The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903)
Consistory of June 7, 1886 (IX)

bernadou.jpg

(42) 1. BERNADOU, Victor-Félix
(1816-1891)

Birth. June 25, 1816, Castres, archdiocese of Albi, France. Son of a rich merchant. His brother was mayor of Castres.

Education. Studied philosophy at the Major Seminary of Albi; and theology at Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 19, 1840, Paris. He belonged for several years to the Society of Missionaries of France. Pastoral work in diocese of Algiers, canon of the cathedral chapter in 1844; archpriest of the cathedral in 1847. Emperor Napoléon III of France presented him for the see of Gap in January 1862.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Gap, April 7, 1862. Consecrated, June 29, 1862, cathedral of Castres, by Jean-Joseph-Marie-Eugène de Jerphanion, archbishop of Albi, assisted by Louis-Antoine Pavy, bishop of Alger, and by Jean-Jacques Bardou, bishop of Cahors. His episcopal motto was Fide et lenitate. Took possession of the see on the following July 10. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, April 13, 1866. During his episcopate, he built the cathedral, of which the first stone was placed on June 16, 1866; also, he encourage pilgrimages; reorganized the diocesan minor seminary; favored the ecclesiastical studies; and published a new edition of the catechism. Emperor Napoléon III of France presented him for the see of Sens on May 10, 1867. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sens, July 12, 1867; he was granted the pallium on that same day, while he was in Rome. Took possession of the see on the following September 3. In Sens, he restored the cathedral; rebuilt the major seminary and the episcopal palace; built a minor seminary; and promoted the pilgrimages. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870; initially he sided with the new-Gallicans; on July 13, 1870, he voted placet juxta modum (in favor but on condition of some amendment) on the section on infallibility of the constitution Pastor aeternus; in the final vote, on July 18, he voted placet. During the Franco-Prussian War (July 19, 1870 to May 10, 1871), he showed a great courage realizing pastoral visits and put the local church available as hospitals.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 7, 1886; received red hat and title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, March 17, 1887.

Death. November 15 (1), 1891, Sens. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Sens.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 190; La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 190; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 142-143; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 32, 53, 513 and 582.

Link Biography, in French, Wikipedia; his engraving, photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 32; to Leblanc, Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle, p. 143; and to Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973, p. 190. La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, p. 190, says that he died on November 16, 1891.

tascherau.jpg

(43) 2. TASCHEREAU, Elzéar-Alexandre
(1820-1898)

Birth. February 17, 1820, Sainte-Marie de la Beauce, archdiocese of Québec, Canada. One of the seven children of Jean-Thomas Taschereau, judge of the Cour du banc du Roi, and Marie Panet, daughter of the president of the first chamber of the assembly of Bas-Canada.

Education. Primary studies with a tutor; Seminary of Québec, Québec, 1828-1836 (classics); traveled for a year to Great Britain, Low Countries, France and Italy with Father John Holmes, professor of the seminary; received the tonsure in Rome on May 20, 1837; returned to Canada and studied theology at the Grand Seminary of Québec while teaching in the minor seminary; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare" (doctorate in canon law, July 1856).

Priesthood. Ordained, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, September 10, 1842, parish church of Sainte-Marie-de-la-Nouvelle-Beauce, by Pierre-Flavien Turgeon, titular bishop of Sidima, coadjutor of Québec. Professor of philosophy at the Seminary of Québec, 1842-1854; he also taught astronomy, theology and Holy Scriptures; member of the seminary council; prefect of studies, 1849-1854; director of the minor seminary, 1851-1852. One of the founders of Laval University in 1852. Further studies in Rome, 1854-1856; first Canadian priest to reside in the Pontifical French Seminary of Rome. At his return from Rome, he was professor of theology and director of the Minor Seminary of Québec, 1856-1859; director of the Grand Seminary of Québec, 1859-1860; rector of Laval University and superior of the Seminary, 1860-1866; director of the Grand Seminary of Québec, 1866-1869; re-elected rector of Laval University and superior of the seminary, 1869-1871. Vicar general of Québec and examiner of young priests, 1862. Accompanied Charles-François Baillargeon, titular bishop of Tlos, administrator of Québec, to Rome, 1862. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870, as theologian of Archbishop Charles-François Baillargeon of Québec. Named administrator of the archdiocese of Québec at the death of Archbishop Baillargeon in October 1870.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Québec, December 24, 1870. Consecrated, March 19, 1871, metropolitan cathedral of Québec, by John Joseph Lynch, C.M., archbishop of Toronto, assisted by Edward John Horan, bishop of Kingston, and by Charles LaRocque, bishop of Saint-Hyacinthe. He took posession of the see on that same day. His episcopal mottos were Tales ambios defensores and In fide spe et caritate certandum. He received the pallium in May 1872, in the church of Notre-Dame of Montréal. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 16, 1875.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 7, 1886; with an apostolic brief of June 7, 1886, the pope sent him the red biretta; received red hat and title of S. Maria della Vittoria, March 17, 1887. His mental faculties were considerably debilitated by a progressive brain degeneration and he delegated the government of the archdiocese to his coadjutor, with right of succession, Louis-Nazaire Bégin, titular archbishop of Cirene, on September 3, 1894. He was the first Canadian cardinal.

Death. April 12, 1898, Québec. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Québec, where the funeral took place celebrated by Cardinal James Gibbons, archbishop of Baltimore, and buried in that cathedral.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2202. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 918-922; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 32, 51 and 473.

Links. Biography by Henri Têtu, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; portrait and biography by Nive Voisine, in French, Dictionnaire biographique du Canada, vol. 12, Université Laval/University of Toronto, 1990; his portrait and biography by Nive Voisine, in English, Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 12, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 1990; gallery of photographs; his portrait and biography, in English; his engraving and biography, in English; his funeral; his monument in City Hall Square, Québec, Canada; engravings, photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

langenieux.tif

(44) 3. LANGÉNIEUX, Benoît-Marie
(1824-1905)

Birth. October 15, 1824, Villefranche-sur-Saone, archdiocese of Lyon, France. From a family of the small bourgeoisie. He was only eight years old when his family moved to Paris; his father died shortly after, leaving the responsibilty of raising three young children aged one to eight to his mother. He received his first communion on July 3, 1836.

Education. Studied humanities at the Minor Seminary of Saint-Nicolas du Chardonnet, Paris, which was under the direction of Abbé Félix Dupanloup; he was a condisciple of future Cardinals Charles-Martial-Allemand Lavigerie and Joseph-Alfred Foulon; from 1846 to 1857, he was a preceptor in Saint-Servan, Bretagne; in October 1847, he entered the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, and studied theology. Received the diaconate on May 25, 1850. While he was vicar of Saint-Roche, he studied theology at La Sorbonne University, Paris, obtaining a bachelor's degree.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1850, metropolitan cathedral of Paris, by Marie Dominique Auguste Sibour, archbishop of Paris. In the archdiocese of Paris, 1850-1873, vicar of the parish of Saint-Roch, Paris; vice-promotor and later promotor of the archdiocesan curia, November 1, 1863; pastor of the large parish Saint-Ambroise on March 15, 1863; pastor of the parish of Saint-Augustine on January 29, 1868, where he distinguished himself as an excellent preacher; archdeacon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter and vicar general on November 28, 1871. At the request of Emperor Napoléon III, he had the preaching of Lent 1870 in the chapel of the Tuileries. Presented by the French government to the see of Tarbes on July 25, 1873, in spite of the strong reservations from the nuncio, Flavio III Chigi, titular archbishop of Mira.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tarbes, July 25, 1873. Consecrated, October 28, 1873, cathedral of Paris, by Joseph-Hippolyte Guibert, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Frédéric de Marguerye, former bishop of Autun, and by Jacques Jeancard, titular bishop of Ceramo. His episcopal motto was Vivat in me Christus. He was nominated to the see of Reims by the president of the French Republic, Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duke of Magenta, on November 17, 1874. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Reims, December 21, 1874. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, February 19, 1875.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 7, 1886; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of June 7, 1886; received red hat and title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, March 17, 1887. He was a close confidant of Pope Leo XIII, who consulted him regarding all the affairs of the Church in France. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X.

Death. January 1, 1905, Reims. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Reims.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 365-366; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 512-514; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 32, 48, 481 and 535.

Links. Biography by Joseph Sollier, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Wikipedia; his effigy on a medal, arms and biography, in French, Wikipedia; his engravings, photograph and atms, Araldica Vaticana.

gibbons.tif

(45) 4. GIBBONS, James
(1834-1921)

Birth. July 23, 1834, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. From a family of Irish immigrants who settled in the United States after moving to Canada. Son of Thomas Gibbons and Bridget Walsh. Because of health, the father moved the family back to Ireland in 1839 and James received his early education in Ballinrobe; after the death of the father in 1847, the family returned to the United States in 1853, settling in New Orleans, Louisiana.

Education. Studied at St. Charles College, Ellicott City, Maryland; St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 30, 1861, St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, by Francis Patrick Kenrick, archbishop of Baltimore. Pastoral work in archdiocese of Baltimore, 1861-1865: curate at St. Patrick's church in Fells Point for six weeks before becoming the first pastor of St. Brigid's Church in Canton; in addition to his duties at St. Brigid's, he assumed charge of St. Lawrence church in Locust Point; and was a chaplain for Fort McHenry in the Civil War, during which he supported the Union despite having been born and largely raised in the South. Secretary to Archbishop Martin John Spalding of Baltimore, 1865-1868. Assistant chancellor, Second Plenary Council of Baltimore, 1866.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Adramittio and named apostolic vicar of North Carolina, March 3, 1868. Consecrated, August 16, 1868, Baltimore, by Martin John Spalding, archbishop of Baltimore, assisted by Patrick Neeson Lynch, bishop of Charleston, and by Michael Domenec, C.M., bishop of Pittsburgh. In the same ceremony was consecrated Thomas Albert Andrew Becker, first bishop of Wilmington. His episcopal mottos were Auspice Maria and Emmite Spiritum tuum. Attended the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. Transferred to the see of Richmond, July 30, 1872. Transferred to the titular see of Jonopolis and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Baltimore, May 29 (1), 1877. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Baltimore, October 3, 1877. Convened and presided over the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore as apostolic delegate, November 9 to December 7, 1884.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 7, 1886; received red hat and title of S. Maria in Trastevere, March 17, 1887. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Arrived late to the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV.

Death. March 24, 1921, at 11:33 a.m., in his residence adjoining the metropolitan cathedral of Baltimore. His death was caused by the infirmities of advanced age. He lapsed into a state of coma the afternoon before and never regained consciousness. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Baltimore and buried in its crypt, immediately opposite to the tomb of John Carroll, first bishop and archbishop of that see and of the United States of America.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 30; "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1921, p. 67; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 108-109; Ellis, John Tracy. The life of James Cardinal Gibbons, Archbishop of Baltimore 1834-1921. 2 vols. Milwaukee : Bruce, 1952; Galway, Bernard B. Cardinal Gibbons and the labor movement in the United States. Dissertation: Thesis (M.A.)--Fordham University, 1939; Garaventa, Louis Theodore. Bishop James Gibbons and the growth of the Roman Catholic Church in North Carolina, 1868-1872. Dissertation: Thesis (M.A.)--University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1973; "Gibbons, James". In: American National Biography. New York : Oxford University Press. v. 8 (1999), pp. 909-910; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 415-420; Newcomb, Covelle. Larger than the sky, a story of James Cardinal Gibbons. London ; New York : Longmans, Green , 1945; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 32, 51, 75, 140, 323 and 482; Smith, Albert Edward and Vincent de P. Fitzpatrick. Cardinal Gibbons, churchman and citizen. Baltimore : O'Donovan Brothers, 1921; Tehan, Arline Boucher, and John Tehan. Prince of democracy, James Cardinal Gibbons. Garden City : Hanover House ,1962; Walsh, James Joseph. Our American cardinals; life stories of the seven American Cardinals : McCloskey, Gibbons, Farley, O'Connell, Dougherty, Mundelein, Hayes. Freeport, N.Y. : Books for Libraries Press, 1969, c1926. (Essay index reprint series); Will, Allen Sinclair. Life of Cardinal Gibbons, archbishop of Baltimore. 2 vols. New York : E.P. Dutton, 1922.

Links. Portrait, photograph, arms and biography, in English; his photograph from the Mellon Library, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America; biography, in English; his drawing and biography, in English; his effigy on a medal by Joseph Maxwell Miller, The Peabody Art Collection, Maryland State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, United Statesof America; his statue, Washington, D.C., United States; his photograph with President Theodore Roosevelt, Mellon Library, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America; his portrait by Alyn Williams, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America; his portrait by Alfred Partridge Klots, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland, United States; his portrait by Carl Bersch, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America; another portrait by Carl Bersch, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America; his photograph; and his portrait by A. Muller-Ury, Museum Collection, The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., United States of America; engravings, photographs, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 140; and Bransom, Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list, p. 30; Code, Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964), p. 108, says that he was named on May 25, 1877.

place.jpg

(46) 5. PLACE, Charles-Philippe
(1814-1893)

Birth. February 14, 1814, Paris, France. From a family of the industrial bourgeoisie.

Education. Studied at lyceum Henri IV (classics and literature); at the University of Paris, where he earned a doctorate in civil law in 1841; he was received at the Bar and exercised his profession at the court of appeal of Paris; in 1847, he decided to enter the ecclesiastical state and went to Rome to study theology at Collegio Romano, also serving temporarily as secretary to the French ambassador in Rome (whom he accompanied to Gaeta during the 1849 revolution); later, he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, by apostolic brief of July 28, 1863.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 30, 1850, at the patriarchal Lateran basilica, by Cardinal Costantino Patrizi Naro, vicar of Rome. On his return to France, he was named honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Orléans in July 1850. Vicar general of the diocese of Orléans; responsible of the Christian instruction of the youth; rector of the Minor Seminary of Orléans. In 1856, he passed to the archdiocese of Paris and was chaplain of religious; in 1856, he became rector of the Minor Seminary of Notre-Dame-des-Champs, Paris. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. By imperial decree of March 15, 1863, he was nominated auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for France; he was admitted on the following June 5; he obtained the doctorate in utroque iure by pontifical brief of July 28; and took the oath on January 22, 1864, succeeding in that post future Cardinal Charles-Martial-Allemand Lavigerie, M.Afr. He was nominated to the see of Marseille by Emperor Napoléon III of France on January 13, 1866.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Marseille, June 22, 1866 (1); he was granted the pallium on that same day (privilege of the bishops of Marseille). Consecrated, August 26, 1866, in the Hall of the Consistory of the Apostolic Palace, Rome, by Pope Pius IX, assisted by Giuseppe Cardoni, bishop of Loreto e Recanati, and by Francesco Marinelli, titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. His episcopal motto was Tuas voluntas Deus. e was made knight of the Légion d'honneur of August 12, 1864. He was also decorated with the grand-cross of the Holy Sepulchre. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 17, 1867. He obtained his licentiate in theology at La Sorbonne University in 1868. He participated in the First Vatican Council (1869-1870), where he was part of the minority and voted non placet (against the definition of papal infallibility) at the session of July 13, 1870, which brought him into conflict with the elements utramontains of his clergy, especially since he had been assigned authorship of a letter published in the Journal of Debates deploring the obstacles to the freedom of the council. But he submitted in a pastoral letter after the dogmatic definition accepting it. The Holy See, which had expressed reservations about his episcopal appointment in 1866 because of his reputation of Gallicanism, opposed in 1870 his promotion to the metropolitan and primatial see of Lyon. During his episcopate in Marseille, he worked to finish the construction of the cathedral; reorganized the finances of the diocese; and had to face the anti clericalism that the progression of religious indifference was producing. Presented by the president of France, Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duke of Magenta, to the see of Rennes on July 8, 1878. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Rennes on July 15, 1878; he was granted the pallium on that same day. He took possession of the see the following October 10. He obtained on February 13, 1880 the reestablishment of the title of cathedral for the churches of Saint-Samon of Dol and Saint-Vincent of Saint-Malo and the archdiocese became that of Rennes, Dol et Saint-Malo. In his archdiocese, he eradicated the Jansenists traditions; founded many Christian schools; realized pastoral visits throughout its territory, visiting at least twice each parish; fomented the training of clergy with ecclesiastical conferences and annual retreats; attached great importance to catechism first communion and perseverance; created a Diocesan Bureau of Works; he generally opposed the interference of the clergy in electoral contests and condemned the excesses of the extremists (often from Legitimist circles). He would not act on constitutional grounds against sectarian government projects. He took his role of metropolitan very seriously, convening an annual meeting of the suffragan bishops.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 7, 1886; received red hat and title of S. Maria Nuova or S. Francesca in Foro Romano, March 17, 1887. He fought for the freedom of education, signing in January 1892 an exposé of the situation made for the Church in France. He also protested against the decrees of expulsion of the religious congregations. In 1890, he refused to assume the announcement of the policy of rallying Catholics to the Third Republic, as requested by Cardinal Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of State, a mission that would ultimately fall to Cardinal Lavigerie (2).

Death. March 5, 1893, Rennes. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Rennes, where the funeral took place on the following March 14; and buried in that same cathedral.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 449-450; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 758-761; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 32, 50, 372 and 478; Ward, James E. "The French Cardinals and Leo XIII's Ralliement Policy." Church History , Vol. 33, No. 1 (Mar., 1964), pp. 60-73.

Links. Images on stained glass, arms, memorail plaque and biography, in French, Wikipedia; engraving, photograph, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) According to LeBlanc, Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle, p. 759, his nomination was due to the influence of Cardinal Lavigerie, who wanted to counterbalance with bishops of moderate Gallican spirit the influence of the excessive ultramontanism.
(2) According to LeBlanc, Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle, p. 760, Cardinal Place focused on the acceptance of modern institutions, while leaving Catholics free to have their opinions, as he said to Pope Leo XIII when he was summoned for consultations in Rome in April 1890. He was carrying a letter signed by six French cardinals in response to the encyclical Sapientiae christianae, which reaffirmed that the Church was neutral in matters of regime politics, and that Catholics should favor the interests of religion and not those of a political party, even at the price of the greatest sacrifices. But instead of interpreting the papal document as an invitation to abandon the Royalist cause and reconcile with the Republic, the Cardinals taught that they can not vote for a party prepared to respect interests of religion. The letter did not please Rome and was never published . He was then appointed by the Pope to find accommodation with the Republic, but illness prevented him from carrying out this mission, which was entrusted to Cardinal Lavigerie. Others say, however, that it was only a pretext, and that he would not run the risk of problems in his diocese, one of the most royalist of France. It is sure that he disapproved the Toast of Algiers.

theodoli.jpg

(47) 6. THEODOLI, Augusto
(1819-1892)

Birth. September 18, 1819, Rome. From a patrician family titular of a marquisate. Youngest of the two children of Giacomo Theodoli and Maria Camassei. The other child was Annunziata. Relative of Cardinal Mario Theodoli (1643).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. After a stormy and gallant youth, he decided to enter the ecclesiastical state.

Sacred orders. Ordained (no information found). Named canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in the pontificate of Pope Gregory XVI. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1847. In 1850, he was sent to Vienna as ablegato apostolic to bring the red biretta to ne Cardinal Maximilian Joseph Gottfried Somerau-Beeckx, archbishop of Olmutz. Relator of the Sacred Consulta, 1856-1866. Auditor of the Apostolic Signature, January 26, 1866. Econmous secretary of the S.C. of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's basilica, 1866; organized the celebration of the 18th centennial of the martyrdom of Saints Peter and Paul; and of the First Vatican Council; restored the columnade; covered with lead the dome of the basilica; renewed parts of the marble pavement; and completely renovated the chapel of the Most Blessed Sacrament and the choir. In 1874, while he was on holiday, he was captured by bandits and had to pay a large ransom for his release. Papal majordome and prefect of the Pontifical Household, March 30, 1882.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 7, 1886; received red hat and deaconry of S. Maria della Scala, June 10, 1886. His cardinalitial motto was Vicissim suabimus victoriæ. Member of Council for the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, March 18, 1889. He was the last protector of the Nobile Collegio dei commercianti di Roma.

Death. June 26, 1892, Rome. Exposed in his deaconry; and buried in his family's tomb in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome, after the funeral celebrated in the church of S. Eustachio.

Bibliography. De Camilis, Mario. "Theodoli, Augusto." Enciclopedia Cattolica. 12 vols. Città del Vaticano : Ente per l'Enciclopedia cattolica e per il Libro cattolico, 1948-1954, XII, col. 50; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 922-923; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 32 and 55; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 937.

Link. Engraving, photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

mazzella7.jpg

(48) 7. MAZZELLA, S.J., Camillo
(1833-1900)

Birth. February 10, 1833, Vitulano, archdiocese of Benevento. Of a well-to-do family. Two of his brothers, Ernesto, his twin, and Pietro, also became priests; the former was archbishop of Bari from 1887 until his death; and the latter also joined the Society of Jesus.

Education. Initial studies under a tutor at home; the twin brothers entered the Seminary of Benevento when they were ten or eleven years old (1); Jesuit Novitiate, La Conocchia, Naples; Jesuit College, Cosenza; Jesuit Scholasticate, Fourvières, France; Jesuit House of S. Eusebio, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 8, 1855, Benevento, by Archbishop Camillo Siciliano di Rende of Benevento, with a dispensation from Pope Pius IX because he had not reached yet the canonical age. Pastoral work in the parish church of Vitulano, 1855-1857; he and his twin brother were canons of this church because two of its canonries had been founded by their ancestors and were at the disposal of the family. Entered the Society of Jesus, September 4, 1857. Religious profession, September 5, 1859; final vows, February 2, 1869. Faculty member, Jesuit Scholasticate, Fourvières, 1861-1867; faculty member, Georgetown University, Washington, 1867-1869; faculty member, College of the Sacred Heart, Woodstock, Maryland, 1869-1875; consultor of the Jesuit province of Maryland, 1872-1875; faculty member of Collegio Romano, Rome, 1878-1886.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 7, 1886; received red hat and deaconry of S. Adriano, June 10, 1886. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, February 20, 1889. Prefect of the S.C. of Studies, June 22, 1893. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, June 22, 1896. President of the Academy of S. Tommaso d'Aquinas, Rome.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, April 19, 1897. Consecrated, May 8, 1897, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, vicar of Rome, assisted by Casimiro Gennari, titular archbishop of Lepanto, assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, and by Orazio Mazzella, titular bishop of Cime, auxiliary of Bari, his nephew. His twin brother, Ernesto Mazzella, archbishop of Bari, was present in the sanctuary. He has been the only Jesuit cardinal to become a cardinal bishop. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites, June 15, 1897.

Death. March 26, 1900, soon after having received the viaticum, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Bernardo alle Terme and buried in the chapel of the Society of Jesus in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 204-205; Finn, Brendan A. Twenty-four American cardinals. Biographical sketches of those princes of the Catholic Church who either were born in America or served there at some time. With a foreword by Francis Cardinal Spellman. Boston : Bruce Humphries, 1947, pp. 381-391; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 619-622; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 32, 45, 51 and 54.

Link. Biography by Timothy Brosnahan, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; photograph and biography, in English, People of the Faith. Saints.SQPN.com; photograph and biography, in Italian, Suore Domenicane di Pompei, Istituto "Antonio Aveta"; and his arms Araldica Vaticana.

(1) It was so difficult to tell them apart that Fr. Carlo Piccirillo, S.J., the prefect of studies, made Camillo wear a ribbon in his button-hole during the whole year as the only way of distinguishing him from his brother Ernesto.

Top Consistories Catalogs Home

©1998-2014 Salvador Miranda.