The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius X (1903-1914)
Consistory of May 25, 1914 (VII)

guisasola4.jpg

(38) 1. GUISASOLA Y MENÉNDEZ, Victoriano
(1852-1920)

Birth. April 21, 1852, Oviedo, Spain. Nephew of Victoriano Guisasola Rodríguez, archbishop of Santiago de Compostela (1886-1888).

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Oviedo, where he obtained a licentiate in theology; and at the University of Oviedo, where he earned a doctorate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1876, by his uncle. Professor of canon law, Seminary of Ciudad Real and beneficiary canon of its cathedral, 1876-1882; canon, 1880-1882. Chancellor-secretary to his uncle the bishop of Orihuela, 1882-1884. Canon schoolmaster and vicar general of Orihuela, 1884-1886. Cathedral canon of Santiago de Compostela, 1886-1893; vicar capitular at the death of his uncle, 1888.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Osma, June 15, 1893. Consecrated, October 1, 1893, cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, by José María Martín de Herrera y de la Iglesia, archbishop of Compostela, assisted by Manuel Fernández de Castro y Menéndez, bishop of Mondoñedo, and by Valeriano Menéndez Conde, titular bishop of Tamaso, auxiliary of Toledo. His episcopal motto was Labora sicut bonus milis Christi Jesu. Transferred to diocese of Jaén, April 19, 1897. Senator of the Spanish kingdom, from 1899 until his death. Transferred to diocese of Madrid-Alcalá, December 16, 1901. Promoted to metropolitan see of Valencia, December 14, 1905. Member of the Royal Academies of Moral and Juridical Sciences from 1906, and of History from 1910. Transferred to metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo and patriarchate of West Indies, January 1, 1914.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1914; received the red biretta from King Alfonso XIII of Spain, June 3, 1914; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, September 8, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV.

Death. September 2, 1920, Madrid. Buried in the chapel of the Seminary of Toledo.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 58; Olmos Canalda, Elías. Los prelados valentinos. Madrid : Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto Jerónimo Zurita, 1949.

Links. Portrait and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Valencia, Spain; and photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(39) 2. BÉGIN, Louis-Nazaire
(1840-1925)

Birth. January 10, 1840, La Pointe-Lévis, archdiocese of Québec, Canada. Of a modest family of farmers originally from Normandy, France, whose ancestors arrived in Canada in 1655. Son of Charles Bégin, a farmer, and Luce Paradis, a cousin of Bishop Ignace Bourget of Montréal.

Education. Primary studies, École modèle, Lévis; and collège commercial, St-Michel de Bellechasse; Seminary of Québec, 1862-1863 (classicas and one year of theology); University of Laval, Québec; Pontifical French Seminary, Rome, September 1863 until 1867; Pontifical Gregorian University (doctorate in theology, 1866; also, studied Hebrew, Chaldean, Syrian and Arabic); Theological Faculty, Innsbruck, 1867-1868 (perfected his previous studies and learned German). Received all the sacred orders in Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 10, 1865, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Costantino Patrizi Naro, vicar of Rome. Further studies, 1865-1867. Travelled to Palestine and spent five months in the Holy Land, October 1867 to February 1868. Professor of dogmatic theology and ecclesiastical history at the Seminary of Québec, July 1868 to 1884; he obtained the agregation (competitive examination for positions on the teaching staff of lyceums and universities) in 1869; successively, 1876-1883, occupied several administrative posts such as director of the boarding school; of students; of seminarians; prefect of studies. Professor of religious culture at the University of Laval, Québec, October 1870 to 1875. From the end of 1883 to the beginning of 1884, he took several months to rest and recuperate. Travelled to Europe from April to December 1884 with Cardinal Elzéar-Alexandre Taschereau, archbishop of Québec, acting as his secretary. Principal of the Normal School of Laval, January 1885 to October 1888.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Chicoutimi, Canada, October 1, 1888. Consecrated, October 21 (1), 1888, metropolitan cathedral basilica of Québec, by Cardinal Elzéar-Alexandre Taschereau, archbishop of Québec, assisted by Louis-François Richer dit Laflèche, bishop of Trois-Rivières, and by Jean-Pierre-François Laforce dit Langevin, bishop of Rimouski. His episcopal motto was In spiritu lenitatis. Promoted to titular archbishop of Cirene, December 18, 1891. Appointed coadjutor of Québec, December 22, 1891. Given the right of succession, March 22, 1892. Apostolic administrator of Québec, September 3, 1894. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Québec, April 12, 1898. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, April 22, 1898. Participated in the First Plenary Council of Québec, September 10 to November 1, 1909.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1914; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Vitale, Gervasio e Protasio, May 28, 1914. Arrived late to the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Arrived late to the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. He was stricken by paralysis on June 12, 1925 and died shortly after. He was a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and author of a number of religious works. He tirelessly defended the rights of minorities and helped build a public Catholic culture in the province of Québec.

Death. July 19, 1925, of uremia followed by paralysis, Québec (2). Buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral basilica of Québec on July 25, 1925.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1938, p. 76; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 297-299; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, p. 12, 25; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 201 and 473.

Links. Photograph and biography by Roberto Perin, in English, Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 15, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2005, photograph and biography by Roberto Perin, in French, Dictionnaire biographique du Canada, vol. 15, Université Laval/University of Toronto, 2005, photograph and biographical data, in French, Archive of the Seminary of Québec, Québec, Canada; his photograph, Division des Archives, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada; and his arms and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 201; Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada, p. 297, indicates that he was consecrated on October 28, 1888.
(2) Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 473, indicates that he died on July 18 (al. 19), 1925; Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 12, says he died on July 19 (al. 18); "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, p. 76, says that he died on July 18, 1925; and Le Blanc, Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada, p. 298, indicates that he died on July 19, 1925.


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(40) 3. SERAFINI, O.S.B.Cas., Domenico
(1852-1918)

Birth. August 3, 1852, Rome, Italy. Of an ancient and noble family. His parents were Luigi Serafini and Costanza Di Pietro. His grandfather on his mother's side, Giovanni, was a consistorial lawyer; and having become a widower, he was ordained a priest and named auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota by Pope Gregory XVI.

Education. Studied at Collegio Romano; then, he entered the Order of Saint Benedict Cassinese in 1871; professed, June 16, 1874, Subiaco. Studied at Benedictine houses of studies; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned doctorates in philosophy and in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 21, 1877, Subiaco. Member of the community of the abbey of Saint Benedict of Subiaco, 1877-1882; master of novices, 1889-1891; lector of theology; prior of the monastery of St. Scholastica, Subiaco, 1891-1892. General procurator of his order in Rome, 1892-1896. Elected abbot of the two monasteries of Subiaco and general abbot of the Benedictine Cassinese Congregation a Primaeva Observantia (called now of Subiaco), June 5, 1896.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Spoleto, April 19, 1900. Consecrated, May 6, 1900, Rome, by Cardinal Serafino Vannutelli, bishop of Frascati, grand penitentiary, assisted by Casimiro Gennari, titular archbishop of Lepanto, assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, and by Tommaso Granello, O.P., titular archbishop of Seluecia in Isauria, commissary general of the Holy Office. Apostolic delegate in México, January 4, 1904 (1). Consultor of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars until 1908. Consultor of the SS. CC. of Propaganda Fide and Consistorial in 1911. Assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, November 30, 1911. Transferred to the titular see of Seleucia Pieria, March 2, 1912; published in the consistory of the following December 2.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1914; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, May 28, 1914. Took possession of the title on the following June 23. Member of the SS. CC. Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, (May 28, 1914); of the Holy Office (November 8, 1914); of Propaganda Fide, Latin and Oriental Rites (November 25, 1914); and of the Pontifical Biblical Commission (October 19, 1914). Protector of the Daughters of Mary Immaculate of Guadalupe (June 21, 1914); of the Institute of Pious Mothers of Ovada (December 14, 1914); of the Capuchin Sisters of the Franciscan Third Order, called of the Divina Pastora of Sarrá, diocese of Barcelona (March 14, 1915); of the Benedictines of the Perpetual Adoration of the Most Holy Sacrament of Ronco, diocese of Novara (April 22, 1915). Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Prefect of the S.C. of Religious, January 27, 1916. Pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of Faith, February 26 until March 24, 1916; prefect, March 24, 1916 until his death. President of the Pontifical Seminary of Ss. Pietro e Paolo for the Foreign Missions, Rome, March 29, 1916. Protector of the Pontifical North American College, Rome, April 5, 1916 until his death. Protector of the Scottish College of Rome, April 15, 1916 until his death. He resided at the Benedictine convent of S. Anselmo all'Aventino, Rome.

Death. March 5, 1918, Rome. The funeral took place in the church of S. Ignazio, Rome. Buried in the chapel of the S.C. for the Propagation of Faith, in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. On December 1, 1919, his remains were transferred to the monastery of Saint Benedict in Subiaco and buried in the north transept, before the altar of the Blessed Sacrament (2).

Bibliography. "Em. Serafini (Domenico), Benédictin, préfect de la Propaganda" in "Nécrologe" Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1919. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1918, p. 853; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 12, 22 and 338; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 527

Links. Biography by Ekkart Sauser, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; biography, in English, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 12; Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VIII, 527, indicates that he was appointed on January 6, 1904.
(2) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, taken from a photograph kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London, England:

A     XP     Ω
HEIC · IN · CHRISTO · QUIESCUNT
OSSA · ET · CINERES
CARD. DOMINICI SERAFINI
QUI · HUIUS · PROTOCOENOBII
ALTERIUS · VELUT · PARENTIS · NOMINE · FULGET · ET · MERITO
PRAECEPTA · MAGISTRI
DIEM · MONACHUS · NOCTEMO · FACESSIT
ABBAS · ET · SUPREMUS · CONGR · MODERATOR
SODALES · EXEMPLO · DUXIT · PRAEIVIT · CONSILIO · FOVIT
SPOLETINORUM · ARCHIEPISCOPUS
FORMA · GREGIS · MITISSIMO · INNOCUIT · FACTUS · ET · ANIMO
S · SEDIS · IN · MEXICANA · REP · DELEGATUS
RECTI · TENAX · SOLLERS · EXCUBUIT
NE · QUID · ECCLESIAE · IURA · CAPERENT · DETRIMENTUM
PRESBYTER · CARDINALIS
FIDEI · PROPAGANDAE · PRAEFECTUS
E · RE · QUID · FORET · ALACER · INYUENS · PROMPTUS · EDICENS
REL · CHRISTIANAE · CAUSSAM · IMPENSE · EGIT
MISSIONES · APUD · EXTEROS
NOVO · ROBORE · AUXIT · SOLIDAVITQUE
----------------------------------------- · ----------------------------------------
AVE · PARENS · PIENTISSIME · VALE · IN · PACE
TIBI · VIRTUS · CESSIT · NUNQUAM
NULLA · TE · DIES · NOSTRO · EXIMET
----------------------------------------- · ----------------------------------------
NATUS · III · NON · AUG · A · MDCCCLII                         ARCH · SPOELTIN · XIII · KAL · MAI · AN ·MCM
H · MON · PROF · XVI · KAL · IUL · A · MDCCCLXXIV       DELEG · APOST · PRID · NON · AN · AN · MCMXIV
SAC · INIT · XII · KAL · NOV · A · MDCCCLXXVII             PRESB · CARDIN · VIII · KAL · IUN · A · MCMXIV
ABBAS · GEN · NON · IUN · AN · MDCCCXCVI                DEC · ROMAE · III · NON · MART · A · MCMXVIII

----------------------------------------- · ----------------------------------------
UT · TANTI · PATRIS · FILIORUMQ · MIRANTIUM
VOTIS · FIERET · SATIS
EIUS · EXUVIAE
ROMA · ET · NECROP · HUC · TRANSLATAE
KAL · DEC · A · MCMXIX


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(41) 4. DELLA CHIESA, Giacomo
(1854-1922)

Birth. November 21, 1854, Pegli (1), Genoa, Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont. Son of Marquis Giuseppe della Chiesa and Giovanna Migliorati. Baptized, November 22, 1854, church of Nostra Signora della Vigna, by Father Cardinali; received the names Giacomo Giambattista.

Education. Studied law at the University of Genoa; then, entered the Seminary of Genoa; later, he attended at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, where he studied diplomacy, from 1879 until 1883; and the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in theology, in 1879; and in doctorate in canon law, in 1880; while in Rome, he resided at Almo Collegio Capranica.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1878, by Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valletta, vicar of Rome, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Further studies, 1878-1882. Staff member of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, 1882-1883. Secretary to the nuncio in Spain, January 2, 1883 to 1887. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, June 11, 1883. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1887-1901: minutante from 1887; capo d'ufficio of Cardinal Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of State, 1887-1901. Domestic prelate, July 18, 1900. Substitute of the Secretariat of State and secretary of ciphering, April 23, 1901. Professor at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bologna, December 18, 1907. Consecrated, December 22, 1907, in the Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Pope Pius X, assisted by Pietro Balestra, archbishop of Cagliari, and by Teodoro Valfrè di Bonzo, archbishop of Vercelli. His episcopal motto was In te Domine speravi, non confundar in aeternum.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1914; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, May 28, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on September 3, 1914. Took the name Benedict XV. Crowned, September 6, 1914, Sistine Chapel, by Cardinal Francesco Salesio della Volpe, protodeacon of S. Maria in Aquiro. Created thirty-three cardinals in five consistories. One of them was reserved in pectore and his name was never published, therefore, his promotion did not take effect.

Death. January 22, 1922, of pneumonia, Vatican City. Buried on January 26, 1922 in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Bibliography. Barry, William. "Benedict XV : pontiff of peace." The Dublin Review, CLXX (1922), 161-178; Beyens, Eugène-Napoléon. Quatre ans à Rome, 1921-1926; fin du pontificat de Benoît XV -- Pie XI -- les débuts du fascisme. Avec un portrait hor texte. Paris : Plon, 1934; Bourassa, Henri. Le pape arbitre de la paix. Montréal : Devoir, 1918; De Rosa, Gabriele. "Benedetto XV." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 608-617; Dillon, E. J. "The pope and the belligerents." The Contemporary Review, CVII (May 1915), 553-571; Di Pietro. Maria. Benedetto XV. Milan : Società editrice Vita e Pensiero, 1936; Durante, Antonio. Benedetto XV. Rome : Editrice A. V. E., 1939; Goyau, Georges. Papauté et Chretienté sous Benoît XV. Paris : Perrin et Cie., 1922; Hayward, Fernand. Un pape méconnu : Benoî. Tournai : Castermann, 1955; Lama, Friedrich Ritter von. Die Friedensvermittlung Papst Benedikts XV und ihre Vereitlung durch den deutschen Reichskanzler Michaelis. Münche : Kösel und Pustet, 1932; Lama, Friedrich, Ritter von. Peace action of Pope Benedict XV; a summary by the History Committee of Friedrich Ritter von Lama's Die Friedensvermittlung Papst Benedikt XV. und ihre Vereitlung durch den deutschen Reichskanzler Michaelis. Washington, D.C. : The Catholic Association for International Peace, 1936; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica; 3), pp. 554-564; Migliori, Giambattista. Benedetto XV. Milan : La Favilla, 1932; Peters, Walter H. The life of Benedict XV. Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Co., 1959; Pichon, Francis. Benoît XV. Paris : Éditions Spes, 1940; Pollard, John Francis. Benedict XV : the unknown pope and the pursuit of peace. London ; New York : Continuum, 2005, 1999. Note: Originally published: The unknown pope. London : Geoffrey Chapman, 1999; Rope, Henry Edward George. Benedict XV, the pope of peace. London : J. Gifford limited, 1941; Tworkowski, Waclaw. Wilson et Benoît XV : autour de la Société des Nations. Montreux : Société de l'Impr. & lithographie, 1920; Vistalli, Francesco. Benedetto XV. Con prefazione di sua eminenza revma il Signor Card. Alfonso M. Mistrangelo. Rome : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1928; Volder, Jan de. Benoît XV et la Bélgique durant la grande guerre. Bruxelles : Institut historique belge de Rome, 1996. (Bibliothèque / Institut historique belge de Rome ; Bibliotheek / Belgisch Historisch Instituut te Rome ; 41; Variation: Bibliothèque de l'Institut historique belge de Rome ; fasc. 41); Wood, L. J. S. "Benedict XV, pontiff of peace." The Dublin Review, CLXX (April 1922), 161-212.

Links. Biography, in English, (Britannica); his photograph, arms and biography, in Italian, The Vatican; biography by J. M. Cuenca Toribio, in Spanish, Gran Enciclopedia Rialp; biography by Gabriele De Rosa, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei papi, Treccani; brief biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Bologna; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his photograph; his image, arms, photograph and biographical data, in German, Kardinalskreierungen im Pontifikat des Papstes; photographs and arms as cardinal and as pope, Araldica Vaticana; his effigy on a medal, deamoneta; his effigy on a medal, by Francesco Bianchi, to celebrate his election to the pontificate, mcsearch.info, the Medieval and Modern Coin Search Engine; his effigy on a medal, by Francesco Bianchi, to pray to the Blessed Virgin Mary for the end of the First Wolrd War, mcsearch.info, the Medieval and Modern Coin Search Engine; his effigy on a medal, by Francesco Bianchi, to celebrate the publication of the Code of Canon Law, mcsearch.info, the Medieval and Modern Coin Search Engine; his effigy on a medal, by Francesco Bianchi, to celebrate the institution of the S.C. of the Oriental Church, mcsearch.info, the Medieval and Modern Coin Search Engine; his effigy on a medal, by Giovanni Romagnoli, for the end of the First Wolrd War, mcsearch.info, the Medieval and Modern Coin Search Engine; his effigy on a medal, by Aurelio Mistruzzi, for the canonization of Saints Giovanna d'Arco, Margherita Maria Alacoque and Gabriele dell'Addolorata, May 1920, mcsearch.info, the Medieval and Modern Coin Search Engine; his effigy on a coin, by Aurelio Mistruzzi, for the proclamation of S. Efrem doctor of the Church, October 5, 1920, mcsearch.info, the Medieval and Modern Coin Search Engine; his monument by Pietro Canonica, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, iccd immagini, Fototeca Nazionale, Italy; another view of the monument, from the same source; detail of the monument, from the same source; detail of the monument, from the same source; and another detail of the monument, from the same source; Pope Benedict XV Papa Benedetto XV (Giacomo Della Chiesa), video, You Tube; Find out how Benedict XV tried to stop World War I, Rome Reports, 2014-07-16; World War I's Pope Benedict XV and the pursuit of peace by Terry Philpot, National Catholic Reporter, Jul. 19, 2014; Wartime pontiff started tradition of papal peacemaking, contributing to this story was Robert Duncan, Catholic News Service, Aug-29-2014; Benedict XV: 100 years since his election, Rome Reports, 2014-09-03..

(1) Pegli is a summer touristic municipality next to Genoa, united to the city in 1926.


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(42) 5. CSERNOCH, János
(1852-1927)

Birth. June 18, 1852, Szakolcza, archdiocese of Esztergom (Gran), Hungary (1). Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 1861.

Education. Studied at Collegium Pazmaneum, Vienna; at the Institute Sankt Augustinum, Vienna; at the University of Vienna, where he earned a doctorate in theology on June 2, 1876); and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome. Received the insignias of the clerical character and the minor orders on July 22, 1874; the subdiaconate on July 23, 1874; and the diaconate on July 24, 1874.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 18, 1874, Vienna. Further studies, 1874-1877. Successively, in the archdiocese of Esztergom, 1877-1908, cooperator in Radossócz and Budapest; professor of theology and biblical studies at the Seminary of Esztergom, 1879; librarian and archivist of the archiepiscopal palace; secretary to Cardinal János Simor; notary of the Holy See; cathedral canon, 1888; titular abbot of Savnyik, 1888; archiepiscopal chancellor for six years; pastor of the cathedral, 1893. Privy chamberlain honorary, 1882. Royal chaplain, 1887. Deputy in the parliament of Hungary, representing his native city, 1901. Co-founder of the Catholic Party. Protonotary apostolic, April 15, 1907. Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary nominted him to the see of Csanád on January 12, 1908.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Csanád, Hungary, February 16, 1908. Consecrated, 10 May, 1908, cathedral of Temesvar, by Käroly Hörnig, bishop of Vezprém, assisted by Jozsef Németh, titular bishop of Isauropoli, auxiliary of Csanád, and by Vasile Hossu, bishop of Lugoj. Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary nominated him to the see of Kalocsa on March 8, 1911. Promoted to metropolitan see of Kalocsa, April 20, 1911. He received the pallium on November 30, 1911. Royal counselor. Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary nominated him to the see of Esztergom. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Esztergom, December 13, 1912.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1914; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated May 25, 1914; received the red biretta in the chapel of the Hofburg Palace, Vienna, from archduke Franz-Ferdinand (who was assassinated in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914), substituting for the aged Emperor Francis Joseph I; received the red hat and the title of S. Eusebio, September 8, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1915. Crowned Karoly IV of Hungary, December 31, 1916. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI.

Death. July 25, 1927, of pneumonia, Esztergom. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Esztergom (2).

Bibliography. Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 13, 22, 135, 147 and 351; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 209, 280-284, and 329.

Links. Biography, in Hungarian. Magyar Elektronikus Könyutár; his photograph, Araldica Vaticana; and portraits, photographs and arms by Ferenc Hatvany, Magyar Képzőmüvészeti Egyetem.

(1) Now Skalica, archdiocese of Bratislava-Trnava, Slovakia.
(2) This is the text of the inscription on a monument above his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici:

CSERNOCH JANOS. BIBOROS.
HERCEGPRIMAS. ESZTERGOMI ERSEK.
NAGY IDOKBEN HV PASZTOR ES
BOLCS ALLAMFERFIV. 1927. JVL. 25.
OTA AZ OROKKEVALOSAGBAN
IMADKOZVA VISSZAKERI AMIT
ELETEBEN MEGMENTENI NEM TVDOTT


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(43) 6. BETTINGER, Franz von
(1850-1917)

Birth. September 17, 1850, Landstuhl, diocese of Speyer, Bavaria, Germany. The oldest of the six children, five sons and a daughter, of Franz Michael Bettinger, blacksmith, and Maria Josephine Weber. Received the sacrament of confirmation, June 5, 1865.

Education. Studied philosophy, theology and canon law at Lyceum of Speyer; then, attended the University of Innsbruck; the University Würtzburg; and the Seminary of Speyer.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 17, 1873, Speyer. Pastoral ministry in diocese of Speyer, 1873-1895: chaplain in Zweibrücken, 1873-1877; and in Kaiserlautern, 1877-1878; cooperator Reichenbach, 1878-1879; administrator, and later pastor and school inspector in Lambaheim, 1879; pastor in Roxheim, 1888; pastor of the cathedral, 1895. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Speyer, 1895-1909; dean, 1909.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Münich and Freising, Germany, June 6, 1909. Consecrated, August 15, 1909, metropolitan cathedral of Münich, by Andreas Früwirth, titular archbishop of Eraclea, nuncio in Bavaria, assisted by Max von Lingg, bishop of Augsburg, and by Sigismond Felix von Ow-Felldorf, bishop of Passau. His episcopal motto was Pax in virtute.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1914; received the red hat and the title of S. Marcello, May 28, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Member of the German Parliament, in the leading House of the Bavarian kingdom. Chaplain general of the Bavarian Army during the First World War.

Death. April 12, 1917, suddenly, of a heart attack, in the archiepiscopal palace of Münich. Buried, Liebfrauen metropolitan cathedral, Münich.

Bibliography. Gatz, Erwin. "Bettinger, Franz von." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1785/1803 bis 1945 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1983, pp. 49-50.

Links. Biography, in German; photograph and biographical information, in German, second on page; and his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(44) 7. SÉVIN, Hector-Irénée
(1852-1916)

Birth. March 22, 1852, Simandre-sur-Suran, diocese of Belley, France.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Belley; and at the Major Seminary of Belley. Received the subdiaconate on December 19, 1874; and the diaconate on May 22, 1875.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 7, 1876, Belley, by Jean-Joseph Marchal, bishop of Belley. Subdirector of the institute for the deaf and mute, Bourg (Ain), 1875-1876. Professor of Greek, dogmatic theology, Sacred Scriptures, and ecclesiastical history, Seminary of Belley in Bourg, 1876-1889; its rector, 1889-1891. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Belley, 1888-1891; titular canon, 1891-1908. Director of the educational institutions and ecclesiastical conferences of the diocese of Belley, 1891-1908. Vicar general of the diocese of Belley, 1904.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Châlons, February 11, 1908; took possession of the see on the following March 19. Consecrated, April 5, 1908, cathedral of Belley, by Cardinal Louis-Henri Luçon, archbishop of Reims, assisted by Gaspara-Marie Latty, archbishop of Avignon, and by François Labeuche, bishop of Belley. Enthroned on the following April 14; published in the consistory of April 29. His episcopal motto was Dona mihi populum meum. Promoted to metropolitan see of Lyon, December 2, 1912; on that same day he was granted the pallium; the see is united to that of Vienne and has the title of primate of the Gauls. Took possession of the see on December 8, 1912; and was enthroned the following December 19.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1914; received the red hat and the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, May 28, 1914; took possession of the title on May 30. He was named member of the SS. CC. Consistorial and of Studies on May 28, 1914. Protector of the International Sacerdotal League Pro Pontifice et Ecclesia (February 13, 1915). Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV.

Death. May 4, 1916, after suffering for four days from peritonitis, at hôpital Saint-Joseph in Lyon. His obsequies took place on the followig May 11 in the metropolitan cathedral of Lyon, in the presence of three cardinals, twenty two archbishops and bishops, two mitered abbots, and civil and military authorities. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Saint-Jean-Baptiste of Lyon.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 491-492; "Em. Sevin (Hector Irénée)" in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1916. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1915, p. 125; "Em. Sevin (Hector Irénée). archev. de Lyon, primat des Gaules in "Nécrologe", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1917. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1916, p. 805-806 Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 13, 25, 118 and 233.

Links. Chronology, in French, Wikipedia; Cardinal Sévin lying in state, 1916, Wikimedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(45) 8. HARTMANN, Felix von
(1851-1919)

Birth. December 15, 1851, Münster, Germany. Son of Albert von Hartmann and Maria von Heister. Received the sacrament of confirmation, August 2, 1865.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Münster from 1870 to 1874; at the University of Münster (philosophy and theology); at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; and at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", where he earned a doctorate in canon law in 1877.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 19, 1874, Münster. Further studies, Rome, 1874-1880. Chaplain of S. Maria dell'Anima, German church in Rome, 1875-1880. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, October 22, 1879. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Münster, 1880-1890; coadjutor of the parishes of Havixbeck and Emmerich. Secretary to the bishop of Münster, 1890-1903. Counselor of the episcopal curia of Münich, 1895-1905. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Münster, 1903-1905. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, October 23, 1903. Vicar general of Münster, 1905-1911; dean of the chapter and vicar capitular, 1910. Protonotary apostolic ad instar participantium, December 20, 1907.

Episcopate. Elected by the chapter bishop of Münster, June 9, 1911; confirmed by the pope, July 27, 1911. Consecrated, October 26, 1911, cathedral of Münster, by Cardinal Anton Fischer, archbishop of Cologne, assisted by Michael Felix Korum, bishop of Trier, and by Karl Josef Schulte, bishop of Paderborn. Elected by the chapter archbishop of Cologne, October 29, 1912; confirmed by the pope, December 2, 1912. Chairman of the Fulda Conference of Catholic Bishops, 1914-1919. Awarded the grand cross of Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1914; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, May 28, 1914. Awarded the grand cross and bailiff of honor of the Sovereign Order of Malta, June 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Member of the Prussian Chamber of Lords, January 1916.

Death. November 11, 1919, from complications after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage with signs of paralysis, in Cologne. Buried in the archbishop's crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Cologne.

Bibliography. Berg, Ludwig. Ein Kirchenfürst im Felde : Seine Eminenz Felix Kardinal v. Hartmann Erzbischof von Cöln, an der Westfront v. 6. bis 14. April 1916 Bericht .... [s. l.] : Bachem, 1917. Responsibility : zsgest von dem kath. Feldgeistlichen d. Grossen Hauptquartiers Prof. Dr. Berg; Hartmann, Felix von. Dr. Felix von Hartmann, Bischof von Münster, erwählter Erzbischof von Köln : Ein Lebensbild. Köln : Bachem, 1913; Hartmann, Felix von. Die göttliche Vorsehung : Hirtenbrief Sr. Eminenz d. Herrn Felix Kard. v. Hartmann, Erzbischof von Köln ; Erlassen am 25. Jan. 1915. Köln : Bachem, 1915; Hartmann, Felix von. Hirtenbrief Sr. Erzbischöfl. : Gnaden des Hochw. Herrn Felix v. Hartmann, Erzbischof von Cöln, erlassen z. Tage d. Inthronisation am 9. April 1913. Cöln : Bachem, 1913; Hegel, Edward. "Hartmann, Felix von." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1785/1803 bis 1945 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1983, pp. 286-289; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 13, 23, 135 and 257; Waal, Anton de. Die Kirche St. Johannis ante Portam latinam in Rom, Titularkirche Sr. Eminenz des hochwürdigsten Herrn Felix Kardinal v. Hartmann, Erzbischof von Köln. Köln : Bachem, 1914.

Links. Biography, in German; his portrait and biographical data, in German, cathedral of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; his tomb in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Cologne; catalog of bishops and archbishops of Cologne with their portraits and biographies in German; and photographs, portraits and arms,Araldica Vaticana.


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(46) 9. PIFFL, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, Friedrich Gustav
(1864-1932)

Birth. October 15, 1864, Lanškroun, diocese of Königgrätz, Bohemia, Austrian Empire. He was the youngest of the seven children of Rudolf Piffl, a bookseller and shopkeeper, and Maria Magdalena Piro.

Education. In Lanškroun, he attended the primary school and became a grammar school student in 1874 until the summer of 1882, when he graduated with an excellent final exam; later, he studied at the Teutonic College of S. Maria in Camposanto, Rome; and at Sankt'Augustine monastery, Klosterneuburg, near Vienna, where he joined the Canons Regular of Saint Augustine in 1883, having been accepted by Ubald Kostersitz, the provost of the monastery; he added the name Friedrich to his baptismal name Gustav; he also studied at the University of Vienna (philosophy). He volunteered for a year in the Austrian army.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 8, 1888, Sankt Stefan metropolitan cathedral, Vienna, by Eduard Angerer, titular bishop of Alali, auxiliary of Vienna. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Vienna, 1888-1892; administrator of the Klosterneuburg monastery property on the Hungarian territory; office director of the monastery; pastor and prior of the collegiate church of Klosterneuburg, 1892-1913; its provost, January 9, 1907 to April 1, 1913. In 1910, he founded the Academy for Church Music. In 1913, Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria-Hungary nominated him to the position of archbishop of Vienna and bestowed on him a princedom at the same time.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Vienna, May 2, 1913. Consecrated, June 1, 1913, abbey church of Klosterneuburg, by Raffaele Scapinelli di Léguigno, titular archbishop of Laodicea, nuncio in Austria-Hungary, assisted by Hermann Zschokke, titular bishop of Cesarea di Filippi, auxiliary of Vienna, and by Josef Pfluger, titular bishop of Arpasa, auxiliary of Vienna. His episcopal motto was Non laboro honori. He was installed on June 8, 1913.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, May 25, 1914; received the red hat and the title of S. Marco, September 8, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. In 1914, he was decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Leopold, the Austrian Imperial Order. In 1918 the Austrian Empire ceased to exist and Vienna became the capital of the new Republic of Austria. He devoted himself intensively to Caritas after he end of the First World War in 1918. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. In 1922, he became apostolic administrator of the province of Burgenland, where he built five new churches and actively supported all cultural initiatives. In 1927, he introduced the Catholic Action in Austria. He built eighteen new churches in the archdiocese of Vienna.

Death. April 21, 1932, of an apoplexy, Vienna; he had suffered his first heart attack in 1930. At his own request, he was buried at a lonely forest cemetery near the then summer seat of the archbishops of Vienna in Kranichberg. In 1954, as the water table at the cemetery had risen, his remains were transferred to the bishops' crypt of Sankt Stefan metropolitan cathedral, Vienna.

Bibliography. Knoll, August Maria. Kardinal Fr. G. Piffl und osterreichische Episkopat zu sozialen und kulturellen Fragen, 1913-1932. Quellensammlung von August M. Knoll ; Einband von Rose Reinhold. Wien: Reinhold-Verlag, 1932. (Kleine historische monographien, 35); Krexner, Martin. Hirte an der Zeitenwende: Kardinal Friedrich Gustav Piffl und seine Zeit. Wien : Dom, 1988. Note : Revision of the author's doctoral thesis: Kardinal Friedrich Gustav Piffl -- Universität Wein,1987; Rennhofer, Friedrich. Friedrich Gustav Kardinal Piffl, Erzbischof von Wien, 1864-1932. Denkschrift der Christkönigskirche (Kardinal-Piffl-Gedächtniskirche) Gloggnitz. [Mit Porträt]. Gloggnitz : Franz Rudolf Kopf, 1967; Saurer, Edith. Die politischen Aspekte der österreichischen Bischofsernennungen, 1867-1903. Anhang: Die Wiener Erzbischöfe Nagl und Piffl. Wien, München : Herold, 1968. (Forschungen zur Kirchengeschichte Österreichs, Bd. 6). Notes : Based on the author's thesis, Vienna, 1966.

Links. Portrait and biography, in English, Město Lanškroun; photograph and biographical information, in German, Österreich-Lexikon; his photograph, tomb and biography by Guy Gagnon, in English, Find a Grave; list of the provosts of Klosterneuburg, Canons Regular of Saint Augustine; and photographs, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(47) 10. TECCHI, Scipione
(1854-1915)

Birth. June 27 (1), 1854, Rome, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, where he obtained doctorates in theology and canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1876, Rome. Pastoral ministry in diocese of Rome, 1877-1908; under the direction of the Servant of God Vincenzo Anivitti and Canon Luigi Evangelisti, he was trained in the church of S. Maria della Pace in the performance of the sacred ministry, especially in confession, in which he assiduously persevered until his multiple charges prevented him from practicing it. Substitute of the secretary of the Commission pro eligendis episcopis. Scriptor of the Apostolic penitentiary. Pro-synodal examiner of the diocese of Porto e Santa Rufina. Chargé of ecclesiastical power of the church of S. Maria della Pace, Rome, January 6, 1880. Privy chamberlain supernumerary December 22, 1893. Dean of the beneficiaries of the basilica of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, Rome. Coadjutor, with future succession, of the substitute of the Uditore Santissimo and of the consistory. Secretary of the Uditore Santissimo. Beneficiary coadjutor of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1899. Canon coadjutor of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, March 9, 1900. Domestic prelate, May 6, 1901. Protonotary apostolic ad instar participantium, September 27, 1901. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, August 27, 1903. Abbreviatore di parco maggiore supernumerario, November 13, 1904. Counselor of the S.C. of Rites, September 12, 1906. Assessor of the S.C. Consistorial and secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, October 24, 1908.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1914; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, May 28, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Named pro-prefect of the S.C. of Rites, November 8, 1914.

Death. February 7, 1915, Rome (2). The funeral took place in the church of S. Camillo, via Piemonte, Rome; the mass was celebrated by Pietro La Fontaine, titular bishop of Caristo, secretary of the S.C. of Rites and vicar of the archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica; ten cardinals were in attendance: Pietro Gasparri, Basilio Pompilj, Gennaro Granito Pigantelli di Belmonte, Antonio Vico, Domenico Serafini, Louis Billot, S.J., Gaetano Bisleti, Filippo Giustini, Michele Lega and Aidan Gasquet, O.S.B. After the mass, Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli, bishop of Palestrina, datary of His Holiness, imparted the final absolution. The remains of the cardinal were buried in the tomb of the Tabanelli family in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome; the tomb of that distinguished family was offered by Comm. Edoardo Tabanelli, gentiluomo of the late cardinal.

Bibliography. Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1921, p. 63; Daniel, Charles ; Paul-Marie Baumgarten ; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 684; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, LV, n. 38 (February 8, 1915), p. 3; LV, n. 40 (February 9, 1915), p. 3; and LV, n. 41 (February 10, 1915), p. 3; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 13 and 26.

Link. Photographs, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, p. 63; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 684, indicates that he was born on June 26, 1854.
(2) This is according to Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, p. 63. Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 13, says that he died on January 22, 1915.


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(48) 11. GIUSTINI, Filippo
(1852-1920)

Birth. May 8, 1852, Cineto Romano, diocese of Tivoli, Papal State. Son of Andrea Giustini and Dorotea Caponetti.

Education. Initial studies at the Seminario of Subiaco, next to the Benedictine monastery; yhen, he attended the Seminary of Tivoli, directed by the Society of Jesus; later, studied at the Pontifical Pio Seminary, Rome, from November 1871; and finally, at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, where he studied philosophy, theology and canon law, obtaining a doctorate in 1880.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1876, Tivoli. Faculty member of the Seminary of Tivoli, 1876-1878. Professor of Roman Law at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", 1878-1896; prefect of studies, February 26, 1878. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, December 11, 1886. Canon of the chapter of the basilica of S. Maria in Trastevere, May 21, 1891. Counselor of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, June 22, 1892. Domestic prelate, August 18, 1896. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, February 11, 1897 (1). Judge of the Vatican Tribunal of First Instance. Secretary of the S.C. for Bishops and Regulars, April 28, 1902. Counselor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, August 27, 1902. Member of the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of Canon Law, April 2, 1904. Secretary of the S.C. for Discipline of the Sacraments, October 24, 1908.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1914; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, May 28, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Prefect of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, October 14, 1914. Member of the Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, October 16, 1917. Protector of the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans). In September 1919, he participated as papal legate in the centennial celebration of S. Stefano of Hungary in Capua. In October 1919, he was the papal legate to the Holy Land for the celebration of the 7th centennial of the visit to Egypt and Palestine of St. Francis of Assisi.

Death. March 17, 1920 (2), at 11:20 a.m., of a pulmonary disease, in his Roman residence. Exposed for two days in the church of S. Maria Nuova, where the funeral also took place. His body was buried in the crypt of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Boublik, Vladimiro. "Card. Filippo Giustini." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 232; "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1921, p. 66; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 681; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 13 and 25.

Links. Photographs and biography, in Italian, Comune di Cineto Romano; and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 13; and his biography in Italian, linked above; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 681, indicates that he was named on March 1, 1877; Boublik, "Card. Filippo Giustini." La Pontificia Università lateranense, p. 232, says that he died on March 20, 1920.
(2) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 13. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, p. 66, indicates that he died on March 18, 1920.


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(49) 12. LEGA, Michele
(1860-1935)

Birth. January 1, 1860, Brisighella, diocese of Faenza, Papal State.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Faenza; at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", where he earned doctorates in theology, philosophy and utroque iure in 1888; and where he was auxiliary to Father Benedetto Lorenzelli, future cardinal.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 13, 1883, Faenza. Further studies, 1883-1887. Faculty member of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, 1887-1889; professor of philosophy, 1887-1890; substitute professor of canon law, 1888-1889; ordinary professor, 1889-1890. Faculty member of the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare, 1889-1893. Auditor of the S.C. of the Council, 1894-1903. Privy chamberlain, August 11, 1897. Undersecretary of the S.C. of Council, August 11, 1903. Member of the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of Canon Law, April 2, 1904. Domestic prelate, May 17, 1905. Dean of the Sacred Roman Rota, October 24, 1908. Counselor of the S.C. Consistorial, November 4, 1908. Counselor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, January 4, 1911.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1914; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Eustachio, May 28, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of Apostolic Signature, December 15, 1914. One of the three cardinal presidents of the Pontifical Academy "S. Tommaso", Rome, together with Cardinals Benedetto Lorenzelli and Louis Billot, S.J., February 24, 1915. Member of the Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, October 15, 1917. Visitor of the Hospice of Cathechumenorum, May 3, 1919. Prefect of the S.C. for Discipline of Sacraments, March 20, 1920. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, December 18, 1924. Papal legate to the Eucharistic Congress, Faenza, August 22, 1923; to the Regional Eucharistic Congress of Pistoia, Vicenza, and Ravenna, August 23, 1924.

Episcopate. Opted for order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, June 21, 1926. Consecrated, July 11, 1926, Sistine Chapel, at the Vatican, by Pope Pius XI, assisted by Carlo Cremonesi, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. The cardinal's brother, Antonio Lega, archbishop of Ravenna and bishop of Cervia, attended the ceremony. Papal legate to the Regional Eucharistic Congress, Ravenna, May 3, 1930. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 5, 1931. Papal legate to the Antoniana Solemnia, Padua, May 27, 1932. During his episcopate in Frascati, he restored the cathedral and its sacristy; the rectory of Monte Porzio Catone; had a steeple erected for the parish church of Montecompatri; restored the façade of the parish church of Rocca Priora for which he had a steeple and a rectory built; restored the episcopal residence of Frascati; and had a new church and rectory built in Colle di Fuori.

Death. December 16, 1935, Rome. The funeral took place on December 20, 1935, in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome; the final absolution was imparted by Cardinal Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte, bishop of Ostia and Albano, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. On that same day, the body was transferred to Brisighella and buried on December 21, 1935 in his family's tomb in the collegiate church of Brisighella.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1938, p. 83; Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1935, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936, p. 96.

Link. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; and photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(50) 13. GASQUET, O.S.B., Francis Aidan
(1846-1929)

Birth. October 5, 1846, Somers Twon, north of London, England. He was the third son among the six children of Raymon Gasquet, a physician descendant from French royalists, and Mary Apollonia Kay. His baptismal name was Francis Neil; he was always known to his friends as Frank. After the father's death in 1856, the family became parishioners of Fr. Henry Edward Manning, future cardinal, at Baywater, where young Frank acted as his acolyte, and as train-bearer to Cardinal Nicholas Wiseman, when he visited the parish.

Education. Studied at the College of the Oblates of Saint Charles, Bayswater; at the College of Saint Gregory, Downside, Bath, where he graduated in 1864. Joined the Order of Saint Benedict, priorate of Belmont, Hereford, where he studied from January 1866 to 1867; took the name Aidan; received the religious habit in Belmont on September 28, 1866; professed, September 30, 1867; did the solemn profession on December 8, 1870. Studied at the priorate of Downside from 1867 to 1874.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 19, 1874, Downside, by George Errington, titular archbishop of Trebizonda, former coadjutor archbishop of Westminster. Subprefect of studies, Downside, 1875. Prefect of studies and professor of theology, Downside, 1877. Prior of Downside Abbey, 1878-1885; had to resign because of ill health; went home to his mother in Kensington to recover and stay until 1890. Elected to the Council of the old Camden Society of historians, 1886. Research work at the British Museum and the Record Office, London, 1892-1900. Member of the Pontifical Commission to study the validity of the Anglican ordinations, 1896; his historical contribution against their validity was decisive. Elected abbot president of the English Benedictine Confederation, September 26, 1900; reelected in 1904. President of the Pontifical Commission for Revision of the Vulgate, fall 1907. Titular abbot of St. Albans.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1914; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, May 28, 1914; he never took possession of the deaconry because of some difficulties raised by the Italian government. Member of the Pontifical Biblical Commission, May 28, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. He decidedly supported the establishment of the British Mission before the Holy See, which took place in December 1914. Protector of the Venerable English College, Rome September 10, 1915. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, December 6, 1915. Prefect of the Vatican Archive, November 28, 1917. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, May 9, 1919 until his death. Archivist of the Holy Roman Church, November 11, 1920 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. In 1924, he received King George V and Queen Mary of Great Britain at the Vatican Library. Opted for the order of cardinal priests, December 18, 1924; his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title. From his sick bed, he went to attend the funeral of Cardinal Aurelio Galli, who had died on March 26, 1929; he caught a chill which led to pneumonia which quickly became fatal.

Death. April 5, 1929, at 4:30 p.m., of pneumonia and heart disease, in his apartment in Palazzo San Callisto, Rome. He was laid-in-state for two days in his residence. The funeral in Rome took place in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere; the mass was celebrated by the abbot of Montecassino; Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, imparted the final absolution. Transferred to England, his body arrived in Downside on April 12; Cardinal Francis Bourne, archbishop of Westminster, sang the solemn requiem mass on April 15; and later on that same day, the remains were buried in the church of the Benedictine abbey of Downside; his self-standing tomb is of Palombino marble and alabaster. It is covered by an elaborate canopy. The work is all by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott (1).

Bibliography. Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, pp. 146-150; Gasquet, Francis Aidan. Edward VI and the Book of Common Prayer. An examination into its origin and early history with an appendix of unpublished documents. London ; John Hodges, 1890. (The Catholic standard library); Knowles, David. Cardinal Gasquet as an historian. London : University of London, Athlone Press, 1957. (The Creighton lecture in history, 1956); Heseltine, George Coulehan. The English cardinals. With some account of those of other English-speaking countries. London : Burns Oates & Washbourne, 1931, p. 173-174; Leslie, Shane. Cardinal Gasquet : a memoir. London: Burns and Oates, 1953; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 13, 25 and 26.

Links. Biography and bibliography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; biography, in English (Britannica); biographical data, in English, English Benedictine Congregation History; and his photograph and portraits, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb taken from Leslie, Cardinal Gasquet : a memoir, p. 268: AIAE. IMPLORA PACEM. FRANCISCO AIDANO GASQVET. S. MARIAE IN PORTICV S.R.E. PBRO. CARDINALI. S. GREGORII MONACHO. OLIM S. ALBANI ABBATI TITVLARI. QVI. A.D. NON. OCTOBR. MDCCCXLVI NATVS. OBIIT. NON. APRIL. MXMXXIX. AMICI. POSVERVNT.


sabadel4.JPG

SABADEL, O.F.M.Cap., Armando Pietro
(1850-1914)

Birth. November 14, 1850, Langogne, diocese of Lozère, France. His baptismal name was Blaíse Armand.

Education. Initial education in Langogne. Joined the Order of the Friars Minor Capuchin in the province of Lyon, February 2, 1873; he took the name Pie de Lagogne; professed in 1874. Obtained a doctorate in philosophy in the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1881.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 22, 1875. Lector of philosophy in his province. Secretary to the general procurator of his order in Rome, October 20, 1880. Qualificatore of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, May 30, 1892; consultor, June 21, 1900. Consultor of the S.C. of the Index, June 21, 1895. Consultor of the S.C. of the Council, March 31, 1898. Consultor of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, June 30, 1898. Participated in the reform of the Roman congregations in 1908. Spiritual director of the French community in Rome as well as of the Roman aristocracy. He was a friend of La Sapinière, the quasi-secret society which denounced presumed modernists to the Holy See under Pope Pius X.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Corinto, November 27, 1911. Consecrated, December 17, 1911, Sistine chapel, by Pope Pius X, assisted by Augusto Silj, titular archbishop of Cesarea, secret almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness.

Cardinalate. According to Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1915, Pope Pius X revealed that he had offered the cardinalate to Archbishop Sabadel but that he had declined the promotion. Consultor of the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of the Code of Canon Law. He published several works, among them Commento sul Decreto della S.C. dei Vescovi e Regolari Quemodmodium (several editions); Vita del Beato Cipriano da Viterbo (three editions); and a translation in French of Diurno quotidiano di Maria, published in Latin by Cardinal José de Calasanz Vives y Tutó, O.F.M.Cap.

Death. May 4, 1914, at the Capuchin general curia, Rome. The funeral was celebrated on May 7, 1914. His remains were interred in the Torre dei Cappuccini plot, next to the basilica of San Lorenzo fuori le mura, at Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 479-480; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, p. 141; Goichot, E. "Deux historiens à l'Académie." Revue d'histoire ecclésiastique, XXVII (1983), 34-63; 373-396.


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