The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903)
Consistory of July 27, 1885 (VIII)

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(36) 1. MELCHERS, S.J., Paul Ludolf
(1813-1895)

Birth. January 6, 1813, Münster, Westphalia, Germany. Son of Franz Melchers and Maria Anna Holtermann. Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 24, 1825.

Education. Studied law in Bonn, 1830-1833, and practiced in Münster. Received the insignias of the clerical character and the minor orders, March 3, 1841; subdiaconate, March 6, 1841; diaconate, April 14, 1841. Doctorate in theology in Münich, May 13, 1857.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 5, 1841. In Münster, assistant pastor of Haltren for two years; vice rector of the seminary, 1844-1851 and rector, 1851-1852; canon of the cathedral chapter, 1852; vicar general, 1854-1857.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Osnabrück, August 3, 1857. Consecrated, April 20, 1858, cathedral of Osnabrück, by Eduard Jakob Wedekin, bishop of Hildeshein, assisted by Johann Georg Müller, bishop of Münster, and by Konrad Martin, bishop of Paderborn. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 22, 1862. Named Roman count in 1867. Promoted to metropolitan see of Cologne, January 8, 1866; he was granted the pallium on the same day. Took possession of the see the following May 8. Chairman of the Fulda Conference of Catholic Bishops, 1867-1883. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870; opposed the definition of the dogma of papal infallibility; when the dogma was defined, he strongly supported it. Firmly resisted the Kulturkampf and because he excommunicated, June 1873, two priests who had joined the Old Catholics movement, he was fined and imprisoned for six months, March 12 - October 1874. On December 2, 1875, the President of the Rhine Province demanded his resignation threatening to depose him if he did not comply; the archbishop refused and on learning that the local government was preparing to deport him to Küstrin, West Poland, escaped on December 13 to Maestritch, Holland, and took refuge with the Franciscans. From there he governed his archdiocese until July 3, 1885 when he resigned its pastoral government. In several occasions he had expressed his willingness to resign for the good of the church in Cologne but Pope Leo XIII had not accepted his resignation. Then the pope reluctantly agreed and called the archbishop to Rome and created him a cardinal.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 27, 1885; received red hat and title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, July 30, 1885. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 30, 1889 to June 1, 1891. Joined the Society of Jesus, February 10, 1892.

Death. December 14, 1895, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Bernardo alle Terme, Rome. The funeral ceremony, conducted by Bishop Michael Felix Korum of Trier, took place in the cathedral of Cologne on December 27; prior to the deposition of the cardinal's body in the cathedral's crypt, the bishop delivered a eulogy; enormous crowds thronged the cathedral and the streets nearby.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 107-108; Ritzler, Gatz, Erwin. "Melchers, Paul Ludolf." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1785/1803 bis 1945 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1983, pp. 493-497; Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 31, 53, 63, 215 and 429-430.

Links. Biography, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his portrait and biographical entry, in English, Cologne Cathedral; his photograph, Historisches Archiv des Erzbistums Köln; his burial chamber in the metropolitan cathedral of Cologne; and his burial place, with his successors, in the metropolitan cathedral of Cologne, Germany.


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(37) 2. CAPECELATRO, Orat., Alfonso
(1824-1912)

Birth. February 5, 1824, Marseille, France. Son of Francesco Capecelatro, duke of Castelpagano and marchis of Ripa, and Maddalena Sartorelli. The father had voluntarily exiled the family from Naples to Marseille when Ferdinando I, king of the Two Sicilies, started the repression of political Liberalism. The family returned to Naples in 1830. His last name is also listed as Capecelatro di Castelpagano

Education. e frequented the school direct by F. P. De Meis; an then , joined the Oratory of St. Philip of Neri in Naples, April 1, 1840, where he studied theological and moral sciences under the direction of Monsignor Salzano. He received the sacrament of confirmation on May 26, 1841.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 23, 1847, Naples by Cardinal Sisto Riario Sforza, archbishop of Naples. Pastoral work in Naples, 1847-1870. Superior of the Oratory of Naples for fifteen years. He obtained that the church of the Girolamini and the cloister with the famous library were given the status of national monument and he was elected their superintendent. Examiner of the clergy of Naples. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 6, 1879. Vice-librarian of the Holy Roman Church, May 15, 1879. He was an elegant and prolific writer who published numerous works in Catholic doctrine and morals, and especially in ecclesiastical history and biographies of leading Catholic figures.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Capua, Italy, August 20, 1880. Consecrated, October 28, 1880, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valletta, vicar of Rome, assisted by Luigi Filippi, O.F.M., archbishop of L'Aquila, and by Placido Maria Schiaffino, O.S.B., titular bishop of Nisa and president of the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, future cardinal. He ntered the archdiocese on the following November 21.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 27, 1885; received red hat and title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, July 30, 1885. Opted for title of S. Maria del Popolo, January 15, 1886. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, April 29, 1890 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X.

Death. November 14, 1912, Capua. Buried in the church of the Benedictine abbey of Monte Cassino, according to his testament (1). There is a square in Rome, and a street in Milan, named after him. At the time of his death he was the eldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 203-207; Mola, Carlo. Vita del Cardinale Alfonso Capecelatro. Napoli : M. D'Auria, 1913; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp..

Links. Biography by Umberto Beningni, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; biography by Francesco Malgeri, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 18 (1975), Treccani; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; engravings, photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana; I centenario del Card. Alfonso Capecelatro, lettera commemorativa del P. Procuratore Generale indirizza alle Congregazioni dellOratorio.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

HIC · IACET · CORPUS
ALPHONSI · CAPECELATRO · Or ·
S. R. E. CARDINALIS
ARCHIEPISCOPI · CAPUANI
1824 R · I · P +1912


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(38) 3. BATTAGLINI, Francesco
(1823-1892)

Birth. March 13, 1823, Mirabello, Comune di S. Agostino di Piano, archdiocese of Bologna. Of a modest family; his father was a tailor. He had another sibling. Received the sacrament of confirmation on October 7, 1827.

Education. Initial studies with the pastor of his parish; Seminary of Cento (humanities and philosophy); Seminary of Bologna (theology); during this period of his life he had difficult final conditions; University of Bologna (doctorate in theology, January 27, 1848).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 20, 1845, by Carlo Oppizzoni, archbishop of Bologna. Further studies, 1845-1848. Maitre de salle in the Seminary of Bologna, while he pursued a doctoral degree in law at the university; he could not complete his degree because of being transferred to the Seminary of Cento to teach philosophy. In 1850, he was named professor of philosophy at the Seminary of Bologna; he occupied the post for thirty years; he also taught dogmatic theology. In 1857, he was named director of the diocesan schools; and in April 1858, director of the newly founded Catholic journal "Osservatore Bolognese", to combat the liberal ideas. In 1859, he became professor of philosophy at the University of Bologna and its rector; he could not occupied the posts due to the political problems caused by the Italian unification; he continued teaching at the seminary. Prosynodal examiner; professor of philosophy and theology, Seminary of Bologna, 1848-1878. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness. Honorary canon of the metropolitan chapter of Bologna in 1873; its archdeacon in 1878. From 1874, he presided over the philosophical section of Accademia medico-filosofica di S. Tommaso.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rimini, February 28, 1879, in spite of his objections. Consecrated, March 9, 1879, church of S. Apollinare, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valletta, vicar of Rome, assisted by Giulio Lenti, titular archbishop of Side, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Carlo Laurenzi, titular bishop of Amato, auditor Sanctissimi. Took possession of the see on the following May 31; and obtained the exequatur of the Italian government in August of that same year. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bologna, July 3, 1882; he received the pallium on that same day. Apostolic administrator of the see of Rimini until October of that year. He obtained the exequatur quite easily and made his solemn entrance in the archdiocese on September 14, 1882. The archiepiscopal palace of Bologna had been closed for twenty two years because his predecessors had not obtained the exequatur.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 27, 1885; received red hat and title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, July 30, 1885.

Death. July 8, 1892, of an illness that had immobilized him for a year, Villa Guastavillani, Barbiano, Bologna. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna, where the funeral took place on July 15; and buried, temporarily, in the chapel of the counts Bentivoglio in the Carthusian monastery of Bologna; transferred to the Bentivoglio chapel, cemetery of Mirabello, October 30, 1894. His remains were transferred to a new tomb in the parish church of Mirabello in February 2000; the tomb was blessed by Cardinal Giacomo Biffi, archbishop of Bologna, on March 5, 2000 (1).

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 125-127.

Links. Blessing of his new tomb and biographical data, in Italian, archdiocese of Bologna; arms, engraving and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) In the south aisle of the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna; on the fourth pillar of the nave on the southern side thereof; there is a memorial tablet, by Ettore Sabbioni, showing the cardinal's arms, then lower down, his bust and a tableau of him teaching children in a classroom. This is the inscription on the tablet, provided by Mr. Mark West, London, England:

IN MEMORIA AETERNA
FRANCISCUS. BATTAGLINI. BON. CARD. TIT. BERN. IN. THERMIS
DOCTRINAE. AQUINATIS. RESTITUTOR. MAGISTERIO. INSIGNIS.
EXEMPLO. GRAVISSIMUS
QUEM ARIMINENSES EPISCOPUM COLUERE. MARINENSES. ADSCIVERE.
PATRICIUM
ARCHIEPISCOPUM. ECCLESIA. N. HABUIT. DECENNIO. POST. AMISIT. AN.
MDCCCXCII
MONUMENTO. PUBLICE. POSITO. GRATA. FILIORUM. PIETAS.
ADVIGILABIT


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(39) 4. MORAN, Francis Patrick
(1830-1911)

Birth. December 16, 1830, Leighlinbridge, county Carlow, diocese of Kildare, Ireland. Son of Patrick Moran, a prosperous merchant, and Alicia Mary Cullen. The family had five children. One of his sisters, Teresa, was a Dominican nun. Nephew of Cardinal Paul Cullen (1866), who was his mother's stepbrother. His mother died when he was fourteen months old and his father when he was eleven years old; and three of his siblings died young. The Cullen family of Craan, Carlow, took care of him until 1842, when he was placed under the care of his mother's half-brother, Paul, who was rector of the Irish College, Rome, who became the formative influence of Francis Patrick.

Education. In Rome, he studied humanities, philosophy and theology at Seminario Romano, residing at the Irish College; later, he attended the Urbanian Athenaeum of Propaganda Fide, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in theology in 1852; Gioacchino Pecci, archbishop-bishop of Perugia, future Pope Leo XIII, was one of his examiners. Besides English, he spoke Italian, Latin, French, German, Spanish and Irish, as well as Hebrew and biblical Greek.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 19, 1853, Rome. He was appointed vice-rector of the Irish College in 1856; and also taught Hebrew Scripture at the Athenaeum of Propaganda Fide. It was at this time that he began his historical research, due to his training in paleography, his interest in archeology, and the fact that he had privileged access to the Vatican archives. Named domestic prelate of His Holiness. He returned to Ireland in 1866 as secretary of Cardinal Cullen, 1866-1872; and professor of Hebrew and Holy Scriptures at Clonliffe College (the diocesan seminary). He also taught Holy Scriptures, Irish history and biblical languages at the Catholic University of Ireland. Founder of the Irish Ecclesiastical Record in 1864. Monsignor Moran accompanied Cardinal Cullen to the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Olba and appointed coadjutor with right of succession of Ossory, December 22, 1871. Consecrated, March 5, 1872, at the pro-cathedral of Saint Mary, Dublin, by Cardinal Paul Cullen, archbishop of Dublin, assisted by James Walsh, bishop of Kildare and Leighlin, and by Thomas Furlong, bishop of Ferns. His episcopal motto was Omnia omnes. Succeeded to the see of Ossory, August 11, 1872. He dedicated himself to visit his diocese and to raise the intellectual level of the clergy. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sydney, Australia, March 14, 1884 (according to a decree of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide of March 13, and this at the request of Australian bishops, eager to accentuate the "irlandisation" of the episcopate). This appointment matched his preference for the missions. He arrived in Australia the following September. He traveled thousands of miles visiting the churches and dioceses of his metropolitan province. Besides, he made five journeys to Rome on Church matters in 1885, 1888, 1893, 1902 and 1903. On May 1, 1885, he was summoned to Rome. He believed he would be offered the see of Dublin, but determined to urge Pope Leo XIII to allow him to return to Sydney. On arrival, he was informed that he was to be promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 27, 1885; received red hat and title of S. Susanna, July 30, 1885. He was the first Australian cardinal. He was named apostolic delegate to preside over the Plenary Council of Australasia, celebrated in November 1885, to reorganize the structure and the discipline of the Church; apostolic delegate to the Second and to the Third Plenary Councils celebrated in 1895 and in 1905. In 1895, he founded The Australasian Catholic Record and the Catholic Press. Did not participate in the conclave of 1903, because he arrived in Rome after the new Pope Pius X had been elected. He was a builder of churches, schools, orphanages and hospitals and an excellent administrator. He was also a prolific writer and a famous historian in the field of Irish ecclesiastical history he helped to revive (1). He wanted to leave the unilateral mold of Protestant historiography and use it as an element of Irish culture. Open to the modern world, he favored women's suffrage, education for girls and non-denominational unions; he was a great defender of the rights of Catholics, particularly concerning education; he sought assistance from the State only for non-religious activities and under government supervision; however, he led fight too timidly and it did not have great results. He fought for the revival of the language; and favored Home Rule (he considered the British occupation a legal injustice) while opposing extreme nationalism. He championed the political and syndical integration of the Irish in the Australian society while practicing a cultural and social segregation ("protection by segregation"); he forbade intermarriage and required the Catholics to attend religious schools. He strongly opposed the attacks from the Protestants, especially the Orangists; but unfortunately did not answer the overtures of the Anglicans. He also wanted to make the Australian Church the springboard for the evangelization of Asia. He was also an ardent promoter of social justice. He defended the Chinese immigrants against racist attacks and supported the moderate and not doctrinaire elements (excluding atheism and anarchism) of the Labor Party, which best represented the Catholics and most workers. He wanted the evolution to Christian democracy as the party of reform, which he felt was less intolerant toward Catholicism than the traditional parties, dominated by Protestants. He supported the federation of the six colonies that were to become the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901; and promoted the independence of its foreign policy and defense, which was intended to be nationalist while not denying the benefits of empire, and showed himself favorable to the Labor Party, especially in the issue of nationalization of industrial monopolies. He founded two seminars to train a native clergy.

Death. On August 16, 1911 (2), in Manly, Sydney; he was found dead on the floor of his bedroom and the cause was listed as a heart attack. Buried in Saint Mary's metropolitan cathedral, Sydney, after the funeral celebrated on August 20.

Bibliography. La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1914, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1913, p. 62; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 657-660; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 32, 53, 423, 430 and 530.

Links. Biography by Denis O'Haran, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his photograph and biography by A. E. Cahill, in English, Australian Dictionary of Biography; biography and bibliography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; his photograph and biography in English, archdiocese of Sydney; engravings, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) According to LeBlanc, Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle, p. 659, Cardinal Moran wrote about Cardinal John Henry Newman: "He was a poor theologian, a bad Latinist, and knew nothing of Ireland and Irish history".
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 32; his first biography in English, linked above; his biographical data in English, linked above; and his last biography in English, also linked above. La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1914, p. 63, says that he died on August 17, 1911.


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(40) 5.SCHIAFFINO, O.S.B.Oliv., Placido Maria
(1829-1889)

Birth. September 5, 1829, Genoa (1). Of a modest family.

Education. Completed his initial studies in Genoa; and in 1846 entered the Order of Saint Benedict Olivetana at the monastery of S. Girolamo di Quarto a Mare; he made his profession on October 17, 1847; he was sent to Rome to study philosophy at Collegio Romano in 1847; the following year, because of the political events, he had to interrupt them and was sent to Palermo to exercise the functions of master of novices in the Olivetan monastery of Sicily; he continued his studies in Rome from 1850 to 1854, obtaining a doctorate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1852. He dedicated himself to preaching, residing in the convent of Monte Oliveto Maggiore in Siena. He was named chancellor of his congregation on May 15, 1859. On June 3, 1870, he was elected abbot ordinary and vicar general of his congregation; in such capacity, he participated in the First Vatican Council. He was called to Rome by Pope Leo XIII, who had heard him preach in Lent 1868, in the cathedral of Perugia, where the future pope was bishop.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Nissa, August 30, 1878. Consecrated, September 1, 1878, church of the monastery of the Oblates of S. Francesca Romana di Tor de' Specchi, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valletta, vicar general of Rome, assisted by Filippo Manetti, titular archbishop of Sardes, secretary of the S.C. of the Apostolic Visit, and by Giulio Lenti, titular archbishop of Side, vice-gerent of Rome. Named president of the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, November 2, 1878. Secretary of the S.C. for Bishops and Regulars, November 18, 1884.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 27, 1885; received red hat and title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, July 30, 1885. Honorary president of the commission for the celebration of the priestly jubilee of Pope Leo XIII, 1887. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, April 6, 1888. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, February 20, 1889 until his death. Member of the Council of Historical Studies, April 28, 1889. Administrator of the Benedictine abbey of Subiaco, May 18, 1889.

Death. September 23, 1889, at 8:30 a.m., of acute gastroenteritis, Subiaco. Exposed in the church of the abbey of Subiaco and buried in the city's cemetery. The funeral took place in the church of S. Andrea delle Fratte, Rome, September 28, 1889 at 10:30 a.m.; the mass was celebrated by Giovanni Maria Mantovano, O.F.M., titular bishop of Meloe di Licia; the final absolution was imparted by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, vicar of Rome; thirteen cardinals were in attendance. After rumors that he had been poisoned were published in the liberal press, his doctors published in L'Osservatore Romano of September 27, 1889, a greatly detailed bulletin about the nature of his illness. In 1936, his remains were transferred to the Roman basilica of S. Maria Nuova (2).

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 187; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 856-858; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, XXIX, n. 221 (September 24, 1889), p. 3; XXIX, n. 223 (September 26, 1889), p. 3; XXIX, n. 226 (September 29, 1889), pp. 1 and 3; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 32, 48 and 422; Soderini, Edoardo. Le cardinal Placide-Marie Schiaffino. Bruxelles : Imp.Polleunis,Ceuterick et de Smet, 1889. Note: "Extrait de la Revue Générale, novembre 1889."

Link. His engraving, portrait, plaque and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, p. 32; and "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, p. 187. L'Osservatore Romano, XXIX, n. 221 (September 24, 1889), p. 3, says that he was born on September 4, 1829.
(2) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

PLACIDI.M.SCHIAFFINO.S.R.E.PR.CARD.
ORDINIS S BENEDICTI MONTIS OLIVETI
ABBATIS COMMENDATARII SVBLACENSIS
INGENIO ET ELOQVENTIAE VI PRAECLARI
OSSA HIC DEPOSITA
A.D.MCMXXXVI
NATVS IANVAE IV SEPT. MDCCCXXIX
OBIIT SVBLACI XXIII SEPT. MDCCCLXXXIX


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(40) 5. CRISTOFORI, Carlo
(1813-1891)

Birth. January 5, 1813, Viterbo. Of a noble family. Brother of Count Francesco Cristofori, author of Cronotassi dei cardinali de Santa Romana Chiesa, Rome, 1888.

Education. Initial studies in Viterbo; later, studied in Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. In 1838, he participated in the publication of the synoptical tables of canon law. Secretary and auditor of the dean of the Sacred Roman Rota. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature. Judge of the tribunal of the papal majordome. Archivist of the Holy See, 1874-1877. Named auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota in 1880. President of the first chamber of the Prelatice Judicial Commission of the Apostolic Palaces, 1881-1885. Regent of the Apostolic Penitentiary, 1882-1885. Assistant of the vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, Cardinal Teodolfo Mertel. Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, April 18, 1885.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of July 27, 1885; received red hat and deaconry of Ss. Vito, Modesto e Crescenzia, July 30, 1885.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate on November 29, 1885; and the diaconate on December 6, 1885. Named prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Relics on March 14, 1889. He was the last prelate who had not received the priestly ordination at the time of his promotion to the cardinalate.

Death. January 30, 1891, of a pulmonary fever, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini, Rome; and buried in the chapel of the Archconfraternity of the Most Precious Blood in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 188; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 269; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 32 and 55.

Link. His engraving, arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

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