The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903)
Consistory of November 10, 1884 (VII)

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(28) 1. CELESIA, O.S.B.Cas., Michelangelo
(1814-1904)

Birth. January 13, 1814, Palermo. Son of Lancellotto Celesia, of the marquises of Sant'Antonino, and Giuseppa Caruso Azzolini. His baptismal name was Pietro Geremia. Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 27, 1822.

Education. When he was very young, he entered the Order of St. Benedict Cassinese; took the name Michelangelo; made his solemn religious profession on January 15, 1835, at the monastery of S. Martino della Scala, Palermo.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 24, 1836. Lector of philosophy, 1840; dean, 1841; professor of dogmatic theology, 1843; master of novices; prior of the monastery of Messina, 1846; prior in Militello until 1850. Abbot of Monte Cassino, by papal decree, March 25, 1850; general procurator and abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Farfa, 1858.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Patti, Sicily, March 23, 1860. Consecrated, April 15, 1860, Rome, by Cardinal Girolamo D'Andrea, prefect of the S.C. of the Index, assisted by Giuseppe Melchiade Ferlisi, titular Latin patriarch of Constantinople, and by Gustav Adolf von Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, titular archbishop of Edessa in Macedonia. Because Sicily had been invaded by the Expedition of the Thousand led by Giuseppe Garibaldi, he was not able to go to his diocese and remained in Rome as an exile together with numerous other bishops from the island; he was able to go to Patti in 1866. He distinguished himself in the First Vatican Council (1869-1870) as a strong supporter of the papal infallibility. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Palermo, October 27, 1871.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 10, 1884; received red hat and title of S. Prisca, November 13, 1884. In 1885, during the cholera epidemic that desolated Palermo, he conducted himself with heroic charity assisting those affected. Opted for the title of S. Marco in the consistory of November 25, 1887. Did not participate in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X, because of age and poor health. On January 9, 1904, he received a congratulatory letter from Pope Pius X on the upcoming occasion of his 90th birthday.

Death. April 14, 1904, at 1:20 a.m., in the archiepiscopal palace of Palermo. He was embalmed by Professor Alfredo Salafia. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Palermo; and buried in the church of the Capuchin Friars, Palermo. According to eyewitnesses, a delegation viewed the cardinal's body seven months after his death and again in January 1909, and it was in a remarkable state of preservation. His remains were transferred and buried in a lateral chapel of the metropolitan cathedral of Palermo (1).

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1914, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1913, p. 58; Cascavilla, Michele. Sulla vita e gli scritti del cardinale Michelangelo Celesia, cenni storici. Palermo: Michele Cascavilla, 1889; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 241-243; "Necrologie", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1905. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1904, p. 635-636; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 31, 50, 52, and 434, 498.

Links. Biography by F. Malgeri, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; biography, in English, Wikiprdia; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; biography, in German, Wikipedia; photograph, engravings and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in the monument which is upon his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici:

Heic revicturus quiescit
Michael Angelus Celesia Cardinalis
Panormitan Archiepiscopus
ex ordine Benedicti patris congreg. cassinensis
pius vixit annos XC menses III et diem
decessit XVIII kal. majas
anno MCMIIII
ossa tenet tumulus designant marmora numen
cara panormitis caetera fama canit


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(29) 2. MONESCILLO Y VISO, Antolín
(1811-1897)

Birth. September 2, 1811, Corral de Calatrava, Ciudad Real, archdiocese of Toledo, Spain. Son of Nicasio Monescillo and María Viso, modest farmers. Protégé from infancy of the dean of the cathedral of Toledo, D. Lorenzo Hernández de Alba.

Education. Seminary of Toledo, Toledo (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). As a journalist, collaborated in El Católico and El Pensamiento Español, and founded in 1842 the daily La Cruz. Directed the translation into Spanish of the theological dictionary of Bergier, and the symbolic of Juan Adán Möhler. Appointed vicar of the vicariate nullius of Estepa, Seville, 1847. When the vicariate was suppressed by the Concordat of 1851, was named canon of the cathedral chapter of Granada in 1852; canon of the cathedral chapter of Toledo, by permutation, September 5, 1853; schoolmaster, April 6, 1858. Royal preacher.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Calahorra y La Calzada, July 22, 1861. Consecrated, Sunday, October 6, 1861, Salesian Monastery of the Visitation, Madrid, by Cardinal Cirilo de Alameda y Brea, O.F.M., archbishop of Toledo, assisted by Francisco Landeira Sevilla, bishop of Cartagena, and by Clemente Munguía, bishop of Michoacán, México. Transferred to see of Jaén, March 27, 1865. Deputy to the Constitutional Cortes for Ciudad Real, 1869; senator for Vizcaya, 1871. Attended the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. Participated in the composition of the Constitution of 1876. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Valencia, June 22, 1877. Senator for Granada, 1877 and later, senator for life.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 10, 1884; received red hat and title of S. Agostino in the consistory of June 10 (1), 1886. Transferred to the primatial and metropolitan see of Toledo, July 11, 1892, with title of patriarch of the West Indies.

Death. August 11, 1897, Toledo. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Toledo; and buried in the chapel of Bienaventurada Virgen María del Sagrario, in that cathedral, where he used to pray as a seminarian, next to Cardinal Luis Manuel Fernández de Portocarrero and Cirilo de Alameda y Brea, O.F.M.Obs.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 201; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 203; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 31, 46, 170, S286 and 579.

Links. Portrait and biography, in Spanish; portrait, biography and complete bibliography, in Spanish; portrait and biography, also in Spanish; portrait and biographical data as bishop of Jaén, in Spanish; and "El caso Monescillo", in Spanish.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 31 n. 63, and 46; the same source, VIII, 31, says that he received the red hat and the title of S. Agostino on June 1, 1886.


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(30) 3. MASSAIA, O.F.M.Cap., Guglielmo
(1809-1889)

Birth. June 8, 1809, La Braja di Piovà (now Piovà Massaja), diocese of Asti, Piedmont. His baptismal name was Lorenzo Antonio. His last name is also listed as Massaja. Spent his adolescence under the spiritual guidance of his brother Guglielmo, parish priest of Pralormo.

Education. Collegio Reale, Asti, as a seminarian (1824-1826). Joined the Order of the Friars Minor Capuchins, September 6, 1826, Madonna di Campagna, near Turin; took the name Guglielmo.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 16, 1832, Vercelli. Spritual director of the hospital Mauriziano, Turin, 1834-1836; had the opportunity of learning basic notions of medicine and surgery and of being the confessor and advisor of future saint Giuseppe Benedetto Cottolengo. Professor of philosophy and theology at the convent of Moncalieri-Testona, 1836-1846; at the same time, he was spiritual director of Prince Vittorio Emanuele, later king of Italy, and of patriot Silvio Pellico. Definitor of his order. Because of his desire to join the Capuchin missions, he declined episcopal nomination in Piedmont several times.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Casio and appointed first apostolic vicar of Gallas in Africa (currently, Harar, Ethiopia), May 12, 1846. Consecrated, May 24, 1846, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Giacomo Filippo Fransoni, assisted by Giovanni Brunelli, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, and by Jean Filix Luquet, titular bishop of Esbo. Left Italy on June 4, 1846; arrived in Ethiopia in November 1856 after extraordinary suffering and vicissitudes: eight crossings of the Mediterranean and twelve of the Red Sea; four assaults to the impenetrable Abyssinian fortress of the Red Sea; four exiles and imprisonment; and eighteen times in danger of death. Because of bad health, resigned the pastoral government of the vicariate, 1880. Promoted to the titular see of Stauropolis, August 2, 1881.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 10, 1884; received red hat and title of Ss. Vitale, Gervasio e Protasio, November 13, 1884.

Death. August 6, 1889, at 4:30 a.m., of cardio-circulatory collapse, assisted by his secretary and his loyal Maltese butler, in the village of Amirante, S. Giorgio a Cremano, Naples. Transferred by train from Naples, the remains arrived in Rome on August 9, 1889 and were taken to Campo Verano cemetery until his will was read to find out his disposition concerning the burial. The funeral took place on August 10 at 10:30 a.m., in the church of S. Andrea delle Fratte, Rome, the mass was celebrated by Ignazio Perrsico, O.F.M. Cap., titular archbishop of Damiata, secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide for the affairs of the Oriental rite; the final absolution was imparted by Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valetta, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals; there were eleven cardinals in attendance. On June 11, 1890, the remains were transferred to the church of the Capuchin Friars in Rufinella, Frascati, and buried there.

Beatification. The process for his beatification was started in 1914. On October 18, 1993, the bishop of Frascati named two censors for the examination of the writings of the Servant of God; the study was finished in 1994. Also, a historical commission prepared a report. On March 10, 2004, the diocesan phase of his beatification process was concluded at the convent of San Francesco d'Assisi, Frascati. Present for the ceremony were Paolo Sardi, titular archbishop of Sutri, apostolic nuncio with special charges, representing Cardinal Angelo Sodano, secretary of State, titular of the suburbicarian see of Albano; Giuseppe Matarrese, bishop of Frascati; Friar Florio Tessari, postulator general of the Capuchins; the mayor of Asti; the entire tribunal; and numerous friends.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 186; Forno, Mauro. Tra Africa e Occidente : il cardinal Massaja e la missione cattolica in Etiopia nella coscienza e nella politica europee. Bologna : Il mulino, 2009. (Progetto Alfieri / Fondazione Cassa di risparmio di Torino). Table of contents: Introduzione p. 9; Glossario, sigle e abbreviazioni 25; I. Nell'Europa della Restaurazione 27; 1. L'adolescenza di Massaja e la scelta vocazionale 32; 2. Il rapporto con la politica 37; 3. Gli anni di sacerdozio nella Torino di Carlo Alberto 47; 4. Tra ultramontanismo e risveglio missionario 54; II. La scelta missionaria 65; 1. La febbre evangelizzatrice 71; 2. La Chiesa e l'Occidente in Africa orientale 78; 3. La "coperta" del Nilo e i primi approcci "italiani" nell'area 81; 4. L'Etiopia al tempo di Massaja 85; 5. Le radici religiose 88; 6. Le missioni cattoliche 93; 7. Un rinnovato interesse della Santa Sede 99; 8. Chiesa cattolica e Chiesa ortodossa 103; III. Tra cristiani e musulmani 111; 1. Le potenze europee e il miraggio di Suez 117; 2. La Chiesa ortodossa e il vescovo Salama III 121; 3. Le scuole dottrinali 124; 4. I signori d'Etiopia 132; 5. L'eurocentrismo dei missionari p. 135; 6. Il calvario per l'ingresso in missione 139; 7. La diplomazia europea e l'Etiopia 143; 8. Un possibile ruolo per l'Italia 148; 9. L'approccio di Massaja alla tradizione cristiana; in Africa orientale 162; IV. Islam e Cristianesimo 171; 1. Cristianesimo e Isiam nella missione massajana 175; 2. Una nuova "crociata" per l'Europa 185; 3. L'azione diplomatica 193; 4. Le prime delusioni 204; 5. La percezione dell'evoluzione dell'Isiam 212; 6. Dieci anni di missione tra gli oromo 216; 7. Nuovi tentativi diplomatici 222; 8. Un destino forse segnato 232; 9. Il bilancio di una prospettiva 238; V. Travagli e fine di un lungo apostolato 245; 1. Giudizi e pregiudizi missionari 253; 2. Quindici anni prima di Daniele Comboni 258; 3. I contrasti con la Congregazione di Propaganda fide 264; 4. Il trasferimento della missione alla Francia e la questione catechismo in lingua oromo 274; 5. Alla corte di Menelik 285; 6. La Società geografica italiana e la spedizione in Etiopia 296; 7. L'ultima "battaglia" 307; VI. I riconoscimenti pontifici 315; 1. Un modello missionario 319; 2. Le memorie massajane 323; 3. Un retaggio controverso dell'azione massajana: la "questione del rito" 328; 4. La vicenda di Dogali 335; 5. Gli ultimi anni di vita 344; 6. I ritardi del processo di beatificazione: alcune ipotesi interpretative 348; Appendice 359; Cronologia 383; Bibliografia 393; Indice dei nomi 419; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, XXIX, n. 181 (August 7, 1889), p. 3; XXIX, n. 183 (August 9, 1889), p. 1; and XXIX, n. 184 (August 10, 1889) pp. 1 and 3; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 138; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 31, 53 and 528.

Links. Biography by Lawrence Hess, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in Italian, Una Vox; photographs and biography by Cristina Siccardi, in Italian, Santi e Beati; engravins, portraits and photograph, Araldica Vaticana; Il cardinal Massaia, carità senza aria condizionata by Domenico Quirico, Vatincan Insider, 17/01/14.


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(31) 4. GANGLBAUER, Cölestin, O.S.B.
(1817-1889)

Birth. August 20, 1817, Thanstetten, near Kremsmünster, diocese of Linz, Austria. His baptismal name was Joseph.

Education. Entered the Order of St. Benedict; changed his name to Cölestin; religious profession, August 25, 1842. Studied theology in Linz, 1839-1843. Received the minor orders, August 26, 1842; subdiaconate, July 11, 1843; diaconate, July 15, 1843.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 22, 1843. Pastoral work, parish of Neuhofen, 1843-1846; professor of classical grammar, 1846-1854; professor of religious doctrine in the gymnasium of Kremsmünster, 1854-1875; prefect, 1855-1867; director, 1867-1875. Prior of the monastery of Kremsmünster, 1875; elected abbot, April 19, 1876.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Vienna, August 4, 1881. Consecrated, August 28, 1881, abbey of Kremsmünster, by Serafino Vannutelli, titular archbishop of Nicea, nuncio in Austria-Hungary.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 10, 1884; received red hat and title of S. Eusebio, June 10, 1886.

Death. December 14, 1889 at 1:25 p.m., archiepiscopal palace, Vienna. Transferred from the palace to the metropolitan cathedral of Sankt Stefan, Vienna, December 18, 1889 at noon; the funeral mass, celebrated by Luigi Galimberti, titular archbishop of Nicea, nuncio in Austria-Hungary, took place in that cathedral on December 19, 1889; the remains were buried in the same metropolitan cathedral.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 187; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, XXIX, n. 200 (December 15, 1889), p. 3; XXIX, n. 202 (December 17, 1889), p. 1; XXIX, n. 203 (December 18, 1889), p. 1; XXIX, n. 204 (December 19, 1889), p. 1;Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 31, 48 and 590.


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(32) 5. GONZÁLEZ Y DÍAZ TUÑÓN, O.P., Zeferino
(1831-1894)

Birth. January 28, 1831 (1), Villoria, diocese of Oviedo, Spain. Of a family of farmers. Son of Manuel González González and Teresa Diaz Tuñón. One of his brothers, José Ramón, was also a Dominican friar and another one, Atanasio, a diocesan priest. His first name is also listed as Ceferino.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers, November 28, 1844, Ocaña, Toledo; solemn profession 1845; went to Manila to complete his studies, 1848; lector of philosophy, 1853.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 1854, Manila. Professor of philosophy and theology, University of Manila, 1854-1866; returned to Spain. Rector of Colegio of Ocaña, 1868-1871. Member of the Royal Academy of Political and Moral Sciences, 1873. Leading systematic philosopher of Spain in the second half of the 19th century and a driving force of the restoration of Thomism in Christian philosophy at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. Presented by the king of Spain for the see of Astorga but resigned before being elected.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Málaga, June 16, 1874. Resigned pastoral government of Málaga, June 21, 1875 Transferred to the see of Córdoba, July 5, 1875. Consecrated, October 24, 1875, Dominican school, Ocaña, by Manuel García Gil, O.P., archbishop of Zaragoza, assisted by Fernando Blanco y Lorenzo, O.P., preconized archbishop of Valladolid, and by José María Benito Serra y Juliá, O.S.B., titular bishop of Daulia. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Seville, March 15, 1883.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 10, 1884; received red hat and title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, March 17, 1887. Transferred to the primatial and metropolian see of Toledo with the title of patriarch of the West Indies, March 27, 1885. Transferred to metropolitan see of Seville, January 15, 1886. Resigned pastoral government of archdiocese, November 28, 1889 (2). He also was vicar general of the Spanish Army, and major chaplain of the Royal Chapel. He was decorated with the Order Isabel al Católica; was named chancellor of Castile, and appointed royal advisor, and member of the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language; of History; and of the Roman Academy of S. Tommaso d'Aquino.

Death. November 29, 1894, Madrid, Dominican Convent of "La Pasión", of a maxillary cancer. Exposed in the cathedral of Madrid and buried in the Dominican church of Ocaña, archdiocese of Toledo. Nowadays only fragments of the headstone of the rich mausoleum built to keep his remains still survive. So magnificent was the funeral monument that, in the agitation of the Spanish Civil War, it was destroyed with dynamite, to recover supposed unfound treasures.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 196; Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio Español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 42 Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 31, 50, 309, and 558.

Links. Biography, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Charles Callan, in Spanish, Biblioteca Saavedra Fajardo de Pensamiento Politíco Hispánico; biography, drawing and bibliography, in Spanish, Proyecto Filosofía en español; his drawing and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except Echeverría, Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985, p. 42, that indicates he was born on January 28, 1821.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 309; Echeverría, Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985, p. 42, indicates that he resigned on December 30, 1889, which is the date on which his successor, Benito Sanz y Forés, was named to that see.


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(33) 6. GORI-MEROSI, Carmine
(1810-1886)

Birth. February 15, 1810, Subiaco. Son of Giuseppe Gori, a nobleman from Subiaco, related to the Giustiniani family, on his mother's side, and Maria Benedetta Merosi, whose last name was united to that of her husband and inherited by the descendants.

Education. Initial studies at the abbatial seminary of Subiaco; went to Rome to complete his education and obtained a doctorate from the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "Sant'Apollinare".

Priesthood. Ordained in 1832. After many years of pastoral work, he entered the papal administration. Substitute of the sub-datary, 1847. Prelate of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace in 1857 and 1867. Sub-datary, 1869-1881. Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial and of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 30, 1882.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 10, 1884; received red hat and deaconry of S. Maria ad Martyres, November 13, 1884. Abbot commendatario of Subiaco, November 24, 1884.

Death. September 15, 1886, at 2:30 a.m., after a long illness, in Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marco, Rome, where the funeral took place on the following November 22; and buried, temporarily, in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. His remains were transferred to the cemetery of Subiaco and buried in his family's tomb on December 12, 1887.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 183; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 436-437; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 31 and 55.

Link. Biography by Carlo M. Fiorentino, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 58 (2002), Treccani.


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(34) 7. MASOTTI, Ignazio
(1817-1888)

Birth. January 16, 1817, Forlí. His father was a lawyer.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum, "Sant'Apollinare".

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Secretary of Cardinal Giuseppe Bofondi, legate in Ravenna, his compatriot; he remained in that post until 1867. He went to Rome with Cardinal Bofondi and furthered his studies. Lawyer at the tribunal of the Sacred Roman Rota. Domestic prelate of His Holiness in 1863. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Relator of the Sacred Consulta in 1867. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota in 1870. Honorary professor of utroque iure at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "Sant'Apollinare" in 1878 as member of the jury for the doctoral candidates. Secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, September 26, 1879. Consultor of the SS. CC. of the Council, the Holy Office and of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, March 30, 1882.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 10, 1884; received red hat and deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, November 13, 1884. Pro-prefect of the SS.CC. of Bishops and Regulars and of the Discipline of Regulars, August 12, 1886; named prefect in January 1887.

Death. October 31, 1888 (1), at 8:30 a.m., in his apartment at Palazzo Altemps, Rome, after an illness of twelve days. Exposed in the church of S. Agostino, Rome; and buried, on November 3, 1888, in the chapel of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide in Campo Verano cemetery. The funeral took place on November 4, 1888 at 11 a.m. in the church of S. Agostino; the requiem mass was celebrated by Luigi Sepiacci, titular bishop of Callinico, secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars; the final absolution was imparted by Cardinal Carlo Sacconi, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals; eighteen cardinals were in attendance.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, pp. 185-186; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, XXVIII, n. 256 (November 1, 1888), p. 3; and XXVIII, n. 258 (November 4, 1888), p. 3; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 589; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 31 and 54.

(1) Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, pp. 31 and 54 says that other sources, which he does not cite, indicate he died on November 1, 1888; "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, p. 186, says that he died on October 31, 1888; L'Osservatore Romano, XXVIII, n. 256 (November 1, 1888), p. 3, says that the cardinal died stamani alle 8 1/2 (this morning at 8:30).


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(35) 8. VERGA, Isidoro
(1832-1899)

Birth. April 29, 1832, Bassano Taverina, diocese of Orte.

Education. Seminary of Orte, Orte; Seminary of Viterbo, Viterbo; then at Collegio Romano, Rome (theology); and at Sapienza University, Rome (canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, 1859. Lawyer at the tribunal of the Sacred Roman Rota. Sommiste at the S.C. of Bishops. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Pro-secretary of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, January 29, 1877; secretary, July 30, 1878 to 1884 (1). He participated, together with Msgrs. Luigi Pallotti and Luigi Galimberti, future cardinals, in the redaction of the apostolic constitution Romanos Pontifices, of May 8, 1881, which regulated the relations between the bishops and the regular orders. Consultor of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 10, 1884; received red hat and deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, November 13, 1884. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, July 31, 1885. Prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, November 12, 1888. Opted for deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, June 1, 1891. Opted for order of cardinal priests and title of S. Callisto, June 22, 1896. Grand penitentiary, October 1, 1896.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of bishops and suburbicarian see of Albano, November 30, 1896. Consecrated, December 13, 1896, at the chapel of Collegio Pio Latino, Rome, by Cardinal Luigi Oreglia di San Stefano, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Cesare Sambucetti, titular archbishop of Corinto, secretary of the S.C. Ceremonial, and by Beniamino Cavicchioni, titular archbishop of Nazianzo, prelate adjunct of the S.C. of the Council.

Death. August 10, 1899, Rome. Exposed in the basilica of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, Rome. His body was buried in the chapel of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide in Campo Verano cemetery on August 13. The funeral took place in that basilica the following day, August 14.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 203-204; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 952; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 31, 43, 47, 54 and 55.

(1) Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, p. 31, no. 76, says that he was named prefect of that congregation; the information is somewhat odd because at the time only cardinals occupied the prefecture of Roman congregations. The author cites Secretaria Brevium 5743 f. 401 as the source of the information.


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PAWLICKI, C.R.D.N.I.Chr., Stefan Zachariasz
(1839-1916)

Birth. September 2, 1839, in Gdañsk (Danzig), Poland. Son of Józef Grzegorz Pawlicki, a salesman, and Wilhelmina Denek.

Education. Initial education at home (until 1847); gymnasium in Gdañsk (1847) and Pleszew (1847-1853); Royal Catholic Gymnasium in Ostrów Wielkopolski, 1854-1858 (Classics, history of Polish literature and linguistics); University of Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland), 1858-1862 (philosophy; obtained a doctorate in philosophy, 1865; thesis De Schopenhaueri doctrina et philosophandi ratione); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1868-1872 (philosophy, canon and Roman law and theology; obtained a doctorate in theology, 1874).

Early life. He was the in-house tutor of count Raczyñski in Rogalin (1862-1864). Faculty member of philosophy (docent) in Szkoła Głswna Warszawska, Warsaw, 1866-1868. Went to Rome in 1868, met Fr. Piotr Semenenko, founder of the Resurrectionists, and joined the Congregation of the Resurrection of Our Lord Jesus Christ, 1868.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1872, Rome. Professor of history of the church, Accademia di Religione Cattolica, Rome, 1873-1882. Professor of philosophy, Pontifical Roman College, Rome, 1873-1882; prefect, 1873-1882, pro-rector, 1882. Professor at the Jagiellonian University, Kraków, 1882-1910; dean of the Faculty of Theology, 1888-1889 and 1892-1893; rector, 1905-1906. Member of the Academy of Learning (Akademia Umiejêtnoci, AU) in Kraków, 1884; chairman, Commission of History and Philosophy, AU, 1911-1916. Consultor of the S.C. of the Index, 1888. Author of many publications on history of philosophy and sociology. His work Der Ursprung des Christenthums (1895), about the history of the first Christians, was the basis for the famous novel Quo vadis? of Nobel prize winner Henryk Sienkiewicz.

Cardinalate. He was highly recognized by Pope Leo XIII, who, according to some authors, offered him the cardinalate after he left Rome and went to Kraków; and later several bishoprics with positions in the Roman Curia; he declined and instead was named again consultor of S.C. of the Index.

Death. April 28, 1916, Kraków. Buried, Rakowicki Cemetery, Kraków.

Bibliography. Biernaczyk, Jarosław. "Stefan Pawlicki", in Alma Mater Ostroviensis - Ksieęga Pamieęci - Non Omnis Moriar, tome X, Ostrów Wielkopolski, 2003; Biogramy uczonych polskich, Czêæ I: Nauki społeczne, zeszyt 3: P-Z (redactors Andrzej Śródka and Paweł Szczawiñski), Ossolineum, 1985, p. 44-48; Przymusiała, Andrzej. "Stefan Zachariasz Pawlicki", in Polish Biographical Dictionnary (Polski Słownik Biograficzny), Ossolineum, vol. XXV, 1980, p. 423-426; "Stefan Pawlicki" Wielka Ilustrowana Encyklopedia Powszechna, tome XII, Kraków, 1932, przedruk Kraków ,1995.

Link. Biography, in Polish.

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