Birth. October 8, 1813, Vienna, Austria-Hungary. Had the title of count. Son of Count Friedrich Carl Fürstenberg and Princess Theresie Schwarzenberg. Cousin of Cardinal Friedrich Johannes Jacob Celestin von Schwarzenberg (1842) and relative of Cardinal Wilhelm Egon von Fürstenberg (1686).
Education. Studied theology at the University of Vienna from 1831 to 1835); then, at the University of Olomouc, where he earned a doctorate in theology in 1838.
Early life. Non-resident canon of the cathedral chapter of Olomouc, Moravia, March 16, 1832.
Priesthood. Ordained, October 15, 1836. Further studies, Olomouc, 1836-1838. Assistant, St. Miacheal's parish, 1836-November 17, 1836. Pastor in Harbach, diocese of Sankt Pölten, June 15, 1838. Provost and pastor of College of Sankt Maurice, Kromeriz, 1843, and, at the same time, archpriest, dean and inspector of elementary students of its district. Resident canon of the cathedral chapter of Olomouc, January 1849. Vicar capitular of Olomouc, 1853.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Olomouc by its chapter, June 6, 1853; confirmed by the pope, June 27, 1853. Consecrated, September 4, 1853, Olomouc, by Cardinal Friedrich Johannes Jacob Celestin von Schwarzenberg, archbishop of Prague assisted by Anton Ernst von Schaffgotsch, bishop of Brünn (Brno), and by Rodolpho von Thysebaert, titular bishop of Tiberia, auxiliary of Olomouc. Privy councilor of the emperor, 1853. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, March 15, 1859. Member of the house of lords of the Austrian parliament, 1861.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 12, 1879; received the red hat and the title of S. Crisogono in the consistory of February 27, 1880. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1885. Honorary member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in recognition of his scientific work.
Death. August 20, 1892 (1), Hukvaldy, Moravia. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of St. Vaclav, Olomouc.
Bibliography. La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 192; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 28, 47 and 425.
Link. His genealogy, A2 D2 G6, Genealogy.EU.
(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 28; to his biographical in Czech, linked above; and to his genealogy, also linked above. La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, p. 192, indicates that he died on August 19, 1892.
Birth. April 14, 1807, Ostricourt, archdiocese of Cambrai, France. His baptismal name was Florian-Jules-Félix.
Education. Major Seminary of Cambrai, Cambrai.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 19, 1829. Successively, 1830-1850, parish vicar of the metropolitan cathedral of Cambrai for nearly three years; pastor in several parishes of Cambrai; parish dean in Roubaix, for four years.
Episcopate. Elected first bishop of Saint-Denis-de-La Réunion, October 3, 1850. Consecrated, January 5, 1851, church of Notre-Dâme of Roubaix, by Rene-François Régnier, archbishop of Cambrai, assisted by Louis-Joseph Delebecque, bishop of Gand, and by Jean-Baptiste Malou, bishop of Bruges. Transferred to the see of Limoges, March 19, 1857. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Toulouse et Narbonne, September 26, 1859.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 12, 1879. Received the red hat and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro in the consistory of September 22, 1879.
Death. January 21 (1), 1895, Toulouse. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Toulouse.
Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 263; La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 196; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 28, 49, 247 and 551.
(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 28; and Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973, p. 263; La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, p. 196, indicates that he died on January 20, 1895.
Birth. October 3, 1816, Szécsény, archdiocese of Esztergom, Hungary. Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 14, 1826.
Education. Studied philosophy in Trnava; University of Vienna (doctorate in theology). Received minor orders, December 15, 1830; subdeacon and deacon, October 12 and 13, 1839, respectively. He devoted himself to the study of botany and made a large collection of plants and of books, which later became part of the Hungarian National Museum.
Priesthood. Ordained, October 15, 1839. Further studies, Vienna, 1839-1842. Faculty member, University of Vienna, 1842-1846. Secretary of the archbishop of Esztergom, 1846-1848; vicar of the archiepiscopal chancery and honorary court chaplain, 1848; director of the primatial chancery, 1849.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Hebron and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Transylvania, March 15, 1852. Consecrated, August 15, 1852, Poson, by János Scitovszky, archbishop of Esztergom. Succeeded to the see of Transylvania, October 15, 1852. Promoted to the titular see of Carthago, September 22, 1864. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Kalocsa-Bács, May 17, 1867.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 12, 1879. Received the red hat and the title of Santa Maria degli Angeli in the consistory of September 22, 1879.
Death. July 4, 1891, Kalocsa. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Kalocsa.
Links. Biography, in English; biography, in Hungarian; and his portrait by Mihály Munkácsy.
Birth. September 26, 1815, Pontgouin, diocese of Chartres, France.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Chartres; and at Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris.
Priesthood. Ordained, May 25, 1839. Vicar in the cathedral parish of Chartres for early four years; then, vicar general, 1844-1849.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Poitiers, September 23, 1849. Consecrated, November 25, 1849, cathedral of Chartres, by Claude-Hippolyte Clausel de Montals, bishop of Chartres, assisted by Pierre Parisis, bishop of Langres, and by Jean-Nicaise Gros, bishop of Versailles. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, January 22, 1856. Attended the First Vatican Council (1869-1870); did not sign the petition for the definition of the dogma of papal infallibilty, but when it was approved by the conciliar fathers, he supported it and defended it.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 12, 1879. Received the red hat and the title of Santa Maria della Vittoria in the consistory of September 22, 1879. It is said that he declined to be transferred to the metropolitan sees of Tours and Lyons.
Death. May 17, 1880, Angoulême. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Poitiers.
Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 447.
Links. Biography, in English, and his photogravure.
Birth. January 16, 1829 (or 1830), Porto, Portugal.
Education. Studied at the Theological Faculty of Coimbra, where he obtained a doctorate in theology on May 23, 1852.
Priesthood. Ordained, September 26, 1852. For several years, 1853-1862, professor of dogmatic theology and pastoral theology, Seminary of Santarém; later, vice-rector, October 13, 1855; as secretary of Cardinal Guilherme Henriques de Carvalho, attended the ceremony of definition of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, Rome, 1854; rector of the National Lyceum and District Commissioner of Studies; canon of the chapter of the patriarchate of Lisbon, 1859; because of ill health, left Santarém for Lisbon, July 2, 1862. Member of the Governing Board of the patriarchate, July 1864; because of the temporary absence of the patriarch, appeals court judge of relations, April 1865; archpriest of Lisbon, August 13, 1869; vicar capitular of Lisbon, 1869-1871. Nominated by the King of Portugal for the diocese of Porto, May 31, 1871, after dispelling suspicions linking him to the masonry.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Porto, June 26, 1871. Consecrated, September 10, 1871, Lisbon, by Inácio do Nascimento Moraes Cardoso, patriarch of Lisbon.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 12, 1879. Received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati in the consistory of February 27, 1880.
Death. January 21, 1899, Porto. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Porto.
Link. Portrait and brief biographical data, in Portuguese, diocese of Porto; brief biography, in Portuguese, in Os cardeais portugueses, under D. AMÉRICO FERREIRA DOS SANTOS SILVA, patriarchate of Lisbon.
Birth. October 23, 1818, Genoa. His father was a grain broker. Received the sacrament of confirmation, April 5, 1831.
Education. Studied at the University of Genoa, where he earned a doctorate in theology. Ordained a subdeacon on December 17, 1842; and a deacon on March 11, 1843.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 10, 1843. Professor at the Seminary of Genoa; its vice-superior and economous; and, in 1854, its rector for many years. Canon of the chapter of the metropolitan cathedral in 1866. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. During this period, he collaborated with several Catholic newspapers of clerical and intransigent tendency, opposing liberalism and the Italian unification.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Albenga, September 21, 1877. Consecrated, November 11, 1877, cathedral of Genoa, by Salvatore Magnasco, archbishop of Genoa, assisted by Giovanni Baptista Cerruti, bishop of Savona e Noli, and by Tommaso Reggio, titular bishop of Tani, coadjutor of Ventimiglia. His episcopal motto was Mundo Corde.
Cardinal. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 12, 1879. Received the red hat on May 15; and the title of Santa Maria in Traspontina in the consistory of September 22, 1879. He resigned his see and became a Curia cardinal. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Turin, August 9, 1883; received the pallium on that same day. He was a widely popular orator whose homilies were published in twelve volumes. He was a friend of Don Bosco, future saint. He was also a renowned theologian who published numerous works on the Immaculate Conception, the infallibility of the pope, and the mission of the laity among others. He was famous as a polemicist on topics such as the harmony between faith and science, and against positivism and rationalism. He favored the promotion of the laity and was, at the end of his life, one of the supporters of the conciliation of the Church and the Italian State, publishing in 1887 a work on the subject. He wrote his memoirs in two volumes (Il mio episcopato, Genoa, 1879).
Death. May 30, 1891, of liver disease, in a convent in Albaro, archdiocese of Genoa. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Genoa and later, in that of Turin. Buried in the chapel of the archbishops, cemetery of Turin (1). A bust in his memory was placed on the west wall of the cathedral, between the central and southern doors (2).
Bibliography. Alimonda, Gaetano. Dall'alba al tramonto: racconti. 4th ed. Torino : Tipografia Salesiana, 1895; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 88-89.
Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; Piazza Alimonda, in Genoa, Wikipedia; engravings, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) In his will, he requested to be buried in the church of San Cajetan at Regio Parco, in one of Turin's districts, built during his episcopate, but this desire was never granted.
(2) This is the text of the inscription below the bust, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London, England:
Birth. December 13, 1807, Carpineto, diocese of Anagni. Son of Ludovico Pecci and Anna Prosperi Buzzi. Brother of Pope Leo XIII.
Education. Studied at the Jesuit school in Viterbo from 1818; joined the Society of Jesus at the novitiate in Rome in December 1824; Collegio Romano (philosophy); taught rhetoric at the Jesuit schools in Urbino and Forlì; taught philosophy at the Jesuit schools in Reggio Emilia, Faenza and Modena from 1830 to 1833.
Priesthood. Ordained in 1837. Took his final vows on August 15, 1842. Professor of critical history of philosophy at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, in 1847. Left the Society in 1848 due to the revolutionary problems that were caused by the expulsion of the Jesuits from the Papal States (1); he retired to Carpineto. In 1850, he returned to Rome to teach philosophy at Collegio Romano; the following year, because of poor health, he returned to Carpineto; he officially passed to the diocesan clergy and was incardinated in the diocese of Anagni. In 1852, he was invited by his brother, Gioacchino Pecci, archbishop of Perugia, future pope Leo XIII, to teach philosophy at the local seminary; he participated in the initial steps of the restoration of the teaching of Thomistic philosophy, particularly in the foundation of Accademia Perugina di San Tommaso, in March 1859. In 1861, he occupied the chair of philosophy at La Sapienza University, Rome; he lost the chair in 1870 for having refused to take the oath of loyalty to the Italian government; he then returned to Perugia. Member of the Accademia di Religione Cattolica after February 1864. He participated in several commission of the First Vatican Council. Named domestic prelate of His Holiness and vice-librarian of the Holy Roman Church, September 9, 1878, with the mission of reorganizing the library. Professor of philosophy of law at the Accademia di Conferenze Storico-Giuridica. The Sacred College of Cardinals, following a suggestion from Cardinal Camillo di Pietro, asked Pope Leo XIII to promote his brother, Monsignor Giuseppe, to the cardinalate.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 12, 1879; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Agata alla Suburra, May 15, 1879. He collaborated in the preparation of the encyclical Æterni Patris on the restoration of Christian philosophy in the schools, which was published on August 4, 1879. Prefect of the S.C. of Studies, February 16, 1884 until October 29, 1887. Member of the Commission for Historical Studies and of the Commission of Christian Archeology, October 8, 1884. He rejoined the Society of Jesus in 1887; he renewed his solemn vows in August of that year. He suffered a cardiac crisis in 1888. First president of the Accademia Romana di Tommaso d'Aquino, founded by Pope Leo XIII on October 15, 1889.
Death. February 8, 1890, Rome, of an apoplexy following bronchitis and pneumonia. Exposed in the Basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, where the funeral took place on February 12. Buried in the chapel of the Society of Jesus, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.
Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 187; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 723-724; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 28 and 54.
Link. Engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) Some sources say that he left the Society because of his distaste for the doctrine of Fr. Francisco Suárez, S.J., noted theologian of the 16th century; and others say that he was expelled because of his eccentricity.
Birth. February 21, 1801, London, England. The eldest of the six children of John Newman, a banker, and Jemina Foundrinier, a descendent of the Huguenots who migrated from France after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The other siblings were Charles, Francis, Harriet, Jemima and Mary. Baptized in the Church of England, April 9, 1801. He converted to Calvinism at the age of 15, August-December, 1816.
Education. Trinity College, Oxford, 1816-1822; elected a fellow at Oriel College, Oxford, April 12, 1822; ordained to the diaconate, June 13, 1824; curate of St. Clement's, Oxford, 1824-1826; ordained priest of the Church of England, May 29, 1825, Christ Church, Oxford; vice-principal at St. Mary's Hall, 1825; vicar of St. Mary's (also the university church), 1828. resigned his tutorship, 1832 and went on a trip around the Mediterranean (December, 1832-July, 1833); returned to Oxford. With the Assize sermon on "National Apostasy" by John Keble, on July 14, 1833, the Oxford Movement was born. The religious opinions and principles of the Movement toward High Church principles in opposition to liberalizing and evangelical tendencies and emphasizing the principles of primitive and patristic Christianity as well as the historic and catholic character of the church, were given in a series of 90 papers called the Tracts for the Times, published in Oxford from 1833 to 1841. Newman became the leader of the Tractarian Movement, as it was also known. Resigned from St. Mary's in 1843. On October 9, 1845 he converted to Catholicism and was received into the Church in Littlemore by Fr. Domenico Barberi, an Italian Passionist (1). On November 1, 1845, he received the sacrament of confirmation and added Mary to his given name.
Priesthood. Ordained, May 30, 1847, Rome, by Cardinal Giacomo Filippo Fransoni. Returned to England in 1847 and, encouraged by Pope Pius IX, established the Oratory of St. Philip Neri; set up the London house and began mission work in Birmingham; later moved to Edgbaston. Rector of the Catholic University of Ireland, 1851-1858. Editor of the Rambler, May-July, 1859. Issued his most famous work, Apologia pro Vita sua, in seven parts, April 21-June 2, 1864. He opposed that the First Vatican Council (1869-1870) would issue a document of papal infallibility. He was not opposed to the concept but felt that the doctrine should be given more time to mature before it was codified. Once the doctrine was proclaimed, he strongly defended it. For many years he endured attacks and criticism from within and without the Church. Returned to Oxford as honorary fellow of Trinity College, February, 1878.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 12, 1879; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, May 15, 1879. His motto as a cardinal was Cor ad cor loquitur, which was inspired by letters of St. Francis de Sales, bishop of Généve, Switzerland, for whom the cardinal had a great admiration and devotion and whose picture the cardinal had presiding his private chapel in the Oratory of Birmingham. The most famous and illustrious English convert, his life and thought are well documented through 21,000 of his personal letters that have survived as well as the 40 books that he published.
Death. Monday August 11, 1890, of pneumonia, in Edgbaston, Birmingham, England. Exposed in the Oratory of St. Philip of Edgbaston; and buried, on the following day, in the small secluded cemetery at the Oratory House, Rednal, near Birmingham; in the same tomb with Fr. Ambrose St. John (+ 1875), according to his wishes. A plaque commemorates him in the church of S. Giorgio in Velabro, his deaconry (2).
Beatification. The cause for his beatification was opened in 1958. Pope John Paul II signed the document acknowledging he practiced the Christian virtues in a heroic degree and declared him Venerable, January 22, 1991. At the beginning of 2008, in preparation for his beatification, the Vatican requested that his remains be transferred to the chapel of the Oratory of Birmingham and placed in a marble sarcophagus so that the faithful can venerate them more easily (3). On July 3, 2009, the pope authorized the publication of the decree of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints concerning a miracle attributed to his intercession. In a ceremony celebrated on September 19, 2010, in Birmingham, England, Pope Benedict XVI declared him a blessed.
Bibliography. Abbott, Edwin Abbott. The Anglican Career of Cardinal Newman. 2 vols. London ; New York : Macmillan and co., 1892; Benedict XVI and Cardinal Newman. Edited by Peter Jennings. Oxford : Family Publications, 2005; Brighi, Davide. Assenso reale e scienze profane. Il contributo di John Henry Newman ad una rinnovata ragione teologica. Roma : Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 2007. (Tesi gregoriana. Serie Teologia ; 143; Variation: Tesi gregoriana.; Serie teologia ; 143). Note: Originally presented as the author's thesis--Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 2006. Other title: Contributo di John Henry Newman ad una rinnovata ragione teologica; Chadwick, Owen. From Bossuet To Newman. The Idea Of Doctrinal Develoment. Cambridge [England] : Cambridge University Press, 1957.(The Birkbeck lectures ; 1955-56; Variation: The Birkbeck lectures ; 1955-56); Chetwood, Thomas B. Handbook of Newman. New York : Schwartz, Kirwin & Fauss, 1927; Chisnall, Peter. John Henry Cardinal Newman : a man of courage, conflict and conviction. London, UK : St Pauls, 2001; Connolly, J.R. John Henry Newman. A view of Catholic faith for the new Millenium. Lanham, 2005; Dulles, Avery. Newman. London ; New York : Continuum, 2002. (Outstanding Christian thinkers); Flood, Joseph Mary. Cardinal Newman and Oxford. London : I. Nicholson and Watson, 1933; In Search of Light : life development prayer. Three essays on John Henry Newman. Rome : International Center of Newman Friends, 1985; John Henry Newman : commemorative essays on the occasion of the centenary of his cardinalate, 1879-May-1979. Edited by Maria Katharina Strolz and the collaborators of the Centre of Newman-Friends. Rome : M.K. Strolz, 1979; Ker, Ian Turnbull. John Henry Newman: A Biography. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1988, 2009; Ker, Ian Turnbull ; Merrigan, Terrence. Newman and faith. Oxford International Newman Conference (3rd : 2001 : Keble College, University of Oxford). Louvain ; Dudley, MA : Peeters Press ; [Grand Rapids, Mich.] : W.B. Eerdmans, 2004. (Louvain theological & pastoral monographs ; 31). Contents: Antecedent presumption, faith, and logic / D.Z. Phillips -- To live and die upon a dogma: Newman and post/modern dogma / Gerard Loughlin -- Newman and the particularity of conscience / Gerard J. Hughes -- Historia veritatis: on Newman's essay "On the development of Christian doctrine" / Bruno Forte -- Newman on faith in the trinity / Terrence Merrigan -- Newman, councils and Vatican II / Ian Ker -- Dispensations of grace: Newman on the sacramental mediation of salvation / Geoffrey Wainwright -- Newman through the looking glass / Elisabeth Jay; Lease, Gary. Witness to the faith : Cardinal Newman on the teaching authority of the Church. Pittsburgh : Duquesne University Press, 1971; Martin, Brian. John Henry Newman. His life and work. London: Chatto & Windus, 1982; May, J. Lewis. Cardinal Newman. A study. London : Geoffrey Bles, 1945; Meynell, Wilfrid. Cardinal Newman : a monograph. London, Burns & Oates ; New York, Catholic Publication Society Co., 1890; Meynell, Wilfrid. Catholic life and letters of Cardinal Newman : with notes on the Oxford movement and its men. London : Burns and Oates ; New York : Catholic Publication Society, 1885; Meynell, Wilfrid. John Henry Newman, the founder of modern Anglicanism and a cardinal of the Roman church. London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1890; Moody, John. John Henry Newman. New York : Sheed & Ward, 1945; Robbins, William. The Newman brothers. An essay in comparative intellectual biography. Cambridge : Harvard University Press, 1966; Newman, John Henry. John Henry Newman. Edited by Wilfrid Meynell. London ; Edinburgh, T.C. & E.C. Jack, (Library of the soul). Note: "Abstracted in his own words from the 'Apologia pro vita sua.'"; Newman, John Henry. Newman the oratorian : his unpublished Oratory papers. Uniform title ; Oratory papers. Leominster, Herefordshire : Gracewing, 2004. Note: "First published in 1968 by Fowler Wright Books Ltd.". Responsibility: edited with an introductory study on the continuity between his Anglican and his Catholic ministry by Placid Murray; Peterburs, Wulstan. "Newman's Idea of a University, 'the Circle of the Sciences', and the Constitution of the Church", in Victorian churches and churchmen : essays presented to Vincent Alan McClelland. Edited by Sheridan Gilley. Woodgridge, UK ; Rochester, NY : Published for the Catholic Record Society by the Boydell Press, 2005. (Catholic Record Society publications. Monograph series ; v. 7; Variation: Catholic Record Society publications.; Monograph series ; v. 7), 11, p. 200-233, Strolz, Maria Katharina. International community "The work" : with its Centres of Newman friends in Rome, Littlemore, Bregenz, Jerusalem. Centenary of the death of John Henry Cardinal Newman: a selection of documents. Rome : Published by M.K. Strolz, International Community "The work", 1990. Note: "Owned, edited and published by: Dr. M.K. Strolz ... "; Strolz, Maria Katharina ; Binder, Margarete. John Henry Newman, lover of truth : academic symposium and celebration of the first centenary of the death of John Henry Newman. Rome : Pontificia Universitas Urbaniana, 1991; Sugg, Joyce. Ever yours affly : John Henry Newman and his female circle. Leominster, Herefordshire : Gracewing, 1996; Trevor, Meriol. Newman. 2 vols. Volume I: The Pillar of the Cloud. Volume II: Light in Winter. Garden City : Doubleday & Co., 1963; Ward, Maisie. Young Mr. Newman. New York : Sheed & Ward, 1948; Ward, Wilfried. The Life of John Henry Cardinal Newman. Based on his private journals and correspondence. 2 vols. London : Longmans, Green, 1912.
Links. Biography by Barry, William, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; another biography, also in English; ten portraits and drawings; another biography and his works in The Newman Reader; portrait and biography, in Italian; bibliography and his portrait by George Richmond, 1844 (the site, by Dave Armstrong, contains abundant pictoiral and textual information); biography, in German; Oratory of Edgbaston, where he lived from 1852 until his death, with closer view of its plaque; portrait and article on his literary work; his arms; and The National Institute for Newman Studies, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America; his portrait by E. Jennings, Magdalen College, University of Oxford, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC; his portrait by William Thomas Roden (1879), Birmingham Museums Trust, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC; his portrait by Walter William Ouless, Oriel College, University of Oxford, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC.
(1) Fr. Domenico Barberi , C.P. (1792-1849) was beatified by Pope Paul VI on October 27, 1963.
(2) A statement at the website of the archdiocese of Birmingham, England, says: The tomb was excavated with the utmost care on Thursday October 2, 2008. During the excavation the brass inscription plate which had been on the wooden coffin in which Cardinal Newman had rested was recovered from his grave. It reads: 'Eminent [issimus] et Reverend [issimus] Joannes Henricus Newman Cardinalis Diaconus S Georgii in Velabro Obiit Die XI August. MDCCCXC RIP'. This is its translation into English: 'The Most Eminent and Most Reverend John Henry Newman Cardinal Deacon of St George in Velabro Died 11 August 1890 RIP'. "Brass, wooden and cloth artefacts from Cardinal Newman's coffin were found. However there were no remains of the body of John Henry Newman. An expectation that Cardinal Newman had been buried in a lead lined coffin proved to be unfounded. "In the view of the medical and health professionals in attendance, burial in a wooden coffin in a very damp site makes this kind of total decomposition of the body unsurprising. "The absence of physical remains in the grave does not affect the progress of Cardinal Newman's Cause in Rome. "The Birmingham Oratory has always been in possession of some actual physical remains of Cardinal Newman. These consist of some locks of hair. "These together with items found in his grave, will be housed in a casket for a Vigil of Reception on Friday 31 October and Saturday 1 November, to be followed by High Mass on the Feast of All Souls, Sunday 2 November, at 11.00 am, when the casket will be placed in the Oratory Church, Edgbaston." Although not mentioned in any of his writings, a local contemporary newspaper reporting his death indicated that the cardinal had requested that an acid subtance that would accelerate the decomposition of his body be spread over his coffin.
(3) This is the text of the inscription on the plaque, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
Birth. September 15, 1824, Würzburg, Germany. Second of the eight children of Johann Jacob Hergenröther, a physician and professor of medicine at the University of Würzburg, and Eva Maria Horsch. He was baptized with the names Joseph Adam Gustav. The other siblings were Georg Johann Baptist, Kaspar (lawyer), Ludwig (linen mill owner), Theresia, Elizabeth, Phillipp (professor of theology) and Franz.
Education. Initial and gymnasium studies in Würzburg; University of Würzburg, Würzburg (two years in philosophy; and certain branches of theology); sent by Bishop Georg Anton von Stahl of Würzburg to study at Collegium Germanicum, Rome, in 1844; political disturbs in Rome in 1848, prevented him from completing his doctoral studies; University of Münich, Münich (doctorate in theology, 1859; thesis: Die Lehre von der göttlichen Dreieinigkeit nach d. heil. Gregor von Nazianz).
Priesthood. Ordained, March 28, 1848, Rome. Further studies, Würzburg, 1848-1849. Chaplain in Zellingen. Instructor of theology, University of Münich, 1851-1852. Faculty member, University of Würzburg, 1852-1879; dean of the Faculty of Theology. Attended the First Vatican Council as a consultor, 1868-1870. Ardent supporter of the council's teachings, especially papal infallibility against the opposition of the famous historian and theologian Dr. Johann Joseph Ignaz von Döllinger (who was eventually excommunicated). He was a prolific author of works in theology, ecclesiastical history and canon law. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 18, 1877. Prefect of the Pontifical Household.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 12, 1879; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere Tuliano, May 15, 1879. First prefect of the Vatican Archives, June 9, 1879. Protector of the Teutonic Institute of S. Maria dell'Anima, June 9, 1887. Opted for deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, June 1, 1888.
Death. October 3, 1890, Cistercian Abbey of Mehrerau, Bregenz. Exposed and buried in the church of that abbey. When the Abbey Church of Mehrerau was remodeled between 1961 and 1963, the remains of Cardinal Hergenröther were removed from the church along with those of other prelates and abbots and re-buried in the newly designed lower church, where the foundations of the church built in 1097 had been exposed during the restorations, and placed in concrete sarcophagi. His monument was destroyed and today, only a marble statue featuring him in a lying position survives, near his present tomb.
Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in English; Kardinal Hergenröther, by Ludwig Steiner, Würzburg : L. Woerl, 1883; Hergendröther Family, in English, Chuck's Genealogy; engravings and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. October 29, 1833, Bonifacio, diocese of Ajaccio, Corsica, France.
Education. Classical studies, Bonifacio; joined the Order of Preachers, 1851; religious profession, 1852; Dominican house of studies, Rome (philosophy); Dominican house of studies, Perugia (theology).
Priesthood. Ordained, May 17, 1856, Perugia, by Gioacchino Pecci, archbishop-bishop of Perugia, future Pope Leo XIII. Professor of philosophy in Rome and in Corbara, Corsica. Concurrently, faculty member, Seminary of Viterbo, and master of novices, Dominican convent of Gradi. Master of novices, Rome, and later, 1870-1879, faculty member of Dominican Collegio S. Tommaso della Minerva; rector, 1873-1879. Consultor of the SS. CC. of the Index and of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 12, 1879; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, May 15, 1879. In 1879 contributed to the writing of the encyclical Aeterni patris, restoring Thomism as the basis of Christian philosophy. Director of the Leonine Commission for the the edition of the works of St. Thomas Aquinas, 1880. Protector of the Bibliographic Society, Rome, July 4, 1885. Prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Relics, December 16, 1886. Prefect of the S.C. of Studies, October 28, 1887. In 1890 contributed to the writing of the encyclical Rerum novarum. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Prassede, June 1, 1891. Protector of the Theological Academy, Rome, April 12, 1892. He enjoyed world wide fame as a leading scholar in Thomistic philosophy and theology.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, January 16, 1893; died before receiving the episcopal consecration.
Death. May 10, 1893, Rome. Exposed in the Church of S. Maria sopra Minerva and buried in the chapel of the Dominican Friars, Campo Verano Cemetery, Rome.
Links. Biography by Charles Callan, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; engravings and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.
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