The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903)
Consistory of June 7, 1886 (IX)

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(42) 1. BERNADOU, Victor-Félix
(1816-1891)

Birth. June 25, 1816, Castres, archdiocese of Albi, France.

Education. Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 19, 1840, Paris. Pastoral work in diocese of Algiers, canon of the cathedral chapter; archpriest, 1847.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Gap, April 7, 1862. Consecrated, June 29, 1862, cathedral of Castres, by Jean-Joseph-Marie-Eugène de Jerphanion, archbishop of Albi, assisted by Louis-Antoine Pavy, bishop of Alger, and by Jean-Jacques Bardou, bishop of Cahors. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, April 13, 1866. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sens, July 12, 1867.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 7, 1886; received red hat and title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, March 17, 1887.

Death. November 15 (1), 1891, Sens. Exposed and and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Sens.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 190; La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 190; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 32, 53, 513 and 582.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 32; and to Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973, p. 190; La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, p. 190, says that he died on November 16, 1891.

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(43) 2. TASCHEREAU, Elzéar-Alexandre
(1820-1898)

Birth. February 17, 1820, Sainte-Marie de la Beauce, archdiocese of Québec, Canada. One of the seven children of Jean-Thomas Taschereau, judge of the Cour du banc du Roi, and Marie Panet, daughter of the president of the first chamber of the assembly of Bas-Canada.

Education. Primary studies with a tutor; Seminary of Québec, Québec, 1828-1836 (classics); traveled for a year to Great Britain, Low Countries, France and Italy with Father John Holmes, professor of the seminary; received the tonsure in Rome on May 20, 1837; returned to Canada and studied theology at the Grand Seminary of Québec while teaching in the minor seminary; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare" (doctorate in canon law, July 1856).

Priesthood. Ordained, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, September 10, 1842, parish church of Sainte-Marie-de-la-Nouvelle-Beauce, by Pierre-Flavien Turgeon, titular bishop of Sidima, coadjutor of Québec. Professor of philosophy at the Seminary of Québec, 1842-1854; he also taught astronomy, theology and Holy Scriptures; member of the seminary council; prefect of studies, 1849-1854; director of the minor seminary, 1851-1852. One of the founders of Laval University in 1852. Further studies in Rome, 1854-1856; first Canadian priest to reside in the Pontifical French Seminary of Rome. At his return from Rome, he was professor of theology and director of the Minor Seminary of Québec, 1856-1859; director of the Grand Seminary of Québec, 1859-1860; rector of Laval University and superior of the Seminary, 1860-1866; director of the Grand Seminary of Québec, 1866-1869; re-elected rector of Laval University and superior of the seminary, 1869-1871. Vicar general of Québec and examiner of young priests, 1862. Accompanied Charles-François Baillargeon, titular bishop of Tlos, administrator of Québec, to Rome, 1862. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870, as theologian of Archbishop Charles-François Baillargeon of Québec. Named administrator of the archdiocese of Québec at the death of Archbishop Baillargeon in October 1870.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Québec, December 24, 1870. Consecrated, March 19, 1871, metropolitan cathedral of Québec, by John Joseph Lynch, C.M., archbishop of Toronto, assisted by Edward John Horan, bishop of Kingston, and by Charles LaRocque, bishop of Saint-Hyacinthe. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 16, 1875.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 7, 1886; received red hat and title of S. Maria della Vittoria, March 17, 1887. His mental faculties were considerably debilitated by a progressive brain degeneration and he delegated the government of the archdiocese to his coadjutor, with right of succession, Louis-Nazaire Bégin, titular archbishop of Cirene, on September 3, 1894. He was the first Canadian cardinal.

Death. April 12, 1898, Québec. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Québec, where the funeral took place celebrated by Cardinal James Gibbons, archbishop of Baltimore, and buried in that cathedral.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2202. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 833-836.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in French; biography, in German; gallery of photographs; his portrait and biography, in English; his engraving and biography, in English; his funeral; and his monument in City Hall Square, Québec, Canada.

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(44) 3. LANGÉNIEUX, Benoît-Marie
(1824-1905)

Birth. October 15, 1824, Villefranche-sur-Saone, archdiocese of Lyon, France.

Education. Saint-Nicolas du Chardonnet, Paris (humanities); Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris (theology). Received the diaconate, May 25, 1850.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1850. In the archdiocese of Paris, 1850-1873, vicar, parish of Saint-Roch, Paris; vice-promotor and promotor of the archdiocesan curia, 1859; pastor of Saint-Ambroise, 1863; pastor of Saint-Augustine, 1868; archdeacon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter and vicar general, 1871.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tarbes, July 25, 1873. Consecrated, October 28, 1873, cathedral of Paris, by Joseph-Hippolyte Guibert, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Frédéric de Marguerye, former bishop of Autun, and by Jacques Jeancard, titular bishop of Ceramo. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Reims, December 21, 1874.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 7, 1886; received red hat and title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, March 17, 1887. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X.

Death. January 1, 1905, Reims. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Reims.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 365-366.

Link. Biography, in English.

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(45) 4. GIBBONS, James
(1834-1921)

Birth. July 23, 1834, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. From a family of Irish immigrants who settled in the United States after moving to Canada. Son of Thomas Gibbons and Bridget Walsh. Because of health, the father moved the family back to Ireland in 1839 and James received his early education in Ballinrobe; after the death of the father in 1847, the family returned to the United States in 1853, settling in New Orleans, Louisiana.

Education. Studied at St. Charles College, Ellicott City, Maryland; St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 30, 1861, St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, by Francis Patrick Kenrick, archbishop of Baltimore. Pastoral work in archdiocese of Baltimore, 1861-1865: curate at St. Patrick's church in Fells Point for six weeks before becoming the first pastor of St. Brigid's Church in Canton; in addition to his duties at St. Brigid's, he assumed charge of St. Lawrence church in Locust Point; and was a chaplain for Fort McHenry in the Civil War, during which he supported the Union despite having been born and largely raised in the South. Secretary to Archbishop Martin John Spalding of Baltimore, 1865-1868. Assistant chancellor, Second Plenary Council of Baltimore, 1866.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Adramittio and named apostolic vicar of North Carolina, March 3, 1868. Consecrated, August 16, 1868, Baltimore, by Martin John Spalding, archbishop of Baltimore, assisted by Patrick Neeson Lynch, bishop of Charleston, and by Michael Domenec, C.M., bishop of Pittsburgh. In the same ceremony was consecrated Thomas Albert Andrew Becker, first bishop of Wilmington. Attended the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. Transferred to the see of Richmond, July 30, 1872. Transferred to the titular see of Jonopolis and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Baltimore, May 29 (1), 1877. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Baltimore, October 3, 1877. Convened and presided over the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore as apostolic delegate, November 9 to December 7, 1884.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 7, 1886; received red hat and title of S. Maria in Trastevere, March 17, 1887. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Arrived late to the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV.

Death. March 24, 1921, at 11:33 a.m., in his residence adjoining the metropolitan cathedral of Baltimore. His death was caused by the infirmities of advanced age. He lapsed into a state of coma the afternoon before and never regained consciousness. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Baltimore and buried in its crypt, immediately opposite to the tomb of John Carroll, first bishop and archbishop of that see and of the United States of America.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 30; "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1921, p. 67; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 108-109; Ellis, John Tracy. The life of James Cardinal Gibbons, Archbishop of Baltimore 1834-1921. 2 vols. Milwaukee : Bruce, 1952; Galway, Bernard B. Cardinal Gibbons and the labor movement in the United States. Dissertation: Thesis (M.A.)--Fordham University, 1939; Garaventa, Louis Theodore. Bishop James Gibbons and the growth of the Roman Catholic Church in North Carolina, 1868-1872. Dissertation: Thesis (M.A.)--University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1973; "Gibbons, James". In: American National Biography. New York : Oxford University Press. v. 8 (1999), pp. 909-910; Newcomb, Covelle. Larger than the sky, a story of James Cardinal Gibbons. London ; New York : Longmans, Green , 1945; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 32, 51, 75, 140, 323 and 482; Smith, Albert Edward and Vincent de P. Fitzpatrick. Cardinal Gibbons, churchman and citizen. Baltimore : O'Donovan Brothers, 1921; Tehan, Arline Boucher, and John Tehan. Prince of democracy, James Cardinal Gibbons. Garden City : Hanover House ,1962; Walsh, James Joseph. Our American cardinals; life stories of the seven American Cardinals : McCloskey, Gibbons, Farley, O'Connell, Dougherty, Mundelein, Hayes. Freeport, N.Y. : Books for Libraries Press, 1969, c1926. (Essay index reprint series); Will, Allen Sinclair. Life of Cardinal Gibbons, archbishop of Baltimore. 2 vols. New York : E.P. Dutton, 1922.

Links. Portrait, photograph, arms and biography, in English; his photograph from the Mellon Library, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America; biography, in English; biography, in German; his drawing and biography, in English; his effigy on a medal by Joseph Maxwell Miller, The Peabody Art Collection, Maryland State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, United Statesof America; his statue, Washington, D.C., United States; his photograph with President Theodore Roosevelt, Mellon Library, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America; his portrait by Alyn Williams, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America; his portrait by Alfred Partridge Klots, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland, United States; his portrait by Carl Bersch, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America; another portrait by Carl Bersch, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America; his photograph; and his portrait by A. Muller-Ury, Museum Collection, The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., United States of America.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 140; and Bransom, Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list, p. 30; Code, Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964), p. 108, says that he was named on May 25, 1877.

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(46) 5. PLACE, Charles-Philippe
(1814-1893)

Birth. February 14, 1814, Paris, France.

Education. University of Paris, Paris (doctorate in civil law); Collegio Romano, Rome (theology); doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, by apostolic brief July 28, 1863.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 30, 1850, Rome. Vicar general of the diocese of Orléans; rector of the Seminary of Orléans, Orléans; rector of the Seminary of Paris, Paris; auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, Rome.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Marseille, June 22, 1866. Consecrated, August 26, 1866, private chapel of the Apostolic Palace, Rome, by Pope Pius IX, assisted by Giuseppe Cardoni, bishop of Loreto e Recanati, and by Francesco Marinelli, titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Rennes, July 15, 1878.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 7, 1886; received red hat and title of S. Maria Nuova or S. Francesca in Foro Romano, March 17, 1887.

Death. March 5, 1893, Rennes. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Rennes.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 449-450.

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(47) 6. THEODOLI, Augusto
(1819-1892)

Birth. September 18, 1819, Rome. Son of Giacomo Theodoli and Maria Camassei. Relative of Cardinal Mario Theodoli (1643).

Education. (No information found).

Sacred orders. Ordained (no information found). Named canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in the pontificate of Pope Gregory XVI. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1947. Relator of the Sacred Consulta, 1856-1866. Auditor of the Apostolic Signature, January 26, 1866. Econmous secretary of the S.C. of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's basilica, 1866; organized the celebration of the 18th centennial of the martyrdom of Sts. Peter and Paul; and of the First Vatican Council; restored the columnade; covered with lead the dome of the basilica; renewed parts of the marble pavement; and completely renovated the chapel of the Most Blessed Sacrament and the choir. Papal majordome and prefect of the Pontifical Household, March 30, 1882.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 7, 1886; received red hat and deaconry of S. Maria della Scala, June 10, 1886. Member of Council for the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, March 18, 1889. Last protector of the Nobile Collegio dei commercianti di Roma.

Death. June 26, 1892, Rome. Exposed in his deaconry and buried in his family's tomb in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. De Camilis, Mario. "Theodoli, Augusto." Enciclopedia Cattolica. 12 vols. Città del Vaticano : Ente per l'Enciclopedia cattolica e per il Libro cattolico, 1948-1954, XII, col. 50; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 937.

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(48) 7. MAZZELLA, S.J., Camillo
(1833-1900)

Birth. February 10, 1833, Vitulano, archdiocese of Benevento. Of a well-to-do family. Two of his brothers, Ernesto, his twin, and Pietro, also became priests; the former was archbishop of Bari from 1887 until his death; and the latter also joined the Society of Jesus.

Education. Initial studies under a tutor at home; the twin brothers entered the Seminary of Benevento when they were ten or eleven years old (1); Jesuit Novitiate, La Conocchia, Naples; Jesuit College, Cosenza; Jesuit Scholasticate, Fourvières, France; Jesuit House of S. Eusebio, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 8, 1855, Benevento, by Archbishop Camillo Siciliano di Rende of Benevento, with a dispensation from Pope Pius IX because he had not reached yet the canonical age. Pastoral work in the parish church of Vitulano, 1855-1857; he and his twin brother were canons of this church because two of its canonries had been founded by their ancestors and were at the disposal of the family. Entered the Society of Jesus, September 4, 1857. Religious profession, September 5, 1859; final vows, February 2, 1869. Faculty member, Jesuit Scholasticate, Fourvières, 1861-1867; faculty member, Georgetown University, Washington, 1867-1869; faculty member, College of the Sacred Heart, Woodstock, Maryland, 1869-1875; consultor of the Jesuit province of Maryland, 1872-1875; faculty member of Collegio Romano, Rome, 1878-1886.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 7, 1886; received red hat and deaconry of S. Adriano, June 10, 1886. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, February 20, 1889. Prefect of the S.C. of Studies, June 22, 1893. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, June 22, 1896. President of the Academy of S. Tommaso d'Aquinas, Rome.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, April 19, 1897. Consecrated, May 8, 1897, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, vicar of Rome, assisted by Casimiro Gennari, titular archbishop of Lepanto, assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, and by Orazio Mazzella, titular bishop of Cime, auxiliary of Bari, his nephew. His twin brother, Ernesto Mazzella, archbishop of Bari, was present in the sanctuary. He has been the only Jesuit cardinal to become a cardinal bishop. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites, June 15, 1897.

Death. March 26, 1900, soon after having received the viaticum, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Bernardo alle Terme and buried in the chapel of the Society of Jesus in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 204-205; Finn, Brendan A. Twenty-four American cardinals. Biographical sketches of those princes of the Catholic Church who either were born in America or served there at some time. With a foreword by Francis Cardinal Spellman. Boston : Bruce Humphries, 1947, pp. 381-391; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 32, 45, 51 and 54.

Link. Biography, in English; photograph and biography, in English; photograph and biography, in Italian; and his arms.

(1) It was so difficult to tell them apart that Fr. Carlo Piccirillo, S.J., the prefect of studies, made Camillo wear a ribbon in his button-hole during the whole year as the only way of distinguishing him from his brother Ernesto.

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