Birth. November 26, 1834, Genazzano, diocese of Palestrina. Received the sacrament of confirmation, September 25, 1842. Brother of Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli (1889).
Education. Seminary of Palestrina, Palestrina; Collegio Capranica, Rome; Collegio Romano, Rome (doctorates in philosophy, September 5, 1855; and theology, September 8, 1859); obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. Received the insignias of the clerical character, November 14, 1848; minor orders, June 6 and 7, 1857; subdiaconate, April 23, 1859; diaconate, June 2, 1860.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1860, by Cardinal Costantino Patrizi Naro. Beneficiary of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, 1863. Professor of theology, Vatican Seminary, Vatican, 1863. Auditor in the nunciature in Mexico, 1864; returned to Rome after the fall of Emperor Maximilian I in 1867. Auditor in the nunciature in Bavaria.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicea, June 25, 1869. Consecrated, July 18, 1869, church of S. Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, by Cardinal Costantino Patrizi Naro, assisted by Salvatore Nobile Vitelleschi, archbishop-bishop of Osimo, and by Pelagio Labastida, archbishop of México. Apostolic delegate in the Republics of Ecuador, Perú, and Nueva Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, El Salvador, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua, July 23, 1869. Nuncio in Belgium, September 10, 1875. Nuncio in Austria-Hungary, December 3, 1880.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 14, 1887; received red hat and title of S. Sabina, May 26, 1887. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1887. Prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Relics, February 13, 1888. Opted for the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, February 11, 1889. Secretary of Pontifical Memorials, March 14, 1889. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 1, 1891 until July 11, 1892. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs, January 28, 1892. Archbishop of Bologna, January 16, 1893. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, June 12, 1893. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, December 9, 1893. Pro-prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, October 1, 1896. Grand Penitentiary, November 20, 1899. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Universal and Roman Inquisition, January 16, 1903 until December 31, 1908. Opted for suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, June 22, 1903. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 7, 1913; opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia, proper of the dean of the Sacred College, which was added to his see of Porto e Santa Rufina, May 25, 1914. Prefect of the S.C. Ceremonial. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV.
Death. Thursday August 19, 1915, at 1:00 a.m., Rome, after having piously received the holy sacraments. The body was exposed in his apartment in Palazzo Sachetti, via Giulia, Rome. The funeral took place on Saturday August 21, at 10:30 a.m., in the church of S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini. The funeral mass was celebrated by Domenico Mannaioli, titular bishop of Pomaria. The final absolution was imparted by Cardinal Francesco di Paola Cassetta, bishop of Frascati, subdean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Present were Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli, his brother, with other members of the family; Cardinals Pietro Gasparri, Diomede Falconio, Girolamo Maria Gotti, O.C.D., Rafael Merry del Val, Antonio Vico, Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte, Domenico Serafini, Francesco Salesio della Volpe, Gaetano Bisleti, Louis Billot, S.J., and Michele Lega; also present were numerous archbishops, bishops, priests and religious, as well as members of the diplomatic corps and the Roman nobility. The remains of the cardinal were buried in the tomb of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.
Bibliography. Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, pp. 133-135; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, pp. 48, 63 and 111; Restrepo Posada, Jose. "Galería de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia," Revista de la Academia Colombiana de la Historia Eclesiástica, V (January-June, 1970), 212-213; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, LV, n. 229 (August 20, 1915), p. 2; LV, n. 230 (August 21, 1915), p. 2; LV, no. 231 (August 22, 1915), p. 3; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 33, 44, 45, 48 and 411; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunci apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, pp. 225-228.
Links. Biography in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; and biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati.
Birth. September 30, 1826, Pontecorvo. Uncle of Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella (1946).
Education. Very young he was sent to Naples to study at the school of the Fahers Barnabites, where he completed the liceali studies; then, he went to Rome and studied philosophy and theology at Seminario Romano, next to the Pontifical Athenaeum "S. Apollinare"; finally, at the Facoltà Utroque Iuris, founded by Pope Pius IX in Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 3, 1849, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, while French and Roman republican troops wehre battling in the city. Secretary of the nunciature in Naples; auditor of the nunciature in Bavaria, 1858; auditor of the nunciature in France, 1862. Consultor for diplomatic affairs, Secretariat of State, Rome, 1869. Referendary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, 1870. Accompanied Alessandro Franchi, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, to Constantinople, 1874. Secretary for Oriental Affairs of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, 1874.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Neocesarea, Mayo 22, 1877. Consecrated, June 3, 1877, in the chapel of the Collegio de Propaganda Fide, Rome, by Cardinal Alessandro Franchi, assisted by Filippo Manetti, titular archbishop of Sardes, and by Felix-Marie De Neckere, titular archbishop of Melitene. Named nuncio in Bavaria on June 5, 1877. Nuncio in Portugal, September 30, 1879.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 14, 1887; received red hat and title of S. Tommaso in Parione, March 17, 1887. Prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Relics, November 16, 1887. Prefect of the office of economic planning of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide and president of the general administration of the Chamber of Despoilments, February 13, 1888. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites, October 3, 1889. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, July 11, 1892 January 16, 1893. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, January 16, 1893. Pro-datary of His Holiness, May 29, 1897 until his death. He declined the option to a suburbicarian see in order to continue working in the reorganization of the datary.
Death. November 22, 1902, unexpectedly, in Rome; he was found dead, sitting at his desk, with a pen in hand, already cold; early in the morning, he had celebrated mass as usual. His death had been predicted four days earlier by Grimoaldo Santamaria, C.P., future blessed, on his deathbed at the early age of 19, and who had received the sacrament of confirmation from the cardinal's hand at the cathedral of Pontecorvo in September 1883. Exposed in the Palace of the Datary, and later in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, where the funeral took place. According to his wishes, the late cardinal was buried in his family's tomb at the right hand side of the main altar of the cathedral of Pontecorvo. A splendid marble monument adorns the site, with the inscription: "Nella dolce terra natale, che gli fu cara e beneficò, e scelse a suprema dimora, attende la Gloria della Resurrezione".
Links. Bioagrphy by Fausto Fonzi, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 2 (1960), Treccani; photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave; his engraving and biograohy, in English, Wikipedia; his engraving by August Weger, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; photgraphs, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; portrait, arms and biography, in Italian, Araldica Vaticana; and Commemorazione a Pontecorvo nel centenario della morte Il Cardinale Gaetano Aloisi Masella e il suo tempo (1826-1902) by Filippo Carcione, in Italian, Centro Documentazione Studi Cassinati.
Birth. October 13, 1822, Santa Maria Codifiume, archdiocese of Ferrara.
Education. Doctorate in theology. (No further educational information found).
Priesthood. Ordained, September 19, 1846. Apostolic delegate in the city of Ascoli Piceno, December 1852; in the city of Velletri, 1856; and in the city of Perugia, 1859. Counselor of the Sacred Consulta of Finances, 1859. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1863. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for four years.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Philadelphia and appointed auxiliary of Ferrara, March 6, 1871. Consecrated, March 1871, Rome, by Cardinal Luigi Vannicelli Casoni. Promoted to metropolitan see of Ferrara, June 22, 1877.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 14, 1887; received red hat and title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino al Monte Celio, March 17, 1887.
Death. April 21, 1893, Ferrara. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Ferrara and buried, temporarily, in the city cemetery of Ferrara.
Birth. June 8, 1847, Naples. Received the sacrament of confirmation, September 10, 1859.
Education. Collegio Capranica, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 3, 1871. Pastoral work in the archdiocese of Westminster, London, England, for seven years; returned to Naples.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tricarico, December 28, 1877. Consecrated, January 1, 1878, Rome, by Cardinal Flavio Chigi. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Benevento, May 12, 1879. Nuncio in France, October 26, 1882.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 14, 1887; received red hat and title of S. Sisto, May 26, 1887. Apostolic administrator of Lucera, February 3, 1888.
Death. May 16, 1897, abbey of Montecassino. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Benevento and buried in the church of S. Clementina in the old cemetery of Benevento.
Link. His photograph by Eugène Pirou, Museum Orsay, Paris, France.
Birth. Augsut 17, 1843, Polizzi Generosa, diocese of Cefalù, Sicilia.
Education. Collegio Capranica, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law); Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome.
Priesthood. Ordained, 1866 Rome. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica of S. Maria Maggiore, Rome, 1874. Auditor of the nunciature in Spain, 1875. Secretary of the S.C. Propaganda Fide for Oriental Rites, 1877. Protonotary apostolic de numero participantium, January 3, 1878. Secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, 1880. Secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Eraclea, December 1, 1882. Consecrated, December 8, 1882, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Thomas Howard, assisted by Alessandro Sanminiatelli Zabarella, titular archbishop of Tiana, grand almoner of His Holiness, and by Carlo Laurenzi, titular bishop of Amato, assessor of the S.C. of the Supreme Roman and Universal Inquisition. Nuncio in Spain, December 19, 1882.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 14, 1887; received red hat and title of S. Cecilia, May 26, 1887. Secretary of State, June 2, 1887 until July 20, 1903. President of the Council for the Administration of the Wealth of the Apostolic See, June 2, 1887. Legate with public authority for the Colombian convention, December 29, 1887. Legate with public authority for the convention with Switzerland, July 10, 1888. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 16, 1893 to May 18, 1894. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and president of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's, March 21, 1894. Grand prior of the Sacred and Sovereign Military Order of St. John of Jerusalem, December 18, 1896. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1898. President of the Biblical Commission, 1902. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X, during which Cardinal Jan Puzyna de Kosielsko, prince-bishop of Kraków, Poland, presented the veto of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary against his election to the papacy (1). Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, December 30, 1908 until his death. President of the Roman Academy of S. Tommaso d'Aquino, February 23, 1910. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, November 26, 1912.
Death. December 16, 1913, in the early hours of the morning, in Rome, after having being taken ill the day before shortly after he participated in a religious ceremony; along the years, he suffered from serious attacks of influenza. Buried in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome; transferred to the basilica of S. Cecilia in Trastevere, June 19, 1929.
Bibliography. Trincia, Luciano. Conclave e potere politico. Il veto a Rampolla nel sistema delle potenze europee, 1887-1904. Rome : Edizioni Studium, 2004. (Religione e società (Edizioni Studium), 46).
Links. Biography, in German; his portrait by Philip de Laszlo; his portrait by August Bresgen; photograph and biographical data, in Czech; his portrait, convent of S. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome; and his tomb in the church of S. Cecilia, Rome.
(1) The "exclusive" (veto) had not been exercised since the conclave of 1830-1831 and the Holy See had never formally recognized the practice. The Sacred College unanimously protested against the interference of a civil power into the election of the Supreme Pontiff. In the conclave of 1846, a veto against Cardinal Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti, archbishop-bishop of Imola, was going to be presented but failed because Cardinal Karl Kajetan Gaisruck, archbishop of Milan, Austria-Hungary, who was to present it, did not arrive in time. The new Pope Pius X would effectively end the use of the veto.
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