The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903)
Consistory of May 24, 1889 (XIII)

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(59) 1. RICHARD DE LA VERGNE, François-Marie-Benjamin
(1819-1908)

Birth. March 1, 1819, Nantes, France. Of a family of the petite noblesse of Vandée. His father was a rich physician. The family had eleven children.

Education. He studied with private tutors at the château of his family next to Boussay; and then studied theology at Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris, from October 1841.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1844, in the church of Saint-Sulpice, by Denis-August Affre, archbishop of Paris. In the diocese of Nantes, pastoral ministry in a parish, 1845-1846. Sent to Rome for further studies, 1846-1849. Returned to his diocese and was named honorary canon of the cathedral chapter and was secretary to the bishop, 1849-1850; named vicar general of the diocese on August 1, 1850; he occupied the post until 1869. He dedicated himself to popular works with the faithful and diocesan missions.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Belley, December 22, 1871. Consecrated, February 11, 1872, church of the dames du Sacré-Coeur, Paris, by Joseph-Hippolyte Guibert, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Pierre de Langalerie, archbishop of Auch, and by Félix Fournier, bishop of Nantes. Promoted to the titular see of Larissa and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Paris, July 5, 1875; keeping the apostolic administration of Belley. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Paris, July 8, 1887.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1889; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Via, December 30, 1889. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X.

Death. January 28, 1908, of congestion of the lungs after a short illness, in Paris. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris. His remains were transferred to the crypt of the basilica of the Sacred Heart, Montmartre, Paris, on July 3, 1925.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 465-466; Clément, Maurice. Vie du Cardinal Richard, archevêque de Paris. Paris : J. de Gigord, 1923; "Francesco Maria Benjamin Richard" in in "Cardinali defunti", Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1914. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1913, p. 61; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 799-802; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 34, 51, 144, 34 and 441.

Links. Biography by Georges Goyau, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; and his photograph by Petit Pierre, Agence Photographique de la Réunion des musées nationaux.


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(60) 2. FOULON, Joseph-Alfred
(1823-1893)

Birth. April 29, 1823, Paris, France. His father was a tailor.

Education. Studied humanities at the minor seminary of Saint-Nicolas-du-Chardonnet, Paris, from 1834 to 1842; he had Joseph Ernest Renan, who would become an expert of Middle East ancient languages and civilizations, philosopher and writer, as a condisciple and was greatly influenced by Monsignor Félix-Antoine-Philibert Dupanloup, future bisho of Orléans, then director of the seminary; from 1842 to 1845, he studied philosophy and theology at Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris; and from 1845 to 1846, at Écoles des Carmes, where he met Georges Darboy, future archbishop of Paris; later, he obtained a licentiate in letters at La Sorbonne University, Paris, in 1847, becoming the first French ecclesiastic to do so.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1847, Paris, by Denis-Auguste Affre, archbishop of Paris. For twelve years professor of humanistic literature and rhetoric at the minor seminary of Saint-Nicolas-du-Chardonnet; later became its prefect of studies; its director in 1862; and its superior in 1863. Named honorary canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Paris in 1863. Emperor Napoléon III of France presented him for the episcopate on January 12, 1867. The Holy See accepted his nomination with certain retiscence distrusting the Gallicanism prevalent in the Parisian educational institutions.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nancy et Toul, March 27, 1867. Consecrated, May 1, 1867, church of Saint-Eustache, Paris, by Charles-Martial Allemand-Lavigerie, archbishop of Algiers, assisted by Jean-Baptiste Landriot, archbishop of Reims, and by Charles Place, bishop of Marseille. His episcopal motto was In multa patientia. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 17, 1867. Named knight of the Lén d'honneur on August 15, 1869. He established in Nacy a École des Hautes Études and a minor seminary. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. He was one of the prelate founders of the Institute Catholique of Paris in 1875. Nominated for the see of Besançon by President Jules Grévy of France. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Besançon, March 30, 1882; on that same day he was granted the pallium. Nominated for the see of Lyon by President Jules Grévy of France on May 2, 1887. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Lyon, May 26, 1887; he was granted the pallium on that same day.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1889; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of May 24, 1889; received the red biretta from President Marie François Sadi Carnot of France on June 11, 1889; received the red hat and the title of S. Eusebio, December 30, 1889.

Death. January 23, 1893, of cardiac complications, in Lyon. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan and primatial cathedral of Lyon.

Bibliography. "Giuseppe Alfredo Foulon" in "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1903, p. 193; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 301-302; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 361-342; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 34, 48, 150 and 354.

Link. Photograph, arms and biography, in French, Wikipedia; his portrait, photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(61) 3. GUILBERT, Aimé-Victor-François
(1812-1889)

Birth. November 15, 1812, Cerisy-la-Forêt, diocese of Coutances, France. His parents were peasants.

Education. Studied humanities at Collège de Saint Lô; philosophy at the Minor Seminary of Coutances; and theology at the Major Seminary of Coutances.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1836. amed professor of humanities and later of rhetoric at the Minor Seminary of Coutances. In 1840, he was named professor at the Seminary of Muneville-sur-Mer. Between 1849 and 1850, he was part of the diocesan missionary equipment. In 1851, he became superior of the Minor Seminary of Mortain; and in 1853, of that of Valognes, which he had founded. In July 1855, he became curé of Valognes and honrary vicar general. In November 1862, he became honorary canon and archpriest of the diocese of Coutances. Nominated for the see of Gap by Emperor Napoléon III of France on May 25, 1867.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Gap, September 20, 1867. Consecrated, November 10, 1867, church of Saint-Malo, Valognes, by François-Augustine Delamare, archbishop of Auch, assisted by Jean-Pierre Bravard, bishop of Coutances, and by Flavien Hugonin, bishop of Bayeux. Nominated for the see of Amiens by President Jules Grévy of France on September 8, 1879. Transferred to the see of Amiens, September 22, 1879. Nominated for the archdiocese of Bordeaux by President Jules Grévy of France on June 26, 1883. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bordeaux, August 9, 1883; received the pallium on that same day.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1889; the pope semt him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of May 24, 1889; President Marie François Sadi Carnot imposed on him the red biretta; he died before going to Rome to receive the red hat and the title.

Death. August 16, 1889, suddenly, in Gap. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Bordeaux.

Bibliography. "Amato Vittore Francesco Guilbert" in "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1903, p. 186-187; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 331-332; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 458-460 Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 34, 94,162 and 582.


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(62) 4. GOOSSENS, Pierre-Lambert
(1827-1906)

Birth. July 18, 1827, Perk, near Vilvoorde, archdiocese of Mechelen, Belgium. Of a family of the bourgeoisie.

Education. Initial studies in Mechelen; studied philosophy in the Minor Seminary of Mechelen; and theology in its major seminary.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1850, Mechelen. In Mechelen, professor of the pensionate of Bruul, which prepared the students of the minor seminary, 1851-1855; vice-pastor of its cathedral; secretary of the archbishop and of the archdiocese, April 1856; honorary canon of the cathedral chapter, 1860. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, 1875. Vicar general of Mechelen, April 17, 1878. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 20, 1880.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Abdera and named coadjutor, with right of succession, of Namur, June 1, 1883. Consecrated, June 24, 1883, church of Notre-Dame de Hanswick, Mechelen, by Jean-Joseph Faict, bishop of Bruges, assisted by Victor Joseph Doutreloux, bishop of Liège, and by Victor Jean Joseph Marie Van den Branden de Reeth, titular bishop of Eritrea, auxiliary of Mechelen. His episcopal motto was Omnia et in omnibus Christus. Succeeded to the see of Namur, July 16, 1883. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Mechelen, March 24, 1884.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1889; received the red hat and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, May 27, 1889. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X.

Death. January 25, 1906, suddenly, in Mechelen. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Mechelen, where the funeral took place; and buried in its crypt (1). Some sources indicate that he was buried in Perk, his native town.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 435-436; Muyldermans, J. Zijne Eminentie Kardinaal Petr. Lamb. Goossens, XVe aartsbisschop van Mechelen : zijn leven en zijne werken. Mechelen : Dierickx, 1922; "Pietro Lamberto Goosens" in "Cardinali defunti", Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1914. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1913, p. 59; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 34, 48, 69, 374 and 401.

Links. Biography by Paulin Ladeuze, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; and his image and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

P. LAMB. CARD. GOOSSENS
XV ARCHIEP. MECHL.
1884
+ 25 JAN 1906


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(63) 5. SCHÖNBORN, Franziskus von Paula
(1844-1899)

Birth. January 24, 1844, Prague, Bohemia. Son of Erwein Damian Hugo Count von Söhönborn-Wiesentheid and Christina Maria Josefa Countess von Brühl. Received the sacrament of confirmation, June 10, 1859. His first name is also listed as Franz; and as František.

Education. Studied at the University of Prague (law); at the University of Innsbruck (theology); at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in theology in 1875. Received the insignias of the clerical character on October 14, 1870; the minor orders on March 25, 1872; the subdiaconate on August 7, 1873; and the diaconate on August 10, 1873.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 12, 1873. Pastoral work in the country for four years; vice-rector of the Seminary of Prague, 1879; rector, 1882, and director of the convictus puerorum. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness. Nominated by Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary for the see of Ceské Budejovice on September 7, 1883.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ceské Budejovice, September 28, 1883. Consecrated, November 18, 1883, Prague, by Cardinal Friedrich Johannes Jacob Celestin von Schwarzenberg, archbishop of Prague, assisted by Josef Jan Hais, bishop of Königgrätz, and by Emanuel Jan Schoebel, bishop of Leitmeritz. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 9, 1884. Nominated by Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary for the see of Prage on May 21, 1885. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Prague, July 27, 1885. He was granted the pallium on July 30, 1885.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1889; with an apostolic brief of May 24, 1889, the pope sent him the red biretta; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, December 30, 1889. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1889.

Death. June 25, 1899, Falkenau an der Eger. The body was transported to Prague and exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Saint Vitus in that city.

Bibliography. "Francesco di Paola Schönborn" in "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1914. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1913, p. 203; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 859-860; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 34, 48, 161 and 469.

Links. His bust, portrait, arms and biography, in German, Wikipedia; Prelates of the Schönborn Family, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; House of Schönborn, European Heraldry..


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(64) 6. APOLLONI, Achille
(1823-1893)

Birth. May 13, 1823, Anagni. Of a patrician family from Lazio. Son of Vincenzo Apolloni and Luisa Giannuzzi.

Education. Initial studies at Collegio Romano, while residing at the Jesuit Collegio dei Nobili; and at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, from 1842 (philoso[hy, theology and canon law; obtained a doctorate in law ad honorem in 1847).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 20, 1850. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1851. Domestic prelate of His Holiness in 1853. Apostolic delegate in Rieti, 1854-1858. Apostolic delegate in Macerata, 1859-1860. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, April 6, 1867; took the oath of office, January 13, 1868. In that same year, Pope Pius IX sent him to Albano to direct the charitable works in favor of the victims of the cholera epidemic; the local bishop, Cardinal Lodovico Altieri, was one of the victims. In 1882, Pope Leo XIII named him president of the special commission for the relations between the Holy See and the civil tribunals. Vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, December 3, 1884.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 24, 1889; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, May 27, 1889. Protector of the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) on November 4, 1892.

Death. April 3, 1893, of a heart attack, in Rome. Exposed in the parish church of S. Maria in Via Lata, where the funeral took place on April 7; and buried, temporarily, in the tomb of the canons of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. "Achille Apolloni" in "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1903, p.193; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 103-104; "Card. Apolloni Achille" in L'Università gregoriana del Collegio romano nel primo secolo dalla restituzione : 1553-1824-1924. Roma : Tipografia Cuggiani, 1924, p. 211; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 34 and 54.



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(65) 7. RUGGIERO, Gaetano de
(1816-1896)

Birth. January 12, 1816, Naples.

Education. Studied under the Barnabites and the Jesuits; and later at the University of Naples.

Early life. Directed the journal Liberta cattolica. He went to Rome in 1847 and became referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Later, he was judge of the S.C. of the Consulta. Consultor of the S.C. of Bishops and Regularss. Regent of the Apostolic Chancery, 1877-1889. Econmous and secretary of the S.C. of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's, April 18, 1885 until 1889. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 24, 1889; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, May 27, 1889. Executor of the papal bull of Benedict XIV concerning the Shrine of Assisi, August 6, 1889. Prefect of the Economy of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide and general president of the Chamber of Despoilments, October 3, 1889. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs, June 25, 1894. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Equestrian Orders.

Death. October 9, 1896, after a long illness, in Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Andrea della Valle, where the funeral took place; and buried in the chapel of the Vatican chapter, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. "Gaetano de Ruggiero" in "Cardinali defunti", La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1903, p. 199-200; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 295; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 34 and 54.


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