The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope John XXIII (1958-1963)
Consistory of December 15, 1958 (I)


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(1) 1. MONTINI, Giovanni Battista
(1897-1978)

Birth. September 26, 1897, Concesio, diocese of Brescia, Italy. Son of Giorgio Montini and Giuditta Alghisi. He was baptized in the parish church of S. Antonio in Concesio and received the names Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Brescia; at the Seminary of Milan; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome; and at the University of Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 29, 1920, Brescia, by Giacinto Gaggia, bishop of Brescia. Further studies, 1920-1923. Staff member of the nunciature in Poland, 1923. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1924-1937. National ecclesiastical assistant of the university section of the Italian Catholic Action, 1925-1933. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, October 19, 1925. Faculty member of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, 1931-1937. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 8, 1931. Substitute of the Secretariat of State and secretary of ciphering, December 16, 1937. Referendary prelate of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, September 24, 1936. Protonotary apostolic, May 10, 1938. Participated in the 38th International Eucharistic Congress in Budapest, Hungary, in May 25-29, 1938, togehter with Papal Legate Cardinal Eugenico Pacelli, secretary of State. Pro-secretary of State for Ordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, November 29, 1952 until November 1, 1954. In the consistorial allocution of January 12, 1953, Pope Pius XII announced that his two most immediate collaborators (Monsignors Domenico Tardini and Giovanni Battista Montini) had declined the promotion to the cardinalate.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Milan, November 1, 1954. Consecrated, December 12, 1954, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, bishop of Ostia and Porto e Santa Rufina, dean of Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Giacinto Tredici, bishop of Brescia, and by Domenico Bernareggi, titular bishop of Famagosta and vicar capitular of Milan. Pope Pius XII was going to consecrate him but could not do it because of ill health. His episcopal motto was In nomine Domini.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, December 18, 1958. Attended the first session of the Second Vatican Council, 1962. Participated in conclave of 1963 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected, June 21, 1963; took name of Paul VI. Crowned, June 30, 1963, by Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani, protodeacon of S. Maria in Domnica. He continued the Second Vatican Council, which had been automatically suspended because of the death of Pope John XXIII. He issued the motu proprio Ad purpuratorum patrum on February 11, 1965, in which he stipulated that Eastern-rite patriarchs incorporated to the Sacred College of Cardinals would not belong to the clergy of Rome and consequently no title or deaconry should be assigned to them. On February 24, 1965, he issued the motu proprio Sacro Cardinalium Consilio, by which he established that the dean and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals should be elected to their posts by and from among the cardinal bishops instead of succeeding by order of seniority as had been the practice for centuries and as was legally stipulated by canon 237, paragraph one, of the Code of Canon Law of 1917. This election by the cardinal bishops requires papal confirmation to be valid. By his motu proprio Ingravescentem aetatem, dated November 21, 1970, he decided that cardinals older than eighty years were deprived of their right to elect the pope and to participate in the conclave; and that cardinals heading dicasteries in the Roman Curia were asked to submit their resignation to the pope upon reaching 75 years of age and ceased as members of the same at 80. Finally, he promulgated the apostolic constitution Romano Pontifici eligendo, of October 1, 1975, issuing norms for the College of Cardinals during a vacancy of the Holy See and the election of the Pope. He created one hundred forty three cardinals in six consistories. He published six encyclicals: Ecclesiam Suam (August 6, 1964); Mense Maio (April 29, 1965); Mysterium fidei (September 3, 1965); Christi Matri (September 15, 1966); Populorum progressio (March 26, 1967); Sacerdotalis caelibatus (June 24, 1967); and Humanae vitae (July 25, 1968).

Death. August 6, 1978, at 9:40 p.m., of a massive myocardial infarction and complications from a pulmonary edema; Castelgandolfo, Italy, assisted by his secreyaries, Fathers Pasquale Macchi and John Magee. He was buried on August 12, 1978 in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Beatification. The diocesan process for cause of beatification and canonization opened May 11, 1993; it was closed March 18, 1999. The promulgation of the decree concerning his heroic virtues was authorized by Pope Benedict XVI on December 20, 2012, thus receiving the title of Venerable Servant of God. Pope Francis approved the promulgation of the decree for his beatification on May 9, 2014. The ceremony of beatification, presided by Pope Fancis, took place at St. Peter's Square, the Vatican, on October 19, 2014 in the presence of Pope emeritus Benedict XVI, cardinals, patriarchs, archbishops major, archbishops, bishops, priests and thousands of faithful.

Bibliography. Adornato, Giselda. Paolo VI. Il coraggio della modernità. Cinisello Balsamo : San Paolo, 2008; Barret, William. Shepherd of Mankind. Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1964; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 292-295; Clancy, John G. Apostle for our time. Pope Paul VI. New York : P.J. Kenedy & Sons, 1963; Chiron, Yves. Paul VI, le pape écartelé. Paris : Perrin, 1993; Giovanni Battista Montini, Arcivescovo di Milano e il Concilio Ecumenico Vaticano II : preparazione e primo periodo : colloquio internazionale di studio, Milano 23-24-25 settembre 1983. Brescia : Istituto Paolo VI ; Roma : Edizioni Studium Vita Nova, 1985. (Pubblicazioni dell'Istituto Paolo VI ; 3). Note: Bibliografia sull'episcopato milanese del Card. G.B. Montini (1955-1963)": p. 424-432; González, J.L. & Péres, T. Paul VI. English Version by Edward L. Heston, C.S.C. Boston : St. Paul Editions, 1964; Hatch, Alden. Pope Paul VI. New York : Random House, 1966; Hebblethwaite, Peter. Paul VI : The first modern pope. New York/Mahwah : Paulist Press, 1993; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, V, 35, 50, 55, 78, 89, 103, 105, 106, 109-129, 131-133, 136, 138, 140, 158, 160, 164 and 173; Montini, Giorgio ; Montini, Giovanni Battista. Affetti familiari spiritualit` e politica. Carteggio 1900-1942. A cura di Luciano Pazzaglia. Brescia ; Roma: Istituto Paolo VI; Edizioni Studium, 2009. (Quaderni dell'Istituto, 30); Paul VI et la modernité dans l'Église: Actes du colloque organisé par l'École française de Rome (Rome 2-4 juin 1983). Rome : École française de Rome, 1984. Contributing authors include Yves Congar, René Laurentin, Paul Cardinal Poupard, and many others; Papa Paolo VI e l'Associazione Biblica italiana. Un magistero fecondo. A cura di Luca Mazzinghi. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2014; Tornielli, Andrea. Paolo VI. L'audacia di un papa. Milano : Mondadori, 2009; Vaccaro, Luciano and Giselda Adornato. Montini. "Ha giunta un'ora nuova...". Introduction by Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi. Milan : Centro Ambrosiano, 2004; Versace, Eliana. Montini l'apertura a sinistra. Il falso mito del vescovo progressista. Milano : Guerini e Associati, 2007; Vian, Giovanni Maria. "Paolo VI.' Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 657-674; Vian, Nello. Anni e opere di Paolo VI. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 1978.

Webgraphy. Photograph, coat of arms and biography, in English, The Vatican; photographs, video and biography by The Most Rev. Edward Louis Heston, C.S.C., in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography by Giovanni Maria Vian, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei papi, Treccani; his episcopal lineageby Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his arms and photographs, Araldica Vaticana; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; Arcivescovo Montini: La Grande Missione di Milano del 1956, in Italian, You Tube, Apr 2, 2008; Elezione Papa Paolo VI (1963), in Italian, You Tube; Paul VI: The Pope of Suffering Humanity, by Andrea Tornielli,, Vatican Insider, 06/9/2011; A Grande História - Papa Paulo VI, Rai, You Tube, uploaded on Nov 28, 2011; Giovanni Paolo I presto beato La svolta? Un miracolo 'pugliese' by Antonino D'Anna, Martedì, Affaritaliani.it, 3 luglio 2012 - 12:54:00; Juan Pablo I y Pablo VI podrman subir a los altares durante Aqo de la Fe, ACIPrensa, 10 Jul. 12 / 06:09 am; Cardinal Saraiva Martins optimistic about the beatification of Paul VI and John Paul I, Rome Reports, 2012-07-20 19:09:47; Montini, trovato il diario del suo viaggio in Africa, Chiesa, Avvenire, 4 agosto 2012; Carta a Pablo VI (falleció el 6 de agosto de 1978), por Jesús de las Heras Muela, Ecclesia, posted 5 agosto, 2012 by Editor in Blog del director; A personal memoir of Pope Paul VI on anniversary of his death, Vatican Radio, news.va, 2012-08-06; Conférence internationale sur le pape Paul VI et l'Afrique, InfoCatho.be, mardi, 07 août 2012; L'omelia di mons. Beschi per i 35 anni dalla morte di Paolo VI by Francesco Beschi, bishop of Bergamo, in Italian, Avvenire, 6 agosto 2013; Paolo VI, «la dolce e confortante gioia di evangelizzare» by Marco Roncalli, in Italian, Avvenire, 6 agosto 2013; Paul VIs "miracle" receives medical approval, Vatican Insider, 13/12/2013; Paolo VI in Terra Santa: 50 anni fa l'inizio dei viaggi papali, by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 29/12/2013; "Credere": Paolo VI beato nel 2014, Vatican Insider, 24/04/2014; Cardinals approve miracle attributed to Paul VI by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 05/6/2014; Paolo VI, la mano tesa verso gli artisti by Marco Roncalli, Avvenire, 7 maggio 2014; É ufficiale: Paolo VI beato il 19 ottobre, Vatican Insider, 10/05/2014; Presto beato: la biografia (illustrata) di Paolo VI, Avvenire, 10 maggio 2014; Paolo VI: una vita essenziale, un'attenzione ai piy poveri by Ettore Malnati, Avvenire, 10 maggio 2014; IL discorso di Paolo VI alla Cei , 50 anni fa (14 aprile 1964), Avvenire, 19 maggio 2014; Paolo VI e il pane che rigenera uomo by Eliana Versace, Avvenire, 23 giugno 2014; With more than 2,000 participants, how did Paul VI manage the Second Vatican Council?, Rome Reports, 2014-07-17; Humanae Vitae, the most debated encyclical in modern history, Rome Reports, 2014-07-25; Verso la sera della Trasfigurazione. Gli ultimi giorni di Paolo VI nei ricordi di uno dei medici che lo hanno assistito, by Renato Buzzonetti, L'Osservatore Romano, 31 luglio 2014; Il messaggero di Kafka. Rilettura del discorso di Paolo VI allOnu, by Vincenzo Bertolone, L'Osservatore Romano, 02 agosto 2014; Più di un'enciclica by Giovanni Maria Vian (g.m.v.), L'Osservatore Romano, 05 agosto 2014; L'ultimo dono di Paolo VI: l'Angelus che non potè pronunciare by Marco Roncalli, Avvenire, 6 agosto 2014; Che sorpresa l'«Ecclesiam suam». Il 10 agosto 1964 veniva pubblicata la prima enciclica di Paolo VI by Pierangelo Sequeri, L'Osservatore Romano, 09 agosto 2014; Studio, amore e servizio: la luce di Montini by Gianfranco Ravasi, Avvenire, 16 ottobre 2014; Pablo VI: Cuando de joven durmió una semana en la caseta de la leña by Renzo Allegri, Zenit, Ciudad del Vaticano, 17 de octubre de 2014; Paolo VI, il Papa dei lavoratori by Marco Roncalli, Avvenire, 17 ottobre 2014.


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(2) 2. URBANI, Giovanni
(1900-1969)

Birth. March 26, 1900, parish of S. Pantaleone, Venice, Italy. Son of Angelo Urbani and Elisabetta Borghi. He had six younger sisters; four of whom were Alba, Giuseppina, Luigina and Teresina (the names of the two youngest sisters have not been found). He was baptized on the following April 8 in that church by Fr. Pietro Ferrei, with the names Giovanni Emilio Maria. Received the sacrament of confirmation on August 16, 1906, in the parish of S. Pantaleone, from Aristide Cavallari, patriarch of Venice; his godfather was Luigi Piasentini, a friend of the family.

Education. Initial studies in the elementary school "Sant'Agnese", of the Institute of Fathers Cavani (a Venetian congregation dedicated to the eduction of the youth); he received first communion on June 21, 1910; entered the Patriarchal Seminary at Santa Maria della Salute, Venice, on October 16, 1913; in the First World War, he was a corporal in the military district of Cornegliano, March to October 20, 1918; received the ecclesiastical habits in the seminary, October 31, 1918; received the ecclsiastical tonsure the following December 20; received the first two minor orders, porter and lector, December 18, 1920; and the other two, exorcist and acolyte on December 17, 1921; on April 1, 1922, he was ordained subdeacon, taking the vow of celibacy for life; ordained a deacon on June 10, 1922.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 24, 1922, basilica of Ss. Maria e Donato di Murano, Venice, by Cardinal Pietro La Fontaine, patriarch of Venice. Cooperator at the parish of Ss. Maria e Donate di Murano, 1922-1927; for nine months in 1924, he was chaplain at isola di Sant'Erasmo. Further studies, in canon law at the Juridical Faculty, Venice, 1925-1926. Pastoral ministry in the Catholic Action from 1926. Faculty member of the patriarchal seminary, 1927-1945; he taught biblical science and pastoral theology. Taught religion in private and public institutions from 1926. Named ecclesiastical notary, July 15, 1926. Rector of the parish of S. Samuele, October 31, 1927. prosynodal judge, April 20, 1936. Vice-president of the diocesan junta of Catholic Action, November 7, 1936. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, November 12, 1936; reappointed, June 8, 1939. President, as patriarchal delegate, of the diocesan office for the direction of the Catholic Action, September 29, 1939. Promotor of justice in the regional tribunal for matrimonial causes, October 28, 1940. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 5, 1943. Patriarchal chancellor, June 22, 1943. Promotor of the faith in the beatification process of Pope Pius X, February 28, 1944. On January 1, 1945, Pope Pius XII named him secretary of Episcopal Commission for the Study of the Statutes of the Italian Catholic Action and of the Commission for Coordinating Catholic Works. Member of the commission for the rebuilding and repair of the ecclesiastical buildings damaged during the Second World War, 1945. Member of the committee for the erection of the diocesan house of spiritual exercises, March 19, 1945. Secretary and national counselor of the Central Commission of the Italian Catholic Action, 1946-1955.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Assume, October 26, 1946. Consecrated, December 8, 1946, patriarchal cathedral basilica of S. Marco, Venice, by Cardinal Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, O.C.D., patriarch of Venice, assisted by Giovanni Jeremich, titular bishop of Berissa, auxiliary of Venice, and by Carlo Zinato, bishop of Vicenza. His episcopal motto was In misericordia tua. Promoted to titular archbishop of Sardi, November 27, 1948. Transferred to the see of Verona, with the title of archbishop ad personam, April 14, 1955. Promoted to the patriarchate of Venice, November 11, 1958.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Prisca, December 18, 1958. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Opted for the title of S. Marco, March 19, 1962. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. President of the Italian Episcopal Conference, 1966-1969. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967.

Death. September 17, 1969, of a heart attack, assisted by his ninety-one year old mother, in Venice. Buried in the patriarchal cathedral basilica of S. Marco, Venice.

Bibliography. Battelli, Giuseppe. Giovanni Urbani patriarca di Venezia. Venezia : Studium Cattolico veneziano, 2003. (Figure della Chiesa di Venezia); Niero, Antonio. I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni. Venice : Studium Cattolico Veneziano, 1961. (Collana Storica, 3), pp. 229-231.

Link. His portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(3) 3. GIOBBE, Paolo
(1880-1972)

Birth. January 10, 1880, Rome, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, where he obtained doctorates in theology and canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 4, 1904, Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1904-1909. Pontifical ceremonery supernumerary, May 3, 1909. From 1909 to 1918, censor of the Roman Liturgical Academy; minutant in the S.C. of Propaganda Fide; assistant at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," 1909-1918. Pontifical ablegato for the imposition of the red biretta to new Cardinal Enrique Almaraz y Santos, archbishop of Sevilla, 1911. Ceremonery at the International Eucharistic Congess, Lourdes, France, 1914. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 6, 1917. Rector of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, 1918-1925.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tolemaide di Tebaide, March 30, 1925. Consecrated, April 26, 1925, chapel of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Tito Trocchi, titular archbishop of Lacedaemonia, and by Alessandro Fontana, bishop of Ferentino. His episcopal motto was Haerere Christo. Appointed nuncio in Colombia, June 16, 1925. Internuncio, with title of nuncio ad personam, in Holland, August 12, 1935.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Vallicella, December 18, 1958. Papal Datary, November 14, 1959 until January 1, 1968, when the office was suppressed. Cardinal patron of the Sovereign Order of Malta, August 8, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Lost his right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971.

Death. August 14, 1972, Rome. Buried in the chapel of the S.C. for the Evangelization of the Peoples, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Restrepo Posada, José. "Galería de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia." Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica, V (January-June, 1970), 240.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(4) 4. FIETTA, Giuseppe
(1883-1960)

Birth. November 6, 1883, Ivrea, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 4, 1906, Ivrea. Secretary to the bishop of Alghero, Oristano, and Cagliari, 1907-1923. Rector of the Seminary of Alghero and canon of its cathedral chapter, 1923-1924. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 9, 1920. Secretary of the nunciature in Costa Rica, 1924; chargé d'affaires, 1925. Internuncio in Central America, February to March, 1926.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sardica, March 30, 1926. Consecrated, October 10, 1926, basilica of Sacro Cuore a Castro Pretorio, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Bonzano, assisted by Ernesto Maria Piovella, archbishop of Cagliari, and by Augustin Blessing, Laz., titular bishop of Tegea, vicar apostolic of Limón, Costa Rica. His episcopal motto was Fiat pax in virtute tua. Nuncio in Central America, July 8, 1926. Nuncio in Haiti and the Dominican Republic, October 18, 1930. Nuncio in Argentina, August 8, 1936. Nuncio in Italy, January 26, 1953.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Paolo Apostolo alla Regola, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, March 12, 1959.

Death. October 1, 1960, Ivrea. Buried in the cathedral of Ivrea.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(5) 5. CENTO, Fernando
(1883-1973)

Birth. August 10, 1883, Pollenza, diocese of Macerata, Italy. His parents were Evaristo Cento and his second wife, Ermelinda Andreani. He had a half-sister, Rosa, and a brother, Vincenzo.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Macerata from 1893 to 1905 (philosophy and theology); at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (canon law); at La Sapienza Royal University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in letters (dissertation: "Il pensiero educativo di Dante"). Received the tonsure and the first two minor orders on March 19, 1904, in the church Corpus Domini, Macerata, from Raniero Sarnari, bishop of Macerata; the other two minor orders on April 8, 1905, in the cathedral of Tolentino, from the same bishop; the subdiaconate on September 23, 1905, in the cathedral of Fermo; the diaconate on December 17, 1905 in the basilica of the Madonna della Misericordia.

Priesthood. Ordained, Saturday December 23, 1905, Macerata; he had to obtain a dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age of 23 years required to be ordained a priest. Further studies in Rome. Professor of literature at the Seminary of Macerata; and of philosophy at the State Institute of Macerata, 1906-1916; demonstrated excellent qualities as a preacher in several Italian dioceses. Called to the military service during the First World War, was attached to the Service of Health at the military hospital of Ancona, 1915-1917. Founder and first director of the weekly Il Cittadino, diocesan paper. Secretary to the papal majordome, Giovanni Tacci, titular archbishop of of Nicea, 1917-1918. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, November 15, 1917. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Macerata and pastor of the cathedral, 1919-1922.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Acireale, July 22, 1922. Consecrated, September 3, 1922, cathedral of Macerata, by Cardinal Giovanni Tacci, secretary of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, assisted by Domenico Pasi, bishop of Macerata-Tolentino, and by Placido Ferniani, bishop of Ruvo e Bitonto. Promoted to titular archbishop of Seleucia Pieria, June 24, 1926. Appointed nuncio in Venezuela, June 28, 1926. Nuncio in Perú, July 26, 1936; he was charged with the affairs of the church in Ecuador, which had not had diplomatic relations with the Holy See for nearly forty years. Named nuncio in Ecuador, July 25, 1937, after having successfully negotiated the modus vivendi with the Ecuadorian government, which established the diplomatic relations between both states (1). Papal legate to the Second National Eucharistic Congress, La Paz, Bolivia, April 16, 1939. Envoy in a special mission to Venezuela, 1939. Extraordinary ambassador to the inauguration of President Manuel Prado y Ugarteche of Perú, December 8, 1939. Papal legate to the Second National Eucharistic Congress, Arequipa, Perú, September 21, 1940. Extraordinary ambassador to the inauguration of Juan Antonio Ríos Morales of Chile, April 2, 1942. Extraordinary ambassador to the inauguration of President José Luis Bustamante y Rivero of Perú, July 28, 1945. Extraordinary ambassador to the inauguration of President Marshal Gaspar Dutra of Brazil, January 31, 1946. Nuncio in Belgium and Luxemburg, March 9, 1946. Extraordinary papal envoy to the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain, June 2, 1953. Nuncio in Portugal, October 26, 1953.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Eustachio, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, March 12, 1959. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Córdoba, Argentina, October 20, 1959. Grand penitentiary, February 12, 1962. Papal legate to the Fourth Centennial Celebration of Theresian Reforms, Avila, Spain, July 16, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Velletri, April 23, 1965. Papal legate to consign the Golden Rose to the Shrine of Fátima, Portugal, May 13, 1965. Resigned his post of grand penitentiary, April 6, 1967. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. He founded "Casa di Riposo di Pollenza", 1972.

Death. January 13, 1973, at 4 a.m., Rome. On that same day, Pope Paul VI visited the chapel where the body of the cardinal was exposed. The funeral mass, celebrated by Luigi Punzolo, titular archbishop of Sebastea, apostolic administrator of Velletri, took place in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on January 16, 1973, at 10:30 a.m. Cardinal Luigi Traglia represented the pope in the final commendation. A large number of cardinals, archbishops and bishops of the Roman Curia, as well as from Macerata, Pollenza and Acireale, attended the funeral. A funeral mass in the cathedral of Macerata was presided by Bishop Ersilio Tonini, bishop of Macerata, and concelebrated by 100 priests and numerous bishops. The funeral in Pollenza was a demonstration of the esteem of its population for the late cardinal. His mortal remains were buried in the parish church of S. Antonio, Pollenza, where he had celebrated his first mass.

Bibliography. Bogliolo, Luigi ; Casolini, Fausta. Il Cardinale Cento, 1883-1973. Dal focolare domestico alla porpora. Roma : Città Nuova Editrice, 1983.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The nuncio was asked to visit Ecuador on his way to enter his nunciature in Perú. The Ecuadoran government had placed as an absolute condition that the vist would have to be of a strictly private character. The nuncio entered the country as a simple tourist. He disembarked in the port of Guayaquil on August 31, 1936, and was received by civil and ecclesiastical authorities. Archbishop Carlos María de la Torre of Quito, future cardinal, went to meet him in the middle of the street in the city of Riobamba. The news of his arrival spread and provoked a festive and enthusiastic response from the population. The archbishop of Quito organized a a triumphant reception for the nuncio in that city, when he arrived at the station on September 3, 1936. The government got alarmed by the enthusiasm of the people and reminded the nuncio that he came as a private visitor and that it could not guarantee his safety. He was hosted by the Álvarez Barba family, who owned a house in the center of the city of Quito. President Federico Páez, who had probably imposed the restrictions on the visit of the nuncio, sent a high level officer of the presidency to greet the visitor the following morning. Archbishop Cento, after having celebrated mass in the Salesian church of "Cristo Rey", went personally to return the visit to the president and in the evening, he visited the foreign minister; he later went to thank the archbishop. From that day, the nuncio initiated a cordial rapport with the Catholic people of Quito and the diplomatic relations with the government, which culminated with a modus vivendi between the church and the state.


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(6) 6. CHIARLO, Carlo
(1881-1964)

Birth. November 4, 1881, Pontremoli, Italy. Son of Giuseppe Chiarlo, an engineer from Acqui, and Maria Tasso, from Genoa.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Lucca; at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome; and at the Pontifical "Angelicum" Athenaeum, Rome. Besides Italian, his native language, he was fluent in English, French and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 28, 1904, Lucca. Faculty member of the Seminary of Lucca and pastoral ministry in that archdiocese, 1904-1917. Secretary; and later, chargé d'affaires in the nunciature in Perú, 1917-1922. Auditor in the nunciature in Poland, 1922-1928. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, May 26, 1918; reappointed, July 21, 1922.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Amida, October 12, 1928. Consecrated, November 11, 1928, chapel of Collegio Pio-Latinoamericano, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Giovanni Volpi, titular archbishop of Antiochia di Pisidia, and by Theodor Kubina, bishop of Czestochowa. Named nuncio in Bolivia, November 12, 1928. Nuncio in Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Panamá, January 7, 1932. Transferred to the newly established nunciature in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panamá, December 19, 1933. Recalled to Rome in 1941 and charged with the special mission of assisting prisoners of the Second World War. Head of the pontifical mission to Germany, 1945. Nuncio in Brazil, March 19, 1946. Nuncio at disposition of the Secretariat of State, September 1954-1958.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, December 18, 1958. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Attended the first two sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1963.

Death. January 21, 1964, during the night, of an intestinal tumor, from which he suffered for more than seven months, at his family home in Lucca. Buried in the urban cemetery of Lucca.

Link. His portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(7) 7. CICOGNANI, Amleto Giovanni
(1883-1973)

Birth. February 24, 1883, Brisighella, diocese of Faenza, Italy. He was the youngest of the two children of Guglielmo Cicognani, a shopkeeper, and Anna Ceroni; she was widowed at an early age; she ran the shop in order to support her children. His older brother became Cardinal Gaetano Cicognani (1953).

Education. He studied at the Seminary of Faenza, Faenza; after his ordination, he continued his formation at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 23, 1905, Faenza, by Gioacchino Cantagalli, bishop of Faenza. Further studies in Rome, 1905-1910. Minutant at the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, May 10, 1910. In 1914, he passed to the S.C. Consistorial. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 28, 1917; reappointed, March 9, 1922. Faculty member of the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", 1921-1932. Substitute adjunct of the S.C. Consistorial, December 16, 1922. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 19, 1923. In 1924, he was named apostolic visitor to the United States of America to examine if the Scalabrini Fathers should be entrusted with a more comprehensive program of spiritual assistance to migrants; he recommended that the Fathers be encouraged to extend their work in North America and made the same recommendation for South America, after visiting the Scalabrini Fathers in Brazil in 1926. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1926-1932; chaplain of the Catholic students of the University of Rome; his assistant was Father Giovanni Battista Montini, future Pope Paul VI, with whom he maintained a long lasting friendship. Assessor of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, February 16, 1928. Secretary of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Codification of Oriental Canon Law, December 2, 1929. He visited the United States for the second time in 1931. Named protonotary apostolic on April 7, 1932.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Laodicea di Frigia, March 17, 1933. Consecrated, April 23, 1933, in the church of S. Susanna, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Carlo Rossi, O.C.D., secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Giuseppe Pizzardo, titular archbishop of Nicea, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Carlo Salotti, titular archbishop of Filippopoli, secretary of the S.C. for Propagation of Faith and rector of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide". His episcopal motto was Vigilat nec fatiscit, the same as his brother the cardinal. Named apostolic delegate to the United States of America on April 23, 1933. He performed his duties during twenty five years with great tact and discretion; his collected sermons and addresses in the United States filled five volumes; he travelled widely, visiting every state to study the needs of the laity and the clergy; during his tenure as apostolic delegate, the number of Catholics rose from twenty to thirty million and the number of bishops from 118 to 213.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Clemente, December 18, 1958. His creation was an exception made to canon 232 § 3 of the Code of Canon Law, that forbids anyone having a brother in the Sacred College of Cardinals to be a cardinal. Gaetano Cicognani, his brother, had been created a cardinal in the consistory of January 12, 1953, and was still living. Secretary of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, November 14, 1959. Papal legate to the National Catechetical Congress, Dallas, March 20, 1961. Secretary of State, president of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, and president of the Commission of Cardinals for the Administration of the Wealth of the Holy See, August 12, 1961. President of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Special Administration of the Holy See, October 4, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, May 23, 1962. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Confirmed in all his posts by the new Pope Paul VI, June 21, 1963 (1). Papal legate to the 19th centennial celebration of the arrival of St. Paul Apostle to Spain, Tarragona, December 31, 1963. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, September 26, 1964 until June 26, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See, May 7, 1968. Resigned his posts, April 30, 1969. Secretary of State emeritus, May 8, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years of age, January 1, 1971. Elected by the cardinal bishops and confirmed by Pope Paul VI as dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals and cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, retaining the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, March 24, 1972.

Death. December 17, 1973, of cardiac insufficiency, Vatican City. Buried in the church of S. Clemente, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 207; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, pp. 42-43; Del Re, Niccolò. "Amleto Giovanni Cicognani" in La Sacra Congregazione per le Chiese Orientali. Nel cinquantesimo della fondazione (1917-1967). Grottaferrata, Roma : Tipografia Italo-Orientale "San Nilo", 1969, p. 90-92; O'Grady, Desmond. Amleto Cardinal Cicognani. Notre Dame, IN : University of Notre Dame Press, 1965. (The Men who make the council, 19); Studi su san Pier Damiano in onore del cardinale Amleto Giovanni Cicognani. Faenza : Venerabile Seminario vescovile Pio XII, 1961. (Biblioteca cardinale Gaetano Cicognani ; 5). Contents: Presentazione, di G. Battaglia.--Il cardinale Amleto Giovanni Cicognani.--Bibliografia del card. Amleto Giovanni Cicognani (p. [xi]-xv)--Prefazione, di F. Gualdrini--Bibliografia su San Pier Damiano (1950-1960) (p. [xxi]-xxiv)--La SS. Trinità in S. Pier Damiano, di G. Ferretti--La processione dello Spirito Santo nell'Op, 38 di S. Pier Damiano, primo apostolo dell'unione dei Greci con Roma, di S. Belli.--La comunità cristiana secondo S. Pier Damiani o l'opuscolo "Dominus vobiscum," di W. Ferretti.--Alcune note sull' "Epistola ad quendam aegrotum," di D. Bianchedi.--Prospettive del pensiero morale di S. Pier Damiani, di V. Poletti.--Il celibato e la castità del clero in S. Pier Damiano, di C. Mazzotti.--La fortuna di S. Pier Damiani nel Petrarca e nel Boccaccio, di A. Zini.--La immagini faentine de S. Pier Damiani con cenni ad alcune non faentine, di A. Savioli.--Clavis S. Petri Damiani, di G. Lucchesi.

Link. Biography by Luciano Osbat, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 25 (1981), Treccani; his photograph, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Il cardinale Amieto Cicognani e mons. Pericle Felici by Vincenzo Fagiolo, Publications de l'École française de Rome lien Le deuxième concile du Vatican (1959-1965). Actes du colloque international de Rome (28-30 mai 1986), 1989, pp. 229-242; Lo zio d'America by Eliana Versace, L'Osservatore Romano, Anno CLIII n. 290 (46.534), Città del Vaticano, mercoledì 18 dicembre 2013, p. 4.

(1) After confirming him as secretary of State, Pope Paul VI sent him a photograph dedicated to "the teacher and friend who is now our most trusted Secretary of State, with reverence and benediction".
(2) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

XXIV FEB. MDCCCLXXXIII
HAMLETUS IOANNES S.R.E. CARD. CICOGNANI
XVII. DEC. MCMLXXIII


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(8) 8. GARIBI RIVERA, José
(1889-1972)

Birth. January 30, 1889, Guadalajara, México. Youngest of the three children of Miguel Garibi y Reyes and Joaquina Rivera y Robledo; his brother and sister were Juan Manuel y Carmen. He was baptized by Fr. Lorenzo Altamirano; his baptismal name was José Mariano. On March 26, 1889, he was confirmed in the cathedral of Guadalajara, by Pedro Loza y Pardavé, archbishop of that see. He received first communion on June 25, 1897 in the parish of Nuestra Señora del Pilar from Fr. Arnulfo Jiménez, the pastor of the parish.

Education. Colegio del Señor San José (primary education); co-founder of the Marian Congregation of Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe and San Estanislao de Kotska, 1897; Seminary of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, October 18, 1900 to 1906 (humanities, sciences, Latin, Greek, philosophy and theology); Franciscan convent of Zapopán, October 1, 1906 to September 30, 1907 (decided not to join the order); Seminary of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, 1907-1912; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, October 1913 to July 4, 1916 (doctorate in theology and licentiate in canon law); resided at the Pontifical Collegio Pio-Latinoamericano, Rome. Received the minor orders on February 2, 1908 from José de Jesús Ortiz, archbishop of Guadalajara, in the church of Nuestra Señora de la Soledad; the subdiaconate on June 25, 1911, from the same archbishop and in the same church; and the diaconate on August 20, 1911, from the same archbishop in the same church. Named professor of Latin at the Seminary of Guadalajara, November 5, 1911; occupied the post until August 26, 1913.

Priesthood. Ordained, February 25, 1912, church of Nuestra Señora de la Soledad, Guadalajara, by José de Jesús Ortiz, archbishop of Guadalajara. Further studies in Rome, 1913-1916. Travelled to Chicago to meet his archbishop, Francisco Orozco y Jiménez, October 1916; went to San Antonio, Texas; later to Laredo; and then, on November 13th, to México, where the situation was very tense. Prefect of the Seminary of Totatiche, November 20, 1916 to October 22, 1917. Vicar cooperator in Atotonilco, October-November 1917. Vicar cooperator of the parish of Jesús, November 28 to December, 1917. Second auxiliary of the archdiocesan curia of Guadalajara, December 3, 1917. Professor of philosophy at the Major Seminary of Guadalajara, April 28, 1918. Chaplain of San Nicolás de Bari, annexed to the parish of Nuestra Señora del Pilar, February 1 to September 16, 1919. Chaplain of the church of Nuestra Señora de la Soledad, January 20 to August, 1920. Professor of pastoral theology, ascetics, mystics, pedagogical catechesis, and ecclesiastical history at the Seminary of Guadalajara, 1920. Official major of the archdiocesan curia, June 14, 1920 until 1924. Canon doctoral of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Guadalajara, October 22, 1923; took possession on March 17, 1924. Given the charge of the construction of Templo Expiatorio, March 24, 1924. Secretary of the Sacred Miter, July 2, 1924. Secretary general of the Chamber and Government of the archdiocese of Guadalajara, 1925 to May 7, 1930. During the religious persecution, while Archbishop Orozco was confined in "La Lobera", Msgr. Garibi and Fr. Narciso Aviña governed the archdiocese; Msgr. Garibi signed his correspondence as Mariano Reyes, his second name and his father's second last name. In 1929, Archbishop Orozco was expelled from México to the United States of America; Msgr. Garibi accompanied him. They went to Laredo; Msgr. Garibi stayed there as chaplain of a community of nuns from Guadalajara until November 1929, and the archbishop went to Chicago. Named canon chantre of the chapter of the metropolitan cathedral of Guadalajara, November 16, 1929. Sent to Rome by the archbishop, he arrived in December 1929.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Roso and appointed auxiliary of Guadalajara, December 16, 1929; the election occurred while he was in Rome; arrived in México on March 11, 1930; Archbishop Orozco was allowed to return to Guadalajara on March 30, 1930. Consecrated, May 7, 1930, metropolitan cathedral of Guadalajara, by Francisco Orozco Jiménez, archbishop of Guadalajara, assisted by Ignacio Placencia y Moreira, bishop of Zacatecas, and by Miguel de la Mora y Mora, bishop of San Luis de Potosí. His episcopal motto was Diligite alterutrum. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Guadalajara, January 1, 1933. Promoted to titular archbishop of Bizia and appointed coadjutor of Guadalajara, with right of succession, December 22, 1934. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Guadalajara, February 18, 1936. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 13, 1948. President of the Mexican Episcopal Conference for six consecutive terms.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Onofrio, December 18, 1958. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Papal legate to the National Missionary Congress, Guadalajara, October 30, 1966. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 1, 1969. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years of age, January 1, 1971. He was the first Mexican cardinal.

Death. May 27, 1972, at 11:40 p.m., of a pulmonary edema and cardiac insufficiency, at Hospital de la Santísima Trinidad, Guadalajara. Exposed in the Archdiocesan Seminary of Guadalajara and, later, in the metropolitan cathedral of Guadalajara; the funeral took place on May 30, 1972 in that cathedral and his remains were buried in its crypt, under the main altar.

Bibliography. Bravo Ugarte, José. Diócesis y obispo de la iglesia mexicana (1519-1965). Con un apéndice de los representantes de la S. Sede en México y viceversa. 2d ed. México : Editorial Jus, 1965. (Colección México Heorico, 39), p. 55; Valdés Salazar, Inocencia. El primer cardenal mexicano don José Garibi Rivera. Mexico : s.n., 1992.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(9) 9. BARBIERI, O.F.M.Cap., Antonio María
(1892-1979)

Birth. October 12, 1892, Montevideo, Uruguay. Son of José P. Barbieri and Mariana Romano. His baptismal name was Alfredo.

Education. Joined the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins on December 8, 1913; in 1915 he was sent to Italy and on September 8 of that year he received the religious habit of a novice in the convent of S. Barnaba, Genoa; emitted his religious vows in 1916; took the name Antonio María. Houses of studies of his order; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (obtained a doctorate in theology, July 9, 1923).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1921, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. He declined a professorship in "Collegio Internzionale" of his order in Rome and returned to Uruguay. Pastoral ministry and studies in the Capuchin convent of Montevideo. Rector of "Colegio Concordia", Buenos Aires, 1926. Guardian of "Colegio de San Antonio de Padua", Montevideo, 1929. Elected superior of the Capuchin mission, November 1931; reelected in 1936.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Macra and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Montevideo, October 6, 1936. Consecrated, November 8, 1936, metropolitan cathedral basilica of the Immaculate Conception, Montevideo, by Filippo Cortesi, titular archbishop of Sirace, nuncio in Uruguay, assisted by Francisco Aragone, archbishop of Montevideo, and by Alfredo Viola, titular bishop of Bitilio, coadjutor, with right of succession, of Salto. His episcopal motto was Adveniat regnum tuum. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Montevideo, November 20, 1940. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, November 11, 1953. Attended the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 25 to August 4, 1955.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Crisogono, December 18, 1958. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 12, 1972. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, November 17, 1976. He was the first Uruguayan cardinal. He was a member "de número" of the "Instituto Histórico y Geográfico del Uruguay".

Death. July 6, 1979, Montevideo. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral basilica of the Immaculate Conception of Montevideo. A square was named after him in Montevideo; as well as the library of Colegio y Liceo San José de la Providencia.

Bibliography. González, Ariosto Domingo. Su eminencia el cardenal Antonio María Barbieri. Montevideo, [s.n.], 1965. Note : "Apartado de Perfiles."

Webgraphy. Biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; his photograph, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(10) 10. GODFREY, William
(1889-1963)

Birth. September 25, 1889, Liverpool, England. He was the youngest son of George Godfrey and Maria Garvey; his father, who was a haulage contractor, died before William was born.

Education. He studied at Ushaw College, Durham, from 1903 to 1910; while in Rome, he resided at the Venerable English College, Rome, from 1910 to 1917); and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in philosophy; and another in theology in 1917.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1916, Rome. Further studies, 1916-1918. Pastoral ministry as a curate in St. Michael's, West Derby Road, in the archdiocese of Liverpool, 1918-1919. Classics professor at Ushaw College, 1918-1928; profesor of theology, 1928-1930. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, October 28, 1930. Rector of the Venerable English College, Rome, 1930-1938. Member of the Pontifical Commission to Malta, 1935. Member of the pontifical delegation to the coronation of King George VI of England in May 1937. Apostolic visitor to the seminaries and ecclesiastical colleges of England, Wales, and Malta, 1938.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cio and appointed apostolic delegate to Great Britain, Gibraltar, Malta, and Bermuda, November 21, 1938. Consecrated, December 21, 1938, chapel of the Venerable English College, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Carlo Rossi, O.C.D., secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea in Palaestina, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Ralph Leo Hayes, titular bishop of Gerapoli. His episcopal motto was Pax a Deo. Chargé d'affaires of the Holy See in Poland in 1943. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Liverpool, November 10, 1953. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Westminster, December 3, 1956.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, December 18, 1958. Attended the first session of the Second Vatican Council, 1962. He loved sports and playing piano.

Death. January 22, 1963, at 4:45 p.m., of a heart attack, at Westminster Hospital, in London, just as Dr. Michael Ramsey, archbishop of Canterbury was due to visit him. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Westminster, London.

Bibliography. Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, p. 157-159, 169 and 178; Quinlan, John. Our English cardinals, including the English pope. Alcester ; Dublin : C. Goodliffe Neale, 1972, p. 101-103; Schofield, Nicholas ; Skinner, Gerard. The English cardinals. Oxford, UK : Family Publications, 2007, p. 203-207; Walsh, Michael J. The Westminster cardinals : the past and the future. London ; New York : Burns & Oates, 2008, p. 155-166.

Link. His portrait and biography, in English, archdiocese of Westminster; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(11) 11. CONFALONIERI, Carlo
(1893-1986)

Birth. July 25, 1893, Seveso, archdiocese of Milan, Italy. Fourth child of Giuseppe Confalonieri, a cabinet maker, and Maria Rusconi. Baptized the day after his birth by Fr. Ambrogio Sirtori. Received the sacrament of confirmation on February 13, 1901 at the parish church of Seveso; and the first communion on May 5, 1904.

Education. Seminary of Seveso, Seveso (1904-1909; ginnasio); Archiepiscopal Seminary of Monza, Milan (1909-1912; philosophy); Lyceum "Parini", Milan (license liceale); Pontifical Seminary Ss. Ambrogio e Carlo (Collegio Lombardo), Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (1912-1914; bachelor in theology, 1913); military service (1914-1916). From Andrea Carlo Ferrari, archbishop of Milan, received the ecclesiastical tonsure, June 14, 1912; the four minor orders, September 20, 1913; the subdiaconate, January 2, 1916 in the archbishop's private chapel; and the diaconate, January 9, 1916 in the crypt under the main altar of the metropolitan cathedral of Milan.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 18, 1916, shrine of S. Pietro Martire, Seveso, by Cardinal Andrea Carlo Ferrari, archbishop of Milan. In the Italian Army during the First World War, 1916-1919. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Milan, 1919-1921. Secretary to Cardinal Achille Ratti, archbishop of Milan, 1921-1922; was his conclavist in the conclave of 1922; was named his secretary when he became Pope Pius XI (1922-1939). Privy chamberlain participant, February 7, 1922; reappointed, March 3, 1939. Protonotary apostolic, December 24, 1935. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1935. In 1937, Pope Pius XI intended to name Msgr. Confalonieri as substitute of the Secretariat of State but Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, secretary of State, future Pope Pius XII, asked the pope to name Msgr. Giovanni Battista Montini, future Pope Paul VI, instead. Pope Pius XII designated Msgr. Confalonieri to be metropolitan archbishop of Modena and abbot of Nonantola on December 16, 1939 but he declined.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Aquila, March 27, 1941. Consecrated, May 4, 1941, Sistine chapel at the Vatican, by Pope Pius XII, assisted by Giuseppe Migone, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, secret almoner of His Holiness, and by Alfonso Camillo De Romanis, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. His episcopal motto was Regnum tuum Domine. Secretary of the S.C. for Seminaries and Universities, January 25, 1950. Transferred to the titular archbishopric of Nicopoli al Nesto, February 22, 1950.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, December 18, 1958. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, November 16, 1959. Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, March 14, 1961, Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Pro-prefect of the S.C. Consistorial, 1966. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Confirmed in his post by Pope Paul VI when he became seventy five years old, July 25, 1968. President delegate of the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, October 11 to 28, 1969. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Pastoral of Emigration and Tourism, April 30, 1970. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Cardinal bishop of the title of suburbicarian see of Palestrina, March 15, 1972. Resigned his posts, February 25, 1973. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 25, 1973. Special papal envoy to the restoration of Seminary of Milan, Milan, October 27, 1973. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 7, 1974. Papal legate to the opening of Holy Door at the patriarchal Liberian basilica, December 24, 1974. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals and bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, proper of the dean, retaining the title of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, December 12, 1977. Presided over the funerals of Popes Paul VI and John Paul I in 1978. Special papal envoy to the 20th National Eucharistic Congress, Milan, Italy, May 15 to 22, 1983. Papal legate to the opening of Holy Door at patriarchal Liberian basilica, December 24, 1983.

Death. August 1, 1986, Rome. The funeral took place on August 4, 1986 at 10 a.m., in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, presided by Pope John Paul II. Transferred to Seveso, another funeral mass celebrated on August 5, 1986 at 10 a.m. in the parish church, celebrated by Cardinal Giovanni Colombo, archbishop emeritus of Milan; afterward, the late cardinal was buried next to his parents in the family plot in the cemetery of Seveso (1).

Bibliography. Garofalo, Salvatore. Il cardinale Carlo Confalonieri (1893-1986). Presentazione di Francesco Marchisano. Roma : Studium, 1993. (Coscienza. Studi ; 23).

Link. His arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

NELLA SUA TERRA COME EGLI VOLLE
ACCANTO AI GENITORI RIPOSA
CARLO CONFALONIERI
CARDINALE VESCOVO DECANO
25.VII.1893       1.VIII.1986
AETERNA FAC SANCTIS TUIS
IN GLORIA NUMERARI
+ + +


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(12) 12. CUSHING, Richard James
(1895-1970)

Birth. August 24, 1895, South Boston, archdiocese of Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. Son of Patrick Cushing, a blacksmith, and Mary Dahill.

Education. Boston College, Boston; St. John's Seminary, Brighton, Massachusetts.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1921, Boston, by Cardinal William Henry O'Connell, archbishop of Boston. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Boston, 1921-1939. Assistant director of the Society for the Propagation of Faith, 1922-1929; director, 1929-1944. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 14, 1939.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Mela and appointed auxiliary of Boston, June 10, 1939. Consecrated, June 29, 1939, metropolitan cathedral of the Holy Cross, Boston, by Cardinal William Henry O'Connell, archbishop of Boston, assisted by John Bertram Peterson, bishop of Manchester, and by Thomas Addis Emmet, titular bishop of Tuscamia, apostolic vicar of Jamaica. His episcopal motto was Ut cognoscant te. Apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of Boston, April-September, 1944. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Boston, September 25, 1944. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 11, 1954. Founder of the Missionary Society of St. James.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, December 18, 1958. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Lima, Perú, June 27, 1960; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, July 4, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. He officiated in the funeral of President John F. Kennedy of the United States of America in November 1963. Papal legate to the consecration of cathedral of Galway, Ireland, March 10, 1965. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, September 8, 1970.

Death. November 2, 1970, of cancer, in Boston. Buried in the Porciuncula Chapel, St. Coletta School for Exceptional Children, Boston. The grounds of the school have been since renamed as Cardinal Cushing Centers.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 96; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 59; Dever, Joseph. Cushing of Boston : a candid portrait. Boston : Bruce Humphries, 1965; Devine, M.C. The world's cardinal. Boston : St. Paul Editions, 1964; Fenton, John H. Salt of the earth : an informal profile of Richard Cardinal Cushing. New York : Coward-McCann, 1965.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(13) 13. CASTALDO, Alfonso
(1890-1966)

Birth. November 6, 1890, Casoria, archdiocese of Naples, Italy. Third of the five children of Aniello Casoria, a merchant, and Marianna Crispino; his father died when he was seven years old. The siblings were Pasquale, who became a lawyer and a physician in Casoria; Maria, Alfonso, Michele e Giuseppina (the last two children died in childhood). He was baptized four days after his birth at home, by special permission of the Neapolitan curia, on November 10, 1890, at noon, by Canon Alfonso Castaldo, his paternal uncle.

Education. Initial studies at the elementary of school of Casoria; Seminary of Cerreto Sannita (licenza ginnasiale); Seminary of Pozzuoli, Pozzuoli; Seminary of Naples, Naples; University of Naples, Naples (letters and philosophy). Msgr. Francesco Morano and Fr. Luigi Maglione, future cardinals, were influential in his decision to enter the seminary.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 8, 1913, Naples, by Angelo Michele Jannacchino, bishop of Cerreto. Military chaplain in the Italian Army in World War I, 1915-1918. Provost of the church of S. Mauro Abbate, Casoria, 1918-1934.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pozzuoli, March 27, 1934. Consecrated June 30, 1934, parish church of S. Marco, Casoria, by Cardinal Alessio Acalesi, archbishop of Naples, assisted by Salvatore del Bene, bishop of Cerreto Sannita (Telese), and by Salvatore Meo, titular bishop of Metone. His episcopal motto was Non dormitabit neque dormiet. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, July 16, 1949. Promoted to titular archbishop of Tessalonica and appointed coadjutor of Naples and administrator per vitam of Pozzuoli, January 14, 1950. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Naples, February 7, 1958. Named bishop ad personam of Pozzuoli, August 5, 1958.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, December 18, 1958. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. He gave his inheritance to charity and founded a Boy's Town, professional school for boys and girls, and artisan training centers. He was a great promoter of the Italian Catholic Action.

Death. Thursday March 3, 1966, at 10:50 a.m., of kidney trouble, diabetes and coronary sclerosis, at Filomarino palace, archiepiscopal residence, Naples. The funeral, celebrated in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples, was attended by Cardinal Francesco Morano and thirty archbishops and bishops. Buried in the chapel of Succopro near the remains of S. Gennaro, martyr and patron saint of Naples, in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples (1).

Bibliography. Di Petta, Pasquale. Alfonso Castaldo : preposito, vescovo, cardinale. Con appendice di Gaetano Capasso. Naples ; Rome : LER, 1997; Germier, Giuseppe. Il cardinale Alfonso Castaldo, arcivescovo di Napoli. Presentazione di S.E. Mons. Antonio Cece. Napoli: Santuario Basilica Immacolata del Ven. Placido Baccher, 1977; Imbò, Ignazio Salvatore. Il cardinale Alfonso Castaldo : un padre un pastore (1890-1966) : ricordi. Napoli : Edizioni Gaeta, 2005.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb taken from an unnumbered color plate in Di Petta, Alfonso Castaldo : preposito, vescovo, cardinale:

ALFONSO CARD. CASTALDO
ARCHIEPISCOPVS NEAPOLITANVS
OVI ET PVTEOLANVS EPISCOPVS
SVRRECTVRVS
HEIC IN PACE REQVIESCIT
VI NOVEMBRES MDCCCXC
V NONAS MARTIAS MCMLXV


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(14) 14. RICHAUD, Paul-Marie
(1887-1968)

Birth. April 16, 1887, Versailles, France. Of an old Versaillese family, originally from the Dauphiné, on his father's side. His baptismal name was Paul-Marie-André.

Education. Initial studies at the Eudist School of Saint Jean, Varsailles; Faculty of Law, Paris (licentiate in law); entered the Major Seminary of Versailles, Versailles, October 1909; sent to Rome to further studies; while in Rome, he stayed at the French Seminary and studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University and Collège Angelique; obtained a doctorate in philosophy in 1915.

Early life. Entered the Paris Faculty of Law and obtained a licentiate; during this period, he was president of Cercle d'Etude Saint-Benoît, which was the origin of the Action Catholique des Jeunes Française. Under the direction of Charles Gibier, bishop of Versailles, he joined the Oeuvres Sociales and the Oeuvres de Presse. Departmental secretary of the Societé Saint-Vincent-de-Paul. He was the first conferencist of the Oeuvre des Conférences Populaires, organized by the bishop of Versailles.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 28, 1913, Versailles, by Charles Gibier, bishop of Versailles. Further studies, 1913-1915. Vicar of the parish of Notre-Dame, Versailles, 1915-1924; there he was in charge of Patronage des Oeuvres de Lycéens and founded Cercle Saint-Thomas d'Aquin; toward the end of the First World War, he was mobilized by the French Army as a nurse. Chaplain of Lycée Hoche, Versailles. During these years, he published several articles in Bulletin Thomiste, Revue des Jeunes and Vie Spirituelle. He established the first Scout troops in Versailles. In 1928, he became director of Oeuvres de Jeunes Gens; he founded the first section of Jeune Ouevriers Catholiques. Vicar general of Versailles and vice-assistant general of the French Catholic Action, 1931-1933.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Irenopoli di Isauria and appointed auxiliary of Versailles, December 19, 1933. Consecrated, January 25, 1934, cathedral of Versailles, by Benjamin-Octave Roland-Gosselin, bishop of Versailles, assisted by Pierre Gerlier, bishop of Tarbes, and by Georges Louis, bishop of Périgueux. His episcopal motto was Vinctus Christi. Transferred to see of Laval, July 27, 1938. Promoted to metropolitan see of Bordeaux, February 10, 1950; took possession of the see on March 20, 1950; entered the archdiocese on the following March 25.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, December 18, 1958. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Bordeaux, May 25, 1966. On September 4, 1966, he confirmed his spiritual testament, written on January 23, 1955 (1).

Death. Monday February 5, 1968, at 2 p.m., after a serious chirurgical operation (he suffered from liver ailment), Bordeaux (2). The obsequies took place in the metropolitan cathedral of Bordeaux on Friday February 9, at 10 a.m. presided by Archbishop Marius Maziers of Bordeaux; Cardinals Joseph-Charles Lefèbvre, archbishop of Bourges, Joseph-Marie Martin, archbishop of Rouen, and Alexandre-Charles Renard, archbishop of Lyon, were present. Paolo Bertoli, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, nuncio in France, represented the pope. Paul-Pierre Philippe, O.P., titular archbishop of Eracleopoli Maggiore, secretary of the S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith, represented the Roman Curia. Also present were M. Fouchet, minister of the Interior, a friend of the late cardinal; M. Jacques-Pierre-Michel Chaban-Delmas, mayor of Bourdeaux and president of the National Assembly; and numerous other dignitaries. Buried, temporarily, in the grotto under the chapel of Saint-Sacrement, in the metropolitan cathedral of Bordeaux (3). On February 5, 1969, the first anniversary of his death, his body was transferred definitively to the chapel of Notre-Dame de la Nef, in that cathedral, according to his will (4).

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973.Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 465-466; Laroza, Olivier. Le Cardinal Paul Richaud, archevêque de Bordeaux (1887-1968). Préface de Mgr. M. Maziers, archevêque de Bordeaux. Impriméerie Daniel Duberga, 1969.

Webgraphy. His episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Text of his spiritual testament, taken from Laroza, Le Cardinal Paul Richaud, archevêque de Bordeaux (1887-1968), p. 122-124:
Bordeaux, le 23 janvier 1955
   J'entends mourir, quoi qu'il m'arrive et quoi qu'on puisse dire, dans la foi de l'Église catholique romaine, en pleine et entière soumission envers le Pape et en pleine et fraternelle union avec tous les évêques catholiques.
   Je déclare réprouver tout ce qui, dans mes écrits ou mes paroles, a pu être contraire à cette foi et à cette soumission, sans que je le veuille. Je regrette et rétracte toutes paroles que j'aurais pu prononcer ou écrire et qui auraient constitué un manque de respect, une médisance ou une calomnie à l'égard de mes supérieurs ou de mes collègues dans l'épiscopat.
   Je supplie que l'on me pardonne tout le tort et toute la peine que j'aurais causés aux uns et aux autres. J'offre pour eux, d'avance, toutes les souffrances que je pourrai endurer, ainsi que pour tous ceux que j'aurais pu scandaliser ou porter au mal.
   Je supplie que l'on prie beaucoup et longtemps pour moi. Car je suis écrasé à la pensée de tous les péchés que j'ai commis, de toutes les négligences dont je me suis rendu coupable. Ma vie aurait dû être bien plus féconde et bien plus édifiante !
   Je pardonne de tout coeur et sans la moindre réticence à ceux qui auraient pu me causer quelque peine.
   J'offre ma vie, mes souffrances, ma mort "pour mes péchés, pour mon diocèse, pour l'Église et pour la France ". Ce fut mon acte d'offrande perpétuel. Je les offre spéciale-ment pour mes prêtres que j'ai tant aireés et je demande très humblement pardon à ceux que j'aurais pu froisser ou contrarier.
   Je leur recommande un attachement indéfectible et délicat au Saint-Siège. Jamais je ne remercierai trop Dieu de la grâce incomparable de la formation romaine.
   Je recommande à mes prêtres l'assiduité dans l'étude des sciences sacrées, la pratique quotidienne de l'oraison mentale. Si je n'ai pas fait assez de bien et si j'ai eu tant de mouvements d'humeur, c'est parce que, dans ma vie, je n'ai pas fait assez oraison. Avec tout mon coeur, je leur recommande la dévotion ` la Sainte Vierge. C'est ma tendresse pour Marie et ma confiance dans le Coeur Sacré de Jésus qui m'auront sauvé, si Dieu veut bien me faire miséricorde.
   A mes prêtres et ` mes diocisains, je demande d'être apôtres, de correspondre aux directives de la hiérarchie en ce qui concerne l'Action Catholique, de vivre davantage suivant l'Évangile et, pour cela de pratiquer davantage le détachement. Je mourrai avec le regret de n'avoir pas été et de n'avoir pas eu le courage d'être pauvre.
   En ce moment, devant tous, je m'humilie profondément pour tout ce qu'il y a eu d'orgueilleux, de vaniteux, d'igoiste dans mes actes et mes sentiments.
   Je voudrais mourir dans l'amour le plus pur, en murmurant les mots: "Jésus ! Marie !" "

+ Paul RICHAUD Archevêque de Bordeaux
Evêque de Bazas


Texte confirmé le 4 septembre 1966.
+ Paul Card. RICHAUD.


(2) Upon learning the news of the death of Cardinal Richaud, Pope Paul VI sent the following telegram to Marius Maziers, archbishop of Bordeaux:
Apprenant avec une vive peine la mort de notre cher fils le Cardinal Paul-Marie Richaud, nous élevons de tout coeur nos prières vers Dieu pour le repos de l'âme de cet éminent pasteur qui a servi l'Eglise avec un courageux dévouement et nous vous envoyons, ainsi qu'aux prêtres et fidèles de l'archidiocèse de Bordeaux, notre paternelle bénédiction apostolique. PAULUS P.P. VI

(3) This is the text of the inscription, written on a parchment, that was place in a glass tube, sealed with the arms of the cardinal, and deposited in his casket, taken from Laroza, Le Cardinal Paul Richaud, archevêque de Bordeaux (1887-1968), p. 108-109:
PAULUS-MARIA-ALEXANDER RICHAUD
S.R.E.-PRESBYTER CARDINALIS
TITULI SS. CYRIACI ET JULITTAE ARCHIEPISCOPUS BURDIGALENSIS
EPISCOPUS VASATENSIS
AQUITANIAE PRIMAS VIR
S. SEDI ADDICTISSIMUS
DOCTRINAM
GREGI SIBI CREDITO
VERBO ET SCRIPTIS
INDEFESSO STUDIO
TRADIDIT
EPISCOPATUS BURDIGALENSIS XVIII LABENTE ANNO
LXXX ANNOS NATUS
OBDORMIVIT IN DOMINO
DIE V MENSIS FEBRUARI
ANNO D. MCMLXVIII

(4) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Laroza, Le Cardinal Paul Richaud, archevêque de Bordeaux (1887-1968), p. 112-113
ICI REPOSE
LE CARDINAL PAUL RICHAUD
(1887-1868)
NE A VERSAILLES. PRETRE EN 1913
EVEQUE AUXILIAIRE EN 1934
EVEQUE DE LAVAL EN 1938
ARCHEVEQUE DE BORDEAUX EN 1950
PASTEUR ET DOCTEUR
IL MAINTINT ET FIT GRANDIR
SON EGLISE DANS LA FOI
EN COMMUNION AVEC
LE SIEGE APOSTOLIQUE
IL FUT UN GRAND APOTRE
DE LA JUSTICE SOCIALE,
DE LA CHARITE ET DE LA PAIX
*
* *
LE 5 FEVRIER 1968
IL RESPONDIT AVEC CONFIANCE
A L'APPEL DU SEIGNEUR
QU'IL SAVAIT PROCHE


ohara7.jpg

(15) 15. O'HARA, C.S.C., John Francis
(1888-1960)

Birth. May 1, 1888, Ann Arbor, diocese of Detroit, Michigan, United States of America, while his father was studying at the University of Michigan. He was the fourth of the eight children, five boys and three girls, of John Walter O'Hara and Ella Cecilia Thornton, both former school teachers. When his father was named American consul to Uruguay, John went with him to Montevideo; and spent there the next three years; he served as secretary to the U.S. minister to Uruguay, starting in 1905. This experience provided him with a strong command of the Spanish language and a great understanding of the Latin American culture. He returned to the United States in 1908.

Education. Studied at the Catholic elementary school in Peru, Indiana; at Peru Public High School, from 1902 until 1905, when his father was appointed consul; while in Uruguay, he studied at the Jesuit University in Montevideo; then, at the University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana, from January 1909 (bachelors degree in economics and history); in 1911, he introduced the practice of frequent or daily communion to the university campus; later, he studied at the Catholic University of America, Washington; and at the State University of Pennsylvania. Joined the Congregation of the Holy Cross, August 8, 1912; the following year, 1913, he started his theological studies at Holy Cross College in Washington, D.C.; professed, September 14, 1914.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 9, 1916, Indianapolis, by Joseph Chartrand, titular bishop of Flavia, auxiliary of Indianapolis. After ordination, he finished the final year of theological studies. Professor of Latin American studies and prefect of religion at the University of Notre Dame from 1917 to 1933; its vice-president from 1933 until 1934 (he was acting president when Father Charles Leo O'Donnell, C.S.C. fell ill); its president, succeeding Father O'Donnell, who passed away, from 1934 until 1939.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Milasa and appointed delegate of the military vicar of the United States Armed Forces, December 11, 1939. Consecrated, January 15, 1940, church of the Sacred Heart, Notre Dame, by Francis Spellman, archbishop of New York, assisted by John Francis Noll, bishop of Fort Wayne, and by Joseph Elmer Ritter, bishop of Indianapolis. His episcopal motto was Ipsam sequens non devias. Transferred to the diocese of Buffalo, March 10, 1945. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Philadelphia, November 28, 1951. He established the first Annual Catholic Charities Appeal in 1958. He was also interested in the education of the mentally challenged.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio al Monte Celio, December 18, 1958. Humble by character, it is said that he often answered his own doorbell (1).

Death. Sunday August 28, 1960, at 3:06 a.m., peacefully, following a surgery for peritonitis, in Philadelphia. Priests and prelates came from all over the United States for his funeral. Cardinal Francis Joseph Spellman, archbishop of New York, sang the final pontifical mass. The eulogy was delivered by Cardinal James Francis McIntyre, archbishop of Los Angeles. Both cardinals had known him closely in New York and considered him a friend. Messages by the thousands paid tribute to the dead cardinal. Although in his last will he asked to be buried in the Holy Cross Cemetery on the grounds of the University of Notre Dame, a tomb was hurriedly prepared in the chapel of the Sacred Heart, on the side of the gospel of the main altar, as he lay in state while fathers and sisters of the Holy Cross, professors and old friends, filed by. More than 100,000 people filed past the bier as he was laid out in state. Archbishop Paul Clarence Schultz of Indianapolis sang the pontifical mass and gave the final absolution. The final entombment took place on September 7, 1960 in the church of the Sacred Heart, Notre Dame. His body rests at The Cardinal O'Hara Chapel in Notre Dame's Basilica of the Sacred Heart. The Cardinal O'Hara High School in Springfield, Pennsylvania, and The Cardinal O'Hara High School in Tonowanda, New York, were named after him.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 229; McAvoy, Thomas T. Father O'Hara of Notre Dame the cardinal archbishop of Philadelphia. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1967.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in English, The Notre Dame Center for Ethics and Culture, University of Notre Dame, Indiana; portrait and biography, in English, twelfth on page, Philadelphia Catholic League; biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography by rjschatz, Find a Grave; his signature, Havel's House of History; Cardinal O'hara Dies At 72 In Philadelphia, Google News; Founding of the John Cardinal O'Hara Society by Peggy Bolstetter, Mendoza College of Business, University of Notre Dame; John Francis O'Hara Papers, Notre Dame Archives; Cardinal O'Hara Papers, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC); The Bishops of Philadelphia, The Archdiocese of Philadelphia; his arms, portrait and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

bueno.gif

(16) 16. BUENO Y MONREAL, José María
(1904-1987)

Birth. September 11, 1904, Zaragoza, Spain. Son of Abel Bueno, a drawing teacher, and Paquita Monreal, from Navarra. His maternal uncle, Monsignor Santiago Monreal, was dean of the Spanish Rota. His last name is also listed as Bueno Monreal.

Education. Entered the Seminary of Madrid in 1914; at the same time studied bachillerato at Instituto San Isidro; in 1920, he was sent to study at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, with a scholarship; he also attended the Roman Academy of S. Tommaso d'Aquino; he obtained doctorates in theology and canon law in 1925; later, he studied for two years at the University of Madrid, earning a licentiate in law.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 19, 1927, Rome, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val. Professor of Ecclesiastical Public Law at the Instituto Central de Cultura Superior Religiosa from 1923-1945. Professor of theology, canon law and moral theology at the Seminary of Madrid from 1927 until 1945. Professor of Journalistic Ethics at the School of Journalism "El Debate", Madrid, 1935. Fiscal general of the diocese of Madrid, 1935-1945. Doctoral canon of the cathedral chapter of Madrid, 1945.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Jaca, December 1, 1945. Consecrated, March 19, 1946, cathedral of Madrid, by Leopoldo Eijo Garay, bishop of Madrid and patriarch of the West Indies, assisted by Casimiro Morcillo González, titular bishop of Agatopoli, auxiliary of Madrid, and by Luis Alonso Muñoyerro, bishop of Sigüenza. His episcopal motto was Opus justitia pax. Attended the National Eucharistic Congresses of Perú (Cuzco); and Ecuador (Quito), representing the Spanish episcopate. Transferred to the see of Vitoria, May 13, 1950. Promoted to titular archbishop of Antiochia di Pisidia and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Sevilla October 27, 1954. Named apostolic administrator, sede plena, of Sevilla, October 20, 1955. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, April 8, 1957, at the death of Cardinal Pedro Segura y Sáenz.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Vito, Modesto e Crescenzia, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, March 12, 1959. He was the precursor of the Seminario Menor de Pilas, inaugurated and blessed on May 3, 1961. He received the Medalla de Oro de la Hiniesta in 1962 the Medalla de Oro de Sevilla in 1963; the Medalla de Oro del Gran Poder in 1965; the Medalla de Oro del Consejo General de Hermandades y Cofradías de Sevilla; and was named Cofrade Ejemplar in 1980. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Celebrated a diocesan synod to implement the decisions of the Second Vatican Council that held three sessions, June 1970, November 1971, and May-June 1973. In 1972, he was elected vice-president of the Spanish Episcopal Conference; occupied the post until 1978. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Papal legate to the 15th International Marian Congress, Zaragoza, Spain, October 9 to 12, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, May 22, 1982. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, September 11, 1984. Among the works he published were Las relaciones entre la Iglesia y el Estado en los modernos concordatos, Madrid, 1936; and Principios fundamentales de Derecho Público Eclesiástico, Madrid, 1943.

Death. August 20, 1987, of heart failure, after a long history of frail health, at Clínica Universitaria de Navarra, in Pamplona. His funeral was celebrated in the metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla on August 24, presided by Archbishop Carlos Amigo Vallejo of Sevilla. Buried in Capilla de San José, metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla. His sepulchre was made by José Antonio Márquez in 1995. A bust in his memory was erected near the cathedral of Jerez de la Frontera, Cádiz, Andalucía.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 106; Hombre magnánimo y libre : homenaje al cardenal José Ma. Bueno Monreal, con motivo de sus 78 años de vida, 56 de sacerdocio, 37 de episcopado, 23 de cardenalato y 28 años de gobierno de la Archidiócesis de Sevilla. Dirigido por Miguel Oliver Román. Sevilla : Centro de Estudios Teológicos, 1983; Jiménez Blasco, Julio. José María Bueno Monreal. Cardenal Arzobispo de Sevilla. Doctoral thesis, Universidad de Sevilla, 2012; Martín de Santa Olalla Saludes, Pablo. "Pedro Segura y José María Bueno Monreal. Historia de una difícil convivencia" in Miscelánea Comillas: Revista de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, vol. 67, n. 131, 2009, pp. 481-499; Ros Carballar, Carlos. José María Bueno Monreal, semblanza de un cardenal bueno. Madrid : Editorial San Pablo, 2012. (Retratos de bolsillo).


Webgraphy. Biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in Spanish, Conocer Sevilla; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; El Cardenal José María Bueno Monreal y su vinculación a algunas Hermandades by Marta Marí Triana "La Jartible", in Spanish, marzo 1, 2011, Cofrades, La Comunidad de Pasión en Sevilla; his sepulchre, Monumentos a Cardenales en Sevilla (II), Julio Domínguez Arjona, 15 de octubre de 2003, La Sevilla que no vemos; Testigos Hoy (CSTV) 'Retrato de un Humanista', You Tube; Del cardenal Bueno al cardenal Amigo: Sevilla entre dos siglos by Alfredo Sánchez Monteseirín, 23.01.2012 - 14:12, diariodesevilla.es; El nacimiento del Seminario Menor de Pila, in Spanish. Los Niños de Juan Manuel, 2009.

(1) During his last two years, the cardinal fought continuously for his life through several operations, spending months at the Misericordia Hospital. Although sick in bed, on one occasion taking twenty two pills a day, he kept his finger firmly on the pulse of his archdiocese by daily consultation with his secretary, the chancellor, and other officials. On Saturday morning, August 27, 1960, word went out from the chancery to the 439 parishes that Cardinal O'Hara was gravely ill. Priests and people began to offer prayers for the man they loved. He died quietly the following morning at 3:06 am. He had long known that his days were numbered, and he looked forward to release.


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(17) 17. KÖNIG, Franz
(1905-2004)

Birth. August 3, 1905, Warth, small village near Rabenstein, diocese of Sankt Pölten, Austria (the Austrian Empire). Of a family of modest farmers. Eldest child of Franz and Maria König; the other siblings were two boys and two girls. He was baptized a few days later. His father died suddenly when he was six years old later, the mother married again; Franz's relations with Mr. Kaiser, his stepfather, were not happy ones and this made the boy want to get away from home. The parish priest of Kirchberg fomented his priestly vocation and at fourteen, he entered the seminary.

Education. In 1919, he entered the diocesan Seminary of Sankt Pölten, which was the high school of the Benedictine abbey of Melk, where he studied ancient and modern languages, literature, philosophy and humanities; he drew and painted and wrote poetry and drama; at the end of his high scholl studies, he decided definitively to entered the priesthood; in 1927, after his graduation, he was invited to spend his vacation in England; then, he obtained a grant to continue his studies in Rome at the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he obtained a doctorate in philosophy, summa cum laude, on July 9, 1930; and later, a doctorate in theology, also summa cum laude, on January 21, 1936; while at the university, he heard lectures on experimental psychology, biology, mineralogy, physics, chemistry and languages; then, he studied at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome (old-Persian religion and languages); while studying in Rome, he resided at the Pontifical Collegio Germanico-Hungarico; in 1936, he obtained a fellowship for two semesters at the Faculty of Sociology of the Catholic University of Lille, France, where he obtained a diploma. He spoke German, English, Italian, French, Spanish, Russian and Latin, and could understand Syriac, ancient Persian and Hebrew. This proved to be an invaluable skill during the diplomatic missions he embarked on. While studying in Rome, he met Fr. Alojzije Stepinac, future cardinal.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 29, 1933, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, vicar general of Rome and its district, archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. Further studies, 1933-1937. In 1937, he was recalled home by his bishop and appointed curate at Sankt Valenti; and later at Scheibbs. In 1939, he was named assistant pastor at the cathedral of Sankt Pölten; and professor of religion at the city's high school; when the Nazi regime prohibited religion in state schools, he gathered the Catholic youth of the city for religious instruction in the cathedral, right under the nose of the Gestapo. Twice the Gestapo tried to entrap him but the attempts were unsuccessful. In 1945, when the University of Vienna reopened, he registered and heard lectures in law, finance and economics, statistics, political science, linguistics, Syriac texts, ancient and modern history, modern philosophy, comparative anatomy, methodology of botany, morphology of plants, bases of animal physiology, and others. Professor of religion at the College of Krems, 1945-1948. In 1947, he became a lecturer on the Old Testament and on comparative theology at the University of Vienna. He spent a few months at the University of Innsbruck, where he became acquainted with world renowned Jesuit theologians Karl and Hugo Rahner. He was a lecturer on moral theology at the University of Salzburg, from 1948 until 1952; he lived in the Benedictine monastery on the Nonnberg.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Liviade and appointed coadjutor of Sankt Pölten, with right of succession, July 3, 1952. Consecrated, August 31, 1952, St. Pölten, by Michael Memelauer, bishop of St. Pölten, assisted by Leo Pietsch, titular bishop of Narona, auxiliary bishop of Seckau, and by Franz Zauner, titular bishop of Fata, coadjutor of Linz. His episcopal moto was Veritate in Caritate. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Vienna, May 10, 1956; when he was offered the see, he had traveled to Rome to explain the reasons why he should remain in Sankt Pölten, but the pope insisted on the promotion.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Eusebio, December 18, 1958. Military vicar of Austria, February 21, 1959; resigned, 1969. Received a doctorate honoris causa from Notre Dame University, Indiana, United States of America, on June 7, 1959. Granted a visa by the Communist authorities of Yugoslavia to attend the funeral of Cardinal Alozije Stepinac, archbishop of Zagreb (whom he had befriended during his studies in Rome), in February 1961; on his way to the funeral, he was involved in a serious car accident which kept him near death for several days; it took him almost a year to resume normal activities. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Sent by Pope John XXIII in April 1963, he became the first Catholic prelate to visit Cardinal Jozsef Mindszenty, archbishop of Esztergom, Hungary, at the U.S. embassy in Budapest where he had sought refuge after the U.S.S.R. crushed the 1956 uprising; afterwards, he visited the cardinal several times until the cardinal's departure for Rome in 1971. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. President of the Austrian Episcopal Conference. He also visited Poland and Romania and later the Orthodox Church of Serbia. Participated in a conference with delegates of three non-Christian religions in Bombay, India, 1964. President of the Secretariat for Non-Believers, April 6, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; he was one of its three presidents delegate. In 1975, he visited the Coptic Christian patriarch Shenouda III in Egypt. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. In 1978, he visited the Orthodox patriarch of Syria in Damascus. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5-9, 1979. Resigned the presidency of the secretariat for Non-Believers, June 27, 1980. In 1980, he met in Moscow with the patriarch of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Special papal envoy to the Croatian National Eucharistic Congress, Marija Bistrica, Zagreb, Yugoslavia, September 8 to 9, 1984. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, August 3, 1985. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, September 16, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; special guest. Cardinal protopriest, May 2, 1989.

Death. March 13, 2004, near 3 a.m. in his sleep, in the convent of the Sisters of Mercy of Vienna, where he resided. Buried on March 27, 2004, in the vault of the bishops, metropolitan cathedral of Vienna. Last surviving cardinal of Pope John XXIII.

Bibliography. Barta, Richard. Francis Cardinal Koenig. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (The Men who make the Council, 12); Barta, Richard. Kardinal Franz König. Mahner seines Volkes, Partner des Gespräches. Rufer über die Grenzen. Wien ; Freiburg i. Br. ; Basel : Herder, 1965; Feichtlbauer, Hubert. Franz König : der Jahrhundert-Kardinal. Wien : Holzhausen Verlag, 2003; Fenzl, Annemarie ; Tambour, Evelyn. Kardinal König. Wien : Herold, 1985; König, Franz and Licheri, Gianni. Chiesa dove vai? : Gianni Licheri interroga il cardinale Franz Koenig. Roma : Borla, 1985. (Concilio aperto).

Webgraphy. His photograph, arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his photograph, arms and biography, in German, Wikipedia; biography, in German, religion ORF.at; Kardinal König Haus, Vienna; his arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.


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(18) 18. DÖPFNER, Julius
(1913-1976)

Birth. August 26, 1913, village of Hausen, near Bad Kissingen, diocese of Würzburg, Germany. Son of Matthäus Julius and Maria Büttner. He had a sister, Maria, and two brothers, Paul and Otto. He was baptized on August 28, 1913 and received the name Julius August. His last name is also listed as Doepfner. He was confirmed on May 13, 1924.

Education. Studied at the Augustinian Gymnasium, Münnerstadt, from 1924 to 1925; at the Seminary of Würzburg from 1925 to 1933 (he was the valedictorian of his class); he was sent to study in Rome and resided in the Pontifical Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum; studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome. from 1933 to 1941 (philosophy and theology; obtained a doctorate in theology in 1941; dissertation: Das Verhältnis von Natur und Übernatur bei John Henry Newman).

Priesthood. Ordained, October 29, 1939, feast of Christ the King, church of Gesù, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Further studies, 1939-1941. Chaplain in Großwallstadt, diocese of Würzburg, 1941-1944. Prefect in Kilianeum, 1945; assistant, 1946. Subgerent of the Seminary of Würzburg, 1946-1948.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Würzburg, August 11, 1948. Consecrated, October 14, 1948, Neumünsterkirche, Würzburg, by Josef Otto Kolb, archbishop of Bamberg, assisted by Joseph Schröffer, bishop of Eichstätt, and by Arthur Michael Landraf, titular bishop of Eudocia and auxiliary of Bamberg. His episcopal motto was Praedicamus crucifixum. At the time of his election to the episcopate, he was the youngest bishop of the church. Transferred to the diocese of Berlin, January 15, 1957.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Scala, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, December 18, 1958. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Münich und Freising, July 3, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Member of the Board of Presidency of the Second Vatican Council, 1963-1965. Chairman of the German Conference of Bishops, 1966 until his death in 1976. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974.

Death. July 24, 1976, at 8 a.m., of a heart attack, in the archbishop's house, Münich. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Münich (1).

Bibliography. Döpfner, Julius; Fleckenstein, Heinz. Ortskirche, Weltkirche ; Festgabe für Julius Kardinal Döpfner. Würzburg : Echter, 1973; Forster, Karl. Julius Cardinal Doepfner. Notre Dame, Indiana : University of Notre Dame Press, 1965. (The men who make the council, 13); Landersdofer, Annton."Döpfner, Julius (August)."Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1945 2001 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Unter Mitwirkung von Franz Xaver Bischof ... [et al.] ; herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2002, p. 386-394; Pfister, Peter ; Treffler, Guido. Julius Kardinal Döpfner und das Zweite Vatikanische Konzil : Vorträge des wissenschaftlichen Kolloquiums anldsslich der Öffnung des Kardinal-Döpfner-Konzilsarchivs am 16. November 2001. Regensburg : Schnell + Steiner, 2002. (Schriften des Archivs des Erzbistums München und Freising ; Bd. 4). Contents: Vor-vorbereitender Zeitraum -- Korrespondenzakten -- Konzilspublizistik -- Vorgdnge im Zusammenhang mit dem Konzil -- Vorbereitender Zeitraum -- Erste Konzilsperiode -- Erste Zwischenperiode -- Zweite Konzilsperiode -- Zweite Zwischenperiode -- Dritte Konzilsperiode -- Dritte Zwischenperiode -- Vierte Konzilsperiode -- Nachkonziliarer Zeitraum. Other Title: Archivinventar der Dokumente zum Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzil; Treffler, Guido ; Pfister, Peter. Erzbischöfliches Archiv München, Julius Kardinal Döpfner : Archivinventar der Dokumente zum Zweiten Vatikanischen Konzil. Regensburg : Schnell + Steiner, 2004. (Schriften des Archivs des Erzbistums München und Freising ; Bd. 6). Contents: Vor-vorbereitender Zeitraum -- Korrespondenzakten -- Konzilspublizistik -- Vorgänge im Zusammenhang mit dem Konzil -- Vorbereitender Zeitraum -- Erste Konzilsperiode -- Erste Zwischenperiode -- Zweite Konzilsperiode -- Zweite Zwischenperiode -- Dritte Konzilsperiode -- Dritte Zwischenperiode -- Vierte Konzilsperiode -- Nachkonziliarer Zeitraum; Wittstadt, Klaus. Julius Kardinal Döpfner : (1913-1976) : Anwalt Gottes und der Menschen. München : Don Bosco, 2001; Wittstadt, Klaus. Julius Kardinal Döpfner : 26. August 1913 bis 24. Juli 1976. Würzburg : Bistum, 1996. (Würzburger Diözesangeschichtsblätter, 58. Bd. (Ergänzungsband)).

(1) This is the text of his tombstone taken from Wittstadt, Julius Kardinal Döpfner, p. 311:

JVLIVS KARDINAL DÖPFNER
GEBOREN 26. AVGVST 1913
BISCHOF VON WVRZBURG 1948
BISHOF VON BERLIN 1957
ERZBISCHOF VON MVNCHEN
VND FREISING 1961
GETORBEN 24. JVLI 1976

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(19) 19. TARDINI, Domenico
(1888-1961)

Birth. February 29, 1888, at 8:25 p.m., in Via dei Sediari n.85, rione S. Eustachio, Rome, Italy. Son of Cesare Tardini and Giulia Malerbini; she died when Domenico was almost four years old; and Cesare died on July 16, 1910. He was baptized in the parish of S. Eustachio on March 4, 1888; received the name Domenico Michele Giuseppe Carlo; his godfather was Pietro Malerbini, maternal uncle; and his godmother was Maria Santi.

Education. Entered the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome, on February 11, 1903, as an intern student; he was a classmate of Alfredo Ottaviani, future cardinal. Received the first ecclesiastical tonsure on May 28, 1904. Obtained the diploma di laurea in philosophy at La Sapienza University, Rome, on July 7, 1908. Received the first two minor orders, ostiary and lector, on April 11, 1908; received the other two minor orders, exorcist and acolyte, on April 26, 1910. Obtained a licentiate in sacred theology on June 26, 1911. Received the subdiaconate on September 23, 1911; and the diaconate on March 23, 1912. Obtained the diploma di laurea in sacred theology at the Pontifical Athenaeum of the Roman Seminary on July 2, 1912.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 20, 1912, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Respighi, vicar of Rome; celebrated his first mass in the chapel of the summer seminary of Roccantica. Named professor of theoretical liturgy at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," October 21, 1912; professor of sacramental theology on October 27, 1913. Director of the Congregation of the Daughters of Mary, Porta Furba, Rome, August 16, 1913. Faculty member of the Pontifical Roman Seminary, dogmatic and sacramental theology, November 22, 1913. Named professor of sacramental theology at the Major Pontifical Roman Seminary on October 12, 1917. On June 1, 1919, in his capacity of assistant military chaplain, he received the Medaglia di benemerenza by the military vicar, Bishop Angelo Bartolomasi. Named member of the central council for Italy of the Pia Opera for the Propagation of the Faith, on November 16, 1919. Member of the Sacræ Liturgiæ Academia, with the charge of censor, November 17, 1919. Named deputy in the Congregation of the Ecclesiastical Subsidy, January 2, 1920. Member of the diocesan commission for the Missionary Union of the Clergy of Rome, January 19, 1920. Named deputy of the Venerable Archconfraternity of the Christian Doctrine and member of the Diocesan Catechetical Commission of Rome, March 23, 1920. Member of Collegium Cultorum Martyrum, May 18, 1920. On November 16, 1920, he was named director of "Scuola interparrochiale di Religione S. Giovanni Battista de la Salle", erected in the Institute "De Merode" of the Catechetical Commission, in execution of the deliberations of the first diocesan congress. Consultor of the S.C. of the Discipline of the Sacraments, December 9, 1920. Named chamberlain d'onore in abito paonazzo on May 31, 1921. Minutant of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, July 26, 1921. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, March 15, 1922. Member of the national council for Italy of the Pontifical Work for the Propagation of the Faith, January 19, 1923. Central ecclesiastical assistant of the Union of Men of the Catholic Action, April 25, 1923. Member of the commission charged with the redaction of the Catechism for all the Catholic Church.

He was made participant of the spiritual benefices of the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) on July 14, 1923. Named ecclesiastical assistant of the Italian Catholic Youth Organization, November 7, 1923; he retained temporarily the post of ecclesiastical assistant of the Union of Men of the Catholic Action. Member of the Pontifical Roman Academy of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, January 26, 1926. Undersecretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, June 7, 1929. Member of the committee for the cause of beatification and canonization of the Servant of God Canon Luigi Oreste Borgia, priest of the Roman clergy, June 18, 1929. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 21, 1929. On December 14, 1929, the Vatican citizenship was conferred on him in virtue of his office, with authorization to permanently reside in the State of Vatican City. Member of the Pontifical Roman Academy of S. Tommaso d'Aquino, 9132. Member of the mission accompanying Cardinal Lorenzo Lauri, legate to the International Eucharistic Congress in Dublin, Ireland, June 22 to 26, 1932. Consultor of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, in charge of the Commission pro Russia, part of that congregation, March 31, 1934. Substitute of the Secretariat of State and secretary of the Cipher, December 19, 1935 (1). Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, January 6, 1936. Consultor of the S.C. Consistorial, February 19, 1936. Apostolic protonotary ad instar participantium, July 2, 1937. Secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs and president of the Pontifical Commission pro Russia, December 16, 1937. Secretary of the Cardinalitial Commission presiding the Special Administration of the Holy See, March 5, 1939. In Fall 1946, he started his work at Institute Villa Nazareth. Member of the central committee for the 1950 Jubilee Year, June 28, 1948. Pro-Secretary of State for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, November 29, 1952 until October 9, 1958. In the consistorial allocution of January 12, 1953, Pope Pius XII announced that his two most immediate collaborators (Monsignors Domenico Tardini and Giovanni Battista Montini) had declined the promotion to the cardinalate. By motu proprio of April 22, 1953, Pope Pius XII granted him precedence over bishops as well as the privilege to hear confessions in all the world; preach; celebrate mass on Holy Thursday and three masses on Christmas Eve; to bless rosaries and sacred objects with the simple sign of the cross; and to use portable altars. Honorary member of the Pontifical Roman Academy of Archeology, March 14, 1955. Honorary member of the Pontifical Roman Academy of Theology, June 5, 1956. Regent of the Secretariat of State, October 9, 1958. Pro-secretary of State, October 29, 1958. Honorary member of the International Marian Academy, December 8, 1959. Secretary of State and prefect of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, November 17, 1958 until his death. He was a great scholar of Dante Alighieri, Alessandro Manzoni and Gioacchino Belli; as well as a great devotee of Saint Thérése of Lisieux.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Laodiciea di Siria, December 14, 1958.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Apollinare, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, December 18, 1958. Consecrated, December 27, 1958, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Girolamo Bartolomeo Bortignon, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Padua, and by Gioacchino Muccin, bishop of Feltre e Belluno. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Carlo Grano, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, nuncio in Italy; Angelo Dell'Acqua, titular archbishop of Chalcedonia and substitute of the Secretariat of State; Albino Luciani, bishop of Vittorio Veneto, future Pope John Paul I; Giuseppe Ferretto, titular archbishop of Sardica, assessor of the S.C. Consistorial; and Mario Casariego y Acevedo, C.R.S., titular bishop of Pudenziana, auxiliary of Guatemala. His episcopal motto was Festina Domine in auxilium meum. President of the preparatory commission of the Ecumenical Vatican Council, May 17, 1959. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and prefect of the S.C. of the Fabric of Saint Peter's basilica, November 14, 1959. Named among the cardinal members of the Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, December 18, 1959. Honorary member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, March 19, 1960.

Death. Sunday July 30, 1961, of a massive heart attack, Rome; Pope John XXIII announced the news of his death at noon, after the recitation of the Angelus from the window of his Vatican apartment. The body was exposed in the hall of the Congregations in the official apartment of the secretary of State. The funeral mass was celebrated on Wednesday August 2, 1961, at 10 a.m., at the patriarchal Vatican basilica by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, in the presence of the pope and twenty five cardinals; at the end of the rite, the pope imparted the final absolution. In the afternoon, the body of the late cardinal was transported to the Carmelite monastery, Vetralla, Viterbo, where it was buried in a vault under the pavement of the sanctuary of the church, according to his will. Later, Cardinal Samorè had the remains of Cardinal Tardini exhumed and placed in a small box in the same vault where they rested in order to make room for himself.

Bibliography. Carbone, Vincenzo. "Il cardinale Tardini e il Concilio Vaticano II", in Rivista di storia della Chiesa in Italia, XLV (1991), pp. 42-88; Casula, Carlo Felice. Domenico Tardini (1888-1961). L'azione della S. Sede fra le due guerre. Roma : Studium, 1988. (Coscienza. Studi ; 18); Nicolini, Giulio. Il cardinale Domenico Tardini. Padova: EMP, 1980.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in French, Wikipedia; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cinquant'anni fa, il 30 luglio 1961, moriva il cardinale Domenico Tardini, segretario di Stato di Giovanni XXIII, in Italian, L'Osservatore Romano, Anno CLI n. 174 (45.819), sabato 30 luglio 2011, pagina 5; Il braccio destro del Papa buono by Filippo Rizzi, in Italian, Avvenire, 29 luglio 2011; Fondazione Comunità Domenico Tardini, in English, Conferenza Collegi universitari legalmente riconosciuti.

(1) He was succeeded in these posts by Monsignor Giovanni Battista Montini, future Pope Paul VI, on December 13, 1937, when he became secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs.


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(20) 20. DI JORIO, Alberto
(1884-1979)

Birth. July 18, 1884, Rome, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary; and at the "Studium" of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 18, 1908, Rome. Faculty member of the Interdiocesan Seminary of Perugia, 1908-1910. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1910-1958. Official of the vicariate of Rome, 1910-1918. Secretary of the Institute for Works of Religion, 1918-1922; president, 1922-1958. Secretary of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Special Administration of the Holy See, 1940-1947. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 23, 1922. Protonotary apostolic, April 8, 1933. Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, January 24, 1947. Secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1947-1958. Vicar of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, January 24, 1947. Delegate for the Special Administration of the Holy See, April 1, 1947. Secretary of the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII; and regent of the secretariat of Sacred College of Cardinals, October 9, 1958. At the end of the conclave, the new Pope John XXIII placed his cardinalitial skullcap on the head of Monsignor Di Jorio thus indicating that he would be created cardinal in the next consistory.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the deaconry pro illa vice of S. Pudenziana, December 18, 1958. Director of the administrative secretariat for the preparation of the Second Vatican Council, June 15, 1960. Pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, August 14, 1961. For many years, he served as President of Istituto per le Opere di Religione, the Vatican bank; occupied the post until 1968. His cardinalitial motto was Innova.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Castra Nova, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Antonio Bacci, Augustin Bea, S.J., Francesco Bracci, Michael Browne, O.P., William Theodore Heard, André Jullien, P.S.S., Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F., Francesco Morano, Alfredo Ottaviani and Francesco Roberti. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was restored to title, June 26, 1967. Resigned the pro-presidency of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, November 4, 1968. Lost his right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. In 1978, at the mass celebrating the seventieth anniversary of his priestly ordination, Pope Paul VI preached the homily. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Death. September 5, 1979, at his Roman residence. Buried in the basilica of S. Pudenziana, Rome.

Link. His arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

ALBERTUS CARD. DI JORIO
ECCLESIAE PUDENTIANAE PRESBYTER
N. XVIII JULII A.D.MDCCCLXXXIV     OBIT. V. SEPT.MCMLXXIX
HIC IN PACE DEPOSITUS


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(22) 22. ROBERTI, Francesco
(1889-1977)

Birth. July 7, 1889, Pergola, diocese of Pesaro, Italy. Son of Terenzio Roberi and Giuseppina Profili. He was baptized on the same day of his birth.

Education. Studied at the Pre-Seminary of Pesaro from 1899; received the ecclesiastical tonsure on December 26, 1901; at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, from April 24, 1902 to 1913; returned to Pergola to receive the priestly ordination; at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, where he earned doctorates in philosophy, theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law; and at the Royal University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 3, 1913, Pergola. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, Tor di Mezzavia d'Albano and Torretta Massimi. Vice-rector of the Pontifical Minor Roman Seminary, 1915-1916; rector, 1916-1929. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 2, 1917. Professor of canon law at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", February 1, 1918-1938. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 23, 1922. Advocate of the Sacred Roman Rota and the Holy Office, 1927-1931. Referendary prelate of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, March 17, 1928; voting prelate, November 27, 1930. Founder and director of the journal Apollinaris, organ of the Faculty of Canon Law, 1928. Undersecretary of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities, April 24, 1931. He was one of the organizers and contributors of the 4th International Juridical Congress for the commemoration of the 7th centennial of the decretali of Pope Gregory IX and the 14th centennial of the codice Giustinianeo, celebrated in Rome on November 12 to 17, 1934; the congress gathered the leading international specialists in canon and Roman law. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, June 5, 1936. Dean of the Pontifical Institute "Utriusque Iuris", 1937-1943. Official of the Roman vicariate. Secretary of the S.C. of the Council, March 9, 1946. Legal consultor of the Secretariat of State, October 6, 1952.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, December 18, 1958. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, November 14, 1959.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Colonnata, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Antonio Bacci, Augustin Bea, S.J., Francesco Bracci, Michael Browne, O.P., William Theodore Heard, Alberto di Jorio, André Jullien, P.S.S., Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F., Francesco Morano and Alfredo Ottaviani. His episcopal motto was Dominus robur meum. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, June 26, 1967. Resigned the prefecture, March 24, 1969; named prefect emeritus, March 26, 1969. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971.

Death. July 16, 1977, Rome. Buried in his family's plot in Pergola.

Bibliography. Palazzini, Pietro. "Card. Francesco Roberti." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, pp. 222-224; Palazzini, Pietro. "Commemorazione del cardinale Francesco Roberti." Apollinaris, LI (1978), 5-15.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(23) 23. JULLIEN, P.S.S., André
(1882-1964)

Birth. October 25, 1882, Pelussin, archdiocese of Lyon, France. His baptismal name was André-Damien-Ferdinand. His last name is also listed as Jullien de Pommerol.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Issy, Paris; at the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris; and at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome. Joined the Society of Saint-Sulpice, Rome in 1918.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 1, 1905, Lyon. Further studies, 1905-1908. Faculty member of the Seminary of Lyon, 1908-1912. Secretary to Msgr. Maury, S.S., auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1912-1922. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, September 15, 1922; its dean, October 30, 1944.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, December 18, 1958. His cardinalitial motto was Solum Deum præ oculis habens.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Corone, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Antonio Bacci, Augustin Bea, S.J., Francesco Bracci, Michael Browne, O.P., William Theodore Heard, Alberto di Jorio, Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F., Francesco Morano, Alfredo Ottaviani and Francesco Roberti. His cardinalitial motto became his episcopal motto. Attended the first two sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1963. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. January 11, 1964, of leukemia, in a Roman hospital where he had been interned since December 6, 1963. Buried in the church of S. Giorgio in Velabro, Rome, in a vault intended for the remains of the cardinals who are assigned to that deaconry; however, Cardinal Jullien's remains are the only ones buried in it (1). A memorial tablet in his memory was placed above his vault (2).

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 351-352; Fiore, Ernesto, "Card. Andrea Jullien" in La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 453-455; Mélanges en l'honneur de son éminence le cardinal André Jullien, ancien doyen du tribunal de la Rote. Strasbourg : Palais universitaire, 1961. (Revue de droit canonique ; t. 10, no. 3-4 ; t. 11, no. 1.

Link. His arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

S.R.E. CARDINALIVM
TITVLI SANCTI GEORGI
QVIES
AETERNAM EXPECTANTIVM

(2) This is the text of its inscription, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

SOLVM DEVM PRAE OCVLIS HABENS
ANDREAS S.R.E. CARD. JVLLIEN
ARCHIEPISCOPVS TITVLARIS
S. GEORGI IN VELABRO DIACONVS
1882      1964
IVDEX PRVDENS JVSTVS

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