. October 2, 1887, at 8:25 p.m., Florence, where he had gone for the recognition of the bodies of the seven founders of the Order of the Servants of Mary at Monte Senario for their canonization the following year. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Florence where the funeral took place on October 6, 1887; transferred to the chapel of the chapter in the grand cloister of the basilica of SS. Annunziata; and buried in the church of the Benedictine abbey of Montecassino.

Bibliography. Bovini, Giuseppe. "Bartolini, Domenico." Enciclopedia Cattolica, 12 vols. Città del Vaticano: Ente per l'Enciclopedia Cattolica e per il Libro Cattolico, 1949-1954, II, cols. 908-909; "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 184; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, XXVII, n. 224 ( October 4, 1887), p. 3; XXVII, n. 229 ( October 9, 1887), p. 2; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 20, 50 and 55; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 436, 732, 743, 748 and 756.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; photograph, portrait, engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, II, 436, which says that he was born on May 6, 1813.
(2) Msgr. T. Bellà, in his "Tableau des Cardinaux", Rome, December 16, 1877, cited by Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, II, 756, says "nacque meno che osucramente, perchè illegitimamente, nondimeno con gli studi storici e archeologici seppe uscire dalla oscurità ed otte la porpora negata dai canoni alla sua nascita. Però per avere il cappello contese la storia ed attribuìi papi il potere civile assai prima che essi effettivamente lo conseguissero." (born less than obscurely, but illegitimately, nevertheless with the historical and archaeological studies knew to exit from the obscurity and obtain the purple that the canons denied to his birth. But for having the red hat, contested history and very early attributed to the popes the civil power and thus effectively obtained it.)


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(103) 10. RANDI, Lorenzo Ilarione
(1818-1887)

Birth. July 12 (1), 1818, Bagnacavallo, diocese of Faenza. The eldest of the five children of Paolo Antonio and Countess Arcangela Biancoli.

Education. First private studies at home; school of Don Michele Pasolini (at the time, one of the famous and important among the most important families of the area); Ginnasio of Bagnacavallo, 1830-1835 (rhetoric, history and geography); Seminary of Faenza, Faenza; Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Noble, Rome, 1841-1847. Received the subdiaconate and the diaconate in 1840.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 14, 1841, his parish church of S. Girolamo, by Benedtto Folicaldi, bishop of Faenza. Entered the Roman prelature to devote himself to a state's administrative career and gained the protection of Cardinal Giacomo Antonelli, secretary of State. He found a rapid solution to the difficult problem of starting a good railroad network in the Papal States. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, June 8, 1847. Auditor of the Council of State, June 28, 1848. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, December 1848. Auditor in the Ministry of Interior, 1851. Referendary prelate, January 29, 1852. Apostolic delegate in Rieti, 1852-1854. Apostolic delegate in Perugia, 1854-1856; he had some misunderstandings with the local archbishop-bishop, Gioacchino Pecci, future Pope Leo XIII, and was one of his opponents in the conclave that elected him. Apostolic delegate in Ancona, 1856-1860; he was able to control every revolutionary attempt which occurred in the eventful year 1859. Apostolic delegate in Civitavecchia, 1860-1865. Director general of police, October 20, 1865 to 1870; he was able to maintain public order during the crisis of Fall 1867; stayed in his post until the end in 1870 when Rome was occupied by the revolutionary forces, transferring to safety all the documents of the dicastery entrusted to him. Vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, June 22, 1866 to 1875.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal in the consistory of March 15, 1875 and reserved in pectore; published, September 17, 1875; received the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, September 23, 1875; and the red hat, March 15, 1877. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, retaining in commendam the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, March 24, 1884. Cardinal protodeacon. Prefect of the Economy of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide and of the Reverend Chamber of Despoilments, May 10, 1884 to 1887. During his last years, spent at Palazzo Taverna in Rome, he increased and expanded his collection of papal coins and medals which, acquired by Pope Leo XIII, renewed the Gabinetto Numismatico of the Vatican Library in 1901. The collection had in great part been dispersed during the Jacobin and Napoleonic occupations of Rome.

Death. December 20, 1887, of an apoplexy, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Andrea delle Fratte, Rome; the mass was celebrated by Domenico Maria Jacobini, titular archbishop of Tiro, secretary fo the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, and the final absolution was given by Cardinal Carlo Sacconi, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. The late cardinal was buried, temporarily, in the chapel of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome; and later, according to his will, buried in the sacristy of the private church located near Baldi Randi house, in the village of Traversara (in Via Entirate, 63).

Bibliography. Baldozzi, Luigi. Degli studi e dglie offici dell'Eminentissimo Signor Cardinale Lorenzo Ilarione Randi, Bagnacavallese. Elogio biografico. Lugo : Ferretti e Minghini, 1890; "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, pp. 184-185; Dalla Torre, Paolo. "Randi, Lorenzo Ilarione." Enciclopedia Cattolica, 12 vols. Città del Vaticano: Ente per l'Enciclopedia Cattolica e per il Libro Cattolico, 1949-1954, vol. X, col. 520-521; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, XXVII, n. 200 (December 22, 1887), p. 3; and XXVII, n. 203 (December 25, 1887), p. 3; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 21, 54 and 55; Veggi Donati, Angela. Un romagnolo nel governo del papa re : la figura e l'opera del cardinale Randi. Cesena : Il Ponte Vecchio, 2001. (Storie); Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 510, 695-700, 721-722, 741, 747 and 757.

Links. His image and biography, in English; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia.

(1) This is according to Veggi Donati, Un romagnolo nel governo del papa re : la figura e l'opera del cardinale Randi, p. 11; "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, p. 185; and his biographical data in English, linked above; Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 21; and Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, II, 510; Dalla Torre, "Randi, Lorenzo Ilarione," Enciclopedia Cattolica, X, 520, says that he was born on July 18, 1818.
(2) Transcribed from Veggi Donati, Un romagnolo nel governo del papa re : la figura e l'opera del cardinale Randi, p. 317: "Il mio desiderio è riposare nella Chiesa esistente nel mio fondo delle Interrate nel Comune di Bagnacavallo, ove voglio siano a suo tempo uniti anche gli avanzi mortali di mia Madre e della mia sorella Chiara, ora collocati nel pubblico Cimetero, ove non l'avessi fano in vita"


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(104) 11. PACCA, iuniore, Bartolomeo
(1817-1880)

Birth. February 25, 1817, Benevento. Son of Orazio Pacca and Giulia Caracciolo di Sant'Eramo. Grand-nephew of his homonimous Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca, seniore (1801). Nephew of Monsignor Tiberio Pacca.

Education. tudied at Collegio Clementino, Rome; at Collegio de' Nobili, Rome; at the Seminary of Velletri; and at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, from 1835 to 1838.

Early life. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, November 1838. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1839. Ablegato in France, December 1839. Referendary prelate, April 22, 1841.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 6, 1841, by his grand-uncle Cardinal Bartolomeo Pacca. Prelate adjunct of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, 1841-1855. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, 1842-1844. Abbreviatore del Parco Maggiore, July 6, 1842 to 1875. Second assessor of the Tribunal of the Government, 1845; first assessor, 1846-1847. Relator of the Sacred Consulta, 1851-1853. Vice-president of the Criminal Tribunal of Rome, 1851-1853. Auditor and secretary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, 1854-1856. Master of Chamber of His Holiness, June 16, 1856 to 1868. Prefect of the Pontifical House, March 21, 1868 to 1875.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal in the consistory of March 15, 1875 and reserved in pectore; published, September 17, 1875; received the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, September 23, 1875; and the red hat, March 15, 1877. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII.

Death. October 14, 1880, Grottaferrata. Exposed in the church of the abbey of Grottaferrata and buried in the Suburban Cemetery of Rome, in the chapel Madonna del Riposo, property of the Prelature Pacca.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 174; Frezza di San Felice, Filippo. Cenni biografici del cardinale Bartolomeo Pacca giuniore. Rome : 1880; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 21 and 55; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 498, 732, 743, 747 and 754.


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MÉRODE, Frédéric-François-Xavier Ghislain de
(1820-1874)

Birth. March 26 (1), 1820, Brussels, archdiocese of Mechelen, Belgium. Son of Philippe Félix Balthasar Othon Ghislain de Mérode-Westerloo and Rosalie de Grammont. His mother died when he was three years old and was raised by his grandmother and aunt, Philippine de Grammont, in Villersexel, Franche-Comté. His last name is also listed as Merode.

Education. Jesuit Collège, Namur; Collège de Juilly; Military Academy of Brussels, 1838 (graduated as second lieutenant of cavalry, February 16, 1841).

Early life. Second lieutenant, armoury of Liège, 1841-1843; foreign attaché, staff of Maréchal Bugeaud in Algeria, 1843-1847; at the end of of 1844 he took part in an expedition in North Africa and because of his conduct was decorated with the cross of the Légion d'honneur, November 27, 1844; promoted to captain. Resigned the military and went to study for the priesthood in Rome. After the murder of Prime Minister Pellegrino Rossi on November 16, 1848, Mérode, heavily armed, stormed the Quirinal Palace in order to defend the Curia. During the attacks by Giuseppe Garibaldi on the Papal States and the siege of Rome, Mérode, who had been ordained a deacon in 1849, was arrested and held for a month.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 22, 1849, Rome. Chaplain to the French garrison, Viterbo. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness and director of Roman prisons, 1850-1860; reformed the prison system following the Belgian model; the reforms were also adopted in Perugia and Bologna. Minister of War of the Papal States, 1860-1865. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Melitene, June 22, 1866. Consecrated, July 1, 1866, Rome, by Cardinal Costantino Patrizi. Secret almoner of His Holiness, July 10, 1866. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, August 3, 1866. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870; opposed the definition of the dogma of papal infallibility but accepted it the same day it was passed by the council.

Cardinalate. Pope Pius IX intended to create him a cardinal in the consistory of March 15, 1875 but he died of acute pneumonia in the arms of the pope before its celebration.

Death. July 11, 1874, Rome. Buried in the Teutonic cemetery, near the sacristy of the patriarchal Vatican basilica; the remains were transferred to another place in the same cemetery on October 25, 1875, at 8 a.m., to start the construction of his monument built by his brother Count Werner de Mérode.

Bibliography. Besson, Louis François Nicolas. Frédéric-François-Xavier de Mérode: ministre et aumonier de Pie IX, archevèque de Militène, sa vie et ses oeuvres. Paris : Retaux-Bray, 1886; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, XV, n. 243 (October 24, 1875), p. 3; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 377; Veuillot, Eugène. Monseigneur de Mérode. Paris : V. Palmé, 1863.

Links. Biography, in English; and biography, in German.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 377; his biography in German, linked above, says that he was born on March 25, 1820.


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NEGRONI, Augusto
(1820-1896)

Birth. February 4, 1820, Rome. Of a patrician family. His parents were Count Stanislao Negroni and Celestina Aquaroni. Relative of Cardinal Giuseppe della Porta Rodiani (1834).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure on August 9, 1843 (no further educational information found).

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature as domestic prelate before August 30, 1845; and was named referendary on September 4, 1845. Named relator of the S.C. of Good Government before November 18, 1845. Named assessor of the tribunal of the governor of Rome, November 24, 1845. Relator of the Sacred Consulta before January 12, 1847. Canon coadjutor of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, November 18, 1848; canon, December 28, 1851.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 18, 1852. Auditor of the tribunal of the Sacred Roman Rota, December 17, 1852; admitted to the tribunal, January 7, 1853; took the oath, June 13, 1853. Named minister of interior of the Papal States before February 8, 1868; occupied the post until the annexation to the Kingdom of Italy in 1870.

Cardinalate. According to Philippe Boutry, Souverain et Pontife, p. 600, he had been promised the promotion to the cardinalate but declined and entered the Society of Jesus on June 20, 1874. He took the vows on August 15, 1877 and remained a member of the Society until his death. Auditor general of the Reverend Apostolic Chamber, 1873.

Death. January 13, 1896 (1), Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, p. 600; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), VI, 684.

Link. Biography, in Polish, Wikipedia.

(1) This is according to Boutry, Souverain et Pontife, p. 600; Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, VI, 684, indicates that he died in 1874.

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