The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius XII (1939-1958)
Consistory of January 12, 1953 (II)


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(33) 1. COSTANTINI, Celso
(1876-1958)

Birth. April 3, 1876, Castion di Zoppola, diocese of Concordia, Italy. Second of the ten children of Costante Costantini, a small building contractor, and Maddalena Altan, from an illegitimate branch of the counts Altan di San Vito al Tagliamento. Brother of Giovanni (1880-1956), first bishop of La Spezia and titular archbishop of Colosso. His baptismal name was Celso Benigno Luigi.

Education. After completing his elementary education, he followed his father's trade as a mason and worked as a bricklayer the age of eleven. From 1892 until 1897, he studied at the Seminary of Portogruaro. Between 1897 and 1899, in Rome, he frequented the Accademia di S. Tommaso, where he obtained a doctorate in philosophy on May 10, 1899.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 26, 1899, Portogruaro. Named vice-chancellor of the curia of Concordia and chaplain at the hospital of Portogruaro. In 1900 he was named spiritual economous of Roraigrande. On February 21, 1901 he was named vicario of Concordia Sagittaria. Founder of the "Società degli Amici dell'Arte Sacra", Milan, 1912. In January 1915, he founded the illustrated journal "Arte Cristiana", which he directed for nine years. Named regent of the parish of Aquileia on July 5, 1915. On December 12, 1917, during the First World War, he was named military chaplain in the Italian Army. Named vicar general of the diocese of Concordia on November 5, 1918. In 1918-1919, he founded the "Istituto S. Filippo Neri" for the sons of the war; and the "Opera nazionale di soccorso per le chiese devastate dalla guerra". In October 1919, he was named director of the Archeological Museum of Aquileia. On April 30, 1920, he was named apostolic administrator of Fiume, which was occupied by Gabriele D'Annunzio.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Gerapoli, July 22, 1921. Consecrated, August 24, 1921, cathedral of Concordia Sagittaria, by Cardinal Pietro LaFontaine, patriarch of Venice, assisted by Angelo Bartolomasi, bishop of Trieste, and by Luigi Paulini, bishop of Concordia. His episcopal motto was In hoc signo. On March 4, 1922, he conducted an apostolic visitation to the diocese of Trento. Named first apostolic delegate in China on August 12, 1922. Promoted to titular archbishop of Teodosiopoli di Arcadia, September 9, 1922. Arrived in China on November 8, 1922 and announced his role to the missionaries. Presided over the First Chinese Council, celebrated in Shanghai, in May-June 1924. The Holy See officially recognized the new Republic of China on August 1, 1928, thanks to the work of Apostolic Delegate Costantini. On October 28, 1928, he attended the consecration of the first six Chinese bishops by Pope Pius XI at the Vatican. Named Latin ordinary of Karbin on May 28, 1931. Founder of the Congregation of the Lord's Disciples, a Chinese congregation that has spread to various parts of Asia. In 1931, he returned to Italy and then went to the United States of America to recover from health problems. In November 1933, Pope Pius XI accepted his resignation as apostolic delegate in China. On December 3, 1933, he was named consultor of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith; named secretary of that congregation on December 20, 1935. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, January 19, 1936.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, January 15, 1953. He was member of the SS. CC. for the Oriental Church, Council, Propaganda Fide, Rites, and Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. Protector of the Missionaries of Mary Immaculate and St. Catherine of Siena, Medellín. Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, May 22, 1954 until his death. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, assigned to chancellor, June 9, 1958. He received a visit from Cardinal Angelo Roncalli, patriarch of Venice, on the eve of his death, while recovering at the "Villa Margherita Clinic" in Via Massimo, Rome, where he was to undergo a prostate operation; he did not survive the operation. A fortnight later, Roncalli was elected Pope John XXIII. He was a prolific writer in varied fields (1).

Death. October 17, 1958, of a cardiac collapse, Rome. Buried in the cemetery Zoppola, next to the grave of his brother the archbishop. The remains of Archbishop Giovanni were moved to the Cristo Re Cathedral of La Spezia on May 13, 1959, yet those of Cardinal Celso remain to this day at the cemetery of Zoppola. On December 16, 2011, the Galleria d'Arte Civica of Castions di Zoppola was inaugurated in the birthplace of the Costantini brothers, the cardinal and the archbishop, and was officially named after them.

Bibliography. Brender, Andreas ; Kierein-Kuenring, Mandred D. Catholic Hierarchy in China since 1307. Cluj-Napoca, 2012, p. 301-302 (Episcopal lineage); Butturini, Giuseppe. Alle origini del Concilio Vaticano II. Una proposta di Celso Costantini. Pordenone : Concordia sette, 1988. (Storia, cultura, arte, economia ; 10); "Celso Costantini" in "S. Collegio dei Cardinali" in Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1958. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1957, p. 58; Costantini, Celso. Edizione critica del diario inedito del cardinale Celso Costantini : Ai margini della guerra (1938-1947). Curato da monsignor Bruno Fabio Pighin. Venice : Marcianum Press, 2010. Contents: Presentazione (o Proemio) 3; Abbreviazioni 7; Introduzione 9; Tratti biografici di Celso Costantini 21; Premessa 71; Anno 1938 73; Anno 1939 81; Anno 1940 99; Anno 1941 147; Anno 1942 209; Anno 1943 249; Anno 1944 369; Anno 1945 495; Anno 1946 573; Anno 1947 591; Conclusione 597; Appendici: Appendice all'anno 1945: L'opera dei Vescovi durante la guerra 601; Premessa introduttiva preparata nel 1987 per l'edizione non realizzata del Diario 621; Fonti utilizzate dall'autore: Quotidiani 631; Altre pubblicazioni 631; Lettere 632; Indice dei nomi di persona presentati nelle note 633; Enti Promotori della presente opera 637; Indice generale 639; Pighin, Bruno Fabio. Chiesa e Stato in Cina. Dalle imprese di Costantini alle svolte attuali. Venezia : Marcianum Press, 2010; Pighin, Bruno Fabio ; Gabrieli, Christian ; Marcon, Andrea. Il ritratto segreto del Cardinale Celso Costantini in 10.000 lettere dal 1892 al 1958. Venezia : Marcianum Press, 2012; Simonato, Ruggero. Celso Costantini tra rinnovamento cattolico in Italia e le nuove missioni in Cina. Pordenone : Concordia sette, 1985. (Storia, cultura, arte, economia ; 8; Documenti e studi per la storia concordiese ; 4).

Webgraphy. Biography by Giuliano Bertuccioli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 30 (1984), Treccani; Piazza Celso Costantini, Concordia; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Costantini: The history between the Catholic Church and China, Rome Reports, 2012-08-19 09:00:00.

(1) This is a list of his books taken from Simonato: Celso Costantini tra rinnovamento cattolico in Italia e le nuove missioni in Cina; I doveri dei clero ai principio dei secolo XX, Rome 1901; Le unioni professionali, Portogruaro 1902; Nozioni d'arte per ii clero, Florencea 1919; Parole dette in morte di D. Antonio AgnoIutto, [s.l.] 1919; Gli orfaneIIi della Patria, Venice 1921; La Ouaresima. Lettera pastorale, Fiume 1922; Contra spem in spero (ossia l'attuale dramma missionario in Cina), Rome 1931; L'Azione Cattolica in Cina. Mobilitare la Cina per convertire la Cina, Rome 1933; Il crollo dell'antica Cina, Rome 1934; Aspetti del problema missionario, Milan-Rome 1935; Arte sacra e novecentismo, Rome 1935; Commemorazione di S.E. ii Cardinale Pietro La Fontaine patriarca di Venezia letta nella saia Napoleonica da S.E. Mons. Gelso Costantini arci-vescovo titolare di Teodosia Segretario della S.C. di Propaganda Fide il 26 novembre 1936, Venice 1937; L'arte cristiana nelle missioni, Rome 1940; Induite vos armaturare Dei (Ricordi-Pensieri-Raccomandazioni ai DiscepoIi del Signore), Rome 1942; Gesù Cristo via, verità e vita (Riproduzione di cento stampe antiche con commenti sui Vangeli), Rome 1943; Va e annunzia il Regno di Dio (scritti, appelli e messaggi cristiano, 2 vols., Brescia 1943; Dio nascosto. Splendori di [ede e d'arte nella Santa Eucarestia, Rome 1944; Con i missionari in Cina, 2 vols., Rome 1946; Foglie secche, Rome 1948; Il divino consolatore. II senso della vita e della morte, Rome 1950; Le missioni cattoliche, Milan 1950; Il libro della sposa, Novara 1952; Ultime fogIie, Rome 1954; La beatificazione di frà Odorico da Pordenone nei suo secondo centenario, Venice (1955); Cum Petro in Christo, Rome 1957; Renovabitur ut Aquilae ]uventus tua, Rome 1958; In difesa dell'arte cristiana, Milan 1958. Following is a list of his articles: "Un incontro col conte Grosoli", La Concordia, VIII (1904), 6 marzo 1984, p. 1 (*); "L'arte benedettina", Emporium ", XXXIII (1911), pp. 83-100; "Contraffazioni dell'arte sacra: te statue industriali", Arte Cristiana, I (1913), pp. 53-55; Per la rinascita dell'arte del cesello: Eugenio BeIIosio, Arte Cristiana, I (1913), pp. 66-73; "Il 'Missale Romanum' miniato da Attillo Razzolini", Arte Cristiana, I (1913), pp. 83-87; PoIemichetta cortese, Arte Cristiana, I (1913), p. 250; I nostri criteri sull'arte cristiana, Arte Cristiana, I (1913), p. 309; Le imagini sacre, Arte Cristiana, II (1914), pp. 90-93; Florete, fiores, Arte Cristiana, II (1914), pp. 271-273; Diversi aspetti doli'arte cristiana, Arte Cristiana, III (1915), pp. 34-41; La mostra nazionale dell'incisione in Milano, Arte Cristiana, III (1915), p. 115; Il ferrobattuto nelle chiese, Arte Cristiana, III (1915), pp. 244-248; La vittoria eucaristica dei mosaico di Aquileia, Arte Cristiana, IV (1916), pp. 1-5; Un viaggio in Francia, Arte Cristiana, V (1917), pp. 146-175; La gran pietà delle nostre chiese sul fronte, Arte Cristiana, VI (1918), pp. 34-44; I mosaici cristiani scoperti ad Aquileia negli ultimi scavi, Arte Cristiana, VI (1918), pp. 66-76; A Lourdes, Arte Cristiana, VI (1918), pp. 145-158; Carlo Donati e la decorazione di una cappella per i caduti di Ravenna, Arte Cristiana, VIlI (1920), pp. 1-9; Preghiera al milite ignoto, Democrazia cristiana, II (1922), n. 1, p. 26; Il cattolicesimo in Cina, Le Missioni Cattoliche, LIII (1923), pp. 259-261; Il problema della cultura missionaria e la Cina d'oggi, Vita e Pensiero, XIV (1931), n. 5-6, pp. 5-22; La suppellettile ecclesiastica nei paesi di missione, Il Pensiero Missionario, V (1934), pp. 403-413; I doveri di discrezione della stampa missionaria, Il Pensiero Missionario, IX (1937), pp. 159-164; Musica indigena e liturgia cattolica, Il Pensiero Missionario, XII (1940), pp. 120-131; "Il grande dramma missionario", Il Pensiero Missionario, XII (1940), pp. 193-209. "Dell'Arte Cristiana indigena", Eglise Vivante, V (1952), pp. 279-285; "Tradizione e modernità", Fede e Arte, V (1957), pp. 198-201; "Antonio Canova, l'uomo, il cristiano, il cittadino", Fede e Arte, V (1957), pp. 450-461.


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(34) 2. SILVA, Augusto Álvaro da
(1876-1968)

Birth. April 8, 1876, Recife, diocese of Olinda, Brazil. Son of Raimundo Honorato (or Honório) da Silva and Amélia Elisa Ramos. Received the sacrament of confirmation on January 5, 1894.

Education. Primary studies at Colégio Pestalozzi in Rio de Janeiro; prpearatory course in Ginásio Pernambucano; then, studied at the Seminary of Olinda. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure on January 6, 1894; the minor orders on October 25, 1896; the subdiaconate on February 6, 1898; and immediately after, the diaconate.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 5, 1899, Olinda. Named master of ceremonies in the cathedral of Olinda in November 1899. From 1900, he was vicar of the parish of São Pedro in Olinda; spiritual director of the Seminary of Olinda; vicar of the parish of São José in Recife; pastor of the cathedral of Olinda; and pastor of the parish of Maranguape. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, September 30, 1908.

Episcopate. Elected first bishop of Floresta, May 12, 1911. Consecrated, October 22, 1911, by Luis Raimundo da Silva Brito, archbishop of Olinda, assisted by Francisco de Paula Silva, C.M., bishop of São Luís do Maranhão, and by Joaquim António d'Almeida, bishop of Natal. His episcopal motto was Per Crucem ad lucem. During his episcopate in Floresta, he founded a school, a newspaper, Alto Sertão, and a seminary. Transferred to the see of Barra do Rio Grande, June 25, 1915. Promoted to the metropolitan see of São Salvador da Bahia, December 18, 1924. Took possession of the see on May 21, 1925. In September 1933, he organized and presided over the First National Eucharistic Congress, which was celebrated in São Salvador da Bahia, the oldest diocese of the country. Also in that year, he was involved in the Caso dos Perdões, when he tried to reform several religious communities. In August 1935, he received the title of Roman count. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, February 22, 1936. In 1943 he consecrated the archdiocese to the Immaculate Conception. He celebrated the second archdiocesan synod of Bahia. Decorated with the Ordem Nacional do Mérito.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Angelo in Pescheria, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, January 15, 1953. Attended the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, July 25 to August 4, 1955. Papal legate to the 6th National Eucharistic Congress of Brazil, celebrated in Belém, August 10 to 16, 1957; as such, he crowned the image of Nossa Senhora de Nazaré. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. He was a poet and a journalist and published several books under the pseudonym of Carlos Neto. He founded Jornal Era Nova and Semana Católica.

Death. August 14, 1968, São Salvador da Bahia. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of São Salvador da Bahia. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals. On January 1, 1970, the Legislative Assembly of the State of Bahia granted him posthumously the title of Cidadão Baiano. In 1985, Colégio Estadual Augusto Álvaro da Silva was founded in his honor in São Salvador da Bahia.

Bibliography. "Augusto Alvaro da Silva" in "Terceira parte, Bispos do Brasil-Republica, Os cinco primeiros cardeais" in "Diocesis e bispos do Brasil" by Apolônio Nóbrega, Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, volume 222, Janeiro-Março 1954, 194-196.

Webgraphy. Photograph, arms and biography, in Portuguese, Wikipedia; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Visita do Cardeal Dom Augusto Álvaro da Silva Fotos Antigas de Ruy Barbosa, BA; bishops and archbishops of São Salvador da Bahia, Arquidiocese de São Salvador da Bahia.


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(35) 3. CICOGNANI, Gaetano
(1881-1962)

Birth. November 26, 1881, Brisighella, diocese of Faenza, Italy. Eldest of the two children of Guglielmo Cicognani and Anna Ceroni; she became widowed at a young age; she ran a general store in order to support her sons. Brother of Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani (1958).

Education. Entered the Seminary of Faenza in November 1896, where he studied philosophy and theology; later, after his priestly ordination, he was sent to the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", where he earned doctorates in philosophy, theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law; and finally, from 1912, studied diplomacy at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 24, 1904, Faenza, by Gioacchino Cantagalli, bishop of Faenza. Further studies in Rome from 1904 to 1910. Scrittoe in the tribunal of the Sacred Roman Rota in 1910; and at the same time teaches canon law at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare. In 1912 he started studying at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles and began practicing at the Secretariat of State. Apprendista at the Secretariat of State in 1915. Named secretary of the nunciature in Spain on February 1, 1916. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 9, 1916; reappointed, July 5, 1922. Named auditor of the nunciature in Belgium on February 3, 1920. During the spring and summer of 1921 he was chargé d'affaires in the nunciature in Holland; then, he returned to Brussels.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Ancira, January 11, 1925. Appointed first nuncio in Bolivia, January 10, 1925. Consecrated, February 1, 1925, chapel of the Pontifical Collegio Pio-Latinoamericano, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Rafaello Carlo Rossi, O.C.D., titular archbishop of Tessalonica, assessor of the S.C. Consistorial, and by Giovanni Maria Zonghi, titular archbishop of Colosso, president of the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles. His episcopal motto was Vigilat nec fatiscit, the same as his brother the cardinal. He arrived in Bolivia at the beginning of June. Named pro-nuncio in Perú at the end of March 1928; on June 15, he was named nuncio. Papal legate to the First National Eucharistic Congress, Lima, Perú, September, 1935. Nuncio in Austria, June 13, 1936; arrived in Vienna at the beginning of December; he had to leave Austria on April 3, 1938, after the annexation of the country to Nazi Germany. Named nuncio in Spain (National Government) on May 16, 1938.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red biretta in Madrid from Generalissimo Francisco Franco; he remained in Spain as pro-nuncio until the end of summer; received the red hat on October 29, 1953 in Castelgandolfo, together with new Cardinals Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, Pietro Ciriaci, Benjamín de Arriba y Castro and Fernando Quiroga y Palacios, in a special consistory that lasted fifteen minutes, and also the title of S. Cecilia. Named prefect of the S.C of Rites on December 7, 1953; during his prefecture took place twelve beatifications and ten canonizations; he implemented the liturgical reforms initiated by Pope Pius XII. Named pro-prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of Apostolic Signature on November 18, 1954; occupied the post until November 14, 1959. President of International Congress of Pastoral Liturgy celebrated in Assisi from September 18 to 22, 1956. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati on December 14, 1959; took possession of the see on February 14, 1960. On June 6, 1960, he was named president of the preparatory conciliar commission for liturgy.

Death. Monday February 5, 1962, at 1:30 p.m., of a heart attack after suffering from influenza for several days, in his home at via Serristori 10, in Rome, after receiving the sacraments of the Church and the papal blessing. Pope John XXIII sent a personal letter of condolence to Cardinal Amleto Cicognani, the brother of the late cardinal. The funeral took place on the following February 9 in the collegiate church of Brisighella, presided over by Bishop Giuseppe Battaglia of Faenza. On February 10, Cardinal Giacomo Lercaro, archbishop of Bologna, celebrated a pontifical mass and delivered the eulogy. Buried in the collegiate church of S. Michele, Brisighella, Faenza.

Bibliography. Il Cardinale Gaetano Cicognani (1881-1962). Note per una biografia. Roma : Studium, 1983. (Coscienza studi ; 11). Responsibility: Franco Gualdrini; Vicente Cárcel Ortí ; Traian Crisan; Virgilio Noè ; Antonio Savioli ; Marcial Maciel Degollado ; Vincenzo Cappelletti ; presentazione di Mons. Achille Silvestrini; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 258-261.

Webgraphy. Biography by Luciano Osbat, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 25 (1981), Treccani; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; and photographs, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(36) 4. RONCALLI, Angelo Giuseppe
(1881-1963)

Birth. Friday November 25, 1881, at 10:15 a.m., Sotto il Monte, diocese of Bergamo, Italy. From a family of sharecroppers. Son of Giovanni Battista Roncalli and Marianna Mazzola. The other siblings were Maria Caterina, Teresa, Ancilla, Zaverio, Maria Elisa, Assunta Casilda, Alfredo, Giovanni Francesco, Enrica, Giuseppe Luigi and Luigi. He was baptized on the day of his birth, as it was the custom, in the church of S. Maria di Brusicco by Father Francesco Rebuzzini; his great-uncle Zaverio Roncalli was his godfather. He received the first communion in 1888 in Sotto il Monte; and confirmation on February 13, 1889 in Cavico from Gaetano Camillo Guindani, bishop of Bergamo.

Education. Minor Seminary of Bergamo, Bergamo, 1892-1895; Major Seminary of Bergamo, Bergamo, 1895-1900 (until his second year of theology); received the clerical habit and the tonsure, June 24, 1895; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome, January 4, 1901 (doctorate in theology, July 13, 1904). Received the minor orders of porter and lector on July 3, 1898; the minor orders of exorcist and acolyte on June 25, 1899; the subdiaconate on April 11, 1903, at the patriarchal Lateran basilica, from Cardinal Pietro Respighi, vicar of Rome; and the diaconate on December 18, 1903, in the same basilica from the same cardinal. Began his military service in the 73rd Infantry, Lombardy Brigade, at Bergamo, in the Umberto I Barracks on November 30, 1901; promoted to corporal on May 31, 1902; promoted to sergeant on November 30, 1902; returned to his studies in Rome in December 1902; prefect of young students of theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 10, 1904, church of Santa Maria in Monte Santo, piazza del Popolo, Rome, by Giuseppe Ceppetelli, titular patriarch of Constantinople, vicegerent of Rome. Secretary to the bishop of Bergamo, 1905-1914. Named professor of church history at the Seminary of Bergamo, October 1906. Secretary of the 32nd diocesan synod of Bergamo, April 26 to 28, 1910. Military chaplain in the First World War, May 24, 1915 to December 10, 1918. Spiritual director of the Seminary of Bergamo, 1918-1921. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Bergamo, 1921. Staff member of the S.C. for Propagation of the Faith, 1921-1925. President of the Central Council of the Propagation of the Faith in Italy, January 18, 1921. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 7, 1921. Named professor of patrology at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, November 1924.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Areopoli, March 3, 1925. Consecrated, March 19, 1925, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Tacci, secretary of the S.C. of the Oriental Church, assisted by Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, titular archbishop of Seleucia di Isauria, secretary of the S.C. for Propagation of Faith, and by Giuseppe Palica, titular archbishop of Filippi, vicegerent of Rome. His episcopal motto was Obedientia et pax. Appointed apostolic visitor to Bulgaria, March 19, 1925; apostolic delegate, October 16, 1931. Transferred to titular see of Mesembria, November 30, 1934. Apostolic delegate and apostolic vicar in Turkey, and apostolic delegate ad interim in Greece, January 12, 1935. Nuncio in France, December 22, 1944.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red biretta from President Vincent Auriol of France, in Paris, on the following January 15; received the red hat on October 29, 1953, together with new Cardinals Gaetano Cicognani, Pietro Ciriaci, Benjamín de Arriba y Castro and Fernando Quiroga y Palacios, in a special consistory that lasted fifteen minutes, and also the title of S. Prisca. Promoted to the patriarchate of Venice, January 15, 1953. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Beïrut, Lebanon, September 30, 1954. Participated in the conclave of 1958 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected, October 28, 1958; took name John XXIII (1). Crowned, November 4, 1958 by Cardinal Nicola Canali, protodeacon of S. Nicola in Carcere. He convoked the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council in 1962. Created fifty five cardinals in five consistories. Three of them were reserved in pectore and their names were never published, therefore, their promotion did not take effect. He wrote eight encyclicals: Pacem in terris; Paenitentiam Agere; Aeterna Dei Sapientia; Mater et Magistra; Princeps Pastorum; Grata Recordatio; Sacerdotii Nostri Primordia; and Ad Petri Cathedram.

Death. June 3, 1963, of peritonitis due to a perforated stomach caused by cancer; at the end of the mass celebrated by Cardinal Luigi Traglia, vicar of Rome, in St. Peter's square, Vatican City. Buried on June 6, 1963, in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Canonization. The process of beatification was started by Pope Paul VI on November 18, 1965, during the last session of the Second Vatican Council together with the cause of Pope Pius XII. Beatified on September 3, 2000 in St. Peter's Square, by Pope John Paul II. His body was transferred to the altar of the chapel of S. Girolamo in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on June 3, 2001. On September 30, 2013, during an ordinary public consistory, Pope Francis approved his canonization to be celebrated on Sunday April 27, 2014, feast of the Divine Mercy. The Universal Church celebrates his feast on June 3; and the diocese of Bergamo on October 11.

Bibliography. Breig, Joseph A. The story of Pope John XXIII. St. Paul : Summit Press, 1959; Capovilla, Loris. Giovanni XXIII. Fotocronaca dagli album personali del pontefice commentati dal suo segretario particolare, dal fonte battesimale di Sotto il Monte alla canonizzazione in piazza San Pietro. Bergamo : Grafica & arte, 2000; Capovilla, Loris. Papa Giovanni. Fotocronaca dagli album personali del pontefice. Bergamo : Grafica & arte, 2014; Duffy, Eamon. Ten popes who shook the world. New Haven [Conn.] : Yale University Press, 2011. Contents: St Peter -- Leo the Great -- Gregory the Great -- Gregory VII -- Innocent III -- Paul III -- Pio Nono -- Pius XII -- John XXIII -- John Paul II; Elliot, Lawrence. I Will Be Called John. A biography of Pope John XXIII. New York : Reader's Digest, 1973; Falasca, Stefania. Giovanni XXIII, in una carezza la rivoluzione. Con un saggio di Ezio Bolis. Milano : Rizzoli, 2014. (Saggi italiani); Giovannetti, Albert. We have a pope. A portrait of His Holiness John XXIII. Translated from the Italian by John Chapin. Westminster : Newman, 1959; Groppi, Ugo ; Lombardi, Julius S. Above all a shepherd. Pope John XXIII. New York : P.J. Kenedy & Sons, 1959; Hatch, Alden. A man named John. The life of Pope John XXIII. Illustrated with Drawings by Allene Gaty Hatch. New York : Hawthorne Books, 1963; Hebblethwaite, Peter. Pope John XXIII, shepherd of the modern world. Garden City, N.J.; New York: Doubleday, 1985; Hebblethwaite, Peter ; Hebblethwaite, Margaret. John XXIII pope of the century. London ; New York : Continuum, Edition: Abridged ed. rev. by Margaret Hebblethwaite, 2000. Contents: Village boyhood --; Counter-Reformation seminary --; Roman education --; Into the whirlwind of Modernism --; Great War --; Towards propaganda and Fascism --; Ten hard years in Bulgaria --; Innocent suspect --; God's consul --; Difficult mission to France --; Seasons of Venice --; 1958: the wide-open conclave --; First ninety days --; Inspiration of the Council --; Struggle for the Council --; At home and in Rome --; Italian connection --; Enter Augustin Bea --; Getting on for eighty --; Dress rehearsal --; On the slopes of the sacred mountain --; Sixty days to change the church --; Last will and testament --; Eastertide. Javierre, José María. Juan XXIII : reto para hoy. 2a. ed. Salamanca : Editorial Sígueme, 2002, ©2000. (El rostro de los santos ; 25); John XXIII. Journal of a soul. Translated by Dorothy White. New York : McGraw-Hill, 1965. Other title: Giornale dell' anima; Johnson, Paul. Pope John XXIII. Boston : Little, Brown, 1974; Kartaloff, Kiril Plamen. La sollecitudine ecclesiale di monsignor Roncalli in Bulgaria (1925-1934). Studio storico-diplomatico alla luce delle nuove fonti archivistiche. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2014. (Atti e Documenti del Pontificio Comitato di Scienze Storiche); Kerdreux, Michel de. Jean XXIII. Preface by François Marty. Paris : Beacuhesne, 1970. (Collection Biographies); Lazzarini, Andrea. Pope John XXIII. A life of the new pope. New York : Herder and Herder, 1959; Mission to France 1944-1953. Edited by Don Loris Capovilla. Translated by Dorothy White. New York : McGraw-Hill, 1966; Ormenese, Giuseppe. Vita virtuosa e partecipazione liturgica La formazione spirituale e intellettuale di Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli. Cinisello Balsamo : Edizioni San Paolo, 2012. (Classici del pensiero cristiano); Paul VI. John XXIII. Pope Paul on his predecessor and a documentation by the Editors of 'Herder Correspondence'. New York : Herder and Herder, 1965; Pepper, Curtis Bill. An artist and the pope. Based upon the personal recollections of Giacomo Manzà. Illustrations by Manzà. New York : Grosset & Dunlap, 1968; Perrotta, Paul C. Pope John XXIII. His life and character. New York : Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1959; Riccardi, Andrea. L'uomo dell'incontro. Angelo Roncalli e la politica internazionale. Cinisello Balsamo : San Paolo, 2014; Roncalli, Marco. Giovanni XXIII. Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli. Una vita nella storia. Milano : EditoreMondadori, 2006. (Le scie); Roncalli, Marco. Papa Giovanni il santo. Postfazione di Loris Francesco Capovilla. Milano ; Cinisello Balsamo : Paoline ; San Paolo, 2014; Sonnemans, Heino. Giovanni XXIII Papa del Vaticano II, dell'unità e della pace. Cinisello Balsamo : Edizioni San Paolo, 2012. (Classici del pensiero cristiano); Spina, Tony. The making of the pope. Additional text by Dawson Taylor. With a foreword by John LaFarge, S.J. New York : A.S. Barnes and Company, 1962; Tobin, Greg. The good pope : the making of a saint and the remaking of the church : the story of John XXIII and Vatican II. New York, NY : HarperOne, 2012. Contents: Priest and Protector. Pastor et Nauta, Shepherd and navigator ; Family, youth, and seminary (1881-1904) ; Early priesthood and Rome (1904-1915) ; The Great War and after (1915-1925) ; Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey (1925-1945) ; France and Venice (1945-1958). -- The Soul of a Pope. Election and first days (October-December (1958) ; The first year (January-December 1959) ; A unique pontificate (January-December 1960) ; World in crisis (January 1961-September 1962) ; Aggiornamento, Si! (October 1962). -- Father of the Council. A new Pentecost? (November-December 1962) ; Peace on Earth (January-April 1963) ; Finis (May-June 1963) ; The Good Pope and his great council; Traniello, Francesco. "Giovanni XXIII, beato." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 646-657; Treece, Patricia. Meet John XXIII: joyful pope and father to all. Cincinnati, OH : Servant Books, 2008. Contents: Beginnings -- Formation in Rome -- A priest of Bergamo -- Drama, deaths, and a World War I chaplaincy -- Teacher and guide -- At home in Rome -- Bulgarian exile -- Turkey and Greece -- Walking World War II's tightrope -- The Paris years -- Shepherd of Venice -- Return to Rome -- A fatherly Holy Father -- The Council -- Of world rulers and God's humble servant -- Go in peace; Trevor, Meriol. Pope John. Garden City : Doubleday, 1967.

Webgraphy. His photograph, arms, documents and biography, in several languages, The Vatican; photograph and biography by John Cogley, in English (Britannica); biography by Francesco Traniello, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei papi, Treccani; his chronology, in Italian, ofm communications, Rome; his episcopal lineageby Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; pictures, bibliography and biographyby Maria Di Lorenzo, in Italian, Santi e Beati; research on his heraldry by Giacomo Danesi, in Italian, L'Araldica Ecclesiastica da Leone XIII a Benedetto XVI; and his photograph and arms as cardinal, Araldica Vaticana; Película completa-El Santo Padre Juan XXIII ---En Español, YouTube; John XXIII's angel by Marco Roncalli, LOsservatore Romano, 2012-08-28; Roncalli il bulgaro Cultura, Avvenire, 20 luglio 2013; La storia "vera" del Discorso papale più celebre di tutti i tempi by Gianni Gennari, Vatican Insider, 30/11/2013; Ecco perché Francesco canonizza Giovanni XXIII by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 23/04/2014; Pope John XXIII Launched Vatican II and Then Some by Nicole Winfield, Associated Press, ABC News, April 23, 2014; John XXIII: The accidental saint by Bill Huebsch, National Catholic Reporter, April 24, 2014.

(1) There had been an antipope by the same name, John XXIII (1410-1415), Baldassare Cossa, who was deposed by the Council of Constance on May 29, 1415. He made his submission to Martin V, who absolved him and named him cardinal bishop of Frascati on June 23, 1419. Died on December 22, 1419.


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(37) 5. VALERI, Valerio
(1883-1963)

Birth. November 7, 1883, Santa Fiora, diocese of Città della Pieve, Italy.

Education. Roman-Pio Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1907, Rome. Faculty member of the Pontifical Regional Seminary, Fano, 1907-1909. Faculty member of the Pontifical Roman Athenueum "S. Apollinare", 1904-1920. Military chaplain in the First World War, 1914-1919. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1920-1921. Auditor of the nunciature in France, 1921-1927. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, July 6, 1921; reappointed, May 5, 1922. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 22, 1923.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Efeso, October 18, 1927. Appointed apostolic delegate in Egypt and Arabia, October 19, 1927. Consecrated, Friday October 28, 1927, church of S. Cuore ai Prati di Castello, Rome, by Cardinal Donato Sbarretti, prefect of the S.C. of the Council, assisted by Pietro Benedetti, M.S.C., titular archbishop of Tiro, and by Giuseppe Angelucci, bishop of Città della Pieve. His episcopal motto was Pax in virtute. Named nuncio in Rumania, July 1, 1933. Nuncio in France, July 11, 1936. Awarded the grand cross of the Légion d'Honneur, in 1944 when he left France. Assigned to the section of extraordinary ecclesiastical affairs in the Secretariat of State, 1944-1948. Assessor of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, September 1, 1948. President of the Central Committee for the Holy Year, June 28, 1948.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, January 15, 1953. Prefect of the S.C. for Religious, January 17, 1953. Papal legate to the Marian Congress, Trois-Rivières, Canada, July 2, 1954. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the first session of the Second Vatican Council, 1962. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. July 22, 1963, Rome. Buried in the tomb of his family in Santa Fiora, Città della Pieve.

Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. "Valerio Valeri" in La Sacra Congregazione per le Chiese Orientali. Nel cinquantesimo della fondazione (1917-1967). Grottaferrata, Roma : Tipografia Italo-Orientale "San Nilo", 1969, p. 101; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, pp. 130-131.

Webgraphy. Photographs, portrait, bust and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


(1) The Czech government dropped the celebration of the feast of St. Ján Chrysostom and replaced it with the feast of Ján Huss, who is considered a heretic by the church.
(2) This is the text of the inscription that he composed for the stone that covers his tomb, taken from Palazzini, "Fulgida porpora, prima guida alla revisione del Codice. Il Cardinale Pietro Ciriaci", p. 9: Petrus presb. Card. Ciriaci in sua prisca paroecia et in archiepiscopum Tarsenen consecrari et in Domino requiescere voluit.


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(38) 6. CIRIACI, Pietro
(1885-1966)

Birth. December 2, 1885, Rome, Italy. Son of Giuseppe Ciriaci and Maria Giuggiolini Magnaterra. He was baptized in the church of S. Crisogono, Rome; and received first communion in the church of "Madonna di Ponterotto", Rome, on June 27, 1897.

Education. Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; entered, October 31, 1902; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome (doctorates in philosophy, July 5, 1904; theology, July 6, 1909; and canon law, November 8, 1911).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1909, Rome; celebrated his first mass in the church of S. Maria Liberatrice "a Monte Testaccio" on December 19, 1909. Vice-pastor of S. Rocco parish, Rome, July 28, 1910. Professor of ethical philosophy at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare"; later, of fundamental theology and dean of the faculty, November 14, 1914 until September 1926. Scrittore at of the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, January 21, 1911; promoted to registratore, December 15, 1911. Adjunct aiutante di studio at the S.C. of the Council, February 22, 1913. Minutant at the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, first section, June 16, 1917. Privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness, October 26, 1918. Under-secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, May 14, 1921. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 27, 1922. On March 27, 1927, he left Rome as special envoy to solve the incident of the feast of Ján Huss (1), for which Archbishop Francesco Marmaggi, nuncio in that country, had to leave the post; and to conclude the modus vivendi between Czechoslovakia and the Holy See; he successfully solved the problem of the celebration and signed the agreement on December 17, 1927.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tarso, February 15, 1928. Consecrated, March 18, 1928, basilica of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Carlo Cremonesi, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, secret almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Profreone, sacristan of His Holiness. His episcopal motto was Dominus regit me. Named nuncio in Czechoslovakia, March 18, 1928. Nuncio in Portugal, January 19, 1934.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat on October 29, 1953, together with new Cardinals Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, Gaetano Cicognani, Benjamín de Arriba y Castro and Fernando Quiroga y Palacios, in a special consistory that lasted fifteen minutes, and also the title of S. Prassede. Prefect of S.C. of Council, March 20, 1954 to December 30, 1966. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, May 31, 1955. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Opted for the title of S Lorenzo in Lucina, September 26, 1964.

Death. December 30, 1966, in his Roman residence in Via Rusticucci; his confessor, Fr. Salvatore Finelli, C.SS.R., was present. He was exposed in his residence on December 31, 1966. The funeral took place on January 3, 1967, in the basilica of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, presided by Pope Paul VI. His remains were buried in the first chapel on the right of that same basilica (2).

Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), 147-148; Palazzini, Pietro. "Fulgida porpora, prima guida alla revisione del Codice. Il Cardinale Pietro Ciriaci". Apollinaris, XLI (1968), 7-42.

Webgraphy. Photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The Czech government dropped the celebration of the feast of St. Ján Chrysostom and replaced it with the feast of Ján Huss, who is considered a heretic by the church.
(2) This is the text of the inscription that he composed for the stone that covers his tomb, taken from Palazzini, "Fulgida porpora, prima guida alla revisione del Codice. Il Cardinale Pietro Ciriaci", p. 9: Petrus presb. Card. Ciriaci in sua prisca paroecia et in archiepiscopum Tarsenen consecrari et in Domino requiescere voluit.


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(39) 7. BORGONGINI DUCA, Francesco
(1884-1954)

Birth. February 26, 1884, Rome, Italy. Son of Giovanni Borgongini Duca and Rosa Scalzi.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, where he earned doctorates in theology and canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1906, Rome. Named official in the S. Apostolic Penitentiary in 1907; became its secretary on February 24, 1917. In 1908, he was named minutant in the S.C. of Propaganda Fide while at the same time he taught Sacred Scriptures, fundamental theology, propedeutic to theology and dogmatic theology at the Athenaeum of Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 2, 1917. In 1917, in Rome, he published the opuscle Il profilo di s. Agostino e la genesi della dottrina agostiniana intorno al peccato originale, to respond to a controversy about Saint Augustine. Pro-secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, June 28, 1921; at the same time, he was spiritual director of the Pontifical Minor Seminary at the Vatican. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 7, 1921. Secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, October 14, 1922. Apostolic protonotary, January 11, 1927. Member of the commission to negotiate the Lateran pact.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Eraclea di Europa, June 7, 1929. Consecrated, June 29, 1929, hall of Benedictions, at the Vatican, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Carlo Cremonesi, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. His episcopal motto was Cana fides. Appointed nuncio in Italy, June 30, 1929. Pontifical administrator of the basilica of S. Paolo fuori le mura, Rome, April 1, 1933; and of the basilica of Our Lady of Loreto, March 25, 1934. His activity as nuncio was constantly inspired by the policy of safeguarding the reconstituted harmonious relations between Church and State. During the Second World War, he secretly provided help to Jews and Allied prisoners of war. Another of his published works was Le LXX Settimane di Daniele e le date messianiche (Padua, 1951).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Vallicella, January 15, 1953.

Death. October 4, 1954, at 9:50 a.m., of heart ailment, shortly after having celebrated mass and after receiving the holy sacraments, in his apartment in the Palace of the Holy Office, Rome. The funeral took place in the church of S.Maria in Vallicela, Rome, his cardinalitial title, on the following October 10, at 10:30 a.m; the mass was celebrated by Diego Venini, titular archbishop of Adana, almoner of His Holiness; at the end of the ceremony, Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, imparted the final absolution nomine Summi Pontificis. Buried in the chapel of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome; later, his remains were transferred to the church of S. Salvatore in Ossibus, Vatican City.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography by Giuseppe Caputo, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 12 (1971), Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; his photograph, tomb and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave.


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(40) 8. FELTIN, Maurice
(1883-1975)

Birth. May 15, 1883, Delle, archdiocese of Besançon, France. He was baptized on the following day in the parish church of Saint-Léger (1).

Education. Studied at the Benedictine monastery at Delle-Mariastein; later, at the Jesuit school in Lyon; and finally, completed his theological and philosophical formation at the seminary of Saint-Sulpice of Issy-les-Moulineaux.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 3, 1909. Vicar of Sainte-Marie-Madeleine, in the archdiocese of Besançon, 1909-1914. Officer in the French Army during the First World War, 1914-1919, decorated with the Croix-de-Guerre, the Medaille militaire, and the Legion d'Honor. From 1919 to 1925, in the archdiocese of Besançon, he was curate of Giromagny; and then, from 1925 to 1927, parish priest of Sainte-Marie-Madeleine.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Troyes, France, December 19, 1927. Consecrated, March 11, 1928, church of Sainte-Madeleine, Besançon, by Cardinal Henri-Charles-Joseph Binet, archbishop of Besançon, assisted by Paul-Jules-Narcisse Rémond, titular bishop of Clisma, general chaplain and inspector of the French army of the Rhine, and by Jean-Marcel Rodié, bishop of Ajaccio. His episcopal motto was Animan pro ovibus. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sens, August 16, 1932. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Bordeaux, December 16, 1935. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Paris, August 15, 1949.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Pace, January 15, 1953. Papal legate to the consecration of the basilica of St. Thérèse de Lisieux, June 30, 1954. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, December 21, 1966. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. He was president of the Pax Christi Movement International.

Death. September 27, 1975, of a lung infection, at a monastery of the Annunciation in Thiais, a suburb of Paris, where he resided during the last two years of his life. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Paris.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 293-294.

Webgraphy. His portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on a plaque commemorating the event, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

LE CARDINAL
MAVRICE FELTIN
A ETE BAPTISE
LE 16 MARS 1883
DANS CETTE EGLISE


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(41) 9. MIMMI, Marcello
(1882-1961)

Birth. July 18, 1882, Poggio di Castel San Pietro, archdiocese of Bologna, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Bologna, Bologna.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1905, Bologna. Pastoral ministry and faculty member of the Seminary of Bologna, 1905-1930. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, November 19, 1919; reappointed, April 3, 1922. Rector of the Regional Seminary of Romagna.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Crema, June 30, 1930. Consecrated, July 25, 1930, metropolitan cathedral of Bologna, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano, archbishop of Bologna, assisted by Ettore Lodi, titular bishop of Messene, auxiliary of Bologna, and by Giovanni Franzini, bishop of Carpi. Promoted to metropolitan see of Bari, July 31, 1933. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 6, 1936. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Naples, August 30, 1952; took possession of the see on the following December 7.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, January 15, 1953. Papal legate to the Regional Plenary Council of Salerno, August 15, 1955; to the 15th National Eucharistic Congress, Lecce, Italy, April 18, 1956. Named secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, December 15, 1957. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, June 9, 1958. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Papal legate to the 16th National Eucharistic Congress, Catania, Sicily, Italy, August 2, 1959. Papal legate to the First Interamerican Marian Congress, Buenos Aires, Argentina, October 21, 1960.

Death. March 6, 1961, of kidney complications following surgery for a perforated ulcer, in Rome. Buried in the cathedral of Sabina, Magliano Sabina.

Bibliography. Mimmi, Marcello. Marcello Mimmi e la svolta pastorale moderna della chiesa di Bari : 1933-1952. Bari : Edipuglia, 1995. (Per la storia della Chiesa di Bari, 12). Responsibility : a cura di Salvatore Palese, Francesco Sportelli.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(42) 10. DE LA TORRE, Carlos María
(1873-1968)

Birth. November 15, 1873, neighborhood of "La Loma", Quito, Ecuador (1). Son of Mario de la Torre and María Nieto León. His baptismal name was Carlos María Javier. His last name is also listed as Torre, de la.

Education. Primary studies at "Colegio El Cebollar" of the Brothers of the Christian Schools, Quito; he had holy Hermano Miguel as his teacher; secondary studies at Jesuit "Colegio San Gabriel", Quito; then, at the Conciliar Seminary, Quito; and later, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned doctorates in theology and canon law in 1896; while in Rome, he resided at Pontificio Collegio Latino Americano until September 22, 1896.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 19, 1896, Rome. Successively, from 1896 until 1911, in the archdiocese of Quito, he was chaplain of "Colegio de los Sagrados Corazones"; professor of dogmatic theology at the Conciliar Seminary; pastor in Pelileo for a short time; canon theologian of the metropolitan cathedral chapter; chancellor-secretary to Archbishop Federico González of Quito; and pro-vicar general.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Loja, December 30, 1911. Consecrated, May 26, 1912, metropolitan cathedral of San Francisco de Asís, Quito, by Federico González Suárez, archbishop of Quito, assisted by Manuel Polit, bishop of Cuenca, and by Juan María Riera, bishop of Guayaquil; published in the consistory of the following December 2. His episcopal motto was Obœdientia et pax. Transferred to the diocese of Riobomba (then called Bolívar), August 21, 1919; published in the consistory of the following December 10. Transferred to the diocese of Guayaquil, December 20, 1926. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Quito, September 8, 1933; published in the consistory of the following October 16; took possession of the see on December 8 of that same year. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 19, 1946. On November 29, 1952, he received the news of his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aquiro, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, January 15, 1953. Decorated by the Spanish government with the Cruz de Alfonso X, el Sabio, January 1953. His promotion to the cardinalate was celebrated by the Ecuadorean government issuing a 30¢ postal stamp. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, San José, Costa Rica, December 26, 1954. Attended the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 25-August 4, 1955. Papal legate to the First Plenary Council of Ecuador, Quito, July 28, 1957. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Guayaquil, Ecuador, August 28, 1958. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962. Did not participate in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, May 1967. He was the founder of the Catholic University of Ecuador; of the Catholic radio station; and of the Catholic daily "La Unión". Member of the Ecuadorean Academy of the Language. He was the first cardinal from Ecuador.

Death. July 31, 1968, Quito. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Quito. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1937-1938-1939. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1939, p. 226; "Carlos María de la Torre", in "Emm.mmi e Rev.mi Signori Cardinali secondo il loro rispettivo ordine e precedenza", Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1967. Roma : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1967, p. *52; Essor, Augusto. Púrpura en Quito; los cardenales, nuestro cardinal. Quito : Imp. Col Sal. "Don Bosco", 1950-1959?; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 229 and 320.

Webgraphy. Portrait and biography, in Spanish, Conferencia Episcopal Ecuatoriana; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted, printed and electronic, except Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1937-1938-1939, p. 226, which says that he was born on November 12, 1873.


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(43) 11. STEPINAC, Alojzije
(1898-1960)

Birth. May 8, 1898, Krašić, archdiocese of Zagreb, Croatia, Austria-Hungary Empire (later Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; then Yugoslavia; now Croatia). The fifth of the eight children of Josip Stepinac and Barbara Penić. The following day he was baptized with the names Alojzije Viktor in the parish church of the Most Holy Trinity.

Education. Studied at the School of Agriculture, Zagreb; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 26, 1930, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Giuseppe Palica, titular archbishop of Filippi, vice-gerent of Rome; in the same ceremony was ordained Franjo Šeper, his successor in the see of Zagreb and future cardinal. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Zagreb and official of its chancery, 1931-1934.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicopsi and appointed coadjutor of Zagreb, with right of succession, May 28, 1934. Consecrated, June 24, 1934, Zagreb, by Anton Bauer, archbishop of Zagreb, assisted by Ivan Šarić, archbishop of Vhrbosna, and by Quirinus Bonefačić, bishop of Split. His episcopal motto was In te Domine speravi. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Zagreb, December 7, 1937. Arrested by the Communist regime, September 1946. Sentenced to 16 year imprisonment, October 11, 1946; under house arrest in Krašić, 1951-1960.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; never allowed to go to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Impeded from participating in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII, for being under house arrest. For years, he suffered from polycythemia, a rare blood disorder, necessitating regular forced bleeding.

Death. February 10, 1960, becoming weaker and weaker, he passed away in the early afternoon, after suffering a thrombosis, under house arrest, in the little rectory bedroom of the village of Krasic, near his birthplace, with praying nuns at his side. Confused guards inadvertently allowed the sacristan to ring the church bell announcing the death of the cardinal. He was buried in the metropolitan cathedral, Zagreb; later, his remains were transferred to a new tomb in the same cathedral. Pope John XXIII celebrated a requiem mass at the patriarchal Vatican basilica in the presence of twenty eight cardinals, the diplomatic corps accredited before the Holy See and thounsands of faithful.

Beatification. He was beatified, as a martyr, on October 3, 1998 by Pope John Paul II in the Shrine of Marija Bistrica, Zagreb.

Bibliography. Barbour, Hugh C. ; Batelja, Juraj. Luce lungo il sentiero della vita : una biografia spirituale del Beato Luigi Cardianle Stepinac. Zagreb : Postulazione del Beato Alojzije Stepinac, 1998. Uniform title: Svjetlo na putu zivota; Batelja, Juraj. Rendere testimonianza alla fede : vita e programma pastorale del cardinale Alojzije Stepinac. Roma : Pontificia Universitas Gregoriana, Facultas theologiae, Institutum spiritualitatis, 1984. Dissertation: Proefschrift Rome (excerpta ex dissertatione); Batelja, Juraj. Sluga Bozji Alojzije Stepinac : spomen zbirka iz ostavstine Sluge Bozjega Alojzija Stepinac. Zagreb Nadbiskupski Duhovni Stol, 1995; Batelja, Juraj. Zivjeti iz vjere : duhovni lik i pastirska skrb kardinala Alojzija Stepinac. Zagreb : Nadbiskupski Duhovni Stol, 1990; Bauer, Ernest. Aloisius Kardinal Stepinac : ein Leben f|r Wahrheit, Recht und Gerechtigkeit. Recklinghausen : Bitter ; Wien : Herold, 1979; Istranin, Neki. Stepinac : un innocente condannato. Vicenza : L.I.E.F., 1982; Landercy, Mathilde. Le cardinal Stepinac : martyr des droits de l'homme. Paris : Apostolat des Éditions, 1981; M. Raymond, Father, O.C.S.O. The man for this moment. Staten Island, N.Y. : Alba House, 1971. Notes: Half-title: The life and death of Aloysius Cardinal Stepinac. Other title: Life and death of Aloysius Cardinal Stepinac; Mattei, Giampaolo. Il cardinale Alojzije Stepinac : una vita eroica nella testimonianza di quanti con lui sono stati vittime della persecuzione nella Jugoslavia comunista. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore romano, 1999. (Quaderni de L'Osservatore romano ; 43; Variation: Quaderni dell'Osservatore romano ; 43); O'Brien, Anthony Henry. Archbishop Stepinac, the man and his case. Foreword by John C. McQuaid. Westminster, Md. : Newman Bookshop, 1947; Pavicic, Darko. Tajna kardinala vozaca, ili, Kako sam u noci vidio dugu. Zagreb : ITD, 1997. Biographies of Cardinals Stepinac, Alojzije, 1898-1960; Kuharic, Franjo, 1919-2002; and Seper, Franjo, 1905-1981. Other title: Tajna kardinala vozaca; Kako sam u noci vidio dugu; Pattee, Richard. The case of Cardinal Aloysius Stepinac Milwaukee : The Bruce Publishing Co., 1953.

Webgraphy. Photographs and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in Coratian, Wikipedia; Homily of the Holy Father Pope John Paul at Marija Bistrica for the Beatification of the Venerable Servant of God Cardinal Alojzije Stepinac, 3 October 1998, Libreria Editrice Vaticana; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Alojzije Stepinac - Moja je savjest čista 1/4, You Tube, Mar 18, 2010; Alojzije Stepinac - Moja je savjest čista 2/4, You Tube, Mar 18, 2010; Alojzije Stepinac - Moja je savjest čista 3/4, You Tube, Mar 18, 2010; Alojzije Stepinac - Moja je savjest čista 4/4, You Tube, Mar 18, 2010; Alojzije Stepinac - Video Biografija - Sječanja na Poznate Hrvatske Velikane, You Tube, May 8, 2012; Pravednik Stepinac (The Righteous Road of Stepinac), You Tube, Feb. 25, 2012; Stepinac Dokumentarac 1991, You Tube, Feb. 27, 2013; Beato Luis (Aloizije Viktor) Stepinac by Isabel Orellana Vilches, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, Madrid, 10 de febrero de 2014.


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(44) 12. GRENTE, Georges-François-Xavier-Marie
(1872-1959)

Birth. May 5, 1872, Percy, diocese of Coutances, France. Son of Émile Grente, merchant of wines and groceries, and Augustine Victoire Gihaut Montsurvent. He had an older brother, Henri. He received first communion at the church of Percy.

Education. Diocesan Collège of Saint-Lô, October 4, 1886 to July 1891 (baccalaureate), where he was condisciple of Pierre-Marie Gerlier, future cardinal; University of Paris School of Law (thesis in letters on poet Jean Bertrand; obtained a doctorate in law); Major Seminary of Coutances, Coutances, February 1892; Institut Catholique, Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1895; celebrated his first mass at the church of Percy on the following July 7. Faculty member of the Minor Seminary of Mortain, 1895-1903. Director of the diocesan college of Saint Lo, 1903-1916. In July 1914 he was named rector of the Catholic University of Lille, but because of the First World War could not occupy the post. Superior of Institut Saint-Paul de Cherbourg, 1916-1918. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Coutances, 1917.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Le Mans, January 30, 1918; he was the youngest French bishop. Consecrated, April 17, 1918, church of Notre Dame du Vœu, Cherbourg, by Cardinal Louis-Ernest Dubois, archbishop of Rouen, assisted by Claude Bardel, bishop of Sées, and by Joseph Guérard, bishop of Coutances. His episcopal motto was Dux untinam exemplar. Assistant at Pontifical Throne, January 18, 1933. Elected member of Academie Française on November 12 1936; received on the following November 25 by Duke de La Force. Archbishop ad personam, March 16, 1943.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, January 15, 1953. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. He was a prolific writer and published numerous works throughout his life (1).

Death. May 5, 1959, of influenza, early in the morning, Le Mans. The solemn funeral was celebrated by Louis Ferrand, archbishop of Tours. Buried in the crypt of the cathedral of Le Mans. On June 13, 1959, Msgr. Émile Arsenius Blanchet, titular bishop of Lero, rector of the Catholic Institute of Paris, pronounced the panegyric of the late cardinal at the cathedral of Le Mans. His heart was deposited in the parish church of Percy, his birthplace. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 325-326; Guérande, Louis. Le Cardinal Grente, un prélat humaniste au XXe siècle; chroniques sur ses ouvrages et son action. Rennes : Impr. Bretonne, 1958; Gury, Christian. Le Cardinal Grente. Paris : Éditions Kimé, 1995. (Collection "Détours littéraires").

Webgraphy. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the list of his books, taken from the site of Academie Française: Quae fuerit in cardinali Davy du Perron vis oratoria (1903); Le poète Jean Bertaut, abbé d'Aunay, Premier Aumônier de la Reine, évêque de Séez (1903) La Composition et le Style (1909); Saint Pie V (1914); La bienheureuse Marie-Madeleine Postel (1917) Semailles et semeurs, propos déducation (1918); uvres oratoires et pastorales, 10 vol. (1920-1955); Une mission au Levant (1922); Aux parents : les vices actuels de l'éducation familiale (1924); Le beau voyage des cardinaux français aux États-Unis et au Canada (1927); Le 13e centenaire de l'abbaye de Jouarre (1931); Dix siècles de Cotentin normand (1933); Fléchier (1934); Rayons de France (1935); Écrits et paroles (1937); Notre Dame (1939); Les pensées de Joubert (1941); Léminence grise. Frangais et Chrétiens (1941); La magnificence des Sacrements (1945); Sainte Jeanne de France : les épines dune couronne (1950); Notre Père (1953); Paroles romaines (1953); Vie et passion de Jeanne d'Arc (1955); Ces Français qui furent des saints (1956); Aimer et servir (1959);


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(45) 13. SIRI, Giuseppe
(1906-1989)

Birth. May 20, 1906, parish of S. Maria Immacolata, Genoa, Italy. Son of Nicolò Siri and Giulia Bellavista.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Genoa from October 16, 1916 to 1917; at the Major Seminary of Genoa from 1917 to 1926; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, from 1926 to 1929, where he obtained a doctorate summa cum laude in theology; while studying in Rome, he resided at the Pontifical Lombardian Seminary.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 22, 1928, cathedral of Genoa, by Cardinal Carlo Dalmazio Minoretti, archbishop of Genoa. Further studies and patoral ministry, Rome, 1928 to fall 1929. Chaplain at the parish of S. Zita and at "Opera Giosuè Signore", Genoa. Professor of dogmatic theology at the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Genoa, 1930-1946; of fundamental theology, for one year; and pastoral ministry in Genoa, 1930-1944. Preacher, conferencist and professor of religion at the lyceums "D'Oria" and "Mazzini, 1931-1936. Prosynodal examiner at the archiepiscopal curia, 1936. Rector of Collegio Teologico S. Tommaso d'Aquino, 1937.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Liviade and appointed auxiliary of Genoa, March 14, 1944. Consecrated, May 7, 1944, cathedral of S. Lorenzo, Genoa, by Cardinal Pietro Boetto, S.J., archbishop of Genoa, assisted by Amedeo Casabona, bishop of Chiavari, and by Francesco Canessa, titular bishop of Sarepta. His episcopal motto was Non nobis Domine. Named pro-vicar general of the archdiocese on September 8, 1944. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Genoa, May 14, 1946; took possession of the see on May 29, 1946.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, January 15, 1953. President of the Italian Apostolate of the Sea, 1955; later, its director general. Bailiff Grand Cross of Honor and Devotion of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, May 1956. Papal legate to the 4th centennial celebration of the death of St. Ignatius, Loyola, July 19, 1956; to the religious celebrations of the International Exposition of Brussels, Belgium, July 24, 1958. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII named him first president of the Italian Episcopal Conference on October 12, 1959; occupied the post until 1965. As papal legate, celebrated the wedding ceremony of King Badouin I of Belgium and Doña Fabiola de Mora y Aragón, cathedral of Brussels, December 15, 1960. Decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Leopold, Belgium. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; member of its board of presidency, 1963-1965. Decorated with the grand cross of the order of Merit of the Italian Republic, May 1963. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the second Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinal, Vatican City, 1982. Cardinal protopriest, September 18, 1982. Bailiff grand cross of justice of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of St. George of the Bourbons of the Two Sicilies, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; as special guest. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, May 20, 1986. Became archbishop of Genoa-Bobbio when the two sees were united, September 30, 1986. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 6, 1987. Retired to Villa Campostano, Albaro. He was the last cardinal elector created by Pope Pius XII.

Death. May 2, 1989, Villa Campostano, Albaro. The funeral took place in the metropolitan cathedral of S. Lorenzo, Genoa, where he was buried. His tomb is in the chapel of S. Giuseppe, in the south aisle of the cathedral, against the south wall (1).

Bibliography. Buonasorte, Nicla. Siri : tradizione e Novecento. Bologna : Il mulino, 2006. (Testi e ricerche di scienze religiose / Istituto per le scienze religiose, Bologna ; nuova ser., 37; Variation: Testi e ricerche di scienze religiose (Istituto per le scienze religiose di Bologna) ; nuova ser., 37); Doldi Marco. Giuseppe Siri. Il Pastore 1946-1987. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2006; Gheda, Paolo. Siri, la Chiesa, l'Italia. Genova-Milano : Marietti, 2009; Grone, Mario. Accanto al "mio" Cardinale Giuseppe Siri. Genova: Marietti, 1999; Lai, Benny. Il papa non eletto : Giuseppe Siri, cardinale di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome: Laterza, 1993. (I Robinson); Spiazzi, Raimondo. Il Cardinale Giuseppe Siri, arcivescovo di Genova dal 1946 al 1987. Bologna : Edizione Studio Domenicano, 1990.

Webgraphy. Photographs, texts, bibliography and biography, in Italian, "Cardinal Giuseppe Siri" site; and photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Siri, pastore della Chiesa e "presidio del lavoro" by Miriana Rebaudo, Vatican Insider, 5/05/2014.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

GIUSEPPE CARDINALE SIRI
A   20.5.1906     Ω   2.5.1989
ARCIVESCOVO DI GENOVA
1946     1987


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(46) 14. D'ALTON, John Francis
(1882-1963)

Birth. October 11, 1882, Claremorris, archdiocese of Tuam, Ireland. His father owned a successful wholesale and retail business. His uncle, Monsignor Edward Alfred D'Alton, was the vicar general of the archdiocese of Tuam.

Education. Initial education under the local Sister of Mercy; Blackrock College, Dublin, September 1895 until 1901 (honors matriculation) (among his contemporaries was Éamon de Valera, future president of Ireland); Holy Cross College, Cloniffe (studies for the priesthood) 1901-1904; Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, 1904-1908 (doctorate summa cum laude in divinity); University of Oxford, Oxford; Cambridge University, Cambridge; The Royal University, Dublin; National University, Dublin, 1910 (M.A. in ancient classics).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 18, 1908, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Respighi, vicar of Rome. Further studies at Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin, 1908-1910. Chaplain to St. Vincent's Orphanage, Glasnevin, 1909. Lecturer in classics at the National Seminary, Maynooth, 1910-1942; professor of Greek, 1922; rector, 1936-1942. Member of the academic senate; and vice-chancellor, National University, Dublin, 1912-1924. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 27, 1938. Author of the "D'Alton Plan for political union".

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Binda and appointed coadjutor of Meath, with right of succession, April 25, 1942. Consecrated, June 29, 1942, chapel of Saint Patrick`s College, Maynooth, by Cardinal Joseph MacRory, archbishop of Armagh and primate of Ireland, assisted by Edward Mulhern, bishop of Dromore, and by William MacNeely, bishop of Raphoe. His episcopal motto was Iudicium sine ira. Succeeded to the see of Meath, June 16, 1943. Promoted to the primatial and metropolitan see of Armagh, June 13, 1946.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Agata dei Goti, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, January 15, 1953. He deplored the use of violence as a means for political expression and unequivocally condemned the Irish Republican Army (I.R.A.). In August 1956, he held a Plenary Council of the Irish Church, the first since 1927, at St. Patrick's College, Maynooth. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. In 1961, he celebrated the Patrician Year to commemorate the 15th centenary of the death of St. Patrick. Attended the first session of the Second Vatican Council, 1962. He had been suffering from ill health for several months. Despite his condition, he left the Dublin Nursing Home, in which he lived his last years and where he eventually died, to attend an Ecumenical Conference in Rome, and while staying there, he also resided in a nursing home. A week before his death, he left the Dublin Home again to attend the funeral of Cardinal William Godfrey in London.

Death. February 1, 1963, from a heart attack, in Dublin. Buried in the grounds of St. Patrick's metropolitan cathedral, Armagh (1).

Bibliography. John D'Alton, cardinal: an illustrated brochure describing the career of Ireland's cardinal Belfast : Marcon Press, 1953; Ó Corráin, Daithí. "The Quiet Leader: The Episcopacy of John Cardinal D'Alton, 1946-63." Seanchas Ard Mhaca, Journal of the Armagh Diocesan Historical Society, XXI, no 1, (2006), 285-322.

Webgraphy. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription on his grave monument, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

+ ORATE
PRO ANIMA
IOANNIS
D'ALTON
VIRI MITIS
ET HUMILIS
CORDE
PRESBYTERI
CARDINALIS
ARCHIEPISCOPI
ARMACHANI ET
TOTIUS HIBERNIAE
PRIMATIS
NATUS XI OCTOBRIS
MDCCCLXXXII
OBIT I FEBRUARII
MCMLXIII


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(47) 15. MCINTYRE, James Francis
(1886-1979)

Birth. June 25, 1886, New York, N.Y., United States of America. Son of James Francis McIntyre and Mary Pelley. His baptismal name was James Francis Louis.

Education. Studied at Cathedral College, New York; and at Saint Joseph's Seminary, Dunwoodie, Yonkers, New York.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 21, 1921, New York, by Patrick Joseph Hayes, archbishop of New York. Pastoral ministry in archdiocese of New York, 1921-1923. Vice-chancellor of archdiocese of New York, 1923-1934; chancellor, 1934-1944. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, December 27, 1934. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 12, 1936.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Cirene and appointed auxiliary of New York, November 16, 1940. Consecrated, January 8, 1941, St. Patrick's cathedral, New York, by Francis Joseph Spellman, archbishop of New York, assisted by Stephen Joseph Donahue, titular bishop of Medea and auxiliary of New York, and by John Francis O'Hara, C.S.C., titular bishop of Milasa and delegate of the military vicar of the United States Armed Forces. His episcopal motto was Miserere mei Deus. Vicar general of archdiocese of New York, January 27, 1945. Promoted to titular archbishop of Palto and appointed coadjutor of New York, July 20, 1946. Transferred to metropolitan see of Los Angeles, February 7, 1948.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Anastasia, January 15, 1953. Papal legate to the National Marian Congress, Lagos, Nigeria, December 8, 1954. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Papal legate to the Patrician Year, Armagh, Ireland, March 17, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, January 21, 1970. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. Following his retirement, he served as a parish priest at St. Basil's church, in downtown Los Angeles, where he only celebrated the Tridentine mass.

Death. July 16, 1979, St. Vincent Medical Center, Los Angeles. Buried, bishops' mausoleum, Calvary Cemetery, East Los Angeles. His remains were transferred to a mausoleum in the crypt of the new metropolitan cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, Los Angeles, in 2003 (1).

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 99; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 194; Weber, Francis. His Eminence of Los Angeles: James Francis Cardinal McIntyre. 2 vols. Mission Hills, Calif. : St. Francis Historical Society, 1997.

Webgraphy. His tomb and biography, in English, Wikipedia; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

His Eminence
Cardinal
James Francis A.
Mc Intyre
1886 - 1979


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(48) 16. LERCARO, Giacomo
(1891-1976)

Birth. October 28, 1891, Quinto al Mare, archdiocese of Genoa, Italy. He was the eighth of the nine children of a very modest family of seamen. His mother's name was Aurelia and she died at 102, in May 1954, in Bologna, where she lived with her son the cardinal. Two of his brothers, Amedeo and Attilio, were also priests.

Education. He studied, with a scholarship given by the archbishop, at the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Genoa, from 1902-1914 (philosophy and theology); he attended the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, from November 1914 to 1915.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 25, 1914, chapel of the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Genoa, by Ildefonso Vincenzo Pisani, C.R.L., titular bishop of Tebe, former bishop of Anglona-Tursi. Further studies in Rome, 1914-1915. Recalled to Genoa when Italy entered the First World War in 1915; military chaplain in the hospital of Galliera, Fort S. Martino; in the hospital of Torri di Quartesolo; and in Villabella di S. Bonifazio. Prefect of the Seminary of Genoa, 1918-1923; his brother Amedeo was the rector of the seminary; substitute professor of theology, 1921-1923; professor of Sacred Scripture and Patrology, 1923-1927. Professor of religion in middle schools, 1927-1937; founder of "Liceo Classico Cristoforo Colombo", student movement for apostolic-social activities such as "Apostolato del Mare", of which he was the first national chaplain; and activities in the poorest suburbs of Genoa. Pastor-provost of the basilica of S. Maria Immacolata, Genoa, 1937-1947; founder of Didascaleion, a study center for the encounter of the theological thought with modern culture. During the Second World War he protected all those in peril, giving refuge in his own house, especially the Jews; due to the grave danger for his life, he had to go into hiding under the name of "Father Lorenzo Gusmini"; at the end of the war, he received a grateful and affectionate testimony from the entire city of Genoa. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 23, 1946.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Ravenna, January 31, 1947. Consecrated, March 19, 1947, basilica of S. Maria Immacolata, Genoa, by Giuseppe Siri, archbishop of Genoa, assisted by Angelo Rossini, archbishop of Amalfi, and by Francesco Canessa, titular bishop of Sarepta. His episcopal motto was Mater mea fiducia mea. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Bologna, April 19, 1952.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, January 15, 1953. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; member of its Board of Presidency, 1963-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. President of "Consilium" for the liturgical reform, 1966-1968. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 12, 1968. Papal legate to the 39th International Eucharistic Congress, Bogotá, Colombia, August 27, 1968. After his retirement as archbishop of Bologna, he resided at "Villa San Giacomo", Particella di San Lazzaro di Savena, school for the youth that he had founded. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 28, 1971.

Death. October 18, 1976, at 3 p.m., of a cardiac crisis, "Villa San Giacomo", Bologna. He was assisted by his brother Fr. Attilio Lercaro. Cardinal Sergio Pignedoli, president of the Secretariat for Non-Christians, represented the pope, and Cardinal Antonio Poma, archbishop of Bologna, was the principal concelebrant of the funeral mass in which another eight cardinals also participated, together with numerous archbishops, bishops and priests. The late cardinal was buried in S. Pietro metropolitan cathedral, Bologna (1). On May 16, 2003, the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna "Giacomo Lercaro", organized by the Fondazione "Cardinale Giacomo Lercaro", next to the Galleria "Giacomo Lercaro", in via Riva di Reno 57, Bologna, was inaugurated. It is one of the principal collections of modern art in Italy.

Bibliography. Bedeschi, Lorenzo. Il cardinale destituito. Documenti sul caso Lercaro. Torino : P. Gribaudi, 1968. (Intervento); Fraccaroli, Arnaldo. Il cardinale che io ho conosciuto : Giacomo Lercaro. Prefazione di Giacomo Biffi. Cinisello Balsamo (Milano): Paoline, 1992. (I Protagonisti, 11.); Huber, Georges. My door is always open. Translated by Thomas Finlay. Notre Dame : Fides, 1959; Lesourd, Paul. Giacomo Cardinal Lercaro. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (The Men who make the Council, 3); Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica, 3), pp. 590-604; Tonacini, Marco. Il cardinale Giacomo Lercaro già arcivescovo di Bologna 1952-1968. Agno : Edizioni L.E.M.A, 1977.

Webgraphy. His picture and biography, in Italian, Fondazione Cardinale Giacomo Lercaro; bibliography, Fondazione Cardinale Giacomo Lercaro; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) In the south side of the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna, on the wall between the chapel of S. Rocco and the chapel of S. Apollinare, there is a memorial tablet with bronze depiction of the cardinal's activities by Enzo Pasqualini. The text of the inscription was provided by Mr. Mark West, London, England:

QUI RIPOSA IN CRISTO
IL CARDINALE
GIACOMO LERCARO
ARCHIVESCOVO DI BOLOGNA DAL 1952 AL 1968
GIA ARCHIVESCOVO DI RAVENNA
DAL 1947 AL 1952
MODERATORE DEL CONCILIO VATICANO II
GUIDA SAPIENTE DEL RINNOVAMENTO LITURGICO
PROMOTORE DELL' ASCESA DEI PICCOLI E DEI POVERI
28.10.1891          18.10.76


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(49) 17. WYSZYŃSKI, Stefan
(1901-1981)

Birth. August 3, 1901, Zuzela, diocese of Lomza, Poland. He was the second of the six children of Stanisław Wyszyński, an organist, and writer of his parish, and Julianna Karp. The other siblings were Stanisław, Wacław, Anastazja, Janina and Zofia. Baptized on August 5, 1901, in the parish church St. Nicholas, by Canon Aleksander Lipowski. His mother died when he was nine years old.

Education. Studied at Pius X Lyceum, a minor seminary, Włocławek; at the Seminary of Włocławek, 1920-1924 (philosophy and theology); at the University of Lublin, 1924-1929 (doctorate in canon law; dissertation: The Rights of the Family, the Church, and the State in Relation to Schools, June 1929; habilitacja, The moral environment of factory work). Received the subdiaconate on March 15, 1924, from Bishop Stanisław Zdzitowiecki; and the diaconate on April 5, 1924, also from Bishop Zdzitowiecki.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 3, 1924, Włocławek, by Wojciech Owczarek, auxiliary bishop of Włocławek. Further studies, 1924-1929. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Lomza, 1927-1930. Received a traveling scholarship to study the state of the Christian social sciences in Austria, Italy, France, Belgium, Holland, and Germany, 1929-1930. Vicar at Przedcz, 1930. Vicar at the cathedral of Włocławek, fall 1930. Secretary of the Pius X Lyceum, Włocławek, 1931. Director of the diocesan missions office, 1931-1932. Faculty member of the Seminary of Włocławek, 1931-1939. Between 1931 and 1939, he brought out 106 publications mainly on the economic crisis, unemployment, and social justice. Director of the journal Atenaeum Kaplanskie, 1932-1939. Promoter of justice and defender of the matrimonial bond in the diocesan curia, 1932-1938. Head of the Christian Worker's University. From 1932, he was active in the Christian trade unions and organized the Catholic Union of Young Workers. Actively worked in the Marian Society of Landowners. Member of the Primate's Social Council, 1937. Judge in the episcopal tribunal, from 1938. Clandestine pastoral ministry during the Second World War, 1939-1945; briefly arrested by the Gestapo in October 1941; lived in Zulow from November 1941 until June 1942; chaplain of the Laski Institute for the Blind, June 1942; pastoral and educational work in Warsaw, 1942-1945. Canon capitular of the cathedral of Włocławek, August 15, 1945.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lublin, March 4, 1946. Consecrated, May 12, 1946, Jasna Góra, by Cardinal August Hlond, S.D.B., archbishop of Gniezno and Posnań, assisted by Karol Radoński, bishop of Włocławek, and by Stanisław Czajka, titular bishop of Centuria. His episcopal motto was Soli Deo. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Gniezno, with the see of Warsaw united ad personam, November 12, 1948 (1). Imprisoned by the Communist regime, 1953- October 26, 1956.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; impeded from attending the consistory. Received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, May 18, 1957. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962 - 1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Prohibited from attending the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, 1967, by the Communist regime. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979.

Death. May 28, 1981, of abdominal cancer, Warsaw. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Warsaw (2).

Beatification. The diocesan process for his beatification started on May 20, 1989; was completed on February 6, 2001; and it is now in Rome, in the Congregation for the Causes of Saints.

Bibliography. Micewski, Andrzej. Cardinal Wyszynski : a biography. Translated from Polish by William A. Brand and Katarzyna Mroczkowska-Brand. San Diego : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984. Translation of : Kardynal Wyszynski, primas I maz stanu; Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 500; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 265-279; Prymas Wyszyński a kultura katolicka. Redakcja Krzysztof Dybciak. Warszawa : Wydawn. Uniwersytetu Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego, 2002; Raina, Peter. Stefan Kardynal Wyszynski Prymas Polski. 3 vols. Londyn [i.e. London] : Oficyna Poetów i Malarzy, 1979-1988; Wyszynski, Stefan. A freedom within : the prison notes of Stefan Cardinal Wyszynski. Trans. By Barbara Krzywicki-Herburt and Walter J. Ziemba; foreword by John Cardinal Krol. San Diego : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983. Translation of : Zpiski wiezienne.

Webgraphy. His photograph and biography, in Polish, archdiocese of Warsaw; Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego, Warsaw, in Polish; biographical data, in English, Infoplease; photographs, arms, statue and biographical data, in Polish, Wikipedia; photographs, arms, statue and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph, biography and bibliography, in Polish; his bust at the National Shrine of Our Lady of Czestochowa, Poland, flickr; catalog of archbishops of Gniezno and primates of Poland, in English, Wikipedia; and images and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) As he was dying, Cardinal Hlond suggested to the pope to name Bishop Wyszynski as his successor. The Polish episcopate, not knowing this, had also forwarded his name to Rome.
(2) This is the inscription on his marble sarcophagus, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

+ KARDYNAL STEFAN WYSZYNSKI PRYMAS POLSKI


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(50) 18. ARRIBA Y CASTRO, Benjamín de
(1886-1973)

Birth. April 8, 1886, Santa Maria de Peñamayor, diocese of Lugo, Spain. Son of Antonio de Arriba and Pilar de Castro.

Education. Conciliar Seminary of Madrid; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Pontifical University of Toledo, Toledo; Pontifical Roman Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 14, 1912, Rome, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, secretary of State. Faculty member of the Conciliar Seminary of Madrid, 1913-1921. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Madrid, February 17, 1921. Secretary of the chamber and government of the diocese of Madrid, 1921-1930; provisor and pro-vicar general, 1930-1932; vicar general, 1932-1935.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mondoñedo, May 1, 1935. Consecrated, June 16, 1935, cathedral of San Isidro, Madrid, by Leopoldo Eijo Garay, bishop of Madrid, assisted by Prudencio Melo y Alcalde, archbishop of Valencia, and by Manuel González y García, bishop of Málaga. His episcopal motto was Traham eos in vinculis caritatis. Awarded the grand cross of Naval Merit, with distinctive white ribbon.Transferred to the see of Oviedo, August 8, 1944. Decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Isabel la Católica. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Tarragona, January 22, 1949. Decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Alfonso X el Sabio.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat on October 29, 1953, together with new Cardinals Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, Gaetano Cicognani, Pietro Ciriaci and Fernando Quiroga y Palacios, in a special consistory that lasted fifteen minutes, and also the title of Ss. Vitale, Valeria, Gervasio e Protasio. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, November 19, 1970. Lost the right to participate in the conclave for being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971.

Death. March 8, 1973, at 3:45 p.m., of tumor related complications, after hearing mass and receiving communion at the Chiron Clinic in Barcelona, where he had been admitted due to a flu-type respiratory disorder. His body was laid out in state for two days at the archbishop's palace of Tarragona, prior to the celebration of a solemn funeral mass at the metropolitan cathedral of the city. Buried in the floor of the presbytery of the parish church of San Pablo, Tarragona, without any ornaments, according to his wishes; he had opened and blessed that church. A memorial plaque was later inaugurated in the parish in his memory (1).

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 96.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Spanish, Galicia Dixital; same biography, in English, Galicia Dixital; same biography, in Galego, Galicia Dixital; and photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on the plaque, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

Paulus vel solus sufficeins mihi fuisset
Christi argumentum
haec verba sculpi voluit
emmus. ac. revdmus. Beniaminus
Cardinalis de Arriba y Castro
Olim Archipiscopus Tarraconensis
Obit VIII idus Martias A. D. MCMLXXIII
orate pro eo.


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(51) 19. QUIROGA Y PALACIOS, Fernando
(1900-1971)

Birth. January 21, 1900, San Pedro de Maceda, diocese of Orense, Spain.

Education. Studied at the Conciliar Seminary of Orense; at the Pontifical University of Santiago de Compostela; and at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 10, 1922, Compostela. Further studies, 1922-1925. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Orense; faculty member and spiritual advisor of its seminary, 1925-1942. Lectoral canon the cathedral chapter of Valladolid, 1942; pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Valladolid, 1942-1945; faculty member and spiritual advisor of the Serninary of Valladolid, 1942-1945.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mondoñedo, November 24, 1945. Consecrated, March 24, 1946, shrine of Gran Promesa del Sagrado Corazón, Valladolid, by Antonio García y García, archbishop of Valladolid, assisted by Francisco Blanco Nájera, titular bishop of Orense, and by José Soutop Vizoso, titular bishop of Elusa, auxiliary of Santiago de Compostela. His episcopal motto was Omnia in charitate fiant. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Santiago de Compostela, June 4, 1949.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat, October 29, 1953, together with new, together with new Cardinals Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, Gaetano Cicognani, Pietro Ciriaci and Benjamín de Arriba y Castro, in a special consistory that lasted fifteen minutes, and also the title of S. Agostino. Papal legate to the Marian Congress, Manila, Philippines, December 1 to 5, 1954. Presided over the Compostelan Holy Years of 1954, 1965, and 1971. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. First president of the Spanish Episcopal Conference, 1966-1969. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969.

Death. December 7, 1971, of acute renal failure, after suffering from the flu for a few days, at Hospital San Pedro of Madrid, assisted by the apostolic nuncio, Archbishop Luigi Dadaglio; his auxiliary bishop, José Cerviño Cerviño; and the secretary of the Spanish Episcopal Conference. José Guerra Campos. Buried at Pórtico de la Gloira in the metropolitan cathedral of Santiago de Compostela (1).

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 106; Gil, Cesáreo. Don Fernando Quiroga : el Cardenal de Galicia : primer presidente de la C.E.E. Madrid : Sociedad de Educación Atenas,1993.

Webgraphy. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

EMMVS · AC · RVDMVS · DOMINVS
DR · FERDINANDVS · QVIROGA · PALACIOS
EPISCOPVS · MINDONIENSIS
ARCHIEPISCOPVS · COMPOSTELLANVS
S · ROMAN · ECCLESIAE · CARDINALIS
LEGATVS · PONT · IN · PHILIPP · INSVLAS
CONCILII · VATIC · II · PATER
PRIMVS · PRAESES · COETVS · EPISC · HISPAN
CVLTVS · BEATI · IACOBI · NECNON
PEREGRIN · AD · EIVS · SEPVLCR · AMPLIFICAND
IMPIGER · FAVTOR
OMNIA · IN · CHARIT · FACERE · SEMPER · AVENS
CVRAE · PASTOR · DEDITVS · ATQ · IMPENSVS
PIVS · SOLLERS · BENIGNVS
DECESSIT · IN · XTO
7 · DECEMBR71971


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(52) 20. LÉGER, P.S.S., Paul Émile
(1904-1991)

Birth. April 26, 1904, Saint-Anicet, a small village near the city of Valleyfield, Canada. Son of Ernest Léger, a general merchant, and Alda Beauvais. His younger brother Jules was a Canadian diplomat and Governor-General of Canada, 1974-1979.

Education. Initial studies at Saint-Anicet; then he entered the Minor Seminary of Sainte-Thérèse, Valleyfield, 1916-1925 (classics); had to interrupt his studies for four years because of illness; he worked as mechanic, as railroad worker, and as butcher; he spent a few months at the novitiate of the Society of Jesus at Sault-au-Récollet but was considered too emotional to continue in the order; he entered the Gran Seminary of Montréal in 1925; and obtained a licentiate in theology in 1929; in 1930, he attended the Catholic Institut, Paris, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law in 1931.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 25, 1929, Montréal, by Georges Gauthier, titular archbishop of Taron, coadjutor of Montréal. Shortly after, he left for France to enter the Society of Priests of Saint-Sulpice; did the novitiate in Issy-les-Moulineaux, Paris (1929-1930). Further studies, Paris, 1930-1931. Professor of theology at Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris, 1931-1932; and assistant master of novices, 1932-1933. Returned to Canada and was sent in September 1933 to found the Seminary of Fukuoka, Japan, for the formation of the autochthonous clergy; because of the speed with which he learned Japanese, he did pastoral ministry in the parish of Omuta and taught philosophy at the seminary until 1939. Returned to Canada in 1939 because of the Second World War. Professor of sociology at the Theological Seminary, Montréal; and apologetics at Institute Pius XI, 1939-1940. Left the Society provisionally and became vicar general of the diocese of Valleyfield in 1940; also, cathedral pastor; and member of the cathedral chapter from 1941 to 1947. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, September 29, 1942. Reentered the Society and was named rector of the Pontifical Canadian College, Rome, in 1947; occupied the post until his promotion to the episcopate in 1950.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Montréal, March 25, 1950. Consecrated, April 26, 1950, church of S. Maria degli Angeli, Rome, by Cardinal Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, O.C.D, bishop of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Maurice Roy, archbishop of Québec, and by Jean-Julien Weber, P.S.S., bishop of Strasbourg. His episcopal motto was Apostolvs Jesv Christi.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, January 15, 1953. Papal legate to the closing of the Marian Holy Year, Lourdes, France, November 21, 1954; to the coronation of the image of Saint-Joseph, Montréal, July 21, 1955; to the centennial celebrations of the Shrine of Saint-Anne de Beaupré, Canada, June 24, 1958. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 20, 1968, to serve as a missionary in a leprosory in Yaoundé, Cameroun, Africa. Appointed Companion of the Order of Canada for his humanitarian work, June 28, 1968; investiture, October 28, 1969. Returned to Montréal in 1974 due to his frail health; worked in parishes and in Fame pereo, a humanitarian work that he had founded, which contributes 12 million dollars yearly to the Third World. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, April 26, 1984. After suffering from an asthmatic attack on November 7, 1991, he was admitted at the Hôtel-de-Dieu Hospital, Montréal.

Death. November 13, 1991, of respiratory problems complicated by pneumonia, at Hôtel-de-Dieu, Montréal. The funeral was celebrated on November 16, 1991, by Cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte, archbishop of Montréal. He was buried in the Bishop's Chapel, Mary Queen of the World metropolitan cathedral, Montréal. He was the last surviving cardinal created by Pope Pius XII.

Bibliography. Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 1958. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1958, pp. 65 and 337; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2202. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 608-612; Higgins, Michael W. "Léger, Paul-Emile." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Palatine, IL. ; Washington, DC : Jack Heraty & Associates ; The Catholic University of America, 1967-1996, vol. XIX, Supplement 1989-1995, p. 242; Murchland, Bernard. Paul-Emile Cardinal Leger. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (The Men who make the Council, 8); Thompson, Donald. Le cardinal Léger, c'etat un saint : un aperçu de la vie et de l'ouevre du cardinal Paul-Emile Léger. Montreal : Edimag, 1992.

Webgraphy. Photograph, coat of arms and biography, in French, archdiocese of Montréal; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(53) 21. LUQUE, Crisanto
(1889-1959)

Birth. February 1, 1889, Tenjo, archdiocese of Bogotá, Colombia. His parents were Heliodoro Luque and Natalia Sánchez.

Education. Initial studies in Tabio; them, attended the Conciliar Seminary of Bogotá, where one of his classmates was Luis Concha Córdoba, future archbishop of Bogotá and cardinal.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1916, Bogotá, by Bernardo Herrera Restrepo, archbishop of Bogota. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Bogotá, 1916-1931, as chaplain of "Clínica de Marley", vicar of the parish of "Nuestra Señora de las Nieves", and pastor of Guachetá.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Croe and appointed auxiliary of Tunja, January 16, 1931. Consecrated, May 3, 1931, metropolitan cathedral of Bogotá, by Paolo Giobbe, titular archbishop of Tolemaide di Tebaide, nuncio in Colombia, assisted by José Ignacio López Umana, bishop of Garzón, and by Luis Adriano Díaz, bishop of Cali. His episcopal motto was Omnia et in omnibus Christus. Vicar general of of the diocese of Tunja, 1931-1932. Apostolic administrator of the diocese of Tunja, 1932. Transferred to the see of Tunja, September 9, 1932. He had a transcendental role in the civil and political crisis that affected the country from 1949 to 1958. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bogotá, July 14, 1950. Military vicar of Colombia, July 14, 1950.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, January 15, 1953. Papal legate to the 3rd National Marian Congress, Bogotá, November 16, 1954. Attended the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 25 to August 4, 1955. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. He was the first Colombian cardinal.

Death. May 7, 1959, of lung hemorrhage, Bogotá. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Bogotá.

Bibliography. Agudelo Giraldo, Guillermo. Los arzobispos de Bogotá que he conocido : medio siglo en la historia eclesiástica colombiana, 1928-1984. Bogotá : s.n., 1987. Notes: "Ensayo sobre los cuatro arzobispos que han dejado huella profunda en la agitada historia contemporánea de Colombia: monseñor Ismael Perdomo, cardenal Crisanto Luque, cardenal Luis Concha, cardenal Aníbal Muñoz Duque." Originally presented by the author on entering the Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica on Nov. 15, 1986. Cover title: Cuatro arzobispos que han marcado nuestra historia, 1928-1984. "Ediciones Verdad y Vida", volumen 14, nos. 24-25 y 26, diciembre de 1986"; Anuario de la Iglesia Católica en Colombia, 1957. Bogotá : Editorial Pio X, Ltda., 1958.

Webgraphy. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(54) 22. GRACIAS, Valerian
(1901-1978)

Birth. October 23, 1901, Karachi, India (now Pakistan). His parents came from Navelim, Goa; later, they moved to Karachi seeking better employment opportunities. Son of José and Carlota Gracias; his father died in 1902. Valerian had a older sister, Pauline. He was baptized, confirmed and received first communion at St. Parick's church, Karachi.

Education. St. Patrick's High School, Karachi; St. Joseph Seminary of Mangalore, Mangalore, 1918-1921 (rhetoric, oratory and philosophy); Pontifical Seminary of Kandy, Ceylon, 1921-1926 (doctorate in theology); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, November 1927-1929 (magister aggregatus).

Priesthood. Ordained, October 3, 1926, Kandy. Pastoral ministry in the church of St. Peter, Bandra, 1926-1927. Further studies in Rome, 1927-1929. Secretary to Joachim Lima, S.J., archbishop of Bombay, and chancellor of the archdiocese, August 1929-1937. Preacher in Bombay, other dioceses of India and Burma. From 1937-1946, in Bombay, pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Bombay, advisor to the Catholic Students' Union, editor of Messenger of the Sacred Heart, 1935-1942; member of the editorial board of Clergy Monthly; and co-editor of The Examiner, 1938-1939. First Indian rector of the pro-cathedral of the Holy Name, Bombay, December 1941.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tenneso and appointed auxiliary of Bombay, May 16, 1946. Consecrated, June 29, 1946, church of St. Peter, Bombay, by Thomas D. Roberts, S.J., archbishop of Bombay, assisted by Victor Fernandes, bishop of Mangalore, and by Thomas Pothacamury, bishop of Bangalore. His episcopal motto was Fraternitatis amore. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bombay, December 4, 1950. He was present at the solemn proclamation of the dogma of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in body and soul to heaven, Rome, December 8, 1950.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in via Lata, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, January 15, 1953. President of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of India, 1954-1972. Papal legate to the Marian Congress of Eastern India, Bombay, November 18, 1954; to the Eucharistic Congress of Birmania, Rangoon, December 25, 1955. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. On January 26, 1966, he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, the nation's second highest distinction, by President Radhakrishnan. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; one of the three presidents delegate of the assembly. Did not participate in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I, because of illness. He was the first cardinal from India.

Death. September 11, 1978, of cancer, in Bombay. Buried in a vault which is located in front of the Altar of Our Lady of Lourdes in the metropolitan cathedral of the Holy Name, Bombay.

Bibliography. De Souza, Dento S. India's first cardinal: Highlights in the life of Valerian Cardinal Gracias. Bombay : Examiner Press, 1971.

Webgraphy. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(55) 23. WENDEL, Joseph
(1901-1960)

Birth. May 27, 1901, Blieskastel, diocese of Speyer, Germany. Son of Georg Wendel and Katharina Dompropst.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Speyer; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned doctorates in philosophy and theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 30, 1927, Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Speyer and director of Cáritas, 1927-1941.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lebesso and appointed coadjutor of Speyer, with right of succession, April 4, 1941. Consecrated, June 29, 1941, cathedral of Speyer, by Ludwig Sebastian, bishop of Speyer, assisted by Matthias Ehrenfried, bishop of Würzburg, and by Josef Kolb, titular bishop of Velicia, auxiliary of Bamberg. His episcopal motto was Veritati et caritati. Succeeded to the see of Speyer, June 4, 1943. Promoted to the metropolitan see of München and Freising, August 9, 1952.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria Nuova, January 15, 1953. Military vicar of Germany, February 4, 1956. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII.

Death. Saturday December 31, 1960, Münich, suddenly, of a heart attack, after having delivered the new year eve's homily. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Münich (1).

Bibliography. Gtaz, Erwin. "Wendel, Joseph." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1945 2001 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Unter Mitwirkung von Franz Xaver Bischof ... [et al.] ; herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2002, p. 382-386; Schwaiger, Georg and Mafred Heim. Kardinal Joseph Wendel,1901-1960; zum Gedächtnis des Bischofs von Speyer und Erzbischofs von München und Freising. München: Wewel, 1992.

Webgraphy. His episcopal lineage, in English, by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; and his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the incription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

JOSEPH CARDINALIS WENDEL
TIT. S. MARIAE NVOVAE PRESBYTER
NATVS 27. MAII 1901
EPISCOPVS SPIRENSIS 1943
ARCHIEPISCOPVS MONACENSIS
ET FRISINGENSIS 1952
DENATVS 31. DICEMBRIS 1960


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(56) 24. OTTAVIANI, Alfredo
(1890-1979)

Birth. October 29, 1890, Rome, Italy. Eleventh of the twelve children of Enrico Ottaviani, a baker, and Palmira Catalini.

Education. Initial studies with the Brothers of the Christian Schools in Trastevere, Rome; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Roman Athenaum "S. Apollinare", Rome (doctorates in philosophy, theology and canon law); later, he also obtained a doctorate in civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 18, 1916, Rome. Professor of Public Ecclesiastical Law at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare"; and of philosophy at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide"; minutante at the S.C. of Propaganda Fide; and pastoral ministry at the Pontifical Oratory of S. Pietro in diocese of Rome, 1916-1926. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 15, 1922. Rector of the Pontifical Bohemian College, Rome, 1926-1928. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 31, 1927. Under secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, February 1928-1929. Substitute of the secretariat of State, June 7, 1929. Protonotary apostolic, December 21, 1931. Assessor of the Supreme S.C. of Holy Office, December 19, 1935.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, January 15, 1953. His cardinalitial motto was Semper idem, the same as Cardinal Armand-Jean Du Plessis de Richelieu, prime minister of France. Member of the Commission for the Study of the Dogma of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. President of the Spiritual Commission in the Central Committee for the Holy Year. President of the Committee for the 15th centennial of the Council of Chalcedonia. President of the Committee for the Commemoration of the apostolic constitution "Sapienti Consilio". Pro-secretary of the Supreme S.C. of Holy Office, January 15, 1953 to November 7, 1959. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinal, May 20, 1954 until June 9, 1958. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. In 1959, he received a doctorate honoris causa from The Catholic University of America, Washington; from the University of Notre Dame, Indiana; from Creighton University, Omaha; from Seton Hall University, Newark; and from Loras College, Dubuque. Papal legate to the centennial celebration of the establishment of the Catholic hierarchy in Canada, August 25, 1959. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of Holy Office, November 7, 1959 to February 9, 1966. Cardinal protodeacon, August 3, 1961.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Berrea, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Antonio Bacci, Augustin Bea, S.J., Francesco Bracci, Michael Browne, O.P., William Theodore Heard, Alberto di Jorio, André Jullien, P.S.S., Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F., Francesco Morano, and Francesco Roberti. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Crowned Pope Paul VI, June 30, 1963. Pro-prefect of the S.C. of the Doctrine of the Faith, February 9, 1966 to January 8, 1968. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, June 26, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Resigned the pro-prefecture and was named prefect emeritus, January 6, 1968. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 18, 1970 until March 5, 1973. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. By the end of his life, he had lost most of his eyesight.

Death. August 3, 1979, after a lengthy illness, in Vatican City. Buried in the chapel of S. Salvatore in ossibus church, Vatican City (1).

Bibliography. Cavaterra, Emilio. Il prefetto del Sant'Offizio : le opere e i giorni del cardinale Ottaviani. Presentazione di S.Em. il cardinale Pietro Palazzini. Milan : Mursia, 1990. (Storia e documenti ; 100; Variation: Storia e documenti (Mursia (Firm) ; 100.); Damizia, Giuseppe. "Card. Alfredo Ottaviani." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 230-231; Lesourd, Paul ; Ramiz, Jean-Marie.Alfredo Cardinal Ottaviani. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (The Men who make the council, 9).

Webgraphy. Biography by Enrico Galavotti, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 79 (2013), Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

ALFRIDVS CARD. OTTAVIANI
CHRISTVM ET ECCLESIAM
VEHEMENTER DILEXIT
"SEMPER IDEM"
N. 29 X 1890     M. 3 VIII 1979


agostini6.jpg

AGOSTINI, Carlo
(1888-1952)

Birth. April 22, 1888, S. Martino di Lupari, diocese of Treviso, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Treviso (humanities); sent to Rome in 1906 to further his studies, he attended the Pontifical Roman Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in philosophy; and the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in theology. While studying in Rome, he developed a close acquaintance with Pope Pius X, who received him in several private audiences.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 24, 1910, church S. Dona di Piave, by Andrea Giacinto Longhin, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Treviso. The pope granted him a dispensation for reason of young age to receive the priesthood. Professor of biblical theology at the Seminary of Treviso, 1910-1912; professor of moral theology, 1912-1932; its rector, 1925-1932. He taught religion at the Scuole Medie of Palazzo Filodrammatici; and at Collegio Nicolò Tommaseo, where he also served as spiritual director. Vicar of the parish of S. Biagio di Callalta, for a short period between 1914 and 1918. Canon of the cathedral chapter in 1928.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Padua, January 30, 1932. Consecrated, April 10, 1932, Treviso, by Andrea Giacinto Longhin, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Treviso, assisted by Elia dalla Costa, archbishop of Florence, and by Eugenio Beccegati, bishop of Ceneda; took possession of the diocese on the following May 8. Apostolic administrator of the see of Treviso, March 8 to December 6, 1936. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, March 25, 1942. Promoted to the patriarchate of Venice, February 5, 1949. President of the ecclesiastical tribunal, he testified in the beatification process of Pope Pius X.

Cardinalate. On November 29, 1952, the announcement of his creation as cardinal was made, for the consistory of January 12, 1953, but he died before the consistory was celebrated.

Death. December 28, 1952, from Parkinson's disease (he had also been suffering from leukemia for a long time), in Venice. Buried in S. Michele cemetery, Venice. Transferred to the crypt of the patriarchal cathedral of Venice in November 1957.

Bibliography. Niero, Antonio. I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni. Venice : Studium Cattolico Veneziano, 1961. (Collana Storica, 3), pp. 218-222.


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