The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903)
Consistory of January 16, 1893 (XVIII)


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(74) 1. GUARINO, Giuseppe
(1827-1897)

Birth. March 6, 1827, in the morning, Montedoro, diocese of Castalnisetta (before Agrigento), Sicily. Second of the five children of Michele Guarino, a notary, and Angela Papia. The other siblings were Paolino, Achille, Pietro and Vicenza. He was baptized on the same day of his birth by Father Pietro Guarino, his paternal uncle, parish priest of Montedoro.

Education. Studied at the Diocesan Seminary of of Agrigento. Received the diaconate from Antonio Stromillo, C.R., bishop of Caltanisetta.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 22, 1849, Caltanissetta, by Bishop Stromillo, with a special dispensation from Pope Pius IX for not having yet reached the canonical age. Named secretary of the Tribunale di Monarchia e Apostolica Legazia of Palermo, he took possession as canon on April 4, 1857. Between 1861 and 1871, he served as dean of the Faculty of Canon Law at the University of Palermo.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Siracusa, Sicily, February 23, 1872. Consecrated, March 17, 1872, Palermo, by Michelangelo Celesia, archbishop of Palermo, assisted by Ruggero Blundo, O.S.B., bishop of Cefalù, and by Giovanni Cirino, itular bishop of Derbe, auxiliary of Palermo. He took the canonical possession of the archdiocese on the following March 21; he arrived in Siracusa by train on April 17. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Messina, July 5, 1875; he was its 104th archbishop; he took canonical possession of the see on July 27; and made his Ingression on August 3. Administrator, ad nutum Apostolicae Sedis, of the prelature of S. Lucia de Mela, April 10, 1883. On August 31, 1883, he was named archimandrite of the SS. Salvatore. Founder of the Apostole della Sacra Famiglia, religious congregation of the Salesian family, June 29, 1889.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1893; received the red hat and the title of S. Tommaso in Parione, January 19, 1893. He suffered a stroke on February 1, 1895, which left him semi-paralyzed and unable to speak. Aided by his vicar general, Msgr. Giuseppe Basile, the cardinal remained in Office.

Death. September 22, 1897, due to complications from pneumonia, peacefully, after praying the Divine Office and receving the extreme unction from Canons Trischitta and Letterio d'Arrigo Ramondini, in Messina. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Messina, where his solemn funeral mass was celebrated by Guglielmo Stagno di Alcontres, titular bishop of Arabisso and auxiliary of Messina. The homily was delivered by Canon Annibale Maria Di Francia, future saint. He was buried in the Monumental Cemetery of that city. In 1907, his body was exhumed and found incorrupt. It was translated to the metropolitan cathedral of Messina, where a splendid monument was erected in his memory. In 1983, his incorrupt remains where translated to the General House of the Apostole della Sacra Famiglia.

Beatification. The nihil obstat for the opening of the cause of beatification was given on January 20, 1986. The decree on validity of the diocesan inquiry was dated June 13, 1998. The cause was initiated by the Apostole della Sacra Famiglia.

Link. Portrait and biographical data, in English, number 11, The Hagiography Circle.


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(75) 2. MOCENNI, Mario
(1823-1904)

Birth. January 22, 1823, Montefiascone. Of a noble family from Viterbo.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Viterbo; and later, at the University of Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology. Received the subdiaconate on September 21, 1844; and the diaconate on May 27, 1845.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1845. For twelve years he was professor at the Seminary of Viterbo. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Viterbo. Then, he entered the pontifical family as privy chamberlain supernumerary of Pope Pius IX, who asked him to enter the diplomatic service and sent him as auditor of nunciature to Austria. A few months later, the pope promoted him to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Eliopoli di Fenicia, July 24, 1877. Consecrated, August 12, 1877, Rome, by Cardinal Alessandro Franchi, assited by Angelo Bianchi, titular archbishop of Mira, secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, and Francesco Folicaldi, titular bishop of Amata, canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Named apostolic delegate and extraordinary envoy in Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia and Chile, with residence in Lima, Perú, August 14, 1877 (1). Internuncio in the Brazilian Empire, March 28, 1882. Substitute of the Secretariat of State and secretary of the Cipher, December 16, 1882 (2). Consulto of the S.C. of the Holy Office, January 30, 1883.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1893; received the red hat and the title of S. Bartolommeo all'Isola, January 19, 1893. President of the Administration of the Wealth of the Holy See. He entered into secret negotiations with the Italian government concerning the appointment of the patriarch of Venice, Giuseppe Sarto, future Pope Pius X. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, to which it was united the title of perpetual abbot of Farfa, May 18, 1894. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X.

Death. November 14, 1904, of heart disease and asthmatic complications, in his apartment in the Apostolic Palace, in the Vatican (3). Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Traspontina, Rome, where the funeral took place on November 17; and buried in the chapel of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 645-647; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 36, 45, 46 and 301.

Link. Biography by Carlo M. Fiorentino, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 75 (2011), Treccani.

(1) This is according to LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle and his biography in Italian by Fiorentino, linked above. Riztler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VIII, 301, says that he was named apostolic delegate to Ecuador, Perú, Nueva Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicatagua.
(2) This is according to LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle and his biography in Italian by Fiorentino, linked above. Riztler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VIII, 301, says that he was nmed on December 22, 1882.
(3) Apparently better in the morning, he insisted on getting up and even refused in his usual brusque manner to be assisted to dress himself. He sat in his customary armchair, but shortly afterward his condition became worse. Dr. Lapponi, his physician, was hurriedly called, but only arrived in time to pronounce the cardinal's death.


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(76) 3. MALAGOLA, Amilcare
(1840-1895)

Birth. December 24, 1840, Modena. Of a rich family of the nobility. His first name is also listed as Hamilcar.

Education. Initial studies at the Jesuit school in Modena; Lyceum of Imola, 1852-1856; Collegio Ghislieri, Rome, 1856-1861; Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, 1861-1869; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1856-1864 (doctorates in philosophy and theology); Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 19, 1863, Rome. He returned to Imola in 1864, and there he was a preacher. From 1866 to 1869, he dedicated himself to the pratical study of canon at the S.C. of the Council and at the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. From 1871 in Imola, he was professor of dogmatic theology and canon law at the seminary; he was also prosynodal examiner. In 1875, he became penitentiary canon of the cathedral chapter of Imola.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ascoli Piceno, June 26, 1876. Consecrated, July 9, 1876, cathedral of Fermo, by Cardinal Filippo de Angelis, archbishop of Fermo, assisted by Francesco Alessandrini, bishop of Ripatransone, and by Francesco Saverio Grassi Fonseca, titular bishop of Aulona and auxiliary of Fermo. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Fermo, September 21, 1877; he received the pallium on that same day. The archbihops of Fermo had the title of prince.President of the Conferenza Episcopale Marchigiana. He founded Accademia di S. Tommaso. In 1891, he celebrated a Eucharistic Congress in Fermo. In September 1892, under his auspices, the newspaper "La Voce delle Marche di Fermo" was published.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1893; received the red hat and the title of S. Balbina, January 19, 1893.

Death. June 22, 1895, Fermo. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Modena where the funeral took place on June 25; and buried in a chapel built for that purpose in tht city's municipal cemetery.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1903, p. 196-197; Garulli, Ernesto. Amilcare Malagola, cardinale, arcivescovo e principe di Fermo. Fermo : Stab. coop. tipografico, 1945. At head of title: "Gli arcivescovi di Fermo" dal 1800 ad oggi - profili e ricordi di Ernesto Garulli; Guerrini, Domenico. A sua eccellenza monsignor Amilcare Malagola vescovo di Ascoli nel Piceno nella fausta circostanza della sua elezione ad arcivescovo di Fermo. Ravenna : tip. Nazionale, 1877; Jaffei, Raimondo. Elogio funebre del sig. cardinale Amilcare Malagola, arcivesco e principe di Fermo, etc. Fermo, 1895; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 565-566; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 36, 46, 126 and 272.

Link. His episcopal lineage, in English; his effigy and arms on a coin, Dea Moneta, numismatica on line; Cronotassi dei Vescovi dell'Arcidiocesi di Fermo, in Italian, arcidiocesi di Fermo; ; .


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(77) 4. DI PIETRO, Angelo
(1828-1914)

Birth. May 22, 1828, Vivaro Romano, diocese of Tivoli. Received the sacrament of confirmation, October 5, 1829.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Tivoli; and at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on June 8, 1854 or March 3, 1858.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1851, Tivoli. Further studies, Rome. Secretary and pro-vicar general of the bishop of Tivoli; vicar general of the diocese of Ostia and Velletri.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Nisa di Licia and appointed suffragan of Velletri, June 25, 1866. Consecrated, July 1, 1866, Rome, by Cardinal Gustav Adolph von Hohenlohe. Promoted to the titular see of Nazianzo, December 28, 1877. Apostolic delegate and extraordinary legate in Paraguay and Uruguay and in the Argentine Confederation, January 18, 1878. Nuncio in the Brazilian Empire, September 30, 1879. Nuncio in Bavaria, March 21, 1882. Nuncio in Spain, May 23, 1887.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1893; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alessio, June 15, 1893. Prefect of the S.C. of the Council, June 20, 1893. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Election of the Italian Bishops, August 8, 1894. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 18, 1895 until 1896. Prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, July 20, 1902. Pro-datary of His Holiness, November 27, 1902; datary on June 29, 1908; occupied the post until his death. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, June 22, 1903. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV.

Death. December 5, 1914, Rome. Buried in the chapel of the Reverend Canons of patriarchal Vatican basilica, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Re, Niccolò del. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 140-141.

Link. Biography, in English.


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(78) 5. SANZ Y FORÉS, Benito
(1828-1895)

Birth. March 21, 1828, Gandía, archdiocese of Valencia, Spain.

Education. University of Valencia, Valencia (philosophy and law; obtained a bachelor's degree in law in 1848); Seminary of Valencia, Valencia (doctorate in canon law, 1853; and in theology, 1857).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 27, 1852, Valencia. In archdiocese of Valencia, professor of canon law in its seminary, 1851-1857; vice-archpriest of St. Peter Martyr's parish, 1855; provisor, canon magistral and vicar general. In the diocese of Tortosa, canon lector of the cathedral chapter, by opposition, until 1866; provisor and general vicar. Abbreviator in the nunciature in Spain, Madrid. Preacher in the Royal Court, 1864; auditor of the Sacred Rota, Madrid, 1866.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Oviedo, June 22, 1868. Consecrated, November 8, 1868, Salesian monastery of the Visitation, Madrid, by, Alessandro Franchi, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, nuncio in Spain, assisted by Tomás Iglesias Barcone, patriarch of the West Indies, and by Francisco de Sales Crespo y Bautista, titular bishop of Arca, auxiliary of Toledo. Attended the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870; secretary of the Spanish episcopate. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Valladolid, November 18, 1881. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, December 30, 1889.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1893; received the red hat and the title of S. Eusebio, June 15, 1893. In 1894 presided the pilgrimage of the Spanish workers to Rome.

Death. November 1, 1895, Madrid. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia.; Derecho; 45), p. 39; Orive, A. "Sanz y Forés, Benito." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975. 4 v. Suplemento (1987), IV, 2382; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 36, 48, 309, 431 and 580; "Sanz y Forés, Benito." Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeo-americana. 70 vols. Madrid : Espasa-Calpe, 1958, c1907?-1930; 444-445.

Links. Biography, in English; and five photographs of his bust by Benlliure, under the arches at the entrance of the basilica of Covadonga, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain.


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(79) 6. MEIGNAN, Guillaume-René
(1827-1896)

Birth. April 12, 1827, Denazé, diocese of Laval, France.

Education. Seminary of Le Mans, Le Mans (theology); Collège de Tessé, Le Mans; La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in theology, March 1846). Received the subdiaconate in 1839.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 13, 1840. Further studies in Paris, Münich, and Berlin. Returned to Paris in 1843. Further studies in Rome. Pastoral work in several parishes of the archdiocese of Paris; professor at La Sorbonne University, 1861; vicar general of Paris, 1863.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne, March 27, 1865. Consecrated, May 1, 1865, cathedral of Paris, by Henri Maret, titular bishop of Sura (1), assisted by Charles Lavigerie, bishop of Nancy, and by Louis Buquet, titular bishop of Pario. Transferred to the see of Arras, September 25, 1882. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Tours, March 24, 1884.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1893; received red hat and the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, June 15, 1893.

Death. January 20, 1896, Tours. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Tours.

Bibliography. Boisonnot, Henri. Le Cardinal Meignan, Paris : Lecoffre, 1899; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 313-314; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp.36, 53, 192 and 573.

Link. Biography, in English.

(1) This is according to Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973, p. 413-414; Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 192, indicates that the first consecrator was Georges Darboy, archbishop of Paris.


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(80) 7. THOMAS, Léon-Benoit-Charles
(1826-1894)

Birth. May 29, 1826, Paray-le Monial, diocese of Autun, France (1). Of a family of the bourgeoisie.

Education. Entered the Minor Seminary of Semur-en-Brionnais and studied humanities; then, he attended the Grand Seminary of Autun, where he studied philosophy; and later, studied theology at Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris; finally, he earned a doctorate in theology in Rome in 1856.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1850, Paris. Vicar of the cathedral parish of Autun, February 1851. Responsible of the diocesan missions, 1853. Vicar general of Autun and archdeacon of its cathedral chapter, 1856-1867.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of La Rochelle, March 27, 1867. Consecrated, May 15 (2), 1867, cathedral of Autun, by Jean-Baptiste-Anna Landriot, archbishop of Reims, assisted by Frédéric de Marguerye, bishop of Autun, and by Jean Devocoux, bishop of Évreaux. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Rouen, March 24, 1884. He was called "Thomas le Magnifique" because of the splendor of his celebrations and the quality of his "Oratorios".

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1893; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria Nuova e S. Francesca Romana al Foro Romano, June 15, 1893.

Death. March 9, 1894, of pulmonary congestion, in Rouen. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Rouen, where the funeral took place on March 15; and buried in the chapel of Sainte-Marguerite, southern nave of that cathedral. The bombardment of April 19, 1944 damaged his tomb; his remains were transferred to the crypt of the archbishops in the chapel of the Sainte-Vierge.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 503-504; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 923-925; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 36, 50, 486 and 488.

Link. His portrait by William Adolphe Bouguereau, musée du Louvre, Paris, Ministère de la Culture - base Joconda.

(1) This is according to Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973, p. 503-504; and LeBlanc, Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle, p. 923. Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 488, indicates that he was born on May 30, 1826.
(2) This is according to Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973, p. 503-504; Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 488, indicates that he was consecrated on May 13, 1867.


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(81) 8. KREMENTZ, Philipp
(1819-1899)

Birth. December 1, 1819, Koblenz, diocese of Trier, Germany. Received the sacrament of confirmation, June 16, 1833.

Education. University of Bonn, Bonn (theology); University of Münich, Münich. Doctor in theology by apostolic brief of December 21, 1867.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 27, 1842, Trier. Chaplain of St. Kastor, Koblenz. Honorary canon of the chapter of the cathedral of Trier, 1859; vicar general; elected to the chapter in the third ballot with 7 of 13 votes, October 22, 1867.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ermland, Prussia, December 20, 1867. Consecrated, May 3, 1868, Koblenz, by Paul Melchers, archbishop of Cologne. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. Chairman of the Fulda Conference of Catholic Bishops, 1884-1896. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Cologne, June 30, 1885.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1893; received the red hat and the title of S. Crisogono, January 19, 1893.

Death. May 6, 1899, Cologne. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Cologne.

Links. His portrait and biographical data, in English; and his burial chamber in the archbishops' crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Cologne.


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(82) 9. PERSICO, O.F.M.Cap., Ignazio
(1823-1895)

Birth. January 30, 1823, Naples. Of a notable family. Son of Francesco Xaverio Persico, an intendent in the Neapolitan army, and Giuseppina Pennacchio, who belonged to an Italian branch of the aristocratic English family Acton. His baptismal name was Pietro.

Education. Jesuit College, Naples (classic studies); Capuchin Novitiate of S. Agnello, Sorrento (philosophy and theology); College of S. Fidele, Rome (apologetics). Joined the Order of the Friars Minor Capuchins, April 25, 1839; took the name Ignazio; final vows, April 25, 1840. He was a polyglot who spoke Italian, French, English, Portuguese and Hindustan.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 24, 1846, Naples, by Gennaro Pasca, bishop of Nola. He asked to work as a missionary and was sent to Rome for further studies. Missionary work in the vicariate of Patna, India, December 1846-1860; he learned English and Hindustan; he also worked in the military base of Dinapore and later, as pastor in Darjeeling and director of schools in August 1848. Secretary of the vicar apostolic of Patna, who had been named administrator of Bombay. In Bombay, he contributed to the establishment of "The Catholic Examiner" in 1850; and was professor and director at the episcopal seminary. In 1853, special agent in Rome and England for Anastasius Hartmann, O.F.M.Cap., titular bishop of Derbe, vicar apostolic of Bombay, to present the Catholic case in the Goanese schism (1), before the pope and the British government; in London, he defended the interests of the Indian Catholics and tried to obtain for them the same privileges enjoyed by the Anglican Church; this mission had a limited success; in Rome, he also presented a reform plan for the Capuchin missions in the Eastern Indies.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Gratianopolis and appointed coadjutor vicar apostolic of the vicariate of Bombay, March 8, 1854. Consecrated, June 4, 1854, Bombay, by Anastasius Hartman, O.F.M.Cap., titular bishop of Derbe, vicar apostolic of Bombay, assisted by Father Walter Steins, S.J., and by Father Tommaso a Passione, O.C.D. Apostolic visitor of the vicariate of Agra, 1855-1856. Vicar apostolic of Agra, 1856-1860; it was an immense territory that extended itself to borders of Tibet and Afghanistan and comprised Pundjab and Kashmir; he had to seek refuge in the fortress of Agra from July to December 1857, during the Revolt of the Cipayes; went to Europe in February 1858 to raise funds for the reconstruction of the damages caused by the war; visited Rome from May to the end of the year, when he returned to India. Resigned the vicariate for reasons of health on June 24, 1860; resided in Rome, 1860-1866. Pastoral work in the diocese of Charleston, United States, 1867-1870. Attended the Tenth Provincial Council of Baltimore, 1869. Attended the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. Transferred to the see of Savannah, March 20, 1870; resigned for reasons of health, July 28, 1872; the resignation was accepted by the pope, August 25, 1872; he remained in his diocese until a successor was appointed; he went to Canada to rest and arrived in Québec on June 29, 1873; resided in the archdiocese until his appointment as vicar general and pastor of the parish of Saint-Colomban de Sillery, December 1873 until October 1876; he left Québec on October 14, 1876. Transferred to the titular see of Bolina, June 20, 1874. On special mission of the Holy See to Malabar, February to March 1877, to solve the Syro-Chaldean schism and to pave the way for a regular hierarchy in India. Appointed coadjutor of Aquino, Sora e Pontecorvo, Italy, with right of succession, July 15, 1878. Succeeded to the see of Aquino, Sora e Pontecorvo, March 26, 1879. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, 1879. Resigned the government of his see at the beginning of 1887. Promoted to the titular see of Damietta, March 14, 1887. On a special mission of the Holy See as apostolic visitor to Ireland, June to December 1887, to evaluate the state of the church and in particular, the attitude towards the fundamental regime, the Home Rule and the role played by the clergy in the political movements. Vicar of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, November 14, 1888. Secretary of the Congregation for Oriental Affairs of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, March 20, 1889. Secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, June 13, 1891.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1893; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, January 19, 1893. Prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Relics, May 30, 1893. He was striken by paralysis.

Death. December 7, 1895, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome, and buried in the chapel of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, Campo Verano cemetery.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, pp. 238-239; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 233-236; Shearer, O.F.M.Cap., Donald. "Ignatius Cardinal Persico, O.F.M.Cap. (1823-1895)", Historical Records and Studies XXI (1932), 54-137.

Link. Biography, in English.

(1) The schism was occasioned by the conflict of jurisdiction between the vicars apostolic named by the pope and the local Portuguese hierarchy named by the Portuguese government.


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(83) 10. GALIMBERTI, Luigi
(1836-1896)

Birth. April 26, 1835, Rome. His father was a municipal employee.

Education. Roman Seminary, Rome (doctorates in philosophy, December 28, 1854; theology, September 9, 1858; and utroque iure, both canon and civil law, September 11, 1861).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1858, Rome. Further studies, Rome. Professor of theology, Pontifical Urban Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide", 1861-878. Director Journal de Rome, 1881; director of Moniteur de Rome. Canon of the Lateran basilica, Rome. Canon of the Vatican basilica, Rome. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Protonotary apostolic. Secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, June 28, 1886. Took part in the difficult negotiations to end the Kulturkampf, Berlin, 1887.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicea and appointed nuncio in Austria, May 23, 1887. Consecrated, June 5, 1887, Vienna, by Cardinal Cölestin Ganglbauer, O.S.B., archbishop of Vienna.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1893; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, June 15, 1893. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1893. Archivist of the Holy See, June 25, 1894.

Death. May 7, 1896, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina and buried in the chapel of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome

Bibliography. Furlani, Silvio. "Galimberti, Luigi", Enciclopedia Cattolica, 12 vols. Città del Vaticano: Ente per l'Enciclopedia Cattolica e per il Libro Cattolico, 1949-1954, vol. VI, col. 1881; Maccarrone, Michele. "Card. Luigi Galimberti." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, pp. 153-155; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 229-231; Trincia, Luciano. Il nucleo tedesco : Vaticano e Triplice alleanza nei dispacci del nunzio a Vienna : Luigi Galimberti, 1887-1892. Presentazione di Andrea Riccardi. Brescia : Morcelliana, 2001. (Biblioteca di storia contemporanea; Variation: Biblioteca di storia contemporanea (Morcelliana (Firm)).

Links. Biography, in Hungarian; and biography, in Italian.


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(84) 11. LOGUE, Michael
(1840-1924)

Birth. October 1, 1840, in his mother's paternal home, Duringings, in Kilmacrennan. The family lived in Carrigart, County Donegal, diocese of Raphoe, Ireland.

Education. St Patrick's College, Maynooth.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 1866, Paris. Professor of dogmatic theology and Belles Lettres, Irish College, Paris, 1866-1874; curate in County Donegal; parish administrator in Letterkenny, diocese of Raphoe, 1874-1876; Maynooth, professor of Irish and theology and dean, 1876-1879.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Raphoe, May 13, 1879. Consecrated, July 20, 1879, pro-cathedral of Raphoe, Letterkenny, by Daniel McGettigan, archbishop of Armagh, assisted by James Donnelly, bishop of Clogher, and by Francis Kelly, bishop of Derry. Promoted to the titular see of Anazarbe and appointed coadjutor of Armagh, with right of succession, April 19, 1887. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Armagh, December 3, 1887.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1893; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Pace, January 19, 1893. First of the 108 Irish primates, successors of St. Patrick in the see of Armagh, to become a cardinal. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. He was an advocate of Home Rule and opposed to the partition of Ireland; nevertheless, he did favour the Treaty of 1921. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope XI. He lived simply and had no secretary and few servants. When guests came to his villa, Ara Coeli, he would show them to their rooms while carrying up their bags. Shortly before he died, Cardinal Logue guided an American tourist around his cathedral. The tourist offering him a tip, asked: "What's your name, my man?" Replied the primate: "Oh, some call me 'Old Michael,' and then some call me 'The Cardinal.'"

Death. November 19, 1924, unexpectedly in his residence "Ara Coeli" in Armagh. Exposed in St. Patrick's metropolitan cathedral, Armagh, and buried in St Patrick's Cemetery, Armagh.

Links. His photograph and biography, in English, fifth on the page, The Catholic Diocese of Raphoe; his cardinal's hat, St. Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh, Ireland; and his portrait by John Lavery, 1920, National Museums, Northern Ireland, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC.


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(85) 12. VASZARY, O.S.B.Hungarica, Kolos Ferenc
(1832-1915)

Birth. February 12, 1832, Südwestungarn, diocese of Veszprém, Hungary. Received the sacrament of confirmation, 1853.

Education. Entered the Order of St. Benedict Hungarica, 1847, Abbey of St. Martin al Monte Pannoni, Martinsberg; professed, June 6, 1854; received the subdiaconate, July 23, 1854; diaconate, July 25, 1854..

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1856. Professor and director of the gymnasial school, archabbey of St. Martin al Monte Pannonia; abbot, April 28, 1885.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Esztergom (Gran) and primate of Hungary, December 13, 1891. Consecrated, February 7, 1892, Esztergom, by Luigi Galimberti, titular archbishop of Nicea, nuncio in Austria. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1892.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1893; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, June 15, 1893. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Resigned pastoral government of the archdiocese, November 1912. The Pope and Emperor accepted his resignation on January 1, 1913. Retired to Balatonfueuered. Did not participate in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV, because of age and poor health.

Death. September 3, 1915, Balatonfueuered. Buried in the archabbey of St. Martin al Monte Pannonia.

Links. His portait; his photograph and biographical data, in Czech; another portrait; his photograph; and another biography, also in German.


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(86) 13. VAUGHAN, Herbert
(1832-1903)

Birth. April 15, 1832, Gloucester, diocese of Clifton, England. He was the eldest of eight sons and five daughters of Colonel John F. Vaughan and Eliza Rolls, a convert to Roman Catholicism. All the five daughters entered convents, and six of the sons became priests, with three becoming bishops. His great-grandfather had given Stonyhurst to the Jesuits when they resettled in England in 1794. Related to Cardinal Thomas Weld (1830).

Education. Jesuit College, Stonyhurst, 1841-1847; Jesuit College, Brugelette, Belgium, 1847-1850; Benedictine Abbey, Downside, England, 1850-1851; Collegio Romano, Rome, 1851-1854. While in Rome, he used to serve Cardinal Manning's mass before going off to lectures.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1854, Lucca. Vice-president at St. Edmund's College, Ware, 1855. Joined the Oblates of St. Charles. Missionary trips to Panama, Colombia, United States, Perú, Chile, and Brazil, 1861-1865. Recalled to England, he started the College for Foreign Missions, Mill Hill, 1866; head of St. Joseph's Missionary Society, 1866-1903. Missionary travels in the South of the United States: St. Louis, New Orleans, Mobile, Savannah, Memphis, Natchez, and Charleston, 1871. Bought and funded the newspaper The Tablet.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Salford, September 27, 1872. Consecrated, October 28, 1872, cathedral of Saint John, Salford, by Henry Edward Manning, archbishop of Westminster, assisted by Thomas Joseph Brown, bishop of Newport and Menevia, and by Robert Cornthwaite, bishop of Beverley. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Westminster, April 8, 1892.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1893; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio al Monte Celio, January 19, 1893.

Death. June 19, 1903, at midnight, after a three month illness related to heart disease and dropsy, at St. Joseph's College, Mill Hill, Middlesex. Exposed and buried in the chapel of St. Joseph's Seminary, Mill Hill. On March 14, 2005, his remains were reinterred in in the chapel of St. Thomas of Canterbury, known as The Vaughan Chantry (Chapel of St Thomas of Canterbury), in the metropolitan cathedral of Westminster, London (1).

Bibliography. Broadley, Martin John. Bishop Herbert Vaughan and the Jesuits. Education and Authority. London : Published for the Catholic Record Society by Boydell Press, 2010. (Catholic Record Society publications. Records series ; v. 82; Variation: Catholic Record Society publications.; Records series ; v. 82). Abstract: A collection of correspondence and documents relating to a conflict between the Bishop of Salford, Herbert Vaughan, and the Jesuit order, over the right of the Jesuits to open a school in Vaughan's diocese. Correspondents include: Herbert Vaughan, Bishop of Salford; Peter Gallwey, the Jesuit Provincial for England; and Alfred Weld, English Assistant to the General of the Jesuit order; McCormack, Arthur. Cardinal Vaughan: the life of the third Archbishop of Westminster, founder of St. Joseph's Missionary Society, Mill Hill. London : Burns & Oates 1966; O'Neil, Robert J. Cardinal Herbert Vaughan : Archbishop of Westminster, Bishop of Salford, founder of the Mill Hill Missionaries. Tunbridge Wells, Kent : Burns & Oates, 1995; Snead-Cox, John George. The Life of Herbert Cardinal Vaughan. 2 vols. London : Herbert and Daniel, 1910; Thureau-Dangin, Paul. Le Cardinal Vaughan. Paris : Bloud, 1911; Walsh, Michael J. The Westminster cardinals : the past and the future. London ; New York : Burns & Oates, 2008, p. 61-84.

Links. Biography by John Snead-Cox, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his portrait and biography, in English, Archdiocese of Westminster; another biography, also in English, Herbert Cardinal Vaughan Collection, Georgetown University; his portrait by Alexandre Bertin, St. Edmund's College, University of Cambridge, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC; Cardinal Vaughan returns to his Cathedral, Independent Catholic News (ICN).

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London, England:

PRAY FOR THE SOUL OF HERBERT VAUGHAN
CARDINAL PRIEST OF THE HOLY ROMAN CHURCH
THIRD ARCHBISHOP OF WESTMINSTER
AND FOUNDER OF THIS CATHEDRAL
BORN APRIL 15 1832 DIED JUNE 19 1903 R.I.P.


     On a tablet set into the floor at the base of the tomb is a roundel bearing the following inscription, also provided by Mr. West:

CARDINAL
HERBERT VAUGHAN
FOUNDER OF ST. JOSEPHS
MISSIONARY SOCIETY AT
MILL HILL WHERE HE DIED
ON 19 JUNE 1903. HIS BODY
WAS TRANSFERRED TO
THIS TOMB ON 14
MARCH 2005
R.I.P.


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(87) 14. KOPP, Georg von
(1837-1914)

Birth. July 25, 1837, Duderstadt, diocese of Hildesheim, Hannover. Received the sacrament of confirmation, July 4, 1852.

Education. Auxiliary telegrapher of the Hannoverian Government Service, 1856-1858. Seminary of Hildesheim, Hildesheim (philosophy and theology, 1858-1862).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 28, 1862. In the diocese of Hildesheim, administrator of the parish of Poppenberg; professor at the episcopal orphanage of Henneckenrode; chaplain in Detfurth, June 24, 1864; cathedral lector and assessor of the general episcopal office, January 1, 1866; apostolic notary, February 3, 1871; canon of the cathedral chapter, February 2, 1872; vicar general, February 8, 1872. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 19, 1875.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Fulda, November 15, 1881. Consecrated, December 27, 1881, Fulda, by Daniel Wilhelm Sommerwerck, bishop of Hildesheim. Transferred to the see of Breslau, August 9, 1887.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1893; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, January 19, 1893. Chairman of the Fulda Conference of Catholic Bishops, 1897-1913. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Raised to the nobility by the king of Prussia in 1906.

Death. March 4, 1914, Troppau, Austrian Silesia. Buried in the cathedral of Breslau.

Bibliography. Heitzer, Horstwalter. Georg Kardinal Kopp und der Gewerkschaftsstreit 1900-1914. Köln : Böhlau, 1983. (Forschungen und Quellen zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte Ostdeutschlands ; Bd. 18).

Links. Biography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; portrait, photograph, arms, statue and biography, in German, Wikipedia.


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(88) 15. PERRAUD, Orat., Adolphe-Louis-Albert
(1828-1906)

Birth. February 7, 1828, Lyon, France.

Education. Lyceum Henri IV, Lyon; Lyceum St. Louis, Lyon; Ecole Normale, Lyon; professor of history, Lyceum of Angers, 1850-1852. Entered the Congregation of the Oratory of St. Philip of Neri, Paris, 1852. La Sorbonne University, Paris (doctorate in theology, 1865).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 2, 1854, Paris. Professor and spiritual director, Minor Seminary of Coutances; preacher in several dioceses; professor of ecclesiastical history, La Sorbonne University, Paris, 1866-1874. Member of the Committee of Higher Education, 1870. Chaplain in MacMahon's army, 1870.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Autun, May 4, 1874. Consecrated, June 29, 1874, church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, by Cardinal Joseph Hippolyte Guibert, O.M.I., archbishop of Paris, assisted by Frédéric de Maguerye, former bishop of Autun, and by Joseph Bourret, bishop of Rodez. Elected member of Académie Française, June 8, 1882; reception, April 19, 1883. Superior general of the Oratory, 1884-1901, when he resigned to avoid signing the request for authorization of his congregation from the French government.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of January 16, 1893; published in the consistory of November 29, 1895; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli in the consistory of June 25, 1896. Honorary president of the Society for the Encouragement of Higher Studies among the Clergy, 1895. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. He was a distinguished orator, who was very interested in the working men; after the catastrophe of Montceau les Mines, in which twenty two miners died, he preached their funeral sermon. He gave several Lenten courses in his cathedral; and preached the funeral sermons of Cardinals Joseph-Hippolyte Guibert, O.M.I., archbishop of Paris, and Charles-Martial-Allemand Lavigerie, M.Afr., archbishop of Algier.

Death. February 10, 1906, from complications of a double pneumonia (which he contracted a week earlier during a visit to the establishment of the Little Sisters of the Poor), during the night, Autun. Exposed in the cathedral of Autun and buried in the chapel of the cemetery of Paray-le-Monial, diocese of Autun.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 441-442; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp.38, 52 and 78.

Link. Biography, in English.


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(89) 16. STEINHUBER, S.J., Andreas
(1825-1907)

Birth. November 11, 1824, Uttlau, diocese of Passau, Bavaria, Germany.

Education. Seminary of Passau, Passau; Germanic College, Rome (1845-1854).

Priesthood. Ordained (no date found), Rome. In Bavaria, catechist to the children of Duke Maximilian. Entered the Society of Jesus, 1854. Professor of philosophy and theology, University of Innsbruck. Rector of the Pontifical Collegio Germanico, Rome, 1867-1880. Consultant to the S.C. of Propaganda Fide and the S.C. of the Inquisition.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of January 16, 1893; published in the consistory of May 18, 1894; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Agata alla Suburra, May 21, 1894. Prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Relics, December 12 1895. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, October 1, 1896. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. He strongly opposed Modernism and urged the pope to issue his encyclical Pascendi dominici gregis of September 8, 1907, condemning it.

Death. October 15, 1907, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Bernardo alle Terme, Rome, and buried in the chapel of the Society of Jesus, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1914, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1913, p. 60-61; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 37 and 54.

Link. Biography, in English.


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