Birth. September 30, 1828, Aranyosmarót, archdiocese of Esztergom (Gran), Austria-Hungary (now Zlazé Moravce, archdiocese of Bratislava-Trnava, Slovakia). Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 23, 1836.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Presbourg; at the Pazmaneum College, Vienna; and at the University of Vienna, where he earned a doctorate in theology on June 13, 1862. Received the insignias of the clerical character and the minor orders in 1846; the subdiaconate on July 20, 1852; and the diaconate on July 22, 1852.
Priesthood. Ordained, July 23, 1852, Esztergom. Faculty member of the Tyrnau archiepiscopal gymnasium, 1852-1855. Prefect of studies of the Central Seminary of Pest, 1855-1859. Professor of theology, Seminary of Esztergom, 1859-1861. Ordinary public professor of biblical studies of the New Testament, University of Pest, 1861-1867. Member of the Hungarian parliament; counselor of the Ministry of Cult and Public Education; and abbot of St. Helena de Földovár, 1869. Canon of of the metropolitan cathedral of Esztergom, 1870-1871. Belonged to the Deák Party. He was nominated to the see of Szepes by Emperor Francis Joseph I of Austria-Hungary on February 1, 1871.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Szepes (Spis, now Slovakia), June 26, 1871. Consecrated, July 30, 1871, Esztergom, by János Simor, archbishop of Esztergom, assisted by János Zalka, bishop of Györ, and by József Szabó, titular bishop of Nilopoli, auxiliary of Esztergom. His episcopal motto was Fructus honoris onus. Nominated by Emperor Francis Joseph I of Austria-Hungary to the metropolitan see of Eger on June 18, 1873. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Eger, July 25, 1873; on that same day he was granted the pallium. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, July 30, 1886. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1892.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1905 (1); the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of December 11, 1905; received the red hat and the title of S. Marco, December 6, 1906, in forma privata, in the papal chapel.
Death. August 20, 1912, Eger. Buried, metropolitan cathedral, Eger.
Bibliography. Melloni, Alberto. Il conclave. Storia di una istitutzione. Bologna : Il Mulino, 2001, p. 79, n.45; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 8 and 23; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 82 and 504; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 209 and 329.
Webgraphy. Picture and brief biographical data, in Hungarian, Magyar Elektronikus Könyutár; and his photograph porraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) According to Melloni, Il conclave. Storia di una istitutzione, p. 79, n.45, on September 19, 1894, he had defended the right of Austria-Hungary to use the veto in the conclave and, because of this, he had not received the red hat despite the strong pressure of the court of Vienna. Melloni cites as sources of this information, M. Scaduto, "I precedenti di una riforma e le leggi di Pio X sul Conclave" in La Civiltà Cattolica, XCV, 2 (1944), pp. 140-149 and 236-246; and Friedrich Engel-Jánosi, Österreich und der Vatikan 1846-1918, II, Die Pontifikat Pius X. und Benedikts XV. (1903-1918), Graz : Verlag Styria, 1958-1960, pp. 79-91.
Birth. January 14, 1835, at 6 a.m., Isle of San Fernando, diocese of Cádiz, Spain. His parents were Juan Spínola y Osorno, marquis of Spínola, and Antonia Maestre y Osorno; they had eight children, of which four died in infancy; the other four were Soledad, Marcelo, Rafael and Rosario. He was baptized the following day in the military parish of San Fernando by the military chaplain of the second batallion of the Real Cuerpo de Artillería de la Marina and received the names Marcelo Rafael José María de los Dolores Hilario. His last name is also listed as Espínola.
Education. Initial studies in the school of San Fernando, directed by priests, 1843-1845; Colegio Santo Tomás, Cádiz, 1845-1846 (Latin, Spanish and French grammar and basic philosophy); school of Motril, where the father had been transferred, 1846-1847 (mathematics); school in Granada, 1847-1848 (physics, chemistry and natural history); año de ampliación or "preu" in Valencia, 1848-1849 (history of philosophy and Latin and Spanish literature); University of Valencia, Valencia, 1849-1852 (first three years of law); University of Sevilla, Sevilla, October 1, 1852 to 1856 (licentiate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, June 29, 1856).
Early life. Opened a law office in Huelva, offering free services to the poor; later, moved to Sanlúcar de Barrameda when his father was transferred to that city as chief of the port. Decided to follow his sacerdotal vocation with the counsel of Canon Diego Herrero y Espinosa de los Monteros; studied theology and moral privately, at home. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure on May 29, 1863, in the church of the nuns of Santa María de las Dueñas, Sevilla, from Calixto Castillo y Ornedo, auxiliary bishop of Sevilla and elected bishop of León; the minor orders on the following day from the same bishop; and then the subdiaconate on December 19, 1863; and the diaconate on February 20, 1864.
Priesthood. Ordained, March 21, 1864, in the chapel of the archiepiscopal placa, Sevilla, by Luis de la Lastra y Cuesta, archbishop of Sevilla. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Sevilla, 1864-1869, chaplain of the church de la Merced, Sanlúcar de Barrameda; Canon of the cathedral chapter of Cádiz, 1869-1871. Parish priest of San Lorenzo, March 17, 1871 to May 28, 1879. Penitentiary canon of the cathedral chapter of Sevilla, 1879-1880.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Milos and appointed auxiliary of Sevilla, December 16, 1880. Consecrated, February 6, 1881, cathedral of Sevilla, by Cardinal Joaquín Lluch y Garriga, O.C.C., archbishop of Sevilla, assisted by Manuel María González y Sánchez, bishop of Jaén, and by Mariano Miguel Gómez Alguacil y Fernández, bishop of Vitoria. His episcopal motto was Omni possum in eo. Transferred to the diocese of Coria, November 10, 1884. Founder of the order of Esclavas del Divino Corazón, 1885. Transferred to the diocese of Málaga, June 10, 1886. He founded the journal "El Correo de Andalucía in 1889. Senator of the Spanish kingdom, 1891 to 1894, and 1898 until his death. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, December 2, 1895.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1905. He received the red brietta from King Alfonso XIII of Spain on December 31, 1905. He died before going to Rome to receive the red hat and the title.
Death. January 20, 1906, at noon, Sevilla. Exposed in Salón San Fernando in the archiepiscopal palace. He received honors of capitán general. Buried in the crypt of the Sagrario in the metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla. On January 24, 1913, his remains were transferred to a new mausoleum built in the chapel of Dolores in the same cathedral. His funeral monument was the work of sculptor Joaquín Bilbao Martínez.
Beatification. March 29, 1987, Vatican City, by Pope John Paul II.
Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 48; Javierre, José María. El arzobispo mendigo : biografía de Marcelo Spínola. Madrid : Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1974. (Biblioteca de autores cristianos. Minor ; 33); Javierre, José María. Don Marcelo de Sevilla. Barcelona : J. Flors, 1963.
Webgraphy. Portrait and biography, in Spanish, Hermandad Sacramental de la Soledad; his statue and biography, in Spanish, Sevillapedia; his statue and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; El Beato Isleño, Cardenal Spínola by Quintín Dobarganes Merodio, in Spanish, islabahia.com; Bandera Beato Marcelo Spínola , in Spanish, Hermandad Sacramental de la Soledad; photographs, arms and biography, in Spanish, Hermandad del Desconsuelo; his statue, image and biography, in Catalan, Wikipedia; basrelief in the façade of the church of S. Lorenzo, Sevilla, where he was pastor, La Sevilla que no vemos; photograph, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana; and Colegio Cardenal Spínola, San Isidro, Argentina; his statue, metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla, Wikipedia; Beato Marcelo Spínola y Maestre by Isabel Orellana Vilches, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, Madrid, 19 de enero de 2014; Beato Marcelo Spínola y Maestre - 19 de enero by Isabel Orellana Vilches, in Spanish, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 18 de enero de 2015.
Birth. January 17, 1850, Cimbres, Pernambuco, diocese of Olinda, Brazil. Son of António Francisco de Albuquerque Cavalcanti and his wife, Marcolina Dorotéa de Albuquerque Cavalcanti. He was also called Cardinal Arcoverde.
Education. When he was thirteen years old, he entered the Minor Seminary of Cajazeiras, in Paraíba, and studied humanities; at sixteen, he was sent to Rome to study at Collegio Romano, residing at the Pontifical Collegio Pio-Latinomericano; he also studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he earned doctorates in philosophy and theology; at Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris; and at La Sorbonne University, Paris, where he studied natural sciences.
Priesthood. Ordained, April 4, 1874, Rome, patriarchal Lateran basilica. Further studies, Paris, 1874-1876. Returned to Brazil and from 1876 to 1878, he was profesor of philosophy and rector of the Seminary of Olinda. Parish priest of Boa Vista and of São Frei Pedro Gonçalves, Recife, 1878; of Cimbres, 1879. Professor and rector of the Ginásio Pernambucano. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Olinda, position obtained by competition. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 27, 1884. Nominated coadjutor bishop of São Salvador da Bahia, Brazil, March 7, 1888 by the imperial regent princess; the nomination was withdrawn when he declined, April 18, 1888.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Goias, Brazil, June 26, 1890; consecrated, October 26, 1890, Rome, by Cardinal Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of State, assisted by António de Macedo Costa, archbishop of São Salvador da Bahia, and by Domenico Ferrata, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. His episcopal motto was Domini fortitudo nostra. Resigned the government of diocese, October 27, 1891. Returned to Brazil and resided in Colégio de São Luiz, in Itu. Transferred to the titular see of Argos and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of São Paulo, August 26, 1892; took possession of the post on the February 11, 1893. In this role, he was asked to go to Europe personally to contact the religious congregations who should come to Brazil for missionary activities and education, which were the Redemptorists, Vincentians and Premonstratensian. Succeeded to the diocese of São Paulo, August 19, 1894. Took possession of the see on the following September 30. Assistant to the Pontifical Throne, November 12, 1896. Promoted to the metropolitan see of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, August 31, 1897. Took possession of the see by procurator the following October 24. Made his solemn entrance in the metropolitan cathedral of Rio de Janeiro and received the pallium from Jerônimo Tomé da Silva, archbishop of São Salvador da Bahia, primate of Brazil, on December 16 of that same year. Attended the First Latin American Plenary Council, Vatican City, May 29 to July 9, 1899.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1905; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alessio, December 14, 1905. Named member of the SS. CC. Consistorial, of Seminaries and Universities of Studies, of Bishops and Religious and of Loreto (the latter two were later suppressed) on December 11, 1905. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. He founded Federação das Associações Católicas. The cardinal reformed the cathedral and the metropolitan curia and rebuilt the Palace of São Joachim, the old residence of the bishops of Rio de Janeiro. He maintained good relations with the government in spite of the sometimes anticlerical stance of the latter. He was the first Brazilian cardinal and the first cardinal from Latin America.
Death. April 18, 1930, of bronchial pneumonia, Rio de Janeiro. The obsequies were celebrated, according to a decree, dated April 19, from President Washington Luís of Brazil, with the honors of vice president of the republic; the president received in special audience the five archbishops and fourteen bishops who attended the funeral, as well as the apostolic nuncio, Benedetto Aloisi Masella, titular archbishop of Cesarean di Mauritania. On the following April 24, his body was buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Rio de Janeiro (1).
Bibliography. Almeida, Alceste Pinheiro de. O cardeal Arcoverde e a reorganização eclesiástica. Augustin Wernet, orientador. São Paulo, 2004. Dissertation: Tese (Doutorado); "Em. Arcoverde de Albuquerque Cavalcanti (Joachim), archev. de Rio de Janeiro" in "Liste des cardinaux par ordre alphabétique", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 85; "Em. Arcoverde de Albuquerque Cavalcanti (Joachim), archev. de Rio de Janeiro" in "Nécrologe", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 920; Gardel, Luis Delgado. Les armoiries ecclésiastiques au Brésil, 1551-1962; armes des éminentissimes cardinaux, des archêveques et évêques résidentiels, titulaires, et in partibus infidelium, et des prélats et abbés nullius dioeceseos. Rio de Janeiro: Companhia Gráfica Lux, 1963; "Gioacchino Arcoverde de Albuquerque Cavalcanti" in "Emi. e Rmi. Signori Cardinali compnenti il Sacro Collegio" Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1929. Roma : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1929, pp. 38, 64, 69 and 224; "Gioacchino Arcoverde de Albuquerque Cavalcanti" in "Cardinali defunti nel Pontificato di Nostro Signore Pio Papa XI Gloriosamente Regnante" Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1931. Roma : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1931, p. 61-62; Nóbrega, Apolonio. "Dioceses e bispos do Brasil". Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, CCXXII (January-March 1954), 200-202; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 8, 22 and 335; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 120, 288, 444 and 507.
Webgraphy. His portrait, arms and biography, in Portuguese, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
Birth. November 7, 1845, Frosinone, diocese of Veroli, Papal State (1). Second of the three children of Vincenzo Cagiano de Azevedo and Anna Cerroni. The other siblings were Michele and Antonio, privy chamberlain participant of His Holiness. He had the title of count. Nephew of Cardinal Antonio Maria Cagiano de Azevedo (1844).
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Grottaferrata.
Priesthood. Ordained, September 1868. Pastoral ministry in Rome, 1868-1874. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, April 1, 1874. Abreviattore de parco maggiore, January 1, 1876. Protonotary apostolic ad instar participantium, April 9 (2), 1880. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, December 3 (3), 1886. Master of the Papal Chamber, December 31, 1891 (4). Papal Majordomo, May 29, 1901.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 11, 1905; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, December 14, 1905. Apostolic visitor of the Hospice of Catechumens, January 17, 1911. Pro-prefect of the S.C. for Religious, June 12, 1913; prefect, October 31, 1913. Protector of the Order of the Servants of Mary, March 10, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, December 6, 1915 until his death. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, proper of the chancellor, December 6, 1915. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Franz Joseph of Austria; the grand cross of the Order of Isabel of Spain; the grand cross of the Civil Order of Tuscany. Officer of Légion d'honor of France. Commander with plaque of the Order of the Red Eagle of Prussia. Grand officer of the Order of the Crown of Siam.
Death. July 11, 1927, Anzio, near Rome. Buried in the tomb of the Order of the Servants of Mary, in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.
Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1938, p. 77; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 678; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 9, 23 and 25; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 133.
Webgraphy. Photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is according to "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, p. 77; and Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 9; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 678, says that he was born on November 1, 1845.
(2) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 9; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 678, says that he was named on April 16, 1880.
(3) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 9; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 678, says that he was named on December 1, 1886.
(4) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 9; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 678, says that he was named on January 1, 1892.
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