Birth. May 31, 1825, parish of S. Stefano, Treviso. Son of Antonio Agostini and Maria de Gobbis. Received the sacrament of confirmation, March 23, 1837.
Education. Initial studies at home; then, he attended Scuole di S. Nicolò, Treviso (elementary and middle curriculum); the Seminary of Treviso (theology); and the University of Padua, where he earned doctorates in philosophy and law. Joined the citizens militia during the war with Austria, 1848-1849; left the clerical state. Rejoined the clerical state in 1850. Received the subdiaconate on December 21, 1850.
Priesthood. Ordained, March 15, 1851, chapel of Trinità, Seminary of Venice, by Cardinal Giacomo Monico, patriarch of Venice. In the diocese of Treviso, coadjutor of the parish of S. Stefano; faculty member and spiritual director of its seminary. He was a member of the Society of Jesus for two years, 1857-1859. In the diocese of Treviso again, judge of the ecclesiastical tribunal; director of the tertians; assistant and animator of the Conference of St. Vincent de Paul; archpriest of the cathedral chapter; chancellor and pro-vicar general, 1863.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Chioggia, October 27, 1871. Consecrated, December 17, 1871, church of B.V. della Salute, Venice, by Cardinal Giuseppe Luigi Trevisanato, patriarch of Venice, assisted by Federico Maria Zinelli, bishop of Treviso, and by Salvatore Giovanni Battista Bolognesi, bishop of Belluno e Feltre. Promoted to the patriarchal see of Venice, retaining the administration of the see of Chioggia ad beneplacitum Sanctis Sedis, on June 22, 1877. He entered the patriarchate by sea on October 21, 1877.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 27, 1882; received red hat and title of S. Eusebio, March 30, 1882. Opted for title of S. Maria della Pace in the consistory of June 7, 1886.
Death. December 31, 1891, Venice. Exposed in the patriarchal cathedral of Venice, where the funeral took place on January 13, with the participation of the nobility, the people and representatives of the monarchy; and buried in the chapel of the canons in the cemetery of S. Michele, Venice.
Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 79-80; Niero, Antonio. I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni. Venice : Studium Cattolico Veneziano, 1961. (Collana Storica, 3), pp. 194-198; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 29, 48, 50, 219 and 585.
Webgraphy. Biography by Fausto Fonzi, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 1 (1960), Treccani; his arms and biographical data, in Italian, Istituto Araldico Genealogico Italiano; and commemorative plaque on the centennial of his birth, Chie era costui.
Birth. October 31, 1825, Saint-Esprit, Huire, formerly diocese of Aire, now Bayonne, France. Of a middle class family. Son of Léon Philippe Lavigerie and Louise Laure Latrihle. He was the eldest of four children, three boys and a girl. He was baptized on November 5, 1825; his middle name Martial was given to him in honor of his grandfather.
Education. Early education at Colléège de Saint-Lé, Bayonne; Junior Seminary of Larressore; St. Nicolas-du-Chardonnet, Paris; Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris; École des Carmes, Paris; Sorbonne University, Paris (doctorates in letters, 1850; and in theology, 1853; he also received a doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, by apostolic brief of December 6, 1861).
Priesthood. Ordained, June 2, 1849, Paris, by Marie-Dominique-Auguste Sibour, archbishop of Paris.. For almost seven years, professor in the Theological Faculty of Paris; chaplain of Sainte-Geneviève, Paris, 1853; associate professor of church history, Sorbonne University, 1854; titular of the chair, 1857. Director of L'Oeuvre des Écoles d'Orient, 1856-1861. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1861-1863. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, September 20, 1861.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nancy et Toul, March 16, 1863. Consecrated, March 22, 1863, church of S. Luigi de' Francesi, Rome, by Cardinal Clément Villecourt, former bishop of La Rochelle, assisted by Gustav Adolf von Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, titular archbishop of Edessa, secret almoner of His Holiness, and by Francesco Martinelli, titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, April 21, 1863. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Algier, March 27, 1867. Founder of the Society of Missionaries of Africa (also known as White Fathers or Pères Blancs) in 1868 and, three years later, in 1869, the Congregation of the Missionary Sisters of Notre Dame d'Afrique (or White Sisters). Apostolic administrator of Oran, November 9, 1875. Apostolic administrator of the vicariate of Tunis, June 28, 1881.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 27, 1882; received red hat and title of S. Agnese fuori le mura in the consistory of July 3, 1882. On November 10, 1884, Pope Leo XIII established the archdiocese of Carthage, until then a titular see, and he became also archbishop of the new circumscription. In 1888, at the invitation of Pope Leo XIII, he launched the campaign to end slavery in Africa. He knew that to get the governments to do so he had to mobilize public opinion in Europe. With that goal in mind, he visited the capitals of Europe, giving conferences in Saint Sulpice, Paris; Princes Hall, London; the church of Saint Gudule, Brussels; and the church of the Gesù, Rome. He drew peoples attention to the fact that the victims of African slavery were especially women and children, appealing in particular to the women in his audiences to pressure their governments to change the situation. The cardinal not only called on all Christians to engage in this campaign, he also appealed to those in the wider community too, and all this effort contributed greatly to getting European governments to eliminate slavery in Africa. Named apostolic administrator of the vicariate of Sahara on March 13, 1891.
Death. November 26, 1892, at 1 a.m., in Algiers. Funerals took place in Algiers, Tunis and Carthage. The body was taken to Tunis and deposited in the vault prepared for him in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Carthage on the hill of Byrsa on December 8, 1892. In 1964, when the cathedral became the property of the government, his remains were transferred to Rome and buried in the crypt of the chapel of the Society of Missionaries of Africa's general curia (1).
Bibliography. Baunard, Mgr. Le Cardinal Lavigerie. 2 v. Paris : Librairie Ch. Poussielgue, 1896; Beane, John G. Cardinal Lavigerie, primate of Africa. Baltimore, Md. : St. Joseph's Seminary for the Colored Missions, 1898. (St. Joseph's missionary library ; 5). Responsibility: adapted from the French by J.G. Beane; Boulanger, A. ; Martin,M. J. Musée Lavigerie de Saint Louis de Carthage. 2 v. Paris : Ernest Leroux, 1913-1915. Note: Description de l'Afrique du Nord. Musées et collections archéologiques de l'Algérie et de la Tunisie. Responsibility: Supplément 1 par M.A. Boulanger et supplément 2 par M.J. Martin; Burridge, William. Destiny Africa : Cardinal Lavigerie and the making of the White Fathers. London : G. Chapman, 1966; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 375-376; Clark, Richard Frederick. Cardinal Lavigerie and the African slave trade. New York : Negro Universities Press, 1969, 1889; Conombo, Joseph Issoufou. Une autre conquete de l'Afrique par l'amour et la charite : peres blancs et soeurs blanches du cardinal Charles Lavigerie missionnaire d'Afrique. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso : Editions Firmament, 2003; Cristiani, Léon. Le cardinal Lavigerie; un grand bienfaiteur de l'Afrique, 1825-1892. Paris : Éditions France-Empire, 1961; Cuoq, Joseph. Lavigerie, les Pères blancs et les musulmans maghrebins. Rome : Société des missionnaires d'frique, 1986; Cussac, Jules. Un géant de l'apostolat, le cardinal Lavigerie. Paris : Librairie Missionnaire, 1940-1949? Responsibility: Lettre-préface de Son Excellence Mgr. Birraux; Ceillier, Jean-Claude. Histoire des missionnaires d'Afrique (Pères blancs) : de la fondation par Mgr Lavigerie à la mort du fondateur (1868-1892). Paris : Karthala, 2008. (Mémoire d'églises); Grussenmeyer, A. C. Vingt-cinq années d'épiscopat en France et en Afrique; documents biographiques sur son éminence le cardinal Lavigerie, archevêque de Carthage et d'Alger, primat dAfrique, à l'occasion de son jubilé episcopal. 2 v. Alger : A. Jourdan, 1888; Jammes, Francis. Lavigerie. Paris : E. Flammarion, 1927; Klein, Félix. Le cardinal Lavigerie et ses oeuvres d'Afrique. Edition: Nouvelle ed., completement refoundue. Tours: A. Mame et fils, 1897; Lesourd, Paul. Les pères blancs du Cardinal Lavigerie. Paris : B. Grasset, 1935. (Collection "Les grands ordres monastiques et instituts religieux", XIX); Montclos, Xavier de. Lavigerie, le Saint-Siège et l'Église, de l'vénement de Pie IX ` l'avènement de Léon XIII, 1846-1878. Paris: E. de Boccard, 1965; Nothomb, Dominique. Charles Lavigerie, un maître spirituel. Versailles : Editions Saint-Paul, 1997; O'Donnell, Joseph Dean. Lavigerie in Tunisia : the interplay of imperialist and missionary. Athens : University of Georgia Press, 1979; Pottier, René. Le Cardinal Lavigerie, apôtre et civilisateur. Paris : Publications techniques et artistiques, 1947; Renault, François. Cardinal Lavigerie : churchman, prophet, and missionary. Translated by John O'Donohue. London ; Atlantic Highlands, N.J. ; Athlone Press, 1994. Uniform title: Cardinal Lavigerie, 1825-1892; Renault, François. Lavigerie, l'esclavage africain, et l'Europe, 1868-1892. Paris : E. de Boccard, 1971. Contents: 1: Afrique centrale -- 2: Campagne antiesclavagiste; Shorter, Aylward. The cross and flag in Africa : the "White Fathers" during the colonial scramble (1892-1914). Maryknoll, N.Y. : Orbis Books, 2006; Shorter, Aylward. Les Pères Blancs au temps de la conquête coloniale: histoire des missionnaires d'Afrique (1892-1914). Traduit de l'anglais par Gérard Guiraudin. Paris : Éd. Karthala, Impr. Laballery, 2011. (Mémoire d'Églises). Translation of: Cross and flag in Africa : the White Fathers during the colonial scramble, 1892-1914; Tiquet, Jean Elie Pierre. Une expérience de petite colonisation indigène en Algérie. Les colons Arabes-Chrétiens du Cardinal Lavigerie. Maison-Carrée : Impr. des Pères blancs, 1936.
Webgraphy. Biography by Joseph Sollier, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; Charles Lavigerie, l'ami de l'Afrique. Portraits de cardinaux français du XVIe au XXe siècle, la-Croix.com; photographs, Les Missionnaires d'Afrique - Pères Blancs; and his portrait as a young priest by Léon Joseph Florentin Bonnat, musée Bonnat, Bayonne, France, Réunion des musées nationaux et du Grand Palais des Champs-Elysées; Archbishop Fitzgerald calls for renewed effort to combat modern slavery by Gerard O'Connell, Vatican Insider, 11/18/2012.
(1) This is the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
Birth. February 22, 1816, Manresa, diocese of Vich, Spain. Son of Antonio Lluch y Mariana Garriga. He had five brothers and seven sisters. His baptismal name was Joaquín Jacinto Francisco. He is also listed as Joaquim Lluch i Garriga; and his first name as Joachim.
Education. Initial studies in Manresa; in 1822, he moved to Barcelona with his family and studied humanities, magna cum laude; then, he entered the Order of the Carmelites Discalced at the Monastery of "El Carmen", Barcelona, November 2, 1830; he made his religious profession ath the Carmelite house of studies of "Santo Ángel", where he studied philosophy; because of the expulsion of the religious orders in Spain in 1835, he had to go to Carcassone first; and then to the convent of S. Martino ai Monti, Rome; later, he studied theology at the Carmelite convent of Lucca, Tuscia.
Priesthood. Ordained, 1838. At the convent of Lucca, he was master of Novices; professor of philosphy, theology and French; editor; sacred orator; director of sp[iritual exercises; controversialist against the Protestants; and founder of the Pia Unione della santa modestia. Returned to Barcelona in 1847 because of the political problems in Italy; professor of moral theology at the Seminary of Barcelona; pastoral work in the Carmelite church of Our Lady of Mercy; promoted the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul for assistance to the poor; founded schools for poor children and Sunday schools; rector of the parish of San Miguel; prosynodal examiner of the diocese of Barcelona; regent of studies; commissary and visitor of his order; apostolic missionary. Pope Pius IX granted him the title of S. Theologiae Doctor. Presented for the episcopate by Queen Isabel II of Spain.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of the Canary Islands, September 22, 1858. Consecrated, Sunday, December 12, 1858, church of Belén, Barcelona, by Florentino Llorente Montón, bishop of Gerona, assisted by Antonio Palau Termes, bishop of Barcelona, and by Juan Castanyer Rivas, bishop of Vich. Assistant at Pontifical Throne, October 30, 1860. Presented by Queen Isabel II of Spain for the diocese of Salmanca. Transferred by the pope to the see of Salamanca, March 13, 1868. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. Transferred to the see of Barcelona, January 16, 1874. Presented by King Alfonso XII of Spain for the archdiocese of Sevilla on May 7, 1877. Promoted by the pope to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, June 22, 1877. Received the pallium on June 22, 1877.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 27, 1882. Died before going to Rome to receive the red hat and the title.
Death. September 23, 1882, Umbrete, Sevilla (1). His body was transferred to Sevilla, and exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral (2).
Bibliography. Carulla y Estrada, José María de. Biografía del Excmo. é Ilmo. Señor D. Fr. Joaquín Lluch y Garriga, Arzobispo de Sevilla. Madrid : A. Perez Dubrull, 1880. Responsibility: escrita por José María Carulla ; con los apuntes que bondadosamente le ha proporcionado Bernabé González; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 201; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 30, 141, 177, 309 and 491; Velasco, R. "Lluch y Garriga, Joaquín." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, IV, 1374-1375; Villiers, Cosme de Saint Étienne de. Bibliotheca Carmelitana, notis criticis et dissertationibus illustrata. 2 v. in 1. Edited by Gabriel Wessels. Romae, In aedibus Collegii S. Alberti, 1927. Responsibility: curâ et labore unius è Carmelitis Provinciae Turoniae collecta. Aurelianis, Excudebant M. Couret de Villeneuve & J. Rouzeau-Montaut, Regis, Serenissimi Aurelianensium Ducis, Regiique Aurelianensis Collegii Typographi & Bibliopolae, M. DCCLII. Cum Approbatione et Privilegio Regis, I col. XXXII-XXXIV, no. 36.
Webgraphy. Biographical entry, in English, Enciclopèdia Catalana.
(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 30; and Velasco, R. "Lluch y Garriga, Joaquín", IV, 1374. Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1700-1867), p. 201, indicates that he died on September 28, 1882.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Villiers, Bibliotheca Carmelitana, I, col. XXXIV:
Birth. February 14, 1816, Dublin, Ireland. From a modest family.
Education. He was educated at Father Doyle's school, Arran Quay; then, in 1831, he entered Maynooth College, Dublin.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 24, 1839, by Archbishop Daniel Murray of Dublin. In the archdiocese of Dublin, curate in Clontarf; administrator at the pro-cathedral; elected bishop of Grahamstown, South Africa, 1854, he declined as he did not want to leave Ireland. Pastor of St. Nicholas Without in 1856; pastor of the united parish of Dun Laoghaire, Monkstown and Glasthule from 1865-1879; canon of the cathedral chapter and vicar general in 1864.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Gadara and appointed auxiliary of Dublin, June 26, 1877. Consecrated, July 25, 1877, church of St. Michael, Kingstown, by Cardinal Paul Cullen, archbishop of Dublin, assisted by John McEvily, bishop of Galway, and by Francis Patrick Moran, bishop of Ossory. His episcopal motto was Aut vincere aut mori. Promoted to the metropolitan nd primatial see of Dublin, April 4, 1879. He was a member of the Senate of the Royal University of Ireland; and served on the Mansion House Committee in 1881. In October 1881, Archbishop McCabe issued a pastoral letter denouncing in strong terms the Land League's "no rent" manifesto, for which hebecame very unpopular and isolated (1).
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 27, 1882; received red hat and title of S. Sabina, March 30, 1882. He suffered bad health during the last years of his life.
Death. February 11, 1885, at his home in Eblana Avenue, Dun Laoghaire, Dublin. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Dublin; and buried in Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin.
Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 556-557; Woods, Christopher J. The politics of Cardinal McCabe, Archbishop of Dublin, 1879-85. Dublin Old Dublin Society, 1973. Note: From: Dublin historical record. Vol. 26, no. 3 (June 1973), p. 101-110.
Webgraphy. Biography by Edward D'Alton, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; photographs and biography, in English, archdiocese of Dublin; biography, in English, Wikipedia; his obituary, New Zealand Tablet, Ro-rahi XII, Putanga 44, 20 Huitanguru 1885, Page 9, National Library of New Zealand; his jacent statue, The Adams Residence; his tomb, Find a Grave; his funeral monument, flickr; Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin, The Adams Residence.
(1) This is according to his biography in the site of the archdiocese of Dublin, linked above:
Edward McCabe was Archbishop of Dublin for only six years. In the 1870s, severe economic depression was a major factor in Ireland. As a result a new agrarian movement, the Land League, came into being. Initially the Irish Catholic clergy supported the agitation and came to play a prominent role at local level. On Sunday 4 January 1880, a collection was made in aid of the distressed districts of Ireland at chapels in the Dublin Diocese. As the movement grew in popularity, McCabe became increasingly hostile to it. He was well aware of the plight of the tenant-farmer and appalled by the wholesale evictions but he also had sympathy for the landlords who themselves faced economic ruin. He regularly condemned agrarian outrages and in October 1881 issued a pastoral letter denouncing in fierce terms the Land League's 'no rent' manifesto. He tried to keep priests out of politics and ended up isolating his fellow prelates and alienated himself from the generality of Irish nationalist opinion. So great was his unpopularity that his return from Rome in 1882 with the 'red hat' almost went un-noticed.
Birth. April 25, 1825, Genzano, diocese of Albano. Son of Vincenzo Jacobini and Giacinta Parri. He was baptized with the name Angelo Maria. Related to Cardinal Ludovico Jacobini (1879). His niece Eugenia married Marquis Giovanni Antonio Della Chiesa, brother of Pope Benedict XV.
Education. Seminary of "S. Apollinare", Rome; La Sapienza University, Rome. He obtained a doctorate in theology in 1846. He also studied utroque iure, both canon and civil law. Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome (diplomacy).
Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Member of the preparatory commission for the Syllabus. Auditor of the S.C. of the Council. Assessor of the S.C. of the Apostolic Visit, 1867-1875; its secretary, June 22, 1875. From 1867 to 1869, he worked in the preparatory commission of the First Vatican Council as consultor of the Commission on Ecclesiastical discipline. From 1869 to 1870, he was assistant to the under secretary of the council. Sent in a mission to Ireland in 1873. Secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, October 3, 1875. Assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, March 15, 1877. He participated in the negotiations with Germany during the time of the Kulturkampf.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 27, 1882; received red hat and deaconry of S. Eustachio, March 30, 1882.
Death. March 3, 1886, Rome. Exposed in his deaconry, where the funeral took place; and buried, temporarily, in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.
Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 484-485.
Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia.
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