The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius XI (1922-1939)
Consistory of March 13, 1933 (XIV)


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(44) 1. DOLCI, Angelo Maria
(1867-1939)

Birth. July 12, 1867, Civitella di Agliano, diocese of Bagnoregio, Papal State.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome; and at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 5, 1890, in Bagnoregio (no further information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Gubbio, April 19, 1900. Consecrated, Sunday May, 13, 1900, chapel of the Pontifical Athenaeum "Sant'Apollinare", Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Satolli, assisted by Antonio Valbonesi, bishop of Sant'Angelo in Vado, and by Rafael Merry del Val, titular archbishop of Nicea, president of Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy. Named apostolic delegate in Ecuador, Bolivia, and Perú, December 7, 1906. Promoted to titular archbishop of Nazianzo, December 9, 1906. Recalled to Rome, September 1910. Transferred to the archiepiscopal see of Amalfi, January 27, 1911. Apostolic delegate and vicar apostolic of Constantinople, June 10, 1914. Transferred to the titular archbishopric of Gerapoli, November 13, 1914. During his tenure in Constantinople, he saved hundreds of lives along with numerous edifices, including churches and schools during the Armenian Genocide and the First World War. Nuncio in Belgium, December 14, 1922; he could not take possession of the nunciature and was transferred to the one in Rumania. Nuncio in Rumania, May 30, 1923.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 13, 1933; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, March 16, 1933. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, May 22, 1933. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, June 15, 1936. Papal legate to the Eucharistic Congress, Tripoli, October 24, 1937. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.

Death. September 13, 1939, Civitella di Agliano. Buried, Civitella di Agliano. A marble monument in his memory stands in front of his former villa, which presently carries his name. Upon his death, the villa became a house for unmarried mothers and successively an asylum for children. After a period of closure, it was restored and re-opened as a museum in his memory in 2014. There is also a piazza in Civitella di Agliano named after him.

Bibliography. "Em. Dolci (Ange-Marie)." in "Liste alphabétique des cardinaux." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1935, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1935, p. 91; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 265.


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(45) 2. FUMASONI BIONDI, Pietro
(1872-1960)

Birth. September 4, 1872, Rome, Italy. Son of Filippo Fumasoni Biondi and Gertrude Roselli.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 17, 1897, Rome, by Lucido Maria Parocchi, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, vicar general of Rome. Successively, 1897-1916, faculty member of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenueum "De Propaganda Fide", Rome, and staff member of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Doclea and appointed apostolic delegate to the East Indies, November 14, 1916. Consecrated, December 10, 1916, chapel of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenueum "De Propaganda Fide", Rome, by Cardinal Domenico Serafini, O.S.B.Cas., prefect of S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, assisted by Joseph Armand Legrand, C.S.C, bishop of Dacca, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. Apostolic delegate to Japan, December 6, 1919. Secretary of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, June 14, 1921. Apostolic delegate to the United States, December 14, 1922.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 13, 1933; received the red hat and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, March 16, 1933. Prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, March 16, 1933 until his death. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Teramo, Italy, August 20, 1935. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 12, 1941 to February 18, 1946. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII.

Death. July 12, 1960, after a long illness, Rome. Buried, Campo Verano Cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 207; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 100-101.

Links. Photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(46) 3. TEDESCHINI, Federico
(1873-1959)

Birth. October 12, 1873, via Cotilia no. 40, Antrodoco, diocese of Rieti, Italy. Son of Patrizio Tedeschini and Rosa Serani. Nephew of Cardinal Giuseppe D'Annibale (1889) on his mother's side.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Rieti; and at the Pontifical Roman Seminary.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 25, 1896, Rieti. Faculty member of the Seminary of Rieti and canon theologian of the cathedral chapter, 1896-1901. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, November 6, 1903. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 18, 1908. Chancellor of the Secretariat of Briefs, October 20, 1908. Substitute of the Secretariat of State and secretary of ciphering, September 24, 1914. Nuncio in Spain, March 31, 1921.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Lepanto, April 30, 1921. Consecrated, May 5, 1921, Sistine chapel, at the Vatican, by Pope Benedict XV, assisted by Giovanni Battista Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano, titular archbishop of Tebe, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. His episcopal motto was Omnia et in omnibus Christus.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest and reserved in pectore in the consistory of March 13, 1933; published in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, June 18, 1936. Papal datary, February 25, 1938 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, March 14, 1939. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 18, 1946 until March 10, 1947. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, April 28, 1951. Papal legate to the celebrations in honor of Our Lady, Fátima, Portugal, September 24, 1951; to the 35th International Eucharistic Congress, Barcelona, Spain, May 10, 1952; to the National Eucharistic-Marian Congress, Lima, Perú, November 8, 1954. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII.

Death. November 2, 1959, at 4.30 a.m., of intestinal cancer, for which he underwent surgery shortly before his death; in the palace of the Datary, Rome. Buried in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Bibliography. Federico Tedeschini : il cardinale, la sua città (1873 - 1959) : atti del Convegno di Studi, Antrodoco, 19 luglio 2003. A cura di Ileana Tozzi. Antrodoco : Comune di Antrodoco, 2004. Other title: Monsignor Federico Tedeschi.

Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; photographs, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(47) 4. FOSSATI, O.Ss.C.G.N., Maurilio
(1876-1965)

Birth. May 24, 1876, Arona, diocese of Novara, Italy. One of the ten children of Giacomo Maurilio Fossati, a steamboat operator, and Domenica Destefanis.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Novara.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 27, 1898, by Bishop Edoardo Pulciano of Novara, to whom he had been already serving as a secretary for a year. When Bishop Pulciano was transferred to the archbishopric of Genoa, Father Fossati moved with him. When the archbishop died unexpectedly in 1911, he returned to Novara and joined the Oblates of Saints Charles and Gaudentius. Pastoral ministry in Novara, 1911-1914. Military chaplain in the Italian Army during the First World Wsr, 1914-1919. Superior of the Oblates in Varallo Sesio, 1919-1924.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nuoro, Sardinia, March 24, 1924. Consecrated, April 27, 1924, Varallo Sesio, by Giuseppe Gamba, archbishop of Turin, assisted by Angelo Scapardini, archbishop-bishop of Vigevano, and by Giovanni Garigliano, bishop of Biella. His episcopal motto was Gressus meos dirige. He was apostolic administrator of Ogliastra from 1925 to 1927. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sassari, October 2, 1929. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Turin, December 11, 1930.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 13, 1933; received the red hat and the title of S. Marcello, March 16, 1933. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. March 30, 1965, of pneuomonia, after a long illness, in Turin. Buried in the chapel of the Seminary of Rivoli, Turin. In 1977, his remains were transferred to Consolata Shrine, Turin, and buried under a black marble tomb stone.

Links. Biography by Maurilio Guasco, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 49 (1997), Treccani; photographs and arms, Araldica Vatican.


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(48) 5. SALOTTI, Carlo
(1870-1947)

Birth. July 25, 1870, Grotte di Castro, diocese of Montefiascone, Italy. Son of Giuseppe Salotti and Orsola Capozzi.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Orvieto; at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare, Rome; and at the Royal University, Rome. Served in the Italian Army from 1891 until 1894.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 22, 1894, Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1894-1897. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1897-1912. Faculty member of the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", 1902-1912. Assessor of the S.C. of Rites and subpromoter of the Faith, July 10, 1915; promoter, 1925; his role was to argue as persuasively as possible against the candidates for canonization (popularly known as "the devil's advocate"). Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 20, 1915.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Filippopoli di Tracia, June 30, 1930. Consecrated, July 6, 1930, basilica of S. Cuore di Gesù a Castro Pretorio, Rome, by Cardinal Willem Marinus van Rossum, C.SS.R., prefect of S.C. for Propagation of Faith, assisted by Luigi Olivarès, S.D.B., bishop of Nepi e Sutri, and by Giovanni Rosi, bishop of Montefiascone. His episcopal motto was Labor pro Fide. Named secretary of the S.C. for Propagation of Faith and rector of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," July 3, 1930. Founder of the Scientifical Missionary Institute of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide."

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest and reserved in pectore, March 13, 1933; published, December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, December 19, 1935. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites, September 14, 1938. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, December 11, 1939.

Death. October 24, 1947, from liver ailment, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Pietro Apostolo of Grotte di Castro.

Bibliography. Il Cardinale Carlo Salotti. Roma : Istituto Grafico Tiberino, 1935; Sturzo, Luigi. Il Cardinale Carlo Salotti, nelle sue memorie. Alba : Edizione Paoline, 1951.

Link. Portrait, photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(49) 6. VILLENEUVE, O.M.I., Jean-Marie-Rodrigue
(1883-1947)

Birth. November 2, 1883, Montréal, Canada. Of a very modest family, he was one of the three children of a shoe repairer.

Education. Primary studies in his native parish of Sacré-Coeur, Montréal; secondary studies, Mont-Saint-Louis, 1896-1900 (diploma in science and commerce); taught for a while in a school in Dorval; joined the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, Noviatiate of Lachine, August 14, 1901; took his first vows on August 15, 1902; and his perpetual vows, September 8, 1903; Oblate Scholasticate, Ottawa (philosophy and theology); University of Ottawa, Ottawa (doctorate in philosophy, 1919; doctorate in theology, 1922; and doctorate in canon law, 1930).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 25, 1907, metropolitan cathedral of Ottawa, by Joseph-Thomas Duhamel, archbishop of Ottawa. Professor of philosophy in the Scholasticate of Ottawa, 1907-1913; of moral theology, 1913-1920; at the same time, he pursued his doctoral studies at the University of Ottawa. Superior of the Oblate Scholasticate, Ottawa, February 16, 1920-1930; he continued teaching moral theology, canon law, liturgy, spirituality, ecclesiastical history; dean of the Theological Faculty. Founder of the School of Superior Ecclesiastical Studies, 1928; he was the titular of the chair of ecclesiastical law. From 1929, dean of the Faculty of Canon Law at the University of Ottawa; and founder of the Superior School of Canon Law. He actively participated in the Social Weeks of Canada; in the Association Catholique de la Jeneusse Canadienne; in the labor unions, having been member of the Superior Council of National Labor Unions in Montréal; and in the promotion of closed retreats. He was one of the inspirers of the foundation of Revue de l'Université d'Ottawa; and defended the rights of the minorities and supported the bilingual schools, contributing to the journal Le Droit.

Episcopate. Elected first bishop of Gravelbourg, July 3, 1930. Consecrated, September 11, 1930, metropolitan cathedral of Ottawa, by Joseph-Guillaume-Laurent Forbes, archbishop of Ottawa, assisted by Louis Rhéaume, O.M.I., bishop of Haileybury, and by Joseph Wilfred Guy, O.M.I., titular bishop of Zerta, apostolic vicar of Grouard. His episcopal motto was Docere quis sit Christus. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Québec, December 11, 1931. President of the Missionary Union of the Clergy, February 26, 1932.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 13, 1933; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, March 16, 1933. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Québec, May 31, 1938. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Papal legate to the dedication of Sainte-Joan d'Arc's basilica, Domrémy, France, June 15, 1939. He visited in the Fall 1944 the Canadian military stationed in Great Britain, Italy, Belgium, and Holland. Papal legate to the Marian Congress, Guadalupe, México, September 24, 1945.

Death. January 17, 1947, at 7:50 a.m., Alhambra, California, United States of America (1). His funeral was celebrated on January 24, 1947, in the metropolitan cathedral basilica of Québec, by Cardinal James Charles McGuigan, archbishop of Toronto; according to his will, there was no funeral eulogy but only Gregorian music. He was buried in the metropolitan cathedral basilica of Québec, with his golden cross of his religious order and in a plain oaken casket in accordance with his request for a coffin of common quality (2).

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1958. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1958, p. 82; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 859-866; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1939. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1939, p. 72.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) He had been stricken by a heart attack on July 7, 1946, on his return from Île-à-la-Crosse, where he had taken part in the celebrations for the centennial of the Oblate missions; he was hospitalized in Hôtel-Dieu de Québec and later, he had a long convalescence. He left Québec for New York, specifically for Misericordia Hospital in Manhattan, on October 4, 1946 for medical treatment and had another crisis on October 14. Seeking a milder climate, he arrived at a convent in Alhambra, California, on January 14, 1947. Three days later, the cardinal stopped his private secretary during the beginning of the latter's mass, sensing his death was imminent. He died within the hour.
(2) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

+ JEAN-MARIE-RODRIGUE VILLENEUVE O.M.I.
CARDINAL-PRETRE DE LA SAINTE EGLISE ROMAINE
NE A MONTREAL LE 2 NOVEMBRE 1883
DECEDE A LOS ANGELES LE 17 JANVIER 1947

EVEQUE DE GRAVELBOURG DE 1930 A 1931
ARCHEVEQUE DE QUEBEC DE 1931 A 1947


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(50) 7. DALLA COSTA, Elia
(1872-1961)

Birth. May 14, 1872, Villaverla, diocese of Vicenza, Italy. Youngest of the five children of Luigi Dalla Costa, a communal secretary, and Teresa Dal Balcon; the first three children died in infancy. He was baptized on June 23, 1872 by Father Angelo Rossi; his godparents were Francesco Muraro di Bressanvido and Eugenia Dalla Costa; his baptismal name was Elia Angelo.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Vicenza; then, at the Seminary of Padua; and later, at the University of Padua, where he graduated in Letters in 1897.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 25, 1895, Duomo of Schio, by Antonio Feruglio, bishop of Vicenza. He acted temporarily as parish priest of Villaverla substituting for the elderly and sick pastor. Further studies, 1895-1897. Professor of letters at the Seminary of Vicenza. Curate of Pievebelvicino; and later, in 1902, parish priest of Pozzoleone. Appointed pastor of the parish church of Schio on November 10, 1910; he remained there until 1922. During the First World War, he rendered humanitarian services to the wounded soldiers and took care of the orphaned children, being decorated at the end of the war with the Croce di Cavaliere della Corona d'Italia and with a Diploma from the Ministero delle Terre.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Padua, May 25, 1923. Consecrated, August 12, 1923, cathedral of Vicenza, by Ferdinando Rodolfi, bishop of Vicenza, assisted by Andrea Giacinto Longhin, bishop of Treviso, and by Apollonio Maggio, bishop of Ascoli Piceno. His episcopal motto was Virtus ex alto. He restored fifty parishes that had been destroyed during the war. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Florence, December 19, 1931. Apostolic administrator of Padua, January to May, 1932.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 13, 1933; received the red hat and the title of S. Marco, March 16, 1933. Papal legate to the Etrurian Council, May 1933. He built the Grand Seminary of Montughi in 1935. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. He saved numerous lives, many of them Jews, during the Second World War by hiding them from the Nazis. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII.

Death. December 22, 1961, from pulmonary complications, in Florence. Buried in one of the lateral chapels of the metropolitan cathedral basilica S. Maria del Fiore, Florence (1). At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals. On November 26, 2012, he was recognized as Righteous Among the Nations by the Yad Vashem Museum of the Holocaust in Jerusalem. His name will be engraved on the Wall of Honor in the Garden of the Righteous for having saved the lives of hundreds of Jews from the Nazi persecution during the Second World War.

Beatification. The process for his beatification was opened on December 22, 1981.

Bibliography. Casini, Tito. Elia Dalla Costa : vita e magistero. Firenze : Libreria editrice fiorentina, 1972; Pallanti, Giovanni. Elia Dalla Costa. Il Cardinale della carità e del coraggio. Cinisello Balsamo : Edizioni San Paolo, 2012; Villani, Giulio. Il vescovo Elia Dalla Costa. Per una storia da fare. Firenze : Vallecchi, 1974.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

ELIAS S.R.E. CARD. DALLA COSTA
ARCHIEP. FLORENT.
PRAESTANTI VIR. INGENIO
EXIMIA IN OMNES CARITATE SVCCENSVS
VITAE SANCTITATE PRAECLARVS
PR ID MAIAS MDCCCLXXII     XI KAL IAN MCMLXII


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(51) 8. INNITZER, Theodor
(1875-1955)

Birth. December 25, 1875, Wipert, archdiocese of Prague, Austria-Hungary. Son of Wilhelm Innitzer, a lace maker, and Maria Seidi.

Education. Gymnasium of Kaaden/Eger, 189-1898; Studium of Theology, University of Vienna, Vienna, 1898-1902; studied moral theology under Franz Schindler; and history of the church under Albert Ehrhard.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 25, 1902, Vienna. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Vienna, 1902-1913. Faculty member at the University of Vienna and secretary of the "Leo-Gessellschaft Catholic Cultural Society", 1913-1932. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, June 11, 1921; reappointed, May 23, 1924. Apostolic visitor to the Barnabite Order in Austria, 1923. Minister of Social Welfare in the cabinet of Johann Schober, 1929-1930.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Vienna, Austria, September 19, 1932. Consecrated, October 16, 1932, at Sankt Stephans metropolitan cathedral, Vienna, by Enrico Sibilia, titular archbishop of Side, nuncio in Austria, assisted by Ernest Seydl, titular bishop of Eucarpia, and by Franz Kamprath, titular bishop of Stadia, auxiliary of Vienna. Apostolic administrator of Burgenland, 1932-1949.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 13, 1933; received the red hat and the title of S. Crisogono, March 16, 1933. Immediately after the invasion of Austria by the German army at the beginning of the Second World War, he was condescending with the invasion and encouraged Catholics to offer peaceful collaboration with the Nazi regime; but when he saw the tendency of the regime to inhibit and repress Catholic activities, and after an audience with Pope Pius XI, he was obliged to defend the rights of the Roman Catholic Church in Austria; because of this defense, his opposition to civil marriages and his support to Catholic schools, he incurred the opposition and persecution of the regime, which even attacked and wounded him in the archiepiscopal palace. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Papal legate to the celebrations of Katolikentag, July 23, 1952.

Death. October 9, 1955, of a heart ailment, Vienna. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Sankt Stephans, Vienna.

Bibliography. Liebmann, Maximilian. "Innitzer, Theodor." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1785/1803 bis 1945 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1983, pp. 339-343; Liebmann, Maximilian. Theodor Innitzer und der Anschluss : Österreichs Kirche 1938. Graz : Styria, 1988. (Grazer Beiträge zur Theologie-Geschichte und kirchlichen Zeit-Geschichte, Bd. 3); Reimann, Viktor. Innitzer : Kardinal zwischen Hitler und Rom. Edition: Uberarbeitete Neuausg. Wien : Amalthea, 1988.

Links. Biography, in English Encyclopaedia Britannica; his photograph and arms.

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