The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius IX (1846-1878)
Consistory of March 12, 1877 (XXI)

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(108) 1. BENAVIDES Y NAVARRETE, O.S. Iacobis, Francisco de Paula
(1810-1895)

Birth. May 14 (1), 1810, in the Palace of Jabalquinto of Baeza, diocese of Jaén, Spain. Of a noble and wealthy family. Youngest of the five children of Manuel de Benavides y Rodriguez-Zambrana and Francisca de Paula Navarrete y Fonseca. His mother's last name is also listed as Fernández Navarrete. The other siblings were Antonio (a minister to Queen Isabel II of Spain), María del Carmen, Trinidad and Manuel.

Education. Studied three years of philosophy and two of theology at the Seminary of San Felipe de Neri in Baeza, 1822-1827; then, in 1827, he transferred to Colegio de San Bartolomé y Santiago in Granada, where he earned a licentiate (bachiller) in theology from the Faculty of Granada on June 16, 1829; then studied canon law until 1832. In that same year, in the monastery of Uclés, Cuenca, he entered the Military Order of the Knights of Santiago; there, he did his novitiate and made his profession; then, he went to Colegio del Rey, in Salamanca, of the Order, where he studied for a year, completing his formation, probably obtaining a doctorate in theology. He received the sacred orders from the prelate prior of the Order of the Knights Santiago. On December 2, 1846, he obtained a bachelor's in philosophy from the Institute of Jaén.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1836 (2), by the prelate prior of the Order of the Knights of Santiago. Professor of theology at the University of Granada; curate in Colmenar de Oreja from 1836 to 1840. In Baeza, from 1840 until 1847, he was professor of religion and morals at the Institute of Secondary Studies; and professor and rector of its seminary. Archdeacon of Ubeda in 1847; archpriest of the cathedral chapter of Jaén; royal preacher supernumerary in 1851; and dean of the cathedral chapter of Córdoba in 1853.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Sigüenza, December 21, 1857. Consecrated, Sunday, March 14, 1858, in the church of the Señoras Comendadoras de Santiago, Madrid, by Cirilo de Alameda y Brea, O.F.M., archbishop of Toledo, assisted by José de los Rios Lamadrid, bishop of Lugo, and by Vicente Benigno Carrión, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Puerto Rico. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, February 10, 1860. Decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Isabel la Católica, May 9, 1863. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese on May 31, 1875. Promoted to the titular patriarchate of the West Indies and named royal chaplain and royal almoner on July 5, 1875.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1877; received the red hat and the title of S. Tommaso in Parione, June 25, 1877. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, February 28, 1879. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1879. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Zaragoza, May 13, 1881. He presided over the Congreso Católico Nacional Español celebrated in Zaragoza in 1891. Member of the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language and of the Royal Academy of History.

Death. March 30, 1895, Zaragoza. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Zaragoza and buried in the basilica of Our Lady of El Pilar, Zaragoza. There is a street named after him in Baeza, his native city.

Bibliography. "Benavides y Navarrete, Francisco de Paula." Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeo-americana. 70 vols. Madrid : Espasa-Calpe, 1958, c1907?-1930, VIII, 27; "Francesco di Paola Benavides y Navarrete" in "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 196; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 199; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 137-139; Orive, Aniceto. "Benavides y Navarrete, Francisco de Paula." Diccionario de Historia Eclesiástica de España. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975. 4 vols., and supplement, 1987, I, 204-205; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 21, 52, 53, 166, 321 and 510.

Links. Biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; Breve estudio sobre la vida del Cardenal Benavides by Enrique Calvo Meseguer, Boletín del Instituto de Estudios Giennenses, n. 162, 1, 1996 , pp. 553-586; D. Francisco de P. Benavides Fernandez in Noticias y documentos para la historia de Baeza (Baeza : Estab. Tip. de los señores Rubio, 1884) by Fernando de Cózar Martínez, pp. 321-324; engravings and photograph, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait, todocoleccion.net, Zoconet; his genealogy, Geneall; Oración fúnebre, que por encargo de la Real Academia Española: y en las honras de Miguel de Cervantes y demás ingenios españoles, pronunció en la Iglesia de Monjas Trinitarias de Madrid, el día 23 de abril de 1863, el ilmo. sr. d. Francisco de Paula Benavides y Navarrete, Google Books; Episcopologio, diócesis de Sigüenza-Guadalajara; Episcopologio, archidiócesis de Zaragoza; Vicarios Generales Castrenses, Arzobispado Castrense de España.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1700-1867), p. 199; and LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle, which say that he was born on May 11, 1810.
(2) This is according to all the sources consulted except Calvo Meseguer, Breve estudio sobre la vida del Cardenal Benavides, p. 557, linked above, that says he was ordained in 1834.

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(109) 2. APUZZO, Francesco Saverio
(1807-1880)

Birth. April 6, 1807, Naples. Received the sacrament of confirmation, June 3, 1816.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in theology, 1831. (No further educational information found).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 18, 1830. Professor of dogmatic theology from November 26, 1833. Tutor of the children of King Ferdinand II of Sicily, February 1842. President of the General Council of Public Institutions, July 9, 1849. Examiner of the clergy of Naples. Lector of theology, Royal University of Naples; later, prefect of the university.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Anastasiopoli, January 19, 1854. Consecrated, March 12, 1854, in the cathedral of Capua, by Cardinal Giuseppe Cosenza, archbishop of Capua the names of the co-consecrators are unknown. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sorrento, March 23, 1855, after having been presented by the king of the Two Sicilies; he received the pallium on the same day. After the invasion of Sicily by the troops of Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1860, he spent some time in exile in Rome. Consultor of the S.C. of the Apostolic Visit. Elected member of the Accademia della Religione Cattolica in 1862. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870; he was not enthusiastic about the dogmatic definition of papal infallibility but did not vote against it. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Capua, November 24, 1871.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1877; received the red hat, March 15, 1877; and the title of S. Onofrio, March 20, 1877. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII.

Death. July 30, 1880, Capua. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral and buried in that city's cemetery.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 174; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 104-105; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 22, 48, 98, 180 and 530.

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(110) 3. GARCÍA GIL, O.P., Manuel
(1802-1881)

Birth. March 14, 1802, San Salvador de Camba, diocese of Lugo, Spain. Received the sacrament of confirmation, July 20, 1802.

Education. Seminary of Lugo, Lugo. Entered the Order of Preachers, Dominican convent of Lugo, 1826.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 10, 1827. Professor of theology in the Dominican convents of Lugo and Santiago de Compostela; professor of theology and master of studies, Dominican convent of Oviedo. The law of secularization promulgated by the Spanish government in 1836 forced him to leave his convent and reside in Lugo; vice rector of its seminary and reorganized its plan of studies, 1848.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Badajoz, December 22, 1853. Consecrated, Sunday, April 23, 1854, cathedral of Lugo, by Miguel García Cuesta, archbishop of Santiago de Compostela, assisted by Santiago Rodríguez Gil, bishop of Lugo, and by Telmo Maceira, bishop of Mondoñedo. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Zaragoza, December 23, 1858. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1877; received the red hat and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, September 21, 1877. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII.

Death. April 28, 1881, Zaragoza. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Zaragoza.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 175; Fraile, G. "García Gil, Manuel, OP." Diccionario de Historia Eclesiástica de España. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975. 4 vols., and supplement, 1987, III, 974 Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 196; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 22, 53, 166 and 433.

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(111) 4. HOWARD OF NORFOLK, Edward Henry
(1829-1892)

Birth. February 13, 1829, Hainton, Nottingham, England. Son of Edward Giles Howard and Frances Anne Heneage. Second member of the noble family of the dukes of Norfolk to become a cardinal, the first one being Cardinal Philip Thomas Howard of Norfolk, O.P. (1675).

Education. Oscott College, Oscott; University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh; Venerable English College, Rome, 1854; Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Noble, Rome, 1854; Collegio Romano, 1854-1858 (doctorates in theology and canon law). Proficient in six languages, among them several Oriental.

Early life. Commission Second Life Guards. Chosen to command the squadron of the guards in the military procession at the funeral of the Duke of Wellington, 1852. Resigned his commission to follow his ecclesiastical vocation.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 8, 1854, Venerable English College, Rome, by Cardinal Nicholas Wiseman, archbishop of Westminster. He learned Arabic, Coptic, Hindustani, and Russian, and became an accomplished linguist. For about a year, he was papal envoy to Goa, India, to negotiate between the British and the Portuguese authorities the settlement of the problems concerning the ecclesiastical government of the Province of Goa. He wanted to become a missionary in the East but the pope insisted that he stay in Rome. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1863. Pastoral ministry in Rome as confessor of the poor and the soldiers. Vicar of the archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Consultor of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide for the Oriental Rite. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Consultor of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide for the affairs of Oriental rites, 1867-1877. Vicar of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, September 4, 1870.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Neocesarea and appointed suffragan of Frascati, June 25, 1872. Consecrated, June 30, 1872, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Carlo Sacconi assisted by Salvatore Nobili Vitelleschi, titular archbishop of Seleucia, and by François-Xavier Frédéric de Mérode, titular archbishop of Melitene.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1877; received the red hat, March 15, 1877; and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, March 20, 1877. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII. On March 24, 1878, he was appointed protector of the Venerable English College; at his death, he left his magnificent library to the college. Named archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and prefect of the S.C. of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's on December 12, 1881. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, March 24, 1884. Stricken with severe illness in 1887, was taken to England in the spring of 1888, living in strict seclusion in Brighton until his death.

Death. September 16, 1892, of pneumonia, Hatch Beauchamp, Brighton. Exposed in the Fitzalan chapel, St. Philip parish church, Arundel, and buried on October 1 in his family's tomb in that chapel; his coffin measured 7 ft. 6 in. A memorial for Cardinal Howard was erected in the Fitzalan Chapel (1).

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 192; Baxter, Dudley. England's cardinals. With an appendix showing the reception of the sacred pallium by the archbishops of Canterbury and Westminster. London : Burns & Oates, 1903, pp. 82-85; Bellenger, Dominic Aidan, and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the Church. A history of the English cardinals. Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing, 2001, pp. 133-134; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 22, 45, 48 and 406; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 474-475, 747 and 761.

Links. Biography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; engravings and portrait, Arladica Vaticana; his memorial tablet of black marble and brass showing the Howard arms under a cardinal's hat designed by Dr. William Kelly, Arundel Castle, PicturesOfEngland.com; his portrait attributed to the Italian School, The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in the memorial, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

EDWARD HENRY
CARDINAL HOWARD
AT ONE TIME AN OFFICER
IN THE SECOND LIFE GUARDS
BORN 13 FEBRUARY 1829
DIED 16 SEPTEMBER 1892


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(112) 5. PAYÁ Y RICO, Miguel
(1811-1891)

Birth. December 20, 1811, Benejama (1), archdiocese of Valencia, Spain. He was baptized in the church of San Juan Bautista in Benejama with the names Miguel Antonio Domingo.

Education. Primary studies at Biar and Onil; then, attended Colegio del Patriarca, Valencia (becario); University of Valencia, Valencia, (doctorates in philosophy, and theology, 1836).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 24, 1836. In the archdiocese of Velncia, pastoral work, and professor of its university and central seminary, for twenty four years; taught metaphysics, literature, history, mathematics, and theology; in 1841, pastor of the parish of Benejama, where he restored the church; beneficiary of the cathedral chapter, 1844; founder of the newspaper El Eco de la Religión, 1845; lectoral canon of the cathedral chapter, 1857.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cuenca, June 25, 1858. Consecrated, Sunday, September 12, 1858, cathedral of Valencia, by Pablo García Abella, Orat., archbishop of Valencia, assisted by José Domingo Costa Borrás, archbishop of Tarragona, and by Manuel López Santisteba, former bishop of Avila. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. In 1870, he earned his fame as a theologian with his speech at the Council, where he defended the infallibility of the pope as a dogma of faith his speech was published in Cuenca in 1873. Elected senator for Vizcaya, 1871. He confronted the Carlistas when they occupied Cuenca in 1873. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Santiago de Compostela, January 16, 1874.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1877; received red hat and the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, June 25, 1877. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII. During his episcopate in Santiago de Compostela, the remains of Santiago Apóstol (Saint James the Apostle), which had been hidden in the 16th century for fear of incursions by the English pirate Sir Francis Drake on the Galician coast, were rediscovered inside the main altar of the metropolitan cathedral of Santiago. The cardinal commissioned the University of Santiago de Compostela to analyze the remains. During his stay in Santiago, he also restored the cathedral. Transferred to the primatial and metropolitan see of Toledo and the titular patriarchate of the West Indies, June 7, 1886. In 1886, he baptized King Alfonso XIII of Spain. During his episcopate in Toledo, the Conjo Asylum and the Seminary of Toledo were constructed.

Death. December 25 (2), 1891, Toledo. Exposed and buried in front of Capilla del Sagrario, in the metropolitan cathedral of Toledo (3). A bust in his memory was erected in the church of San Juan Bautista in Benejama, (Beneixama), Alicante, where he was baptized.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 190; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 200; Martín Tejedor, J. "Payá y Rico, Miguel." Diccionario de Historia Eclesiástica de España. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975. 4 vols., and supplement, 1987, III, 1951; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 22, 55, 219, 220 and 558.

Link. His portrait and biographical data, in Spanish.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 220; Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1700-1867), p. 200, says that he was born in Benegida, which is probably a misnomer. He spent his childhood in Onil, locality of origin of his family.
(2) This is according to all the sources consulted; Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 22, adds that others, which he does not mention, say that he died on December 24, 1891.
(3) This is the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

HIC:REQUIESCUNT:VENERA
BILES:EXUVIAE:EMMI
AC:REMI:CARDINALIS
D:D:MICHAELIS
PAYA:ET:RICO
PRIMUM:ANTISTITIS:CON
CHENSIS:DEINDE:COMPOS
TELLANI:POSTREMO:TO
LETANI:INDIARUMQUE
OCCIDENTALIUM:PATRI
ARCHAE:OBIIT:DIE:XXIV
DECEMBRIS:ANNI:MDCCC
XVI:INGENIO:PRAES
TANS:CHARITATE:PHAES
TANTIOR:HOMO:TAMEN
ORATE PRO EO

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(113) 6. CAVEROT, Louis-Marie-Joseph-Eusèbe
(1806-1887)

Birth. May 26, 1806, Joinville, diocese of Langres, France.

Education. Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 19, 1831. In the archdiocese of Besançon, metropolitan vicar for three years; pastor for six years; canon of the cathedral chapter for five years; vicar general for nearly three years.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Saint-Dié, April 20, 1849. Consecrated, July 22, 1849, cathedral of Bensançon, by Jacques-Marie-Adrien-Césaire Mathieu, archbishop of Besançon, assisted by Bénigne du Trousset d'Héricourt, bishop of Autun, and by François-Victor Rivet, bishop of Dijon. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lyon, July 26 (1),1876.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1877; received red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, June 25, 1877. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII. Opted for the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, March 24, 1884.

Death. January 23 (2), 1887, Lyon. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Lyon.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 183; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 225-226; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 22, 52, 53, 241 and 354.

Link. His photograph.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 354; Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973, pp. 225-226, says that he was promoted on June 26, 1876.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 354; and Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973, pp. 225-226; "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, p. 183, says that he died on January 24, 1887.

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(114) 7. DI CANOSSA, Luigi
(1809-1900)

Birth. April 20 (1), 1809, Verona. Of a noble family, titular of a marquisate. He is also listed as Canossa, Luigi di.

Education. Initial studies in Verona. Joined the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) on March 25, 1837; took trhe religious vows in 1839; then studied at Collegio Romano from 1839-1841, obtaining a doctorate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1841, Modena. He taught in Jesuit institutions and preached spiritual exercises in different Italian cities. Prefect of studies at the Jesuit school in Reggio Emilia. Left his order because of illness in 1847, without having taking his final vows as a Jesuit. He was incardinated in the diocese of Verona; canon of its cathedral chapter, 1857; he was in charge of the library and of the diocesan charitable works. Presented for the diocese of Verona by the Austrian emperor on August 24, 1861.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Verona, September 30, 1861. Consecrated, January 23, 1862, cathedral of Verona, by Benedetto Riccabona zu Reinchefels, bishop of Trent, assisted by Manfredo Giovanni Battista Bellati, bishop of Ceneda, and by Giovanni Corti, bishop of Mantua. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. He declined promotion to the metropolitan see of Bologna due to his attachment to the diocese of Verona.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1877; received red hat, March 15, 1877; and the title of S. Marcello, March 20, 1877. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII. He suffered an apoplexy in 1891, which diminshed his forces.

Death. March 12, 1900, Verona. Exposed in the cathedral of Verona and buried in that city's cemetery. At the time of his death, he was the oldest cardinal. A monument to his memory was erected on the north wall of the nave of the cathedral of Verona (2)

Bibliography. "Canossa, Luigi di."La Enciclopedia Cattolica, 12 vols. Città del Vaticano: Ente per l'Enciclopedia Cattolica e per il Libro Cattolico, 1949-1954, III, col. 610; "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 204; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 198-199; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 22, 49 and 587.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 587; "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, p. 204, says that he was born on April 30, 1809.
(2) This is the text of the inscription in the monument kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London:

ALOISIO
TIT · S · MARCELLI · S · R · E · PRESB · CARD · DE · CANOSSA
ANNOS · AMPLIUS · XXXVIII · ECCL · VERONENS · EPO
DE · RELIGIONE · ET · PATRIA · O · M
VITA · FUNCTO · IV · ID · MART · ANN · MDCCCC · AET · XCI


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(115) 8. SERAFINI, Luigi
(1808-1894)

Birth. June 6 (1), 1808, Magliano Sabina, diocese of Sabina. Of a noble family from Urbino. Son of Giuseppe Serafini and Anna Giorgi. Nephew of Cardinal Giovanni Serafini (1843). Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 16, 1813.

Education. College of Sabina, Sabina (humanities); Collegio Romano, Rome (philosophy); La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, April 11, 1832).

Early life. Lawyer of the Roman Curia, July 4, 1836. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta for the province of Rieti, January 19, 1843. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, December 18 (2), 1843. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, January 11, 1844; auditor, December 21, 1846. Relator of the Sacred Consulta, 1844-1847. Ecclesiastical judge in the civil tribunals, September 27, 1847. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, January 19 (3), 1850. Received the diaconate, August 21, 1853.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 25, 1853, Rome. Regent of the Apostolic Penitentiary, March 28, 1858 to 1870.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella (now Tuscania), June 27, 1870. Consecrated, July 17, 1870, Rome, by Cardinal Costantino Patrizi.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1877; received red hat, March 15, 1877; and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, March 20, 1877. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII. Resigned pastoral government of the diocese, February 20, 1880. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, May 13, 1884. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, July 31, 1885 until 1893. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 14, 1887 to June 1, 1888. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Equestrian Orders. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina and perpetual abbot of S. Maria di Farfa, June 1, 1888. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs, June 19, 1893.

Death. February 1, 1894, Rome. Exposed in the church Sacre Stimmata, Rome, and buried in the chapel of the Pontifical Urban Athenaeum of Propaganda Fide, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 194; Re, Niccolò del. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 140; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 22, 48, 63 and 593; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 519, 747 and 757.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 593; "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, p. 194; and Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, II, 519, say that he was born on June 7, 1808.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 593; Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, II, 519, indicates that he was named on December 28, 1843.
(3) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 593; Del Re, "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII, p. 140, says that he was named on January 28, 1850; and Weber, Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates, II, 519, indicates that he was named on July 8, 1850.

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(116) 9. NINA, Lorenzo
(1812-1885)

Birth. May 12, 1812, Recanati. Of a modest but distinguished family. His father was a notary.

Education. Seminary of Recanati, Recanati (philosophy and theology); settled in Rome with an uncle who was canon and pastor of S. Lorenzo in Damaso; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome (theology); La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorates in theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 1834. Secretary to Msgr. Giovanni Di Pietro, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Auditor of the secretary of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, Msgr. D. Andrea; later, undersecretary, 1853-1868. Auditor and counselor of Cardinal Luigi Amat di San Filippo e Sorso. Honorary professor of the Faculty of Law of Seminario Romano, 1853. Chamberlain d'onore in abito paonazo, 1854. Abbreviatore del Parco Maggiore, April 8, 1862 to 1877; dean of Collegio dei Abbreviatori, 1863-1877. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1868. Dean of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Protonotary apostolic. Referendary of both Signatures, January 29, 1863. Prefect of the Pontifical Athenaeum of S. Apollinare. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites. Assessor of the S.C. of the Inquisition, March 13, 1868 to 1877. Member of the preparatory commission of the First Vatican Council. Prefect of studies of Seminario Romano, 1875-1877.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 12, 1877; received red hat, March 15, 1877; and the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, March 20, 1877. Prefect of Economy of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide and of the Reverend Chamber of Despoilments, March 26, 1877. Prefect of the S.C. of Studies, October 19, 1877 to August 9, 1878. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII. Examinator of the palatine administration, March 15, 1878. Secretary of State, prefect of the Apostolic Palace and administrator of the Wealth of the Holy See, August 9, 1878. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, February 28, 1879. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1879. Resigned secretariat of State, December 16, 1880; he was confirmed as prefect of the Apostolic Palace on that same date. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council and of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, November 7, 1881 until his death. Prefect of the Special Congregation for the Revision of the Provincial Councils.

Death. July 25, 1885, Rome. Exposed in his title and buried in the chapel of the archconfraternity of the Most Precious Blood, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 181-182; Re, Niccolò del. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 139-140; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 22, 51 and 54; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 491-492, 557, 743, 747, 749, 754.

Link. Brief biographical data, in German.

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(117) 10. SBARRETTI, Enea
(1808-1884)

Birth. January 27, 1808, Spoleto. Son of Carlo Sbarretti and Maddalena Bonafede. Uncle of Cardinal Donato Sbarretti (1916).

Education. La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, 1832).

Priesthood. Ordained, 1830. Secretary and auditor of Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti, archbishop of Spoleto, future Pope Pius IX. Vicar general of Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti, archbishop-bishop of Imola, until 1846. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1846; reappointed, December 27, 1847. Secretary of the Council of Ministers, June 10, 1848. Referendary prelate, July 11, 1870. Auditor of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, 1851. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, March 16, 1853 to 1875. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Religious, October 2, 1875 to 1877. Consultor of the S.C. of the Holy Office, 1875-1877.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 12, 1877; received red hat, March 15, 1877; and the deaconry of S. Maria ad Martyres, March 20, 1877. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII. Prefect of the Economy of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide and president of the Reverend Chamber of Despoilments, August 13, 1878 to 1884.

Death. May 1, 1884, Rome. Exposed in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, and buried in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 179; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 22 and 55; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 517-518 and 716.

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(118) 11. FALLOUX DU COUDRAY, Frédéric de
(1815-1884)

Birth. August 15, 1815, château du Bourg d'Iré, diocese of Angers, France (1). From a legitimist noble family. Son of Count Guillaume de Falloux du Coudray and Marchioness Louise de Soucy. He is also listed as Ludovic-Frédéric; and his mother is also listed as Loyde de Fitte de Soucy.

Education. Initially, studied in Angers; later, studied law in Paris; and also studied at Convitto dei Nobili, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1837. Soon after the ordination, he obtained a canonry. Referendary prelate, July 12, 1838. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, 1839-1847; dean of the relator prelates, 1845. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness. Went to Gaeta in 1849 when the pope had to flee to that city. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1849. Secretary of the S.C. of the Discipline of the Regulars from 1851 to 1877. Prelate adjunct of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council from 1852 to1854. Abbreviatore del Parco Maggiore from 1853 to1861. Regent of the Apostolic Chancery from 1861 to 1877. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 12, 1877; received red hat, March 15, 1877; and the deaconry of S. Agata alla Suburra, March 20, 1877. Participated in the conclave of 1878, which elected Pope Leo XIII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, May 12, 1879.

Death. June 22, 1884, Tivoli. Exposed in the cathedral of Tivoli; and buried in the city's cemetery.

Bibliography. Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, p. 551; "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 179-180; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 330-331; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 22 and 54; Weber, Christoph. Kardinäle und Prälaten in den letzten Jahrzehnten des Kirchenstaates : Elite-Rekrutierung, Karriere-Muster u. soziale Zusammensetzung d. kurialen Führungsschicht zur Zeit Pius' IX. (1846-1878). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1978. (Päpste und Papsttum; Bd. 13, I-II), II, 462, 748 and 759; Zizzi, Sabrina. "Il cardinale de Falloux Du Coudray (1815-1884) e la donazione della sua raccolta d'arte", in Saggi e memorie di storia dell'arte. Venezia : Istituto di Storia dell'Arte, Fondazione Giorgio Cini, 34 (2010), 151-172; Zizzi, Sabrina. "Un 'dimenticato' monumento funebre nel cimitero comunale di Tivoli" in Atti e Memorie della Società Tiburtina di Storia e d'Arte. Tivoli : Società Tiburtina di storia e d'arte, LXXVII (2004), 255-264;

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia.

(1) This is according to all the sources listed in the bibliographical section above. Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques. Paris, 1912- , XVI, 1513, and Dictionnaire de biographie française. Paris, 1913-, XIII, 549, say that he was born on August 15, 1807.

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