Birth. August 26, 1835, Aldeadávila de la Rivera, diocese of Salamanca, Spain. Received the sacrament of confirmation, August 1842.
Education. Central Seminary of Salamanca, Salamanca (doctorates in theology, 1859; and canon law, 1861).
Priesthood. Ordained, September 1859. Pastor of St. Benedict parish, Salamanca, 1860; pastor of St. Martin parish, Salamanca, 1865; president of the Colegiata de Logroño, August 4, 1865; dean of the cathedral of León, 1871. Auditor of the Sacred Rota, 1875; did not occupy the post because he was nominated to the archdiocese of Santiago de Cuba.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Santiago de Cuba, July 5, 1875. Consecrated, October 3, 1875, collegiate church of San Isidro, Madrid, by Cardinal Juan de la Cruz Ignacio Moreno Maisonave, archbishop of Toledo, assisted by Francisco de Paula Benavides y Navarrete, patriarch of the West Indies, and by Francisco de Sales Crespo y Bautista, bishop of Mondoñedo. In the same ceremony was consecrated Saturnino Fernández de Castro y de la Cotera, bishop of León. Senator of the Spanish kingdom and member of the Royal Council. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Santiago de Compostela, February 14, 1889.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 19, 1897; received red hat and title of S. Maria in Traspontina, March 24, 1898. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI, because of poor health and advanced age.
Death. December 8, 1922, Santiago de Compostela. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Santiago de Compostela.
Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 41.
Links. Biography, in Spanish; his tomb and biographical data, in Spanish.
Birth. March 14 (1), 1829, Paris, France.
Education. Minor Seminary of St. Nicholas-des-Champs, Paris; Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1854. In archdiocese of Paris, professor of its minor seminary; vicar at Ste-Marguerite, St-Eustache, and Notre Dame des Victoires, 1854-1876; honorary canon; promotor in its archdiocesan curia.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Sidonia and appointed coadjutor of Orléans, with right of succession, September 29, 1876. Consecrated, November 19, 1876, cathedral of Paris, by Cardinal Joseph-Hippolyte Guibert, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Félix Dupanloup, bishop of Orléans, and by Joseph Foulon, bishop of Nancy. Succeeded to the see of Orléans, October 11, 1878. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, October 1, 1880. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lyon et Vienne, June 15, 1893.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 19, 1897; received red hat and title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, March 24, 1898. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X.
Death. September 12, 1912, Lyon. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of of Lyon.
Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 249-250; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 40, 53, 354, 133 and 518.
Links. Biography, in English, and his statue in the cathedral of Saint Jean, Lyon, France, last photo on the page.
(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 133; Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973, p. 249-250, indicates that he was born on March 15, 1829.
Birth. October 27, 1841, Achiet-le-Petit, diocese of Arras, France.
Education. Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris.
Priesthood. Ordained, September 23, 1865. In the diocese of Arras, professor and superior of its minor seminary; vicar general.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Le Mans, March 27, 1885. Consecrated, May 31, 1885, Institution Richelieu, Luçon, by Guillaume Meignan, archbishop of Tours, assisted by Clovis Catteau, bishop of Luçon, and by Désire Donnel, bishops of Arras. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Rennes, June 15, 1893. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 26, 1896.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 19, 1897; received red hat and title of S. Maria Nuova e S. Francesca in Foro Romano, March 24, 1898. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X.
Death. April 21, 1906, Rennes. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Rennes.
Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 355-356.
Link. Biography, in English.
Birth. February 27, 1825, Aspet, archdiocese of Toulouse, France.
Education. Seminary of Toulouse, Toulouse.
Priesthood. Ordained, October 17, 1847, Toulouse. In archdiocese of Toulouse, confessor of the religious of the Sacred Heart of Jesus; diocesan missionary; superior of a religious house. In the diocese of Cahors, chaplain of the Shrine of Rocamadour; honorary canon of its cathedral chapter.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne, September 25, 1882. Consecrated, November 30, 1882, Rocamadour, by Pierre-Alfred Grimardias, bishop of Cahors assisted by Odon Thibaudier, bishop of Soissons, and by Pierre Lamazou, bishop of Limoges. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Rouen, May 21, 1894.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 19, 1897; received red hat and title of S. Clemente, March 24, 1898.
Death. June 16, 1899, Rouen. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Rouen.
Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 495-496.
Link. Biographical entry, in French, at the end of the page; and his episcopal lineage, in English.
Birth. August 22, 1833, Biella. Third of the eight children of Count Giambattista Riccardi and Eugenia Bonino. He was baptized with the names Giovanni Maria Davide Eugenio Felice. Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 16, 1842. He had the title of count.
Education. University of Turin, Turin (doctorates in theology, June 19, 1854; and in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, August 5, 1856).
Priesthood. Ordained, May 17, 1856, Biella. In the diocese of Biella, 1855-1878, professor of theology at its major seminary, 1855-1863; canon of the cathedral chapter, July 1861; canon provost, August 1, 1868; and vicar general, 1863-1873; vicar capitular, February 1873; vicar general again, 1873-1878.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ivrea, July 15, 1878. Consecrated, August 15, 1878, Biella, by Basilio Leto, bishop of Biella. Transferred to the see of Novara June 7, 1886; apostolic administrator of the see of Ivrea until the successor took possession. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Turin, retaining the administration of the see of Novara ad Sanctis Sedis beneplacitum, December 14, 1891. He was the promoter of the Italian National Eucharistic Congress of Turin in 1894 and of the XIII Catholic Italian Congress of the Opera dei Congressi di Torino in 1895.
Cardinalate. Antonio Manno in his Il patriziato subalpino says: Io, per incarico altissimo, gli recai a Torino il preannuncio della Sacra Porpora; ma premorl (I, by the highest charge, brought to Turin the preannouncement of the Sacred Purple; but died before). Another source says that he was preconizzato Cardinale da Papa Leone XIII nel 1897, morì prima di essere nominato (preconized Cardinal by Pope Leo XIII in 1897, died before being nominated).
Death. May 20, 1897, Turin. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Turin.
Bibliography. Manno, Antonio. Il patriziato subalpino. Notizie di fatto, storiche, genealogiche, feudali ed araldiche desunte da documenti. 2 vols. Bologna : Forni, 1972, 1895. Reproduction of the Florence, 1895-1906 ed.; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 324, 420 and 538.
Birth. July 13, 1831, Rovereto, Trentino, diocese of Trent, Austrian Empire. Of a family from Pergine, originally from Tyrol. One of the eight children of Giovanni Antonio de Montel, commissary circolare and counselor of Reggenza, and Marianna Plancher. The other siblings were Clementina, Carlo, Giuseppe, Leopolda, Gaetano, Teodolinda, Ferdinando and Maria. His paternal uncle, Carlo de Montel, was a priest. He is also listed as Johannes Montel Edler von Treuenfels and as Giovanni Battista de Montel.
Education. Studied at the ginnasio of Trent; then, for two years, at the Seminary of Bressanone; and for another two years at the Seminary of Trent; later, he studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, in Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. In 1854, he became chaplain of the Teutonic church of S. Maria dell'Anima.
Priesthood. Ordained, January 4, 1855 (1). After doing his practice as an advocate, he became professor of law at the Pontifical Roman Seminary. Privy chamberlain of his Holiness. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, January 29, 1877. Named auditor for Austria of the Sacred Roman Rota on July 22, 1877, after the death of Monsignor Nardi the previous June; became its dean after the death of Monsignor Del Magno, in November 1888; he resigned the post in October 1908, after the reorganization of the tribunal and for having reached the age limit. As auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, he was a prelate official of the S.C. of Rites. Ecclesiastical counselor of the Austro-Hungarian embassy before the Holy See (2). He played an important unofficial diplomatic role with Germany, which finds its culmination in the period of the "Kulturkampf."
Cardinalate. According to his biography in Biblioteca Comunale di Trento, Pope Leo XIII offered him the promotion to the cardinalate in 1891 and 1897; and Pope Pius X in 1908, but he always declined (3). On April 15, 1904, he was named member of the Pontifical Commission for the codification of canon law. Consultor of the Holy Office. He was decorated with the grand cross of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta.
Death. November 22, 1910, in Rome. Buried in Campo Santo Teutonico, beside St. Peter's basilica, Vatican City. A marble monument with his bust was erected in his memory in the church of S. Maria dell'Anima (4).
Bibliography. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1911. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1911, p. 764; Hudal, Alois. Die österreichische Vatikanbotschaft 1806-1918. München : Pohl, 1952; Menestrina, Francesco. "Due prelati trentini ne giudizio de un vesco austriaco." Studi trentine di scienza storiche, XXXIII (1954), 299-305; Weber, Christoph. "Prälat Johannes von Montel", Quellen und Studien zur Kurie und zur vatikanischen Politik unter Leo XIII; mit Berücksichtigung der Beziehungen des Hl. Stuhles zu den Dreibundmächten. Tübingen, M. Niemeyer, 1973. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Intituts in Rom, Bd.45.), p. 14-67.
Links. Biography by Severino Vareschi, in German, Allgemeine deutsche Biographie & Neue deutsche Biographie (Digitale Register); biographical entry, in German, Wikipedia.
(1) This is according to his biography in Biblioteca Comunale di Trento, linked below. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1911, p. 764, says that he was ordained on June 1, 1855.
(2) The emperor exercised, through the embassy, the rights of protection (at times participating in the administration) over several Roman institutions, among them, the Teutonic church of S. Maria dell'Anima; the Teutonic Campo Santo; the Confraternity of Santo Nome di Maria al Foro Traiano; the foundation of Loreto, the Collegios Germanico-Ungherese, Boemo, Ruteno and Polacco; the collegial chapter of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni e degli Illirici; and The Austrian Historical Institute.
(3) Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1911, p. 764, says that the post of dean of the Sacred Roman Rota was a cardinalitial one but that Monsignor Montel was never elevated to that rank; the sources then says that the reason is difficult to ascertain: some say that it was because of humility because the prelate contented himself with a secondary role from which he could accomplish the services with which he had been charged; and that others say that it was because of his hostility against Cardinal Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of state of Pope Leo XIII, who had views contrary to those of Austria, and that Monsignor Montel had an active role in the veto against the election of Cardinal Rampolla presented by Cardinal Jan Puzyna in the name of the Austrian emperor in the conclave of 1903. Annuaire ends saying that, probably, the real reason will never be known. Menestrina, "Due prelati trentini ne giudizio de un vesco austriaco." Studi trentine di scienza storiche, p. 305, says Monsignor Montel was offered several times the cardinalate, and always rejected it for reasons not clarified by the official sources. But that the reason was not made any secret when with family and friends, who visited him in Povo, the conversation touched on the events of his long career. He had always loved - he said - freedom of movement and relationships with different people, no solemnity and haughtiness as a prince of the Church; he had no patience of the burdensome joke of a "candeliere" - (his word) - every time he went out of his home; in short, he just wanted to be a monsignor and nothing more. Weber, Quellen und Studien, p. 53-54, note 110, says that Emperor Franz Joseph I, asked Pope Leo XIII to promote Monsignor Montel to the cardinalate in 1894, but that the pope refused, probably because of the opposition of Cardinal Secretary of State Rampolla; then, on January 15, 1896 Otto von Bülow, the imperial chancellor, informed that the pope had offered Monsignor Montel, in agreement with the Austrian government request, the red hat, but that the prelate had rejected it. Weber says that according to the report of Chancellor von B|low, Monsignor Montel declined the promotion for personal reasons because he did not want to give up his freedom and be subjected to many of the annoying restrictions imposed on that rank, such as not being able to walk on foot in the streets or in an open carriage; he could only have four to six week vacations instead of living in the summer for three months in his beautiful Tusculum near Trent. Second, there were financial motives because as a cardinal he was would be worse off since he would be paid by the Curia and not by Austria. The main reason, included by Chancellor von B|low in his report, consisted in the fact that, as a cardinal, he would no longer be able to work for Austria as he had been doing until then. Weber adds that a similar version was offered by Graf von Hutten-Czapski, who wrote that the pope wanted him to make a cardinal, but that Monsignor Montel refused the purple because he wanted his freedom to move around in Rome instead of being forced to live in a pompous seclusion. Moreover, Weber says that, based on an article from Le Patriote of Brussels, dated March 1, 1898, German ambassador Baron H. Von Alvensleben informed Berlin that Monsignor Montel had again declined the cardinalate offered to him by the pope.
(4) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
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