The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903)
Consistory of June 19, 1899 (XXV)

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(118) 1. CASALI DEL DRAGO, Giovanni Battista
(1838-1908)

Birth. January 30 (1), 1838, Rome, from an ancient patrician family, dating back to 1494. Son of Marquis Raffaele Casali del Drago and Carlotta Barberini Colonna, who was a cousin of Cardinal Flavio Chigi (1873). Received the sacrament of confirmation, April 13, 1846. He belonged to the Roman nobility and was marquis of Rioffreddo. Great-great-grand-nephew of Cardinal Antonio Casali (1770). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Benedetto Barberini (1826), on his mother's side.

Education. Studied at the Roman Seminary, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1860, Rome. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Privy chamberlain de numero participantium of Pope Pius IX, November 12, 1866. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, March 19, 1867. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, August 22, 1871. Protonotary apostolic supernumerary, March 2, 1878. Domestic prelate and abbreviatore de parco maggiore, March 22, 1878. Deacon of the pontifical chapel, August 6, 1886.

Episcopate. Elected titular Latin patriarch of Constantinople, with residence in the Roman Curia, November 29, 1895. Consecrated, December 8, 1895, chapel of the choir of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of State, assisted by Alessandro Sanminiatelli Zabarella, titular archbishop of Tinna, auditor of the Reverend Apostolic Chamber, and by Felix Maria de Neckere, titular archbishop of Melitene, economous and secretary of the Fabric of the patriarchal basilica of St. Peter.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 19, 1899; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, June 22, 1899. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, April 15, 1901 until June 9, 1902. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Decorated with the cross of the Knight of Malta. Commander of the Civil Order of Ferdinando IV of Tuscany. Commander of the Order of Carlos III of Spain. Knight of the order of Francesco I of Naples.

Death. March 17, 1908, Rome. Exposed in his title and buried in Campo Verano cemetery.

Bibliography. Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : E. Plon, Nourrit et Cie., 1900, p. 677; "Giovanni Battista Casali del Drago" in "Cardinali defunti", Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1914, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1913, p. 61; Polc, Jeroslao. "Card. Giovanni Battista Casali del Drago" in La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 408; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 220-221; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 40, 51, 63 and 224.

Limk. Photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 93; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 677, indicates that he was born on January 20, 1838.


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(119) 2. CASSETTA, Francesco di Paola
(1841-1919)

Birth. August 12, 1841, Rome. From a rich family of the bourgeoisie. Received the sacrament of confirmation, September 1, 1848; his godfather was Father Claudio Clausi, O.M., future venerable. He met and was befriended by Father Vincenzo Pallotti, future saint; and Elisabetta Sanna, Franciscan Tertiary, also future venerable, frequented his home. Those personal contacts had a beneficial influence in the young Francesco.

Education. Initial studies at a private school, then, studied at the Roman Seminary, where he earned doctorates in theology on September 10, 1863; and in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on August 24, 1866. He entered the ecclesiastical state after he reached the majority of age because the opposition of his family.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 10, 1865 (1). Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Prelate referendary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, June 23, 1878. Auditor of the cardinal vicar of Rome, April 3, 1884. Counselor of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide and of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, November 23, 1884.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Amathus, December 2, 1884. Consecrated, December 21, 1884, church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, vicar general of Rome, assisted by Pierre Dufal, C.S.C., titular archbishop of Delcon, and by Guillaume-Marie-Romain Sourrieu, bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne. Named privy almoner of His Holiness, September 20, 1887 (2). Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, November 15, 1887. Promoted to the titular see of Nicomedia, November 25, 1887. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, July 17, 1889 (3). Vice-gerent of His Holiness for Rome, November 12, 1895 until June 19, 1899. Transferred to the titular Latin patriarchal see of Antioch, November 29, 1895.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 19, 1899; received the red hat and the title of S. Crisogono, June 22, 1899. Granted the the deaconry of Ss. Vito, Modesto e Crescenzia in commendam, April 28, 1901, which he retained until his death. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 9, 1902 until June 22, 1903. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Opted for order of bishops and suburbicarian see of Sabina and perpetual abbot of Farfa, March 27, 1905. Prefect of the S.C.of Studies, June 3, 1911. Transferred to the suburbicarian see of Frascati, November 27, 1911. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, January 3, 1914 until his death. Prefect of the S.C. of the Council, February 10, 1914 to March 23, 1919. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Apostolic visitor of the Hospice of the Catechumens. Commissioner for the apostolic visitation of the Italian dioceses.

Death. March 23, 1919, Rome. Buried in the chapel of Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum of Propaganda Fide, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. He left all his wealth, which was considerable, to the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, to compensate for the fact that he had not become a missionary at the beginning of his ministry.

Bibliography. Borgna, Pompeo, "Card. Francesco di Paola Cassetta" in La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, 413-414; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : E. Plon, Nourrit et Cie., 1900, p. 677; Del Re, Niccolò. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 143; Del Re, Niccolò. Il vicegerente del viacriato di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1976, p. 75; "Francesco di Paola Cassetta" in "Cardinali defunti", Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1921, p. 66; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 226-227; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 40, 45, 46, 47, 55, 93, 107 and 413; Vistalli, Francesco. Il cardinale Francesco di Paola Cassetta nella sua età e nella sua opera. Con prefazione di P. Placido Lugano. Bergamo : 1933.

Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; photographs, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 93; and LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle, p. 226. Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 677, indicates that he was ordained on June 11, 1865.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 93; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 677, indicates that he was named on November 25, 1887.
(3) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 93; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 677, indicates that he was named on July 4, 1889.


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(120) 3. SANMINIATELLI ZABARELLA, Alessandro
(1840-1910)

Birth. August 3 (1), 1840, Radicondoli, diocese of Volterra, of a Pisan family. Son of Count Ferdinando Sanminiatelli Zabarella and Leopolda Pescatori di Peccioli.

Education. Studied at the Archiepiscopal Collegio-Seminary of Pisa (belle lettres); at Almo Collegio Capranica, Rome, from 1857; at the Roman Seminary, where he earned doctorates in philosophy in 1860; and theology in 1864; at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law in 1866; and at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, from 1861 to 1868 (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 6, 1863 (2), Pisa, by Cardinal Cosimo Corsi, archbishop of Pisa. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, 1867. Privy chamberlain participantium, 1868. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome. Privy almoner of His Holiness, July 15, 1874.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tiana and named grand almoner of His Holiness, July 31, 1874. Consecrated, August 14, 1874, at the Vatican, by Pope Pius IX. President of the Vatican Judicial Commission, August 23, 1887. Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber. November 29, 1887.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal in the consistory of June 19, 1899 and reserved in pectore; published in the consistory of April 15, 1901; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, April 18, 1901. Transferred to the titular Latin patriarchate of Constantinople, June 22, 1899. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 22, 1903 until March 27, 1905. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. He was opposed to any kind of reconciliation with the Kingdom of Italy.

Death. November 24, 1910, Monte Castello. Buried in the chapel of the Reverend Canons of patriarchal Vatican basilica, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. "Alessandro Sanminiatelli" in "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1914, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1913, p. 62; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 679; Fabris, Rinaldo, "Card. Alessandro Sanminiatelli-Zabarella" in La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 409-410; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 831-832; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 41, 49, 63, 224 and 573.

Links. Photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, Find a Grave; biography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; photographs, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 573; "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1914, p. 62; and his biography in English linked above, indicate that he was born on August 4, 1840; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 679, indicates that he was born on August 2, 1840.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 573; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 679, says that he was was ordained on December 24, 1864.


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(121) 4. PORTANOVA, Gennaro
(1845-1908)

Birth. October 11, 1845, Naples. Son of Dottore Camillo Portanova and his wife, Angela Califano. Received the sacrament of confirmation in 1855.

Education. Studied at the Jesuit School, Naples; incardinated in the archdiocese of Naples, January 18, 1863; then, studied at the Archiepiscopal Lyceum of Naples.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 22, 1869, Naples, by Cardinal Sisto Riario Sforza, archbishop of Naples. Professor of mathematics, physics, and philosophy in several Neapolitan institutions, 1875-83. Professor of theology, Seminary of Naples, 1877-83. Worked tirelessly helping the victims of the great earthquake of Ischia.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Roso and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Ischia, August 9, 1883. Consecrated, August 12, 1883, church of Ssmo. Redentore a Villa Caserta, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valletta, assisted by Camillo Santori, titular archbishop of Seleucia, uditore Santissimo, and by Placido Maria Schiaffino, O.S.B.Oliv., titular bishop of Nissa, president of the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles. Succeeded to the see of Ischia, February 1, 1885. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Reggio Calabria, March 16, 1888. Apostolic administrator of the diocese of Bova, 1889-1895; and of the diocese of Oppido, 1898-99.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 19, 1899; received the red hat and the title of S. Clemente, June 22, 1899. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Protector of the Institute of the Daughters of Mary Immaculate, founded by Sister Brigida Maria Postorino at Catona.

Death. April 25, 1908, at 6 a.m., in Reggio Calabria. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Reggio Calabria and buried in the city cemetery of Reggio Calabria His remains were later transferred to the metropolitan cathedral of Reggio Calabria (1).

Links. Biography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; photographs, engraving, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

CARD. IANVARIVS PORTANOVA
ARCHIEPISCOPVS RHEGINVS
IN PACE


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(122) 5. FRANCICA-NAVA DI BONTIFÈ, Giuseppe
(1846-1928)

Birth. July 23, 1846, Catania, Sicily. Son of Giovanni Francica Nava, baron of Bondife, and Caterina Guttadauro, of the princes of Reburdone. He was baptized on the following September 28, at home, by his maternal uncle, Fr. Giovanni Guttadauro, future bishop of Caltanisetta. As a child, he was called Peppino. Received the sacrament of confirmation from his uncle Bishop Guttadauro, March 1859.

Education. Seminary of Catania, Catania (1852-1859); Seminary of Caltanissetta, Caltanissetta, 1859-1869 (licentiate in theology); he went to Rome to continue his studies in 1869; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorates in theology and philosophy); Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare" (doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law); Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome (diplomacy). He received the four minor orders, the subdiaconate and the diaconate from Bishop Guttadauro of Catalnisetta, his uncle

Priesthood. Ordained, May 22, 1869, by Bishop Guttadauro of Caltanisetta. Professor of dogmatic theology at the Seminary of Caltanissetta; later, in 1879, its rector for three years. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, 1876. Ablegato in 1877 to bring the red biretta to Cardinal Louis-Marie-Joseph-Eusèbe Caverot, archbishop of Lyon. Pro-vicar general of Caltanisetta, 1877; later vicar general; and honorary canon of its cathedral chapter, December 7, 1879. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 4, 1879. He was a supporter of Neo-Thomism; distinguished himself for his interest in the social problems of the time, and for the formation of the clergy and the catechetical instruction of the youth.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Alabanda and appointed auxiliary of Caltanisetta, August 9, 1883. Consecrated, October 21, 1883, cathedral of S. Michele Arcangelo, Caltanisetta, by Giovanni Battista Guttadauro di Reburdone, bishop of Caltanissetta, assisted by Giovanni Blandini, bishop of Noto, and Gaetano Blandini, titular bishop of Sergiopoli, coadjutor of Agrigento. Promoted to the titular see of Eraclea, May 24, 1889. Nuncio in Belgium, June 6 (1), 1889. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Catania, March 18, 1895. Nuncio in Spain, August 6 (2), 1896. He was decorated with France's Legion d'honor in 1876; Belgium's Grand Croix Leopoldianne, 1893; Spain's Gran Cruz de Carlos III, 1894; and the medal of the Presidency of the Superior Council of the Scientific Society of Brussels, 1895.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 19, 1899; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, December 14, 1899. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Cardinal protoprete.

Death. December 7, 1928, at 2:25 p.m., Catania; he had received the sacrament of the extreme unction and the apostolic benediction from Bishop Giovanni Jacono of Caltanisetta. Exposed in the archiepiscopal palace of Catania on the following December 9 and 10; then, transferred to the metropolitan cathedral, where the funeral took place on December 11, celebrated by Emilio Ferrais, new archbishop of Catania; attended the archbishop of Siracusa, and the bishops of Mazzara, Caltanisetta, Noto, Acireale, Nicosia and Cefalù; Bishop Jacono of Caltanisetta delivered the homily; the absolution was imparted by the archbishop of Siracusa and the bishops of Mazzara, Noto and Nicosia. By royal decree, the body of the late cardinal was buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Catania, in a sarcophagus of white stone (3). On July 5, 1932, the monument of white marble and bronze, erected in his memory by the family, was inaugurated; it was located near the first column, on the right site of the transept of the cathedral.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1938, p. 78; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 684; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, pp. 64 and 239; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1922, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1923, p. 89; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 366-368; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 40, 48, 83, 192 and 302; Toscano Deodati, Alfonso. Il cardinale Giuseppe Francica Nava, arcivescovo di Catania; biografia. Milano : Editrice Convivio letterario, 1962.

Links. Biography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; engravins and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 302; De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 64, indicates that he was named on May 4, 1889.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 192; De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, pp. 65 and 239, says that he was named on July 25, 1896.
(3) This is the text of the inscription on his tombstone, taken from Toscano Deodati, Il cardinale Giuseppe Francica Nava, arcivescovo di Catania; biografia, p. 389:

HEIC QUIESCIT IN PACE CHRISTI
IOSEPH CARD. FRANCICA NAVA
ARCHIEPISCOPUS CATANENSIUM
DOCTRINA PRUDENTIA CHARITATE EFFULGENS
DIOCESIS XXXIV ANNOS REXIT INSTAURAVIT


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(123) 6. CIASCA, O.E.S.A., Agostino
(1835-1902)

Birth. May 7, 1835, at via Grangidlio n. 60, presently named via Cardinale Ciasca, Polignano a Mare, diocese of Monopoli. Of a family of modest economic means. Son of Leonardo Ciasca, a tailor, and Olimpia Montanari. He was baptized on the same day of his birth by the parish priest, Canon Paolo Bianco, receiving the name Pasquale Raffaele. Received the sacrament of confirmation in 1842.

Education. Received his initial education in his hometwon from Archdeacon Francesco Pellegrini; and later from the Reformed Franciscan Fathers; he later studied mathematics, rhetoric and philosophy in Monopoli (1). Entered the Order of St. Augustine, March 10, 1856; accepted into the Order by Father Paolo Micallef, vicar general of the Order; made his novitiate in Gubbio; professed, March 11, 1857. Convent of S. Agostino, Rome (philosophy and theology); convent of S. Monica, Rome (Greek scriptures and Hebrew, for eight years; doctorates in theology and Hebrew).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 18, 1858. Further studies, Rome, 1858-1866. Professor of Hebrew, Pontifical Urban Athenaeum of Propaganda Fide, Rome, November 1, 1866. Participated in the First Vatican Council (1869-1870), as theologian and interpreter of Oriental languages. Consultor of the Oriental Rites section of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide. Scriptor of Arabic at the Vatican Library, 1876. Ordinary censor of Oriental books and professor of Oriental languages, Roman Seminary, 1878. Pontifical interpreter, S.C. of Propaganda Fide. President of the pontifical college of interpreters of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, 1882. Dean of the philosophy and Oriental languages faculties of the Roman Seminary. Interpreter at the S.C. of Propaganda Fide and revisor of Oriental books, September 17, 1887. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, 1889. General assistant and general procurator of his order. Prefect of the Vatican Archive, May 19, 1891.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Larissa, June 1, 1891. Consecrated, June 7, 1891, church of S. Agostino, Rome, by Cardinal Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of State, assisted by Guglielmo Giosafat Giuseppe Pifferi, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacritan of the Apostolic Palaca, and by Luigi Sepiacci, O.S.A., titular bishop of Callinico, secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars. Secretary for Oriental affairs of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, July 19, 1891. President of the provincial synod of Lviv of the Ruthenians, September 4, 1891. Pro-secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, September 19, 1892; secretary, June 19 (2), 1893.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 19, 1899; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, June 22, 1899. Assigned to the SS. CC. Concistorial, of Bishops and Regulars and of Propaganda Fide. Protector of the church of the Holy Spirit of the Neapolitans and of the Institute of S. Pietro Claver for the Missions of Africa. Contributed extraordinarily to ecclesiastical scholarship with numerous publications in theology, biblical studies, and Oriental languages, especially Coptic and Arabic. He was decorated with the orders of Francesco Giuseppe and of the Holy Sepulchre.

Death. February 6, 1902, at 6:40 p.m., in his residence, Palazzo Cerasi, via dell'Babuino n. 51, Rome, after receiving the last rites. Exposed in the church of S. Agostino; his funeral took place in the church of S. Maria del Poppolo, Rome; buried in the chapel of his order, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. On April 28, 1938, his remains were transferred to the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome.

Bibliography. "Agostino Ciasca" in "Cardinali defunti." La Gerarchia Cattolica e la Famiglia Pontificia per l'anno 1903, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1903, p. 206; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 681; Giacomini, Agostino. "Card. Agostino Ciasca." La Pontificia Università Lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università Lateranense, 1963, p. 137-138; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 247-249; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 40, 47 and 334.

Links. Biography by Giuseppe Balestri, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by J. Alberto Soggin, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 25 (1981), Treccani; engravings and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) He wished to pursue his studies in Naples or in Rome but his father determinely opposed the idea. A letter he received inviting his son to go to Rome for the purpose of studying ultimately changed the father's mind. Little did he know that Agostino had written the letter himself, and that the person "inviting" him was none other than the sexton of the church of S. Agostino of Rome.
(2) This is according to Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 681; and Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, p. 40; this latter source, on page 334, says that he was named on July 4, 1893.


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(124) 7. MATHIEU, François-Désiré
(1839-1908)

Birth. May 28 (1), 1839, Einville, diocese of Nancy, France. Of a humble family. His father was a farmer and grain merchant. His sister, Marie-Félicité, known in religion as Mother Marie de Saint-François-de-Sales, was the superior of the Benedictines of the Blessed Sacrament of Saint-Nicolas-de-Port.

Education. Initial studies at diocesan schools in Nacy; he later entered the Minor Seminary of Pont-à-Mousson, Nancy; and studied at the Seminary of Nancy; obtained a bachelors in letters at Académie de Strasbourg in August 1859; later, he obtained a doctorate in letters, Nancy (thesis: L'histoire de l'ancien régime dans la province de Lorraine et Barrois, 1878).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 30, 1863. In the diocese of Nancy, professor of history and literature of its Minor Seminary of Pont-à-Mousson, 1860-1879; chaplain of the Dominican nuns, 1879-1890; honorary canon of its cathedral chapter, 1883; pastor of the parish of Saint-Martin, Pont-à-Mousson, 1890.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Angers, January 19, 1893. Consecrated, March 20, 1893, cathedral of Angers, by Cardinal Guillaume Meignan, archbishop of Tours, assisted by Félix Midon, bishop of Osaka, and by Jules Cléret, bishop of Laval. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Toulouse, June 25, 1896. The French government had presented him for that see on the previous May 30.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 19, 1899; received the red hat and the title of S. Sabina, June 22, 1899. After his promotion to the cardinalate, he was named honorary canon of the Reverend Chapter of Nancy. Pope Leo XIII asked him to reside in the Roman Curia and he governed the archdiocese of Toulouse through an auxiliary bishop but on November 27, 1899, he resigned pastoral government of the archdiocese. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 27, 1905 to February 21, 1906. Elected member of the Académie Française, June 21, 1906; reception, February 7, 1907. Among the works he wrote are De Joannis abbatis Gorziensis vita (Nancy 1878); L'Ancien Régime dans la Province de Lorraine et Barrois d'aprés des documents inédits (Paris, 1879); Le Concordat de 1801 ses origenes, son histoire (Paris, 1903); Les derniers jours de Léon XIII et le conclave de 1903 (Paris, 1904)

Death.October 26, 1908, London, while attending the International Eucharistic Congress, after an operation to alleviate a disease of the liver and kidneys. Exposed in the church of the Society of Jesus in London. The funeral took place in the cathedral of Nancy. The oration at his funeral was delivered by Joseph Rumeau, bishop of Angers. He was buried in the Cimetière du Sud of Nancy.

Bibliography. Badel, Émile ; Mathieu, François Disiré. Le Cardinal Mathieu, 1839-1908. Ses derniers moments, sa mort, sa biographie, souvenirs de Lorraine. Nancy ; [s.n.], 1908; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 409-410; Marin, Eugène ; Mathieu, François Disiré. Les Derniers Jours de son Éminence le Cardinal Mathieu (1839-1908). Ses funérailles. Les discours. Nancy ; [s.n.], 1908; Renard, Edmund. Le Cardinal Mathieu 1839-1909. Paris : J. de Gigord, 1925; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 40, 100 and 551; "Un témoin, Les derniers jours de Léon XIII et le conclave de 1903", in Revue des Deux Mondes 20 [1904], pp. 241-285. (Published anonymously by Cardinal François-Désiré Mathieu).

Links. Biography by Antoine Dégert, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; and biography, in English, Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in French, Wikipedia.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 100, and the second biography in English linked above; Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973, p. 409-410; his first biography in English, linked above; and his biography in French, also linked above, indicate that he was born on May 27, 1839.


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(125) 8. RESPIGHI, Pietro
(1843-1913)

Birth. September 22, 1843, Bologna, Papal States. Received the sacrament of confirmation, November 25, 1850. His nephew, Monsignor Carlo Respighi, was the prefect of Pontifical Ceremonies between 1918 and 1947.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Bologna; and at the Pio Roman Seminary, Rome, where he earned doctorates in theology and utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, on August 16, 1870. Received subdiaconate on December 17, 1864; and the diaconate on December 23, 1865.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 31, 1866, Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1866-1870. In the archdiocese of Bologna, he was professor in its seminary from November 1872 to June 1874; and archpriest of Ss. Gervasio e Protasio parish in Pieve di Budrio until 1891.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Guastalla, December 14, 1891. Consecrated, December 20, 1891, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, assisted by Andrea Aiuti, titular archbishop of Acrida, secretary of the S. C. of Propaganda Fide, and by Agosto Berlucca, titular bishop of Elenopoli. Promoted to the archiepiscopal see of Ferrara, November 30, 1896.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 19, 1899; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, June 22, 1899. Vicar general of His Holiness for Rome, president of the S.C. of the Apostolic Visitation and prefect of the S.C. of the Residence of Bishops, April 9, 1900. Resigned pastoral government of the archbishopric of Ferrara, April 19, 1900. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 21, 1906 until April 15, 1907. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, January 10, 1910.

Death. March 22, 1913, Rome. Buried in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. Later, his remains was transferred to the basilica of Santi Quattro Coronati, his titular church (1).

Links. Photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave; his portrait, photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, taken from a photography kindly provided by Dr. Cesare Buratti, from Rome

PETRVS . S.R.E . CARDINALIS . RESPIGHI
BONONIAE . ORTVS . ROMAE . SACERDOTIO . AVCTVS . PLEBIS . BVTRII . PRAEPOS
AC . DEINCEPS . GVASTALLENSIS . EPISCOPVS . FERRARIENSIS . ARCHIEPISCOPVS
HVIVS . TITVLI . SCRVM . QVATVOR . CORONATORVM . RENVNTIATVS . AN . JVB . MDCCCC
SVMMI . PONTIFICIS . IN VRBE . VICARIVS . ARCHIPRESB . SACROS . LATERANENSIS . ECCLESIAE
STVDIA . VIRES . OPES . IN . DEI . LAVDEM . ET . COMMVNE . BONVM . CONTVLIT
SPECTATA . PRVDENTIA . ET . SOLLERTI . OPEROSITATE
DE . APOSTOLICA . IN . VRBE . VISITATIONE
DEIQVE . PAROECIARVM . OFFICIORVMQVE . VICARIATVS . AC . SVI . TITVLI . RESTAVRATIONE
INSIGNITER . MERITVS . EST
IN . PERVIGILIO . PASCHAE . DIE . XXII . MARTII . AN . DNI . MDCCCCXIII
AETATIS . SVAE . LXX . PIISSIME . DECESSIT

EIVS . EXVVIAE . HVC . EX . AGRO . VERANO . TRANSLATAE . SVNT . AN . MDCCCCXXXIII


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(126) 9. RICHELMY, Agostino
(1850-1923)

Birth. November 29, 1850, Turin, Piedmont. Of an ancient and noble family. Son of Prospero Richelmy, a hydraulic engineer (1), and Lydia Realis. Received the sacrament of confirmation, August 13, 1857.

Education. He frequented Liceo classico Cavour, Turin; at sixteen years old, he received the ecclesiastical habit and studied at the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Turin, where he earned a doctorate in theology on May 18, 1876, in its theological faculty.

Early life. He joined the Garibaldian Volunteers in the War of 1866, and for years afterwards wore his red shirt under his cassock.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 25, 1873, Turin (2). Further studies, Turin, 1873-1876. In the archdiocese of Turin he was professor of moral and dogmatic theology at its seminary; from 1894, he was professor at the Faculty of canon law affiliated to the seminary; he was also prosynodal examiner; and honorary canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ivrea, June 7, 1886. Consecrated, October 28, 1886, church of S. Carlo, Turin, by Cardinal Gaetano Alimonda, archbishop of Turin, assisted by Davide Riccardi, bishop of Novara, and by Giovanni Battista Bertagna, titular bishop of Cafarnao and auxiliary of Turin. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Turin, September 18, 1897.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 19, 1899; received the red hat and the title of S. Eusebio, June 22, 1899. He was member of the SS. CC. of the Council, Ceremonial and Seminaries and Universities of Study. He was protectors of the Daughters of Saint Joseph of Rivalta in Turin. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Via, November 27, 1911; Cardinal Gaetano de Lai did the option in his name; he took possession of the title on April 14, 1912. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. In 1915, when Italy entered the First World War, he organized priests for duty as army chaplains in the mountains of the Trentino, where they carved altars out of snow and said mass in temperatures lower than zero. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Through numerous writing (such as La democrazia cristiana inculcata ai chierici dell'arcidiocesi di Torino), he supported all the social directives of Pope Leo XIII and founded in 1903 the newspaper "Il Momento". He was an adversary of the modernists; and had several problems in the Roman Curia because of the opposition of the integralist faction. During the First World War, he carried out an intense apostolate of assistance to the affected population. He worked hard for the promotion of the Catholic Action in Piedmont.

Death. August 10, 1923, after a surgical intervention for kidney stones, in Turin. Exposed in the archiepiscopal palace of Turin; the funeral mass took place the following August 13 in the metropolitan cathedral of Turin, celebrated by Costanzo Castrale, titular bishop of Gaza, auxiliary and vicar general of Turin; present at the funeral were nine bishops; the duke of Aosta, representing the king of Italy; princes of the royal family; and civil and military authorities. He was buried in the chapel of the clergy in the cemetery of Turin. The cost of the funeral was covered by the state. In 1927, his remains were transferred to the Shrine of the Consolata, in Turin, and placed in a marble sarcophagus.

Bibliography. "Em. Richelmy (Agustino)", in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1922. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1921, p. 99; "Em. Richelmy (Augustin), archev. de Turin", in "Nécrologe", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1924. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1923, p. 835; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 802-803; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, LXIII, n. 184 (August 11, 1923), p. 3; and LXIII, n. 182 (August 13-14, 1923), p. 2; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, p. 24; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 40, 48, 324 and 538; Vaudagnotti, Attilio. Il Cardinale Agostino Richelmy : memorie biografiche e contributi alla storia della Chiesa in Piemonte negli ultimi decenni. Torino ; Roma : Marietti, 1926.

Links. His photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave; biographical entry, in Italian, Enciclopedie on line, Treccani; photographs, engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to LeBlac, Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle, p. 802; and his biography in Italian, linked above. His biographical entry in Italian, linked above, says that his father was a professor of mathematics at Collegio Valentino.(2) This is according to LeBlac, Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle, p. 802; Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VIII, 324; and all the electronic sources linked above. "Em. Richelmy (Agustino), in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1922, p. 99, says that he was ordained in April 1872.


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(127) 10. MISSIA, Jakob
(1838-1902)

Birth. June 30, 1838, Mota, parish of St. Kriz, Ljutomer (Luttemberg), diocese of Lavant (formerly Seckau), Carinthia (now Maribor, Slovenia). He was the youngest of all the children in his family, which was from Slovenia. His last name, Misel or Mislej, was later Latinized as Missia. His elder brother was a priest. Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 21, 1850.

Education. Studied humanities at the Seminary of Lavant (now Maribor); from October 1858, studied philosophy and theology at the Pontifical Collegio Germanico-Ungarico , Rome; and, finally, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology in August 1864. Received the insignias of the clerical character on November 15, 1857; and the minor orders on April 11, 1858.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 30, 1863, Rome. In the diocese of Seckau, he was professor and prefect of the Minor Seminary of Graz for two years. In 1866, he became almoner and secretary to the bishop of Seckau; episcopal chancellor, pro synodal examiner and consistorial advocate in 1871; and canon of its cathedral chapter in 1879. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness in 1879. Presented by Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary for the see of Laibach on June 14, 1884.

Episcopate. Elected prince-bishop of Laibach (Ljubljana), November 10, 1884. Consecrated, December 7, 1884, Graz, by Johann Baptist Zwerger, bishop of Seckau, assisted by Johannes Haller, titular bishop of Adraa and auxiliary of Salzburg, and by Anton Joseph Gruscha, titular bishop of Carre, almoner in chief of the imperial armies. Presented by Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary for the see of Gorizia. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Gorizia (Görz or Gradisca d'Isonzo), March 24, 1898. He was granted the pallium on the same day of his promotion.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 19, 1899; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of June 20, 1899; received the red hat and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, December 14, 1899. He is considered one of the pioneers of the second renaissance of the Slovenian Catholicism.

Death. March 23, 1902, after suffering a massive heart attack, in Gorizia. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Gorizia. (1)

Bibliography. Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 40, 53, 289 and 330; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 644-645.

Links. Photographs, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to La Gerarchia Cattolica, Rome, 1903, but his biography in English, linked above, indicates that he was buried in the Marian church of Sveta Gora (Monte Santo) above Gorica.


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(128) 11. TROMBETTA, Luigi
(1820-1900)

Birth. February 3, 1820, Città Lavinia (now Lanuvio), diocese of Albano.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law (no further educational information found).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 1844. Lawyer at the Sacred Roman Rota. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Under secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, February 24, 1863; pro-secretary, June 20, 1893; secretary, December 24 (1), 1896. Protonotary apostolic participantium, May 12, 1897.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 19, 1899; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Eustachio, June 22, 1899.

Death. January 17, 1900, Rome. Exposed in his deaconry and buried in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : E. Plon, Nourrit et Cie., 1900, p. 679; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 40-41 and 54.

Link, His photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 41; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 679, says that he was named on December 5, 1897.


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(129) 12. DELLA VOLPE, Francesco Salesio
(1844-1916)

Birth. December 24, 1844, Ravenna. From a noble family originally from Imola. Son of Count Ignazio della Volpe and Ortensia Mazzolani. They had nine children.

Education. Initial studies in Ravenna; then, at the Seminary of Bertinoro, directed by the Jesuits; for a year, 1860, studied at the Seminary of Fano; from 1862 to 1867, at Pio Seminary, Rome, taking the course work at the Pontifical Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", where he earned doctorates in theology and canon law; finally, from 1868 to 1874, at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, where he studied diplomacy.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1867. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Imola for one year. Destined to start his diplomatic career as auditor of the nunciature in Bavaria, he could not go to Münich because of poor health. Instead, he was named canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and privy chamberlain participant of His Holiness in 1874. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 17, 1878. Secretary of the S.C. of Indulgences and Relics, 1882. Master of chamber of His Holiness, August 17, 1886 (1). Member of the extraordinary mission to the coronation of Czar Alexander III of Russia in 1891. Prefect of the Pontifical Household, December 31, 1891 (2). Commander of the Order of Saint-Anne of Russia. Grand cross of the Order of Franz Joseph of Austria.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal in the consistory of June 19, 1899 and reserved in pectore; the pope did not want to do without his services during the 1900 Jubilar Year; published in the consistory of April 15, 1901; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, April 18, 1901. He was member of the SS. CC. Consistorial (April 18, 1901); Reverend Fabric of Saint Peter's basilica (February 3, 1903); Propaganda Fide for the Latin and Oriental Rites (August 28, 1903); Index; Bishops and Regulars (April 18, 1907); Sacred Indulgences (April 18, 1907), Ceremonial (May 14, 1915); and of the Pontifical Commission for the Administration of the Properties of the Holy See (1907). Prefect of the Economy of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide and president of the General Administration of the Reverend Chamber of dei Spogli (Chamber of Accounts), July 4, 1903 to October 20, 1908, when Pope Pius X suppressed that office with the apostolic constitution Sapienti Consilio, which reformed the Roman Curia. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Cardinal protodeacon, 1907. Prefect of the Vatican Archives, October 26, 1908. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, January 26, 1911. Archchancellor of the Roman University. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, May 25, 1914 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. As cardinal protodeacon, he announced to the world the election of the new pope and crowned him on September 6, 1914.

Death. November 5, 1916, Rome. His funeral was celebrated in the church of S. Andrea della Valle, in Rome. Buried in the sepulchre of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. He left an important correspondence that is preserved in the communal library of Imola.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1921, p. 65; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 678; "Em Volpe (della) (Francesco-Salesio)" in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1916. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1915, p. 127; "Em Volpe (della) (Francesco-Salesio)" in Nécrologe", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1917. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1916, p. 806-807; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les pontificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 300-301; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 41and 54.

Links. Biography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave; photographs, engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his photograph, Wikimedia; his photograph, Archivio Capitolino Risorgese Digitali; Cardinal archivists, Archivio Segreto Vaticano, Città del Vaticano.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 41; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 678, says that he was named on August 9, 1886. LeBlanc, Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle, p. 300, indicates that he was named on May 17, 1878.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 41; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 678, says that he was named on January 1, 1892.


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(130) 13. VIVES Y TUTÓ, O.F.M.Cap., José de Calasanz
(1854-1913)

Birth. February 15, 1854, San Andrés de Llevaneras, diocese of Barcelona, Spain. Son of José Vives and Catalina Tutó. His baptismal name was José de Calasanz Félix Santiago. He is also listed as José Calasanz de Llevaneras.

Education. Studied at Collegio Scholarium Piarum, Mataro, Spain; at the Capuchin Monastery, Antigua, Guatemala; at the University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California, United States of America; at the Capuchin Monastery. Fontenay-le-Comte, Toulouse, France; at the Capuchin Monastery, Ibarra. Ecuador. Joined the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins on July 11, 1869; professed on July 12, 1870; took the final vows on July 14, 1872.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1877, Toulouse, by Julien-Florian-Félix Desprez, archbishop of Toulouse. Rector of the Seraphic College, Perpignan, France, 1877-1880. Rector of the Seraphic College, lgualadia, Catalonia, Spain, 1880-1887. Secretary to the procurator general of his order, Rome, 1887. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, May 11, 1887; of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, December 16, 1889; of the Council, April 11, 1894; of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, August 13, 1895. Definitor general of his order, 1896. Member of the papal commission to study the validity of the Anglican orders, 1895-1896. Attended the Firts Plenary Council of Latin America, Rome, May 28 to July 9, 1899; honorary president.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 19, 1899; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Adriano, June 22, 1899. Assisted at the death of Pope Leo XIII, July 20, 1903, who asked the cardinal to be given the blessing of Saint Francis. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Confessor of Pope Pius X. Prefect of the S.C. of Religious, October 26, 1908. He retired to a monastery in Frascati in his last months after suffering from neurasthenia. A prolific writer, published more than one hundred titles.

Death. September 7, 1913, in Monteporzio, Rome, shortly after undergoing an appendicitis operation. Buried in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. On March 2, 2010, his remains were reinterred in the parish church of San Andreu de Llavaneres, his native town.

Bibliography. Antonio Maria de Barcelona. El Cardenal Vives y Tutó de la Orden de Frailes Menores Capuchinos. Barcelona : Igualada : Luis Gili ; Nicolás Poncell, 1916; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 444; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 41 and 54; Serra de Manresa, O.F.M. Cap., Valentí. "El capuchino José de Calasanz de Llavaneres, cardenal Vives y Tutó (1854-1913). Su actuación durante los pontificados de León XIII y Pío X." Archivum Historiae Pontificiae XLIV (2006), p. 173-205.

Links. Biography, in English, Enciclopèdia Catalana; his monument in San Andrés de Llavaneres, Spain, Enciclopèdia Catalana; photographs and engraving Araldica Vaticana.


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CORMIER, O.P., Hyacinthe-Marie
(1832-1916)

Birth. December 8, 1832, Orlèans, France. Of a family of well to do merchants. His baptismal name was Henry. His father died while he was still a child, and his mother took him and his only brother, Eugène, to live near his uncle, who was a priest. His brother died shortly afterwards.

Education. Received his initial education at home; he then studied in the school of the Christian Brothers until he entered the Minor Seminary of Orlèans, where he completed his secondary education; and then, he entered the Major Seminary of Orlèans, conducted by the Sulpitian Fathers, where he studied philosophy and theology; he was admitted into the Third Order of Saint-Dominick while he was a seminarian.

Priesthood. Ordained on May 17, 1856 by Bishop Felix-Antoine-Philibert Dupanloup of Orlèans; he was granted a dispensation to be ordained without having reached the canonical age. After ordination, he resolved without delay to enter the religious state. Accordingly, he went to Lavigny, where Father Henri Lacordaire, O.P., had opened a novitiate for the Order of Preachers (Dominicans). Father Cormier was accepted into the order, after having received permission from his bishop not without regret; and given the name Hyacinthe. He entered the novitiate of Flavigny, Côted'Or and received the habit on June 29, 1856. During the novitiate his health deteriorated in such a way that it seemed that he was not going to be able to continue with the austerity of the order. The fathers of the novitiate decided to send him home. Then the master general of the order, Father Alexandre Vincent Jandel, O.P., who was making his canonical visit to the convent of Flavigny, decided to take Father Cormier to Rome and sent him to the convent of S. Sabina on the Aventine, where an international novitiate had recently been established. When his health did not improve, Father Jandel recurred to Pope Pius IX for an extension of his novitiate. The pope granted the request and Father Cormier was allowed to make his profession on May 23, 1859, in the chapter room of the Dominican convent of S. Sabina. At this point he recovered and became the private secretary of the master general. He then became master of novices in the convent of S. Sabina and after two years, he was elected prior of the convent of Corbora in Corsica. During the years 1866 to 1874 and 1878 to 1882, he was the first provincial of the restored province of Toulouse (1865), serving intermittently as prior in various convents. In 1888, he was entrusted with the foundation of a new convent and the construction of the a church in Biarritz. In 1890, the convent of Saint-Maximin, the principal house of the province, elected him prior. From 1891 to 1896, he was socius, with the title of provincial of the Holy Land, to master general Andreas Frühwirth, future cardinal. From May 27, 1896 until 1904, he was procurator general of the order. On July 24, 1896, he was nominated consultor of the S.C. of the Holy Office.

Cardinalate. According to Sadoc Szabo in Hyacinth Marie Cormier: 76th Master General of the Order of Preachers (Summit, New Jersey : Dominican nuns, 1938), p. 17, in 1899, Pope Leo XIII wanted to create Father Cormier cardinal but he was prevented because "the French government did not look favorably upon a cardinal chosen from a religious order to seek its interest as a member of the Roman Curia." The first two biographies, linked below, also mention his intended promotion to the cardinalate. On May 21, 1904, he was elected master general of the Order of Preachers at the chapter celebrated in the convent of S. Maria de la Quercia, near Viterbo. His motto was Caritas Veritatis. As master general, restored many suppressed provinces and erected new ones, including that of the Holy Name in western United States of America. In 1909, he founded in Rome the Pontifical University of S. Tommaso d'Aquino, commonly known as the Angelicum. On May 17, 1916, he celebrated the sixtieth anniversary of his priestly ordination. He finished his term of office on Pentecost 1916. On August 3, 1916, his successor as master general, Father Louis Theissling, provincial of Holland, was elected. He wrote several works mainly on spiritual formation and exercises (1). A noted spiritual director, he was an esteemed confidant of Pope Pius X.

Death. December 17, 1916, at 12.30 pm., after a brief illness, in his cell in the convent of S. Clemente, in Rome; at the time of his death, Cardinal Tommaso Pio Boggiani, O.P., was celebrating a pontifical mass in honor of the seven hundredth anniversary of the founding of the Order of Preachers. His body was laid in state at the sacristy of the church of S. Clemente. The solemn obsequies were celebrated at the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva on December 20. The mass was sung by Father Serafino Cimino, minister general of the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) in the presence of numerous cardinals, bishops, prelates, superiors general of religious orders and congregations. The pope sent a letter of condolence to Father Theissling through the cardinal secretary of State. After the funeral, the body was taken to Campo Verano cemetery, Rome, and buried in the tomb of the Order of Preachers. On January 18, 1917, the thirtieth-day mass was celebrated at the church of S. Antonio. In December 1934, his remains were buried in the church of Ss. Domenico e Sisto, Rome, annexed to the Angelicum.

Beatification. His cause for beatification was introduced in 1945. He was beatified on November 20, 1994, by Pope John Paul II. His feast is celebrated on May 21, date of his election as master general of the Order of Preachers.

Bibliography. Szabo, Sadoc. Hyacinth Marie Cormier: 76th Master General of the Order of Preachers. Translated by C.G. Moore. Summit, New Jersey : Dominican nuns, 1938.

Links. His image and biography, in English, Dominican Vocations, Province of the Assumption, Australia and New Zealand; Bl. Hyacinth Marie Cormier, OP, Founder of the Angelicum, Moniales Ordinis Praedicatorum; and images and biography, in French, Ut Pupilam Oculi.

(1) These are some of his works: Blessed Raymund of Capus, twenty-third master general of the Order of preachers. Translated by J. Dillon Trant. Boston : Marlier, Callanan & Co.; London and Leamington, Art & book Co., 1900; Ceremonial of the Sisters of Penance of the Third Order of Saint Dominic, forming the California Congregation of the Most Holy Name of Jesus. With Marie Ambroise Potton. San Rafael, Cal., 1912. Note: A translation of the ceremonial compiled by Hyacinth Maria Cormier, with translated additions from the ceremonial compiled by Marie Ambroise Potton. Other titles: Liturgies. Latin Rite. Ceremonials. III. Regular. Dominicans. Third Order; Dernière maladie et mort du révérendissime père- frère Alexandre-Vincent Jandel : soixante-treizième maître général des FF. prêcheurs. Paris : Poussielgue frères, 1874. Version: Fait partie du recueil (SJ HO 295/108). Pièce de titre : "Ordres religieux, Méélanges"; Esercizi fondamentali composti d. Meditazioni: esame e letture. Rome : Canonica, 1895. Grundlagen des geistlichen Lebens dargestellt in zehntätigen Exerzitien : Betrachtungen, geistliche Lesungen und Selbstprüfungen. Dülmen : Laumann, 1911; L'instruction des novices a l'usage des Frères Prêcheurs; ouvrage pouvant également servir aux novices des autres ordres, aux cleves ecclésiastiques et aux personnes pieuses. Composé sur d'anciens manuscrits.. 2d edition. Paris : C. Poussielgue, 1905; Quinze entretiens sur la liturgie dominicaine : adressés aux novices et aux soeurs de l'ordre des Frères Prêcheurs. Rome : Collège Angélique ; Paris : Libraire Poussielgue, 1913; Ritiro spirituali secondo il Vangelo e la vita dei santi : ad uso degli ecclesiastici e dei secolari : addetti alle opere di misericordia. Roma : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1911; Die selige Diana von Andalo und die seligen Cäcilia und Amata, Stifterinnen des Klosters zur hl. Agnes, vom Orden des hl. Dominicus in Bologna. Graz : Moser, 1893; Tre corsi progressivi di ritiro spirituali : composti di meditazioni, trattenimenti ed esami : ad uso degli ecclesiastici, dei religiosi e dei pii fideli. 3 v. in 1. Roma : Tipografia Vaticana, 1898. Contents: Primo corso -- Secondo corso -- Terzo corso. Note: Attributed to Hyacinth Marie Cormier. Responsibility: per un religioso dell'Ordine dei Predicatori ; versioni italiana dall'originale francese per cura di alcuni religiosi del medesimo ordine della Congregazione di San Marco; Vie du Révérendissime Père Alexandre-Vincent Jandel : soixante-treizième Maitre Général des Frères-Prêcheurs. Paris : Poussielgue, 1890.

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