The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903)
Consistory of June 22, 1896 (XXII)

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(108) 1. JACOBINI, Domenico Maria
(1837-1900)

Birth. September 3, 1837, Rome. Son of Giovanni Jacobini and Teresa Paini. Because of the extreme poverty of his family, he spent a few years of his infancy in the house of an aunt. Received the sacrament of confirmation, March 9, 1845. Cardinal Costantino Patrizi Naro supported his initial seminary studies.

Education. Studied at Seminario Romano, where he obtained doctorates in philosophy on September 10, 1856; theology on September 12, 1860; and utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, on June 28, 1863.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Official in the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, November 28, 1866. In the Roman Seminary, professor of Greek, August 21, 1868, and prefect of studies, November 19, 1880. Substitute in the Secretariat of Apostolic Briefs, June 1, 1874. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 2, 1877. Secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, September 19, 1879. Vice-librarian of the Holy Roman Church, November 16, 1880. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Prefect of studies of the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare, Rome, November 18, 1880.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tiro, August 4, 1881. Consecrated, August 14, 1881, altar of the Chair of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Edoardo Borromeo, archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, assisted by Alessandro Sanminiatelli Zabarella, titular archbishop of Tiana, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Francesco Folicaldi, titular archbishop of Efeso, canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Named secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, March 30 (or 31), 1882. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 8, 1886. Nuncio in Portugal, June 16, 1891.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 22, 1896; received red hat and title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, December 3, 1896. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, April 19, 1897 to March 24, 1898. Vicar of His Holiness for Rome, December 14, 1899. Prefect of the S.C. of the Residence of Bishops and president of the S.C. of the Episcopal Visits, 1900.

Death. February 1, 1900, after suffering for some time from diabetes, nephritis and cardiac insufficiency, in Rome. Exposed in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, where the funeral took place; and buried in his family's tomb, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 485-487.

Link. Biography by Mario Casella, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 61 (2004), Treccani.

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(109) 2. AGLIARDI, Antonio
(1832-1915)

Birth. September 4, 1832, Cologno al Serio, diocese of Bergamo.

Education. Started his studies ginnasiali at Collegio di Celana; then, entered the Seminary of Bergamo; later, he was sent to Collegio Cersasoli in Seminario Romano, where one of his condisciples was Felice Cavagnis, future cardinal; obtained doctorates in philosophy, theology; finally, he studied at the Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, earning a doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 22 (or 24), 1855, Rome. Professor of ginnasio at the Seminary of Bergamo. Pastor of the parish of Osio Sotto, diocese of Bergamo. Delivered conferences at the church of Santo Spirito, in Borgo S. Antonio, to warn the faithful against the propaganda of the Valdesi. Called to Rome, he was professor of moral theology at the Pontifical Urban Athenaeum of Propaganda Fide from 1877 to 1884. Minutant in the S.C. of Propaganda Fide.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina and appointed apostolic delegate in India, September 23, 1884. Consecrated, October 12, 1884, church of S. Andrea delle Fratte, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Simeoni, assisted by Domenico Maria Jacobini, titular archbishop of Tiro, secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, and by Camillo Santoni, titular archbishop of Seleucia in Isauria. During his delegation, the Catholic hierarch was reconstituted; three provincial councils were celebrated; and two seminaries for the native clergy were established. Recalled to Rome, he was named pro-secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs on May 9, 1887; and secretary on October 6, 1888. Named nuncio in Bavaria on April 9, 1889. Named nuncio in Austria on June 12, 1893. In the spring of 1896, he went to Russia to represent the Holy See in the coronation of Czar Nicholas II. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan in 1896.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 22, 1896; received red hat and title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, December 3, 1896. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 24, 1898 until June 19, 1899. In 1898, he participated in the celebrations in honor of S. Alessandro in Bergamo, together with Cardinals Andrea Carlo Ferrari, archbishop of Milan and Giuseppe Sarto, patriarch of Venice. Opted for the order of bishops and suburbicarian see of Albano, December 14, 1899. Prefect of the Economics of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, July 29, 1902. Vice chancellor of the Holy Roman Church and commendatario of the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, June 22, 1903; chancellor, June 29, 1908 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. President of Academy of the Catholic Religion, Rome, January 29, 1914. He supported the initial organization of the Christian Democrats, as he had done with the Christian Social parties in Austria and Germany. He later supported the founder of the Christian Democrats Don Romolo Murri during the pontificate of Pope Leo XIII; and defended him and the young Christian Democrats against the accusations from clericalists and conservatives; the cardinal wished the participation of the Italian Catholics in the political life and in the parliament.

Death. Friday March 19, 1915, at 8:30 p.m., Rome. Exposed in the Palace of the Chancery. The funeral took place on the following Tuesday March 23, at 10:30, in the basilica of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, next to the Chancery; the funeral mass was celebrated by Raffaele Virili, titular archbishop of Tolemaide, canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica; at the end of the ceremony, Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli, bishop of Palestrina, datary of His Holiness, imparted the final absolution; in attendance were Cardinals Gaetano de Lai, Diomede Falconio, Rafael Merry del Val, Aristide Rinaldini, Benedetto Lorenzelli, Pietro Gasparri, Antonio Vico, Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belomonte, Basilio Pompilj, Domenico Serafini, Francesco Salesio della Volpe, Ottavio Cagiano de Azevedo, Louis Billot, S.J., Willem van Rossum, C.SS.R., Filippo Giustini, Michelle Lega and Aidan Gasquet, O.S.B.. The body of the late cardinal was taken to Termini, the train station of Rome, and transferred to Osio di Sotto, Bergamo; the remains were buried in the chapel of Don Colombo, according to the cardinal's will. The city of Bergamo, to perpetuate his memory, placed his portrait in the Hall of the Cardinals, in the municipal palace.

Bibliography. Dentella, Lorenzo. I vescovi di Bergamo. (Notizie storica). Bergamo : Editrice Sant'Alessandro, 1939, p. 535-537; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 77-79; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, LV, n. 80 (March 21, 1915), p. 2; LV, n. 81 (March 22, 1915), p. 2; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 231-254.

Links. Biography by Fausto Fonzi, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; biography by Ekkart Sauser, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; biography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious.

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(110) 3. FERRATA, Domenico
(1847-1914)

Birth. March 4, 1847, Gradoli, diocese of Montefiascone. Son of Giovan Battista Ferrata and Maria Antonuzzi. Received the sacrament of confirmation, September 24, 1851.

Education. Jesuit school, Orvieto; Seminary of Montefiascone, Montefiascone; obtained doctorates in theology and utroque iuris, both civil and canon law in Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 18, 1869. Professor of canon law in the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare, Rome, 1876. Professor of dogmatic theology in the Pontifical Urban Athenaeum of Propaganda Fide, Rome, 1877. Privy chamberlain, June 16, 1879. Auditor of the nunciature in France, 1879-1882. Under secretary of the S.C. of Rites and of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, 1883. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Extraordinary apostolic delegate in Switzerland to regulate the situation, unsettled since the war of 1859, of the diocese of Basel and of the canton of Tessin. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome. President of the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, 1884.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tessalonica, April 2, 1885. Nuncio in Belgium, April 14, 1885. Consecrated, April 19, 1885, church of S. Agostino, Rome, by Cardinal Lodovico Jacobini, secretary of State, assisted by Édouard-Joseph Belin, bishop of Namur, and by Isidore-Joseph du Rousseaux, bishop of Tournai. Secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, April 20, 1889. Nuncio in France, June 23, 1891.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 22, 1896; received red hat and title of S. Prisca, December 3, 1896. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 19, 1899 to April 19, 1900. Prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Relics, November 20, 1899. Prefect of the S.C. Rites, October 23, 1900. Prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, November 27, 1902. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Legate a latere for the coronation of the image of the Immaculate Conception at the Collegiate parish church of Cospicua, Malta; the cardinal arrived in Malta on June 20, 1905, aboard the HMS Surprise; the coronation ceremony took place on Sunday June 25 (1). Prefect of the S.C. of Sacraments, October 26, 1908. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1910. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, April 7, 1913. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, January 2, 1914 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Secretary of State, September 4, 1914 until his death.

Death. October 10, 1914, Rome, of peritonitis after an illness which lasted several weeks; because of the latter, it was considered imprudent to operate; conscious to the last moment, his last words were "I am so tired. I go to join my Saviour". Exposed in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome; and buried in a splendid and elegant mausoleum erected for him in the cemetery of Gradoli.

Bibliography. Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, pp. 154-156; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 338-341; Salotti, Carlo. L'opera diplomatica e sacerdotale del cardinale Ferrata. Rome, 1915.

Links. Biography, in German, Historische Lexikon der Schweiz; same biography, in French, Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse; same biography, in Italian, Dizionario storico della Svizzera; biography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge.

(1) Fifty years later, in 1955, Cardinal Federico Tedeschini decorated the same image with a golden stellar, after presiding a pontifical mass at the collegiate church on July 24.


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(111) 4. CRETONI, Serafino
(1833-1909)

Birth. September 4, 1833, Soriano, diocese of Orte.

Education. Pontifical Roman Athenaeum of S. Apollinare, Rome (doctorate in theology); studied and was fluent in English, French, Greek and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1857, Rome. Professor of philosophy in the Pontifical Urban Athenaeum of Propaganda Fide, Rome. Vice-substitute of the Secretariat of State. Secretary of the commission for Oriental affairs of the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Archivist of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide. Sent by Pope Pius IX, 1877, attended the general chapter of the Armenian Mekhitariats, Venice. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 21, 1878. Under secretary of State, September 19, 1879. Secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, section of Oriental rites, November 16, 1880. Assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, March 20 (or 30), 1889.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Damasco, January 16, 1893. Consecrated, February 5, 1893, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valletta, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, assisted by Vincenzo Leone Sallua, O.P., titular archbishop of Calcedonia, commissary general of the Tribunal of the Inquisition, and by Tancredo Fausti, titular archbishop of Seleucia in Isauria, auditor of the Apostolic Chamber. Nuncio in Spain, May 9, 1893.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of Consistory of June 22, 1896; received red hat and title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, December 3, 1896. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, April 19, 1900 until April 15, 1901. Prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Relics, October 23, 1900. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites, January 7, 1903. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X.

Death. February 3, 1909, of pneumonia, in Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome; and buried in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, pp. 156-157; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 266-267.

Link. Biography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge.


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