The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903)
Consistory of March 14, 1887 (X)

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(49) 1. VANNUTELLI, Serafino
(1834-1915)

Birth. November 26, 1834, Genazzano, diocese of Palestrina. Received the sacrament of confirmation, September 25, 1842. Brother of Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli (1889).

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Palestrina; at Collegio Capranica, Rome; at Collegio Romano, Rome, where he earned doctorates in philosophy on September 5, 1855; and theology on September 8, 1859; he also obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. Received the insignias of the clerical character on November 14, 1848; the minor orders on June 6 and 7, 1857; the subdiaconate on April 23, 1859; and the diaconate on June 2, 1860.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1860, by Cardinal Costantino Patrizi Naro. Beneficiary of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, 1863. Professor of theology, Vatican Seminary, Vatican, 1863. Auditor in the nunciature in Mexico, 1864; returned to Rome after the fall of Emperor Maximilian I in 1867. Auditor in the nunciature in Bavaria.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicea, June 25, 1869. Consecrated, July 18, 1869, church of S. Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, by Cardinal Costantino Patrizi Naro, assisted by Salvatore Nobile Vitelleschi, archbishop-bishop of Osimo, and by Pelagio Labastida, archbishop of México. Apostolic delegate in the Republics of Ecuador, Perú, and Nueva Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, El Salvador, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua, July 23, 1869. Nuncio in Belgium, September 10, 1875. Nuncio in Austria-Hungary, December 3, 1880.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 14, 1887; received red hat and title of S. Sabina, May 26, 1887. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1887. Prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Relics, February 13, 1888. Opted for the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, February 11, 1889. Secretary of Pontifical Memorials, March 14, 1889. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 1, 1891 until July 11, 1892. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs, January 28, 1892. Archbishop of Bologna, January 16, 1893. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, June 12, 1893. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, December 9, 1893. Pro-prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, October 1, 1896. Grand Penitentiary, November 20, 1899. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Universal and Roman Inquisition, January 16, 1903 until December 31, 1908. Opted for suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, June 22, 1903. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 7, 1913; opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia, proper of the dean of the Sacred College, which was added to his see of Porto e Santa Rufina, May 25, 1914. Prefect of the S.C. Ceremonial. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV.

Death. Thursday August 19, 1915, at 1:00 a.m., Rome, after having piously received the holy sacraments. The body was exposed in his apartment in Palazzo Sachetti, via Giulia, Rome. The funeral took place on Saturday August 21, at 10:30 a.m., in the church of S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini. The funeral mass was celebrated by Domenico Mannaioli, titular bishop of Pomaria. The final absolution was imparted by Cardinal Francesco di Paola Cassetta, bishop of Frascati, subdean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Present were Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli, his brother, with other members of the family; Cardinals Pietro Gasparri, Diomede Falconio, Girolamo Maria Gotti, O.C.D., Rafael Merry del Val, Antonio Vico, Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte, Domenico Serafini, Francesco Salesio della Volpe, Gaetano Bisleti, Louis Billot, S.J., and Michele Lega; also present were numerous archbishops, bishops, priests and religious, as well as members of the diplomatic corps and the Roman nobility. The remains of the cardinal were buried in the tomb of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, pp. 133-135; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, pp. 48, 63 and 111; Restrepo Posada, Jose. "Galería de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia," Revista de la Academia Colombiana de la Historia Eclesiástica, V (January-June, 1970), 212-213; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, LV, n. 229 (August 20, 1915), p. 2; LV, n. 230 (August 21, 1915), p. 2; LV, no. 231 (August 22, 1915), p. 3; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 33, 44, 45, 48 and 411; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunci apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, pp. 225-228.

Links. Biography in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; and biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati.

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(50) 2. ALOISI MASELLA, Gaetano
(1826-1902)

Birth. September 30, 1826, Pontecorvo. Uncle of Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella (1946).

Education. Very young he was sent to Naples to study at the school of the Fathers Barnabites, where he completed the liceali studies; then, he went to Rome and studied philosophy and theology at Seminario Romano, obtaining doctorates in those disciplines;, then, at the Pontifical Athenaeum "S. Apollinare"; and finally, at the Facoltà Utroque Iuris, founded by Pope Pius IX in Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 3, 1849, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, while French and Roman republican troops were battling in the city. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See and was secretary of the nunciature in Naples; auditor of the nunciature in Bavaria in 1858; auditor of the nunciature in France in 1862. Consultor for diplomatic affairs, Secretariat of State, Rome in 1869. Referendary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature in 1870. Accompanied Alessandro Franchi, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, to Constantinople in 1874. Secretary for Oriental Affairs of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide in 1874.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Neocesarea, Mayo 22, 1877. Consecrated, June 3, 1877, in the chapel of the Collegio de Propaganda Fide, Rome, by Cardinal Alessandro Franchi, assisted by Filippo Manetti, titular archbishop of Sardes, and by Felix-Marie De Neckere, titular archbishop of Melitene. Named nuncio in Bavaria on June 5, 1877; during his nunciature, he effected an important work of political-religious pacification in Germany, persuading King Louis II of Bavaria, the German Catholics of the Center and, above all, Prince Otto von Bismarck, who wished to now overcome the "Kulturkampf", to gain the support of the clergy and Catholics. Nuncio in Portugal, September 30, 1879 during his nunciature, he defended the Roman positions in the issue of the appointment of bishops, taking a very hard stance towards the government, so that had to be recalled to Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 14, 1887; received red hat and title of S. Tommaso in Parione, March 17, 1887. Prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Relics, November 16, 1887. Prefect of the office of economic planning of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide and president of the general administration of the Chamber of Despoilments, February 13, 1888. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites, October 3, 1889. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, July 11, 1892 January 16, 1893. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, January 16, 1893. Pro-datary of His Holiness, May 29, 1897 until his death. He declined the option to a suburbicarian see in order to continue working in the reorganization of the datary wished by Pope Leo XIII.

Death. November 22, 1902, unexpectedly, in Rome; he was found dead, sitting at his desk, with a pen in hand, already cold; early in the morning, he had celebrated mass as usual. His death had been predicted four days earlier by Grimoaldo Santamaria, C.P., future blessed, on his deathbed at the early age of 19, and who had received the sacrament of confirmation from the cardinal's hand at the cathedral of Pontecorvo in September 1883. Exposed in the Palace of the Datary, and later in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, where the funeral took place. According to his wishes, the late cardinal was buried in his family's tomb at the right hand side of the main altar of the cathedral of Pontecorvo. A splendid marble monument adorns the site, with the inscription: "Nella dolce terra natale, che gli fu cara e beneficò, e scelse a suprema dimora, attende la Gloria della Resurrezione".

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 89-91; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 33, 52, 53 and 406.

Links. Bioagrphy by Fausto Fonzi, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 2 (1960), Treccani; photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave; his engraving and biograohy, in English, Wikipedia; his engraving by August Weger, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; photgraphs, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; portrait, arms and biography, in Italian, Araldica Vaticana; and Commemorazione a Pontecorvo nel centenario della morte Il Cardinale Gaetano Aloisi Masella e il suo tempo (1826-1902) by Filippo Carcione, in Italian, Centro Documentazione Studi Cassinati.


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(51) 3. GIORDANI, Luigi
(1822-1893)

Birth. October 13, 1822, Santa Maria Codifiume, archdiocese of Ferrara. Son of Francesco Giordani and Gertrude Boriani.

Education. Studied at the Seminaries of Ferrara and Bologna; obtained a doctorate in theology; later, obtained a doctorate in law in Rome; finally, he studied diplomacy at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Noble, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 19, 1846, by Cardinal Ignazio Giovanni Cadolini, archbishop of Ferrara. During the political unrest of 1848, he moved to Marino, near Rome. Critically denouncing the exponents of the Roman Republic in a letter to his father in 1849, the letter was intercepted, causing his arrest. Transferred to Rome, he was released following the intervention of General Giuseppe Galletti, an acquaintance of the family, who thus spared him from severe consequences. Domestic prelate of His Holiness in 1852. Assistant to Cardinal Giacomo Antonelli. Apostolic delegate in the city of Ascoli Piceno in December 1852, where he led, among other things, the relief distribution during the cholera epidemic. Apostolic delegate in 1856 the city of Velletri, where he took charge in controlling banditry, organizing the gendarmerie and military bodies. Apostolic delegate in the city of Perugia in 1859. Counselor of the Sacred Consulta of Finances, 1859. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1863. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for four years.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Filadelfia, March 6, 1871. Consecrated, March 1871, chapel of the Oblates of S. Francesca Romana, at Tor de'Specchi, Rome, by Cardinal Luigi Vannicelli Casoni, archbishop of Ferrara and pro-datary of His Holiness (the names of the co-consecrators are unknown). Named auxiliary of Ferrara in July 1872. Vicar capitular of Ferrara at the death of Cardinal Vanicelli Casoni, April 21, 1877. Promoted to metropolitan see of Ferrara, June 22, 1877; on that same day he was granted the pallium.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 14, 1887; received red hat and title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino al Monte Celio, March 17, 1887.

Death. April 21, 1893, Ferrara. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Ferrara; and buried in the chapel of the metropolitan chapter in the Certosa of Ferrara.

Bibliography. "Luigi Giordani" in "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1903, p. 193-194; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 420; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 33, 53, 270 and 452.

Link. His engraving and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.


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(52) 4. SICILIANO DI RENDE, Camillo
(1847-1897)

Birth. June 9, 1847, Naples. From a noble family titular of a marquisette. Received the sacrament of confirmation, September 10, 1859.

Education. Initial studies in Piedigrotta; then, he went with his parents who accompanied the Bourbons of Naples in exile to Rome and to France in 1860; studied humanities at the minor seminary of Chapelle-Saint-Mesmin, beside Orléans, where he met Bishop Félix-Antoine-Philibert Dupanloup of Orléans; returned to Italy and studied from 1867 to 1868 at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in philosophy; and at Collegio Capranica, Rome, where he studied theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 3, 1871, Naples. He went to England and for seven months he was pastor of a parish in the archdiocese of Westminster, London. Returned to Naples and dedicated himself to preaching to the French and English communities.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tricarico, December 28, 1877. Consecrated, January 1, 1878, church of SS. Trinità ai Monti, Rome, by Cardinal Flavio Chigi, archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica (the co-consecrators are unknown). Named Assistant to the Pontifical Throne on August 20, 1878. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Benevento, May 12, 1879; on that same day he was granted the pallium; he made his solemn entrance on the following June 22; administrator of the see of Tricarico until the installation of his successor. Nuncio in France, October 26, 1882; arrived in Paris in November. He retained the see of Benevento and returned to it once in a while for brief visits.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 14, 1887; received red hat and title of S. Sisto, May 26, 1887. Apostolic administrator of the see of Lucera, February 3, 1888.

Death. May 16, 1897, suddenly, of pneumonia, while visiting the abbey of Montecassino, on his way to Rome where he was going to participate in a canonization ceremony. It was reported that Pope Leo XIII was about to transfer him to the metropolitan see of Naples. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Benevento; and buried in the church of S. Clementina in the old cemetery of Benevento.

Bibliography. "Camillo Siciliano di Rene" in "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1903, p. 201; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, p.128; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 876-878; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 33, 53, 147 and 565.

Links. Photograph, engraving and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave; his photograph by Eugène Pirou, Museum Orsay, Paris, France, Réunion des musées nationaux; Portrait of Camillo Siciliano di Rende (1847-1897), Italian cardinal, The Bridgeman Art Library; his engraving, photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana; coin with his inscription, Bolla arcivescovile 1880, Dea Moneta.


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(53) 5. RAMPOLLA DEL TINDARO, Mariano
(1843-1913)

Birth. Augsut 17, 1843, Polizzi Generosa, diocese of Cefalù, Sicilia.

Education. Studied at Collegio Capranica, Rome; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law; and at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, 1866 Rome. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica of S. Maria Maggiore, Rome, 1874. Auditor of the nunciature in Spain, 1875. Secretary of the S.C. Propaganda Fide for Oriental Rites, 1877. Protonotary apostolic de numero participantium, January 3, 1878. Secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, 1880. Secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Eraclea, December 1, 1882. Consecrated, December 8, 1882, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Thomas Howard, assisted by Alessandro Sanminiatelli Zabarella, titular archbishop of Tiana, grand almoner of His Holiness, and by Carlo Laurenzi, titular bishop of Amato, assessor of the S.C. of the Supreme Roman and Universal Inquisition. Nuncio in Spain, December 19, 1882.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 14, 1887; received red hat and title of S. Cecilia, May 26, 1887. Secretary of State, June 2, 1887 until July 20, 1903. President of the Council for the Administration of the Wealth of the Apostolic See, June 2, 1887. Legate with public authority for the Colombian convention, December 29, 1887. Legate with public authority for the convention with Switzerland, July 10, 1888. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 16, 1893 to May 18, 1894. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and president of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's, March 21, 1894. Grand prior of the Sacred and Sovereign Military Order of St. John of Jerusalem, December 18, 1896. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1898. President of the Biblical Commission, 1902. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X, during which Cardinal Jan Puzyna de Kosielsko, prince-bishop of Kraków, Poland, presented the veto of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary against his election to the papacy (1). Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, December 30, 1908 until his death. President of the Roman Academy of S. Tommaso d'Aquino, February 23, 1910. Librarian and archivist of the Holy Roman Church, November 26, 1912.

Death. December 16, 1913, in the early hours of the morning, in Rome, after having being taken ill the day before shortly after he participated in a religious ceremony; along the years, he suffered from serious attacks of influenza. Buried in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome; transferred to the basilica of S. Cecilia in Trastevere, June 19, 1929.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 774-779; Trincia, Luciano. Conclave e potere politico. Il veto a Rampolla nel sistema delle potenze europee, 1887-1904. Rome : Edizioni Studium, 2004. (Religione e società (Edizioni Studium, 46); Trincia, Luciano ; Ticchi, Jean-Marc ; Civinini, Laura . La figura e l'opera del cardinale Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro. Curatore : Calogero Cerami. Salvatore Sciascia Editore, 2006. (Storia e cultura di Sicilia).

Links. Portraits, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; photographs, portrait and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave; his photograph and biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Brittanica; his portrait by August Bresgen; engravings, photographs, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Death of Cardinal Rampolla, The Tablet, 20th December 1913, page 14; Quella volta che il veto dell'mperatore favorl l'elezione di un Papa santo by Andrea Tornielli, 30Giorni Nella Chiesa e nel mondo, 7 2003; Il veto: Conclave 1903: perchè Rampolla non diventò Papa, Il Cardinal Silvestrini commenta il diario che svela i misteri sull' elezione di Pio X, by Emma Fattorini, Corriere della Sera, 30 ottobre 2004, p. 35; La Figura del Cardinale Palermitano Rampolla del Tindaro ed il Conclave del 1903 by Fabio Scannapieco Capace Minatolo di Collereale, Sul Tutto, Periodico della Società Italiana si Studi Araldici, N. 17 - Anno XV - Marzo 2009, p. 1-3; Il cardinale che non divenne papa by Gianpaolo Romanto, L'Osservatore Romano, domenica 15 dicembre 2013, p. 4.

(1) The "exclusive" (veto) had not been exercised since the conclave of 1830-1831 and the Holy See had never formally recognized the practice. The Sacred College unanimously protested against the interference of a civil power into the election of the Supreme Pontiff. In the conclave of 1846, a veto against Cardinal Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti, archbishop-bishop of Imola, was going to be presented but failed because Cardinal Karl Kajetan Gaisruck, archbishop of Milan, Austria-Hungary, who was to present it, did not arrive in time. The new Pope Pius X would effectively end the use of the veto.

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