The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Paul VI (1963-1978)
Consistory of February 22, 1965 (I)


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(1) 1. SAIGH, M.S.S.P., Maximos IV
(1878-1967)

Birth. April 10, 1878, Aleppo, Syria, then under Turkish domination. Son of Rizkallah Saigh and Catherine Turkmani. His first name was Amine Rizkallah. His last name is also listed as Saïgh, Saygh and Sayegh.

Education. Initial studies at the Franciscan primary school in Aleppo; he then entered the Diocesan Seminary of Saint'Anna in Jerusalem, where he completed his secondary studies, from 1893 until 1903; he taught Arab literature at the seminary from 1903 until 1906. On July 28, 1905, he joined the Missionary Society of Saint Paul (Paulists), which had been founded by Monsignor Germanos Mouaccad in 1903; he took the name Joseph. He obtained the diploma of Hautes Études de Théologie et de Philosophie

Priesthood. Ordained, September 17, 1905, in the small church of Roumiet-el-Matn, by Melkite Patriarch Cyrill VII Sawaya of Antioch. Professor at the Seminary of Saint'Anna in Jerusalem, from 1905 to 1908. He then returned to the mother house of the society in Harissa. He preached retreats and missions, the special work of the Melkite Paulists. In 1908, he was named by Msgr. Mouaccad to assist in the Synod of the Greek Melkite Curch in Ain-Traz, Lebanon. Named director of the review Al-Maçarrat, he contributed with theological, apologetical and historical articles. Elected superior general of his religious society in 1912; occupied the post until his promotion to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Tyre of the Melkites and consecrated, August 30, 1919, Damascus, by Joseph Dimitrio Cadi, patriarch of Antioch of the Melkites, assisted by Ignace Homsi, titular bishop of Tarso of the Melkites, and by Flavien Khoury, archbishop of Homs of the Melkites. His episcopal motto was ΣΝ AIAΠE NIKA. In 1921, the Holy See designated him as apostolic visitator to the Catholic Greek Melkite communities in North America; and later, as apostolic visitator to all the Melkite religious congregations. He reorganized and built numerous schools and churches and published several liturgical works. At the death of Patriarch Cadi, the Holy See named him Locum tenes or patriarchal apostolic vicar, sede vacante, from October 30, 1925 until November 10, 1926. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Beirut and Gibail of the Melkites, August 30, 1933. In 1935, in collaboration with the Paulist missionaries, he founded the Congregation of Sœurs Missionnaires de Notre Dame du Perpétuel Secours in Daroun-Harissa, Lebanon. Named assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 25, 1943. Elected Melkite patriarch of Antioch by the Synod of Bishops of the Melkite Church, October 30, 1947; confirmed by the pope, June 21, 1948. He had the title ad personam of the sees of Alexandria and Jerusalem of the Melkites. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; he spoke French instead of Latin at the council; he urged reconciliation between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches; he championed the Eastern tradition of Christianity and won a great deal of respect from Eastern Orthodox observers at the council and the approbation of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Athenagoras I; he also spoke forcefully against the latinization of the Eastern Catholic Churches, and urged a greater receptivity to the eastern Christian traditions, especially in the area of ecclesiology; and successfully advocated use of vernacular languages for liturgical celebrations. He was the Spiritual Protector of the international Ecumenical Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal patriarch in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta, February 25, 1965. He was promoted to the cardinalate very much against his wish; three times previously he had refused a red hat on the grounds that "for a Patriarch to accept a cardinalate is treason"; Patriarchal Vicar for the See of Alexandria, Caïro and the Sudan Elias Zoghby opposed the acceptance of a Roman cardinalate by the Melkite patriarch, stating that the leader of an Eastern Catholic church should not hold a subordinate Latin-rite office; and in protest, the vicar resigned his position. The church of S. Maria in Cosmedin was assigned to him for religious celebrations while in Rome, November 22, 1965 (1).

Death. Sunday November 5, 1967, at 3:10 a.m., of cancer, in Beirut. His embalmed remains were exposed in the chapel of the archbishopric of Beirut from that day until Wednesday, when the body was transferred to the cathedral of Saint-Élie. The funeral took place on Friday November 10, 1967, at 10 a.m., in that cathedral. In attendance were the president of the Republic; the president of the Chamber; the president of the Council; Cardinal Patriarch Paul Pierre Meouchi of Antioch of the Maronites; Cardinal Patriarch Ignace-Gabriel I Tappouni of Antioch of the Syrians; numerous civil authorities; and representatives of the Orthodox, Protestant and Muslim communities. After the funeral, the body was transferred to Damascus, Syria, and exposed in the cathedral of that city. The funeral took place on Friday, November 10, at 3 p.m. Pope Paul VI sent a message of condolence through Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, secretary of State, and asked Msgr. Atonio Petti, chargé d'affaires ad interim of the nunciature in Syria, to be his personal representative at the funeral. In attendance were the diplomatic corps accredited before the Syrian government; representatives from the government; the army and the internal security; the entire Syrian hierarchy; a representative from Ecumenical Patriarch Athénagoras I; Syrian Orthodox Patriarch Jacob III in person; representatives of the Greek Orthodox patriarchate; the representative of the Latin patriarch of Jerusalem; as well as delegates from Protestant and Muslim communities; and an immense multitude of faithful. The homily was delivered by Bishop Joseph Tawil of Mira of the Melkites. At 8 p.m., on that same day, the body was taken in procession at the light of candles and deposited in the vault of the patriarchs and bishops, which had been built that year under the sacristy of the cathedral. Three years later, according to his will, his remains were transferred to and buried in a tomb that he had built in the mother house of the Sœurs de Notre-Dame du Perpétuel Secours in Daroun-Harissa, Lebanon.

Bibliography. Bird, Thomas E. Patriarch Maximos IV Saygh. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (Men who make the Council, 6); Inglessis, Emilios. Maximos IV : l'Orient conteste l'Occident. Postfacé par Mgr Joseph Nasrallah. Paris : Ed. du Cerf, 1969. (Chrétiens de tous les temps ; 32).

Links. Discourses and Memoranda of Patriarch Maximos IV and of the Hierarchs of His Church at the Second Vatican Council, in English, Eparchy of Newton; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The occupant of the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin from December 15, 1958 until June 26, 1967 was Cardinal Francesco Roberti.


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(2) 2. MEOUCHI, Paul Pierre
(1894-1975)

Birth. April 1, 1894, Djezzine, Maronite diocese of Saïda, Lebanon. Son of Assad Meouchi and Madeleine Maddoul. His first name is also listed as Boulos.

Education. Studied at College de la Sagesse, Beirut; at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1917, Rome, by Nematallah Abi Karam, titular bishop of Mindo. Secretary to Augustine Botani, bishop of Saïda of the Maronites, 1917-1920. Secretary to Chekrallah Koury, titular bishop of Tiro of the Maronites, during the latter's visitation to the Maronites in United States of America, 1920-1921. Pastoral ministry among the Maronites in United States of America, specifically in Indiana, Connecticut and California, 1922-1934.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tyr of Maronites, Lebonon, April 29, 1934. Consecrated, December 8, 1934, Bkerké, Lebanon, by Antoine-Pierre Arida, Maronite patriarch of Antioch, assisted by Augustine Bostani, bishop of Saïda of the Maronites, and by Peter Feghali, titular archbishop of Apamea di Bitinia. His episcopal motto was Gloria Libani data est ei. Elected patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites, May 25, 1955. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 25, 1955. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal patriarch, February 22, 1965; received the red biretta, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, l967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the II Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, April 1, 1974. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974.

Death. January 11, 1975, Beirut. Buried, patriarchal see of Bkerké, near Beirut.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 200-201.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(3) 3. SIDAROUSS, C.M., Stephanos I
(1904-1987)

Birth. February 22, 1904, Caïro, Egypt.

Education. Joined the Congregation of the Mission (Lazarists); received his formation in houses of studies of his Order in France.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 22, 1939, Dax, France. Faculty member of the Seminary of Evreux, and the scholasticates of Dax and Montmagny, France, 1939-1946. Director of the Ecclesiastical Institute of Catholic Copts, Tantah, Egypt, 1946-1947.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Sas and appointed auxiliary of Coptic patriarchate of Alexandria, August 9, 1947. Consecrated, January 25, 1948, Alexandria, by Marc II Khouzam, patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts, assisted by Alexandros Scandar, bishop of Assiut of the Copts, and by Pierre Dib, bishop of Caïro of the Maronites. Elected patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts, May 10, 1958. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal patriarch, February 22, 1965; received the red biretta, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 22, 1984. Resigned the patriarchate, May 24, 1986.

Death. August 23, 1987, Caïro. Buried, Notre Dame d'Egypte Cathedral, Madinat an Nasr, Al Qahirah, Egypt.

Links. Photograph and biography by Eman Bonnici, Find a Grave; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(4) 4. SLIPYJ, Josyf
(1892-1984)

Birth. February 17, 1892, Zazdrist, Ternopil, archdiocese of Lviv of the Ukrainians, Ukraine, Russia. Son of Ivan Kobernytskyi-Slipyj and Anastasia Dychkovska. His given name was Josyf Ivanovyce. His last name is also listed as Slipyj-Kobernyckyj-Dyckovskyj.

Education. Primary education in Zazdrist; secondary education in Ternopil; Lviv University, Lviv; resided in the diocesan seminary of Lviv; University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, 1914-1917; 1918 (doctorate in philosophy, 1918); further studies in Rome, 1918-1922.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 30, 1917, Lviv, by Andrej Šeptyc'kyj, O.S.B.M., archbishop of Lviv of the Ukrainians. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Lviv, 1922-1939. Professor of theology at the Seminary of Lviv, 1922-1925; its rector, 1926; one of the founding members of the Theological Academic Society of Lviv; began publishing the quarterly Bohoslovia (Theology), September 3, 1922; edited it until 1939. Dean of the Theological Faculty of the Theological Academy; its rector, February 22, 1928. Member of the Krylos, the advisory and administrative body of the Lviv-Halych metropolitanate; also archdeacon of the metropolitan's personal entourage; and later, a mitrat, archpriest entitled to wear a miter.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Serne and appointed coadjutor of Lviv, with right of succession, November 25, 1939. Consecrated, December 22, 1939, chapel of the metropolitan residence, Lviv, by Andrej Šeptyc'kyj, O.S.B.M., archbishop of Lviv of the Ukrainians, assisted by Nicolas Czarnetskyj, C.SS.R., titular bishop of Lebedo, apostolic visitor for the Slavs of Byzantine rite outside Ruthenian dioceses, and by Nikita Budka, titular bishop of Cadi, auxiliary of Lviv of the Ukrainians. His episcopal motto was Per aspera ad astra. In 1941, he participated with Metropolitan Šeptyc'kyj in the Proclamation of the Restoration of the Ukrainian State and took part in the proceedings of the National Assembly as an official envoy of the metropolitan; afterwards, he became a leading member of the Council of Seniors. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Lviv of the Ukrainians, November 1, 1944; the Russians had just re-occupied Lviv. Imprisoned in Siberia by the Communist regime, 1945-1963; arrested by the Soviets on the night of April 11, 1945 along with the entire Ukrainian Catholic episcopate; first, sentenced to eight years of forced labor in 1946, together with him, Bishops Hryhory Khomyshyn, Nicholas Charnetsky, C.SS.R., Nikita Budka and Ivan Liatyshevsky were sentenced to long periods of imprisonment and hard labor for "treason" for their refusal to submit to the Russian Orthodox patriarch (1); twice was in danger of death; taken to Moscow and sentenced for a second time: five years in Siberia, 1953 (2); third sentence, four years of forced labor, 1958 (3); fourth sentence, deported for life to Mordovia, 1962. Through the intervention of Pope John XXIII and President John F. Kennedy of the United States of America, he was released on January 26, 1963, and sent to Rome on February 9, 1963. Attended the last three sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1963-1965. Promoted to the rank of archbishop major, December 23, 1963.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965 (4); received the red biretta and the title of S. Atanasio, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 17, 1972. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Accepted the title of patriarch of Kyiv-Halyč given by his church in 1975; the refusal of Popes Paul VI and John Paul II to recognize the patriarchal title strained their relations; his two successors, Cardinals Myroslav Ivan Lubachivsky and Lubomyr Husar, have only used the title of archbishop major. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980.

Death. Friday September 7, 1984, late in the morning, of bronchial pneumonia, in his apartment in S. Sofia Ukrainian University, Rome. Pope John Paul II visited the basilica of S. Sofia, where the body of the cardinal was lying in state, before his departure for Canada. On Wednesday September 12, 1984, a funeral was held with the participation of members of the Ukrainian Catholic hierarchy led by Archbishop Major Myroslav Ivan Lubachivsky of Lviv, successor to the late cardinal; the following day, a four-hour solemn pontifical liturgy was celebrated with the participation of more than seventy priests in front of the basilica; Archbishop Major Lubachivsky delivered the eulogy and Myroslav Stefan Marusyn, titular archbishop of Cadi, secretary of the Congregation for the Eastern Churches, spoke in Italian; Cardinal Carlo Confalonieri, dean of the College of Cardinals, represented the pope in the funeral, delivered a eulogy and imparted the final absolution; also in attendance were Yanoslav Stetsko, prime minister of Free Ukraine and leader of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists; and Mykola Livytsky, president of the Ukrainian National Council; as well as the representatives of different political parties. The body of the cardinal was buried in the basilica of S. Sofia, Rome. When the body was removed from the niche in the basilica's crypt, it was found to be incorrupt and was placed in a glass coffin in the same crypt. The cardinal was posthumously rehabilitated by the Ukrainian government on April 17, 1991. His body was transferred to Lviv on August 27, 1992, and buried in the crypt of St. George's cathedral on September 7, 1992. In his will he had asked to be buried, when the situation permitted it, in the patriarchal cathedral of St. Sofia in Kyiv.

Bibliography. Choma, Giovanni ; Pessa, Giuseppe. Josyf Slipyj : padre e confessore della Chiesa Ucraina martire. Roma : Aiuto alla chiesa che soffre, 1990. Responsibility: Mons. Giovanni Choma ; elaborazione del testo italiano è stata curata dal prof. Giuseppe Pessa; Choma, Ivan. Josyf Slipyj: vinctus Christi et defensor unitatis. Roma : Universitas Catholica Ucrainorum S. Clementis Papae, 1997. (Universitas Catholica Ucrainorum S. Clementis Papae, v. 87; Variation: Ukraïns'kyi katolyts'kyi universytet im. Sv. Klymentiia Papy v Rymi, v. 87); His Beatitude, Josyf Cardinal Slipyj, confessor of the faith, patriarch of the Ukrainian Catholic Church, 17. 2. 1892-7. 9. 1984. Edited by Stephen Oleskiw. London ; New York : Ukrainian Central Information Service, 1984; Hryn'okh, Ivan ; Slipyi, Iosyf. Vvedennia do tvoriv kard. Iosyfa, Verkhovnoho Arkhyiepyskopa. [s.l.] : Suchasnist', 1988. (Biblioteka prolohu i suchasnosty, ch. 181). Note: Text partially in English./ "Collection of prefaces from Opera omnia kyr Josephi (Slipyj-Kobernyckyj-Dyckovskyj) archiepiscopi maioris et cardinalis"; John Paul II. Letter of His Holiness Pope John Paul II to Josyf Cardinal Slipyj : on the occasion of the announcement of the Millenium of Christianity in Ukraine. Boston : Harvard University Ukrainian studies Fund, 1980s. Note: At head of title: Millennium of Christianity in Rus'-Ukraine; Josyf Cardinale Slipyj, 1892-1984 : una Imitazione di Cristo. Rome : [s.n.], 1985. Notes: "Numero speciale dell'Eco Dell'Amore, Periodico bimestrale, numero 2, marzo 1985"--Cover./ Cover title./ "Aiuto alla Chiesa che soffre"--Cover; Khoma, Ivan. Iosyf Slipyi : otets' ta ispovidnyk Ukraons'koï muchenyts'koï TSerkvy. Uniform title: Josyf Slipyj. Pereklad M. Kovalko, M. Malatsko. Rym : Vyd-vo oo. Saleziian--Tovarystvo sv. Sofiï, 1992; Loidl, Franz. Josyf Kardinal Slipyj und seine ukrainische Kirche. Wien : Wiener Kath. Akad., 1987. (Miscellanea / Wiener Katholische Akademie, Arbeitskreis für Kirchliche Zeit- und Wiener Diözesangeschichte ; Reihe 3, Nr. 182; Variation: Wiener Katholische Akademie.; Arbeitskreis für Kirchliche Zeit- und Wiener Diözesangeschichte.; Miscellanea ; Reihe 3, Nr. 182); A memento of a visit of His Beatitude Archbishop Major Joseph VII Cardinal Slipyj ; May 17-19, 1973. Pittsburgh : Pittsburgh Regional Reception Committee, 1973; Pelikan, Jaroslav Jan. Confessor between East and West. Grand Rapids : William B. Erdmans, 1990; Slipyj, Josyf. Kerk der martelaren : Een bericht van kardinaal Josyf Slipyj over de Oekraïense Katholieke Kerk na 35 jaren vervolging. Westerlo : Kerk in Nood [etc.], 1981. (Echo der Liefde. 1981 ; nr. 2); Slipyj, Josyf. Slovo Patriarkh Iosyfa : dokumenty, materialy, svitlyny 1917-1984. L'viv : Gerdan, 2003. Note : At head of title: Kul'turno-mystets'kyi fond im. Mytropolyta Andreia Sheptyts'koho, L'viv. Ukraï'ns'kyi katolyts'kyi universytet im. sv. Klymentiia Papy, Rym. Postuliatsiini TS entr Ukraïns'koï Hreko-Katolyts'koo TSerkvy, L'viv. TSentral'nyi Derzhavnyi Istorychnyi Arkhiv Ukraïny, L'viv; Slipyj, Josyf. Tvory Kyr Josyfa verchovnoho archyepiskopa i kardynala = Opera omnia Kyr Josephi (Slipyj - Kobernyckyj - Dyckovskyj) archiepiscopi maioris et cardinalis. Rym : Ukraïns'kych Katolyc'kyj Universytet im. Sv. Klymenta Papy, 1968- . (Editiones Universitatis Catholicæ Ucrainorum S. Clementis Papae. II, Opera omnia. Note(s): Ook o.d.t.: Tvory Josyfa patrijarcha i kardynala; en: Tvory patrijarcha i kardynala Josyfa./ Lit.opg. Other titles: Opera omnia Kyr Josephi (Slipyj - Kobernyckyj - Dyckovskyj) archiepiscopi maioris et cardinalis; Tvory Josyfa patrijarcha i kardynala; Tvory patrijarcha i kardynala Josyfa; Slipyi, Iosyf. Zavishchannia blazhennishoho patriiarkha Iosyfa = Testament of Patriarch Josyf Slipyj. Vinnipeg : [IA. Barvins'kyi], 1984. Named Corp: Catholic Church -- Byzantine rite, Ukrainian. Note : Vidbytka z tyzhnevyka "Postup." Other title: Testament of Patriarch Josyf Slipyj; Sviatochnyi benket na poshanu Patriiarkha Pomisnoï Ukraïns'koï Katolyts'koï TSerkvy, ïkh Blazhenstva Blazhennishoho Kyr Iosyfa Kardynala Slipoho : nedilia, 10 chervnia, 1973, Niu Iork "Amerikana." Corp Author : Hromads'kyi komitet metropolii Niu Iorku dlia vshanuvannia Arkhyiepyskopa Pomisnoï Ukraïns'koï Katolyts'koo TSerkvy Blazhennishoho Kyr Iosyfa. Niu Iork : The Committee, 1973. Other title : Testimonial banquet in honor of the Patriarch of the Ukrainian Catholic Church His Beatitude Joseph Cardinal Slipyj; Vitoshyns'ka, Ol'ha. Podorozhi blazhennishoho Kyr Iosyfa VII, 1968-1970 u svitli chuzhoï presy (romanized form) De itineribus S. beatitudinis Josephi VII Cardinalis Slipyj annis 1968-1970 peractis; atque sub lumine ephemeridum illustratis. Rym ; Paryzh ; Romae ; Parisiis, 1972. (Pratsi Ukraïnskoho bohoslovs'koho naukovoho tovarystva, t. 20 ; Variation: Ukraïns'ke bohoslovs'ke naukove tovarystvo.; Prats ; t. 20). Responsibility: de itineribus S. Beatitudinis Josephi VII Cardinalis Slipyj, annis 1968-1970 peractis ; atque sub lumine ephemeridum illustratis.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, The Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church, second from the top; and photograph and biography, in English, Institute of Church History of hte Ukranian Catholic University, (this site indicates that he was secretly created a cardinal in 1949 and proclaimed in 1965); photograph, arms, statue and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his image (mosaic), photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Joseph Slipyj (1892-1984) an Imitation of Christ, in English, St Michael's Ukrainian Catholic Parish Montreal; Life of Cardinal Josyf Slipyj (Життя Патрiарха Йосифа Слiпого), in Ukranian, YouTube; Josyf Slipjy, the plot of "Inter"(Йосиф Слiпий. Сюжетна "Iнтерi"), in Ukranian, YouTube; speech by Cardinal Josyf Slipyj, video, in Ukranian, YouTube; Kardynał Josyf Slipyj, video, YouTube; photographs, YouTube; The sculpture of Patriarch Josep in Chicago, YouTube.

(1) In March 1946, the Russian authorities organized a fake "sobor" (formal gathering or council of bishops, church officials, and monastic and lay representatives morally representing the whole particular church and dealing with matters of faith, morality, rite, and canonical and cultural life) in Lviv, which was attended, under coercion, by some priests and faithful, but without a single member of the episcopate of the Ukrainian Catholic Church. This "sobor" declared annulled the decision of the Sobor of Brest of 1596, which had declared the union of the Ukrainian Catholic Church with Rome, and also "united" the Ukrainian Catholic Church with the Russian Orthodox Church.
(2) From Central Siberia, the metropolitan corresponded clandestinely with ecclesiastical and lay faithful of the Catholic Church, wrote pastoral letters and issued directives to Ukrainian Catholic priests who were scattered throughout Siberia, the Urals and Kazakhistan.
(3) In 1957, on the 40th anniversary of his priesthood, Pope Pius XII sent Metropolitan Slipyj a personally written letter giving him his blessing; the letter did not reach its destination but instead gave the public prosecutor an opportunity to accuse the prelate of links with the pope and as a result, he was again brought to trial in 1958 and sentenced to further time of forced labor.
(4) The first two sites linked above indicate that he had been created cardinal and reserved in pectore by Pope John XXIII in the consistory of March 28, 1960: To Pray Again as a Catholic: The Renewal of Catholicism in Western Ukraine, note 12; Years of Imprisonment Could Not Break Slipyj's Indomitable Fidelity; and Cardinal Joseph Slipyj (1892-1984) an Imitation of Christ, section Exile and Prophet : A granite formation. Josyf Cardinale Slipyj, 1892-1984 : una Imitazione di Cristo, p. 12, also says that he was created cardinal and reserved in pectore by Pope John XXIII on that date, along with two other prelates. The pope died without publishing their names.


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(5) 5. JAEGER, Lorenz
(1892-1975)

Birth. September 23, 1892, Halle an der Saale, archdiocese of Paderborn, Germany. Son of Lorenz Jaeger and Anna Enke. His last name is also listed as Jäger.

Education. Studied at the Academy of Paderborn; and at the University of Münich.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 1, 1922, Paderborn. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Paderborn, 1922-1926. Faculty member in a school in Herne, archdiocese of Paderborn, 1926-1933; and at Hindenburg Realgymnasium, Dortmund, 1933-1939. Military chaplain during the Second World War, 1939-1941.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Paderborn, August 10, 1941. Consecrated, October 19, 1941, Paderborn, by Cesare Orsenigo, titular archbishop of Tolemaide di Libia, nuncio in Germany, assisted by Josef Machens, bishop of Hildesheim, and by Augustus Baumann, titular bishop of Casio, auxiliary bishop of Paderborn. His episcopal motto was Vita et pax. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, January 16, 1956. Following Archbishop Jaeger's suggestion, Pope John XXIII founded the Secretariat for the Union of Christians in 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and title of S. Leone I, February 25, 1965. Attended the I Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, September 23, 1972. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, June 30, 1973.

Death. April 1, 1975, Paderborn. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Paderborn.

Bibliography. Gatz, Erwin. "Jaeger, Lorenz." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1945 2001 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Unter Mitwirkung von Franz Xaver Bischof ... [et al.] ; herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2002, p. 439-440; Link, Josef J. ; Slominski, Josef Albert, illus. Kardinal Jaeger.. Paderborn, Verlag Bonifacius-Druckerei, 1966; Scheele, Paul Werner. Paderbornensis ecclesia: Beiträge zur Geschichte des Erzbistums Paderborn. Festschrift für Lorenz Kardinal Jaeger zum 80. Geburtstag. München: Schöningh, 1972. Corporate Author: Paderborn. Dom. Metropolitankapitel.

Link. His arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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(6) 6. COORAY, O.M.I, Thomas Benjamin
(1901-1988)

Birth. December 28, 1901, Periyamulla Negombo, archdiocese of Colombo, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).

Education. Studied at St. Aloysius Seminary, Borella; at St. Joseph's College, Colombo; at the University College, Colombo; and at the Pontifical "Angelicum" Athenaeum, Rome. Joined Oblates of Mary Immaculate.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 23, 1929, Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1929-1931. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Colombo, 1931-1945.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Preslavo and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Colombo, December 14, 1945. Consecrated, March 7, 1946, cathedral of Saint Lucy, Colombo, by Leon Petrus Kierkels, titular archbishop of Salamina, apostolic delegate in India and Ceylon, assisted by Edmund Peiris, bishop of Chilaw, and by Bernardo Regno, bishop of Kandy. His episcopal motto was Ministrare non ministrari. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Colombo, July 26, 1947. Assistant at Pontifical Throne, May 16, 1954. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, September 2, 1976. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, December 28, 1981. He was the first cardinal from Sri Lanka.

Death. Saturday October 29, 1988, at around 6.45 pm., Tewatta Ragama. Buried on the following November 3, in the crypt of the basilica of Our Lady of Lanka, Tewatta (1). On October 29, 2010, Archbishop Malcolm Ranjith of Colombo announced that the canonization process of Cardinal Thomas Cooray was officially opened.

Link. His arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

THOMAS CARDINAL COORAY O.M.I.
FIRST SRI LANKAN ARCHBISHOP AND CARDINAL
BORN 1901. 12. 28
ORDAINED PRIEST 1929. 6. 23
ORDAINED BISHOP 1946. 3. 7
CREATED CARDINAL 1965. 2. 22
DIED 1988. 10. 29


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(7) 7. BERAN, Josef
(1888-1969)

Birth. December 29, 1888, Plzen, archdiocese of Prague, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary. His father was a school teacher. He was the eldest son of the family.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Plzen; and at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 10, 1911, Rome. Pastoral ministry in Plzen, 1912-1932: assigned to a a village parish; then, to a worker's district parish (1914-1917); for the following eight years, he continued his studies and was chaplain to the Sisters of Notre Dame in Pragu; later, director of the Institute of Saint Anne, where he developed the Teacher's College, which became one of the best in that country. Assistant professor of pastoral theology at the University Charles IV, Prague; and spiritual director of the Seminary of Prague, 1932-1942; later, in 1939, he became full professor. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, June 11, 1936; reappointed, October 19, 1939. By the end of 1939, the Nazis had take full control of Czechoslovakia. He made sure that Pope Pius XI's encyclical Mit brennender Sorge, condemning Nazism, was published in Prague. Refusing to cooperate with the regime, he was arrested by the Gestapo, June 6, 1942, and successively imprisoned, without trial, in Pankrac, Prague, for thirty days; Terzin, Bohemia, for two months, together with future Cardinal Stepan Trochta; and sent to Dachau, Germany, in the fall of 1942; he was prisoner no. 25844; in 1943, a typhoid epidemic almost killed him; he remained in that camp until May 1945, when the United States troops liberated all the prisoners. He returned to Prague immediately. President Edvard Beneš of Czechoslovakia decorated him with the Iron Cross and the medal of Hero of the Resistance, two of the highest honors of the nation.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Prague, Czechoslovakia, November 4, 1946. Consecrated, December 8, 1946, metropolitan cathedral of St. Vitus, Prague, by Saverio Ritter, titular archbishop of Egina, nuncio in Czechoslovakia, assisted by Maurice Picha, bishop of Hradec Králové, and by Anton Eltschkner, titular bishop of Zephirio, auxiliary of Prague. His episcopal motto was Eucharistia et labor. Imprisoned by the Communist regime of Czechoslovakia, 1949-1963; from June 19, 1949 to March 7, 1951, he was practically locked up at the former archiepiscopal residence; then, on March 10, he was taken away from Prague; for many years nobody in the world, including the Vatican, knew where the archbishop was being kept. It was widely believed that Archbishop Beran was one of the three prelates created cardinal and reserved in pectore by Pope John XXIII in the consistory of March 28, 1960, but the pope died in 1963, without ever publishing their names. After having been transferred to government installations, first at a villa near Liberec, then to Msitevec, near Horice, and from there to Padebenice, he was taken to Mukarov, near Prague, on October 4, 1963. Freed but impeded from exercising the episcopal ministry, 1963-1965. In late 1964, negotiations were conducted between the Vatican and the Czech government, which resulted in the appointment of new bishops, the appointment of an apostolic administrator for the metropolitan see of Prague, and the exile to Rome of Archbishop Beran; the latter occurred in February 1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Croce in via Flaminia, February 25, 1965. Took up residence in Rome. Attended the last session of the Second Vatican Council, 1965. He offered his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese several times but the pope did not accept it. When Pope Paul VI learned of the cardinal's precarious health condition, he hurried to his deathbed from the Vatican, but the cardinal had died only a few minutes before the pontiff reached his bedside.

Death. May 17, 1969, of lung cancer, Rome. Buried in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica because the Czech government did not allow the transportation of his body to that country. He is buried near where the tomb of Pope John XXIII was then. He is the only citizen of what is now the Czech Republic to receive this honor.

Beatification. The diocesan process for his beatification was initiated in the hall of the archiepiscopal palace in Prague on April 2, 1998. The ceremony was presided over by Cardinal Miloslav Vlk, archbishop of Prague, in the presence of Archbishop Giovanni Coppa, apostolic nuncio in the Czech Republic.

Bibliography. Petek, John. Archbishop Joseph Beran. Notre Dame, Indiana : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (The men who make the council, 7).

Links. His photograph and biograph, in Czech, archdiocese of Prague; and his arms portraits and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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(8) 8. ROY, Maurice
(1905-1985)

Birth. January 25, 1905, parish of Notre-Dame, Québec, Canada. His father was dean of the faculty of law at Laval University and judge of the Court of Magistrates; his mother was a descendant of the poet Napoléon Legendre; they had three children. His first cousin, Fr. Henri Roy, was the founder of the Pius X Secular Institute; and he later accompanied him to Rome following his elevation to the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Education. Initial studies at home; Seminary of Québec, Québec, 1915-1923 (classics; obtained the Prince of Wales Prize in philosophy in 1923); Grand Seminary of Québec, Québec (theology); University of Laval, Québec (doctorate in theology, 1927); Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome (doctorate in philosophy, 1929); La Sorbonne University and Catholic Institute, Paris, 1929-1930 (philosophy and letters); pastoral ministry in the banlieue rouge of Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 12, 1927, basilica of Québec, by Joseph-Simon-Hermann Brunault, bishop of Nicolet. Further studies, 1927-1930. Professor of dogmatic and sacramental theology and apologetics at the Grand Seminary of Québec, 1930-1939; secretary of the Faculty of Philosophy, 1930-1934. Chaplain of the students of the University of Laval, 1935-1937. Chaplain, with the rank of captain, of the 22nd Royal Regiment, 1939; he served in Great Britain, Italy, France, Belgium, Holland and Germany, 1939-1943. At the same time, he climbed the echelon of the military hierarchy: major as chaplain of group, May 1941; lieutenant-colonel as chaplain of the First Corps of the army, August 1941; and colonel as chaplain of the First Canadian Army, 1945. He returned to Québec in 1945 and resumed his teaching position at the Grand Seminary; in December 1945, he became its superior.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Trois-Rivières, February 22, 1946. Consecrated, May 1, 1946, cathedral-basilica of Notre-Dame de Québec, by Cardinal Jean-Marie-Rodrigue Villeneuve, O.M.I., archbishop of Québec, assisted by Albini Lafortune, bishop of Nicolet, and by Arthur Douville, bishop of St-Hyacinthe. His episcopal motto was In nomine Jesu. Military vicar of Canada, June 8, 1946. Chaplain general and ordinary of the Canadian armies, June 8, 1946; occupied the post until his promotion to the see of Québec. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Québec, June 2, 1947. Military vicar of Canada, February 17, 1951 until March 12, 1982; visited the battle front of Korea. Pope Pius XII erected Québec as the primatial see of Canada on January 24, 1956, and he became the primate. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora del SS. Sacramento e Ss. Martiri Canadesi, February 25, 1965. President of the Council for Laity and of the Pontifical Commission Iustitia et Pax, January 6, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. President of the Pontifical Committee for the Family, January 11, 1973. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Ceased as president of the commission, December 16, 1976. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 20, 1981. Resigned the military vicariate, March 12, 1982. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, January 25, 1985.

Death. October 24, 1985, Québec Hospital, Québec, in his sleep. His funeral was celebrated by Cardinal Louis-Albert Vachon, archbishop of Québec, in the cathedral basilica of Notre-Dame de Québec. Buried in the crypt of that cathedral basilica. He had had the crypt rebuilt in 1959 to bury the mortal remains of all the bishops and archbishops of Québec after François de Laval, first bishop of Québec.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2202. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 793-795.

Link. His arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

+ MAURICE ROY
CARDINAL-PRETRE DE LA SAINTE EGLISE ROMAINE
PRIMAT DU CANADA
NE A QUEBEC LE 25 JANVIER 1905
DECEDE A QUEBEC LE 24 OCTOBRE 1985

EVEQUE DE TROIS-RIVIERES DE 1946 A 1947
ARCHEVEQUE DE QUEBEC DE 1947 A 1981


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(9) 9. MARTIN, Joseph-Marie
(1891-1976)

Birth. August 9, 1891, Orlèans, France. His baptismal name was Joseph-Marie-Eugène.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Bordeaux. Served in the French Army during the First World War, 1914-1918; he was seriously wounded.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1920, Bordeaux. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Bordeaux, 1921-1940; vicar general, 1937-1940.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Le-Puy-en-Velay, February 9, 1940. Consecrated, April 2, 1940, metropolitan cathedral of Bordeaux, by Maurice Feltin, archbishop of Bordeaux, assisted by Clément Mathieu, bishop of Aires, and by Louis Liagre, bishop of La Rochelle. His episcopal motto was Cum Maria matre ejus. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Rouen, October 11, 1948. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Teresa al Corso d'Italia, February 25, 1965. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, May 29, 1968. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, August 9, 1971.

Death. January 21, 1976, Rouen. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Rouen.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 405-406.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(10) 10. MCCANN, Owen
(1907-1994)

Birth. June 26, 1907, Woodstock, apostolic vicariate of Cape of Good Hope, South Africa (1). His father was Irish and his mother Australian.

Education. Initial education in Woodstock, at the school of the Irish Dominican Sisters; and at the Academy of Saint Joseph, of the Marist Brothers; then, attended Saint Joseph College, Rodenbosch, Cape Town; in 1924, he started studying economics and finance at the University of Cape Town, where he obtained a doctorate in 1929; in 1930, after entering the Seminary of CapeTown, he was sent to Rome to study at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1935, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Returned to South Africa and exercised his pastoral ministry at the parishes of Holy Cross and Saint Patrick of Mowbray. In 1940, he was named secretary to Francis Hennermann, S.A.C., titular bishop of Copto, apostolic vicar of Cape Town. Editor of the Catholic weekly The Southern Cross, 1942-1948. Pastor of the cathedral of Saint Mary, 1948-1950.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Stettorio and appointed apostolic vicar of Cape Town, March 12, 1950. Consecrated May 18, 1950, St. Mary's cathedral, Cape Town, by Archbishop Martinus Lucas, S.V.D., titular archbishop of Aduli, apostolic delegate in South Africa, assisted by John Colburn Garner, titular bishop of Tracula, apostolic vicar of Pretoria, and by Bernard Cornelius O'Riley, titular bishop of Foba. His episcopal motto was "Nisi Dominus in vanum". Promoted to the metropolitan see of Cape Town, January 11, 1951. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, October 4, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; he was a member of the preparatory commission for lay apostolate. During his episcopate, the number of Catholics almost doubled. He established a minor seminary for the young colored students for the priesthood. President of the Southern Africa Episcopal Conference from 1960 until 1974.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Prassede, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, October 20, 1984. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, June 29, 1987. On February 22, 1990, in the chapel of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, together with Cardinal Agnelo Rossi, dean of the College of Cardinals, he celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of his elevation to the cardinalate. He always strongly manifested himself and decidedly worked against any form of discrimination and racial segregation and was an outspoken opponent of Apartheid. He was the first cardinal from South Africa.

Death. March 26, 1994, at his home in Wynberg, a suburb of Cape Town, of a heart attack. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope John Paul II prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Archbishop Lawrence Patrick Henry of Cape Town. President Nelson Mandela of South Africa in an official condolence statement on the following March 28, described Cardinal McCann as "one of South Africa's great sons" and "a man of great ability and wisdom". The body of the late cardinal was buried in Our Lady of the Flight into Egypt chapel in the metropolitan cathedral of Cape Town (2).

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Annuario Pontificio (Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana) listed his date of birth as June 26, 1907 until 1968; then, beginning with the issue of 1969 until his death, the date given was June 29, 1907. His great-nephew, Mr. Charlton Owen Sumption, from London, England, born on the same day as the cardinal (in a different year), confirmed the June 26 date.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

Beneath this stone
lie the remains
of South Africa's first Cardinal
Owen Cardinal McCann
Born 26 June 1907
Consecrated 18 May 1950
Died 26 March 1994.
May He Rest In Peace


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(11) 11. DUVAL, Léon-Étienne
(1903-1996)

Birth. November 9, 1903, Chenex, diocese of Annecy, France. His parents owned a medium sized farm. He was the sixth of seven children. Three of his sisters entered religious orders. Uncle of Joseph Marie Louis Duval, archbishop of Rouen, France.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Annecy; and later, at the Pontifical French Seminary, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1926. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Annecy, 1926-1942. Professor of philosophy and dogmatic theology at the Seminary of Annecy between 1930 and 1938. Honorary canon of the archdiocese of Algiers; director of Works; and vicar general, 1942-1946.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Constantine, Algeria, November 3, 1946. Consecrated, February 11, 1947, church of Notre-Dame, Annecy, by Auguste Cesbron, bishop of Annecy, assisted by Raoul Harscouêt, bishop of Chartres, and by Léon Terrier, bishop of Bayonne. His episcopal motto was Omnia in charitate. He went for the first time to Algeria on February 23, 1947. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Algiers, February 3, 1954. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the North African Episcopal Conference, 1963-1988.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Balbina, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; president-delegate, August 2, 1971. Elected member of the Board of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, November 6, 1971 until 1974. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, November 9, 1983. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 19, 1988. Attended the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994.

Death. May 30, 1996, Algiers. His funeral was celebrated at the basilica of Notre Dame d'Afrique, Algiers; it was a collective mass, celebrated for the eternal repose of the cardinal and the seven assassinated Trappist monks of the abbey of Our Lady of Atlas of Tibhirine. It was presided by Cardinals Francis Arinze and Jean-Marie Lustiger, representing the pope. The late cardinal was buried in the Notre Dame d'Afrique metropolitan cathedral, in Algiers.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 283-284; Duval, Léon-Étienne ; Ray, Marie-Christine. Le cardinal Duval, évêque en Algérie. Entretiens du cardinal L.-E. Duval, archevêque d'Alger, avec Marie-Christine Ray. Paris : Le Centurion, 1984. ("Les Interviews"; Variation: Interviews [Centurion (Firm]); Ray, Marie-Christine. Le cardinal Duval : un homme d'espérance en Algérie. Préface par Mgr. Teissier. Nouv. éd. rev. et complétée. Paris : Editions du Cerf, 1998. (L'Histoire à vif).

Link. His arms an photographs, Araldica Vaticana


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(12) 12. FLORIT, Ermenegildo
(1901-1985)

Birth. July 5 1901, Fagagna, archdiocese of Udine, Italy.

Education. He studied at the Seminary of Udine; at the Pontifical Roman Seminary; at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome; and at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 11, 1925. Further studies, 1925-1927. Pastoral ministry in archdiocese of Udine, 1927-1929. Faculty member of the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, 1929-1954; dean of its theological faculty; vice-rector, 1951-1954. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1929-1954. Canon of the chapter S. Marco's basilica, 1951. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 21, 1951.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Geropoli di Siria and appointed coadjutor of Florence, July 12, 1954. Consecrated, September 12, 1954, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Clemente Micara, bishop of Velletri, vicar general of His Holiness for the diocese of Rome, assisted by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Emilio Pizzoni, bishop of Terracina, Sezze e Priverno. His episcopal motto was Incrementum dat Deus. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Florence, March 9, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Regina Apostolorum, February 25, 1965. Papal legate to the 17th National Eucharistic Congress, Pisa, March 30, 1965. Resigned the pastoral government of archdiocese of Florence, June 3, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 5, 1981.

Death. December 8, 1985, of kidney obstruction, Florence. His funeral, presided by Cardinal Silvano Piovanelli, archbishop of Florence, was celebrated at the metropolitan cathedral basilica S. Maria del Fiore of Florence on December 10, 1985, at 4 p.m. Buried in the crypt underneath the chapel of the Most Blessed Sacrament of that cathedral basilica.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(13) 13. ŠEPER, Franjo
(1905-1981)

Birth. October 2, 1905, Osijek, diocese of Djakovo, Austria-Hungary, later Yugoslavia, now Croatia. In 1910, his family moved to Zagreb.

Education. Initial and ecclesiastical studies in Zagreb; in 1924, he went to Rome; resided in the Pontifical Collegio Germanico-Ungarico and in Collegio di S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorates in philosophy and theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, October 26, 1930, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Giuseppe Palica, titular archbishop of Filippi, vice-gerent of Rome; in the same ceremony was ordained Alojzije Stepinac, his predecessor in the see of Zagreb and future cardinal and blessed. Returned to Zagreb. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Zagreb and professor of religion in middle schools, 1930-1934. Secretary to the archbishop of Zagreb and diocesan official, 1934-1941. Rector of the Seminary of Zagreb, 1941-1951. Administrator of the parish of Christ the King, Zagreb, 1951-1954. When Cardinal Alojzije Stepinac was confined in his native town of Krašić, he was promoted to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Filippopoli and appointed coadjutor, sedi datus, of Zagreb, July 22, 1954. Consecrated, September 21, 1954, Zagreb, by Josip Antun Ujcić, archbishop of Belgrade, assisted by Franjo Salis-Seewis, titular bishop of Corico, auxiliary of Zagreb, and by Josip Lach, titular bishop of Dodona, auxiliary of Zagreb. His episcopal motto was Veritatem facientes in caritate. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Zagreb, March 5, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Pietro e Paolo in Ostiense, February 25, 1965. Pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith, January 8 to February 29, 1968; prefect, March 1, 1968 to November 25, 1981. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, August 20, 1969. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the II Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Papal legate to the 6th International Mariological and the 12th Marian Congresses, Zagreb, July 16, 1971. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinal, December 12, 1974 until May 24, 1976. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Special papal envoy to the commemoration of the 11th centennial of exchange of letters between Pope John VIII and Croat prince Branimiro, Nin, Zadar, Yugoslavia, September 2, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Special papal envoy to consecrate the new cathedral of the diocese of Mostar-Duvno, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Yugoslavia, September 14, 1980. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Resigned the prefecture, November 25, 1981. Two weeks later, he had to be hospitalized; at the moment of his death, his sister and one of the auxiliary bishops of Zagreb were with him.

Death. December 30, 1981, early in the morning, of a heart attack, polyclinic "Agostino Gemelli", Rome. The following day, his mortal remains were transferred to the church of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni and exposed until Saturday January 2, 1982, when they were moved to the patriarchal Vatican basilica for the funeral; Pope John Paul II presided it and concelebrated with the cardinals present in Rome; after the mass, the body of the late cardinal was taken again to the church of S. Girolamo degli Schiavone, where, in the afternoon, Archbishop Franjo Kuharić presided over a liturgical ceremony; later, the body was transferred to Zagreb; on Tuesday January 5, the funeral was celebrated in the metropolitan cathedral and then, he was buried next to the tomb of his predecessor, Cardinal Stepinac.

Bibliography. Pavicic, Darko. Tajna kardinala vozaca, ili, Kako sam u noci vidio dugu. Zagreb : ITD, 1997. Biographies of Cardinals Stepinac, Alojzije, 1898-1960; Kuharic, Franjo, 1919-2002; and Seper, Franjo, 1905-1981. Other title: Tajna kardinala vozaca; Kako sam u noci vidio dugu.

Link. His arms and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.


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(14) 14. HEENAN, John Carmel
(1905-1975)

Birth. January 26, 1905, Ilford, diocese of Brentwood, England. Youngest of the four children of James Carmel Heenan, a clerk in the Patent Office, and Anne Pilkington; both parents were Irish. John Carmel had a twin brother, the second, christened George, who died 12 hours after his birth.

Education. Initial studies, for a brief time, under the Ursuline nuns; then, under the Jesuits at Stamford Hill; Ushaw College, Durham; sent to Rome in 1924, he resided at the Venerable English College (the rector was Monsignor Arthur Hinsley, future cardinal) and studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 16, 1930, Ilford. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Brentwood, 1931-1947: curate at St. Mary and Ethelburga, Barking, 1931-1937; parish priest of St. Stephen, Manor park, 1937-1947. Superior of the Catholic Missionary Society in England and Wales, based in the archdiocese of Westminster, 1947-1951.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Leeds, January 27, 1951. Consecrated, March 12, 1951, Leeds, by William Godfrey, titular archbishop of Cio, Apostolic delegate in Great Britain, assisted by Joseph McCormack, bishop of Hexham and Newcastle, and by John Edward Petit, bishop of Menevia. His episcopal motto was Sub umbra Carmeli. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Liverpool, May 2, 1957. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Westminster, September 2, 1963.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. President of the Bishops' Conference of England and Wales, 1968-1975. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971.

Death. November 7, 1975, of a heart attack, after years of poor health, at Westminster Hospital, London. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Westminster in London, under the twelfth station of the Via Crucis, "Jesus dies on the Cross" (1).

Bibliography. Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, pp. 154-155, 161-166 and 179; Heenan, John Carmel. A crown of thorns : an autobiography, 1951-1963. London : Hodder & Stoughton, 1974; Schofield, Nicholas ; Skinner, Gerard. The English cardinals. Oxford, UK : Family Publications, 2007, p. 211-215; A tribute to the life and work of John Carmel Heenan : Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster, 1963-1975.. Abbots Langley, Herts. : Catholic Information Services, 1976; Walsh, Michael J. The Westminster cardinals : the past and the future. London ; New York : Burns & Oates, 2008, p. 167-193.

Links. His portrait and biography, in English, archdiocese of Westminster; and his arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

JOHN
CARMEL
HEENAN
CARDINAL PRIEST
OF THE CHURCH OF
SAN SILVESTRO
IN CAPITE
EIGHTH ARCHBISHOP
OF
WESTMINSTER
1963 - 1975
BORN 1905 - DIED 1975
MAY HE REST
IN PEACE


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(15) 15. VILLOT, Jean
(1905-1979)

Birth. October 11, 1905, Saint-Amánt-Tallende, diocese of Clermont-Ferrand, France. Only child of Joseph Villot and Marie Laville. His baptismal name was Jean-Marie.

Education. He studied at Collège Sainte Marie, Riom, from 1914 to 1921); at the Grand Seminary of Clermont from 1922-1923; at the Catholic Faculty of Lyon from 1923 to 1925); military service until August 2, 1924; entered the Novitiate of the Order of the Servants of Mary (Marists) on September 7, 1925; left three months later, at the beginning of December 1925; then, studied theology at the Seminary des Carmes of the Institut Catholique, Paris, from October 1926 until 1930; at the Pontifical International Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in canon law; and a doctorate in theology; thesis: Le pape Nicolas II et le décret de 1059 sur l'éction pontificale); funally, at the Studio of the Vatican Library.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 19, 1930, Paris, by Alfred-Henri-Marie Baudrillart, Orat., titular archbishop of Melitene, vicar general of Paris and rector of the Institut Catholique. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Paris as titulum patrimonii; Further studies, 1930-1934, Rome. Secretary to Pierre-Marie Gerlier, bishop of Tarbes et Lourdes, 1931-1934, in Rome and Lourdes; and in Lyon, 1939. Faculty member of the Seminary of Clermont and of the Catholic University of Lyon, 1934-1942. Declined the appointment of canonist to the French embassy at the Vatican, January 31, 1940. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Lyon, 1942-1950. Vice-rector of the Catholic University of Lyon, 1942-1950. Director of the secretariat of the French Episcopal Conference, 1950. Protonotary apostolic, February 22, 1950.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Vinda and appointed auxiliary of Paris, September 2, 1954. Consecrated, October 12, 1954, Notre Dame metropolitan cathedral, Paris, by Cardinal Maurice Feltin, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Émile-Maurice Guerry, archbishop of Cambrai, and by Pierre-Abel-Louis Chappot de la Chanonie, bishop of Clermont. His episcopal motto was Auxilium a Domino. Promoted to titular archbishop of Bosporo and appointed coadjutor of Lyon, with right of succession, December 17, 1959. Undersecretary of the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1964. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Lyon, January 17, 1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Ss.ma Trinità al Monte Pincio, February 25, 1965. Prefect of the S.C. of the Council, April 7, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Secretary of State, prefect of the Council for Public Affairs of the Church, president of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, president of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See, May 2, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, October 16, 1970. President of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum, July 15, 1971 until September 4, 1978. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, December 12, 1974. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II.

Death. March 9, 1979, at 9:25 p.m., from a bronchial pneumonia, in his apartment at the Vatican. The funeral, presided by Pope John Paul II, took place in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, March 13, 1979, at 10:30 a.m. Buried in the crypt of the church of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 521-522; Wenger, Antoine. Le cardinal Jean Villot (1905-1979), secretaire d'Etat de trois papes. Paris: Desclee De Brouwer, 1989.

Link. His arms, portrait and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the French translation of the inscription in Latin, written by Msgr. Jean-François Arrighi, placed on the stone on his tomb in the crypt, taken from Wenger, Le cardinal Jean Villot (1905-1979), p. 275: Sous ce maître autel, dans l'attente de la résurrection, repose l'éminentissime et révérendissime signeur Jean Villot, cardinal évêque du titre de l'église de Frascati, auparavant cardinal prêtre de cette église, archêveque de Lyon, secrétaire d'Etat et camerlingue de trois suverains pontifes, Paul VI, Jean-Paul Ier, Jean Paul II, Français, neé à Saint-Amant Tallende en Auvergne le 11 octobre 1905, piesement décédé à Rome le 9 mars 1979.

Aprè les funérailles célébrées solennellement dans la basilique vaticane par Sa Santité le papae Jean-Paul II, concébrant avec le Sacré Collège, il a été enterré ici le 13 mars 1979. Qu'il repose en paix.

(2) This is the text in Latin, taken from a photograph of the plaque, kindly provided by M. Alexandre Jore, from Versaille:

SUB ALTARI MAXIMO
RESURRECTIONIS DIEM EXPECTAT
IOANNIS S.R.E. CARDINALIS VILLOT
EPISCOPUS CARDINALIS TIT. ECCLESIAE TUSCULANAE
OLIM MUTUM TITULI PRESBYTER
NECNON ARCHIEPISCOPUS LUGDUNENSIS
SUMMORUM PONTIFICUM
PAULIS VI - IOANNES PAULI I - IOANNIS PAULI II
CARDINALIS A SECRETIS
SANCTAE ECCLESIAE ROMANAE CAMERARIUS
GALLUS
IN ALVERNIA APUD PAGUM SAINT-AMANT-TALLENDE NATUS
DIE XI MENSIS OCTOBRIS ANNI MCMV
ROMAE
PIE DECESSIT DIE IX MENSIS MARTII ANI MCMLXXIX
VISIT ANNOS SEPTUAGINTATRES ET MENSES QUINQUE
POST EXSEQUIAS SOLEMNITER IN BASILICA VATIACANA
A SS.D.N. IOANNE PAULO PP. II
CONCELEBRANTIBUS PATRIBUS CARDINALIBUS
PERACTAS
HIC SEPULTUS EST
DIE XIII MENSIS MARTII ANNO MCMLXXIX
REQUIESCAT IN PACE


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(16) 16. ZOUNGRANA, M.Afr., Paul
(1917-2000)

Birth. September 3, 1917, Ouagadougou, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso). He was the eldest of eight children, seven boys and one girl.

Education. At a young age he entered the primary school in Ouagadougou, conducted by the White Sisters; in 1926, he entred the the newly opened Minor Seminary of Pabré; in 1935, he attended the Seminary of Kuomi; later, studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; and finally, studied at the Catholic Institute, Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 2, 1942, by Joanny Thévenoud M.Afr., titular bishop of Satifis, vicar apostolic of Ouagadougou, in Rome. Pastoral ministry in Ouagadougou, 1942-1948. Joined the Society of Missionaries of Africa, 1948, Ouagadougou. Further studies, 1948-1953. Faculty member of the Seminary of Koumi, 1954-1959. Pastoral ministry in Ouagadougou, 1954-1960. Director of the Social Information Center, 1959-1960.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Ouagadougou, April 8, 1960. Consecrated, May 8, 1960, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Napoléon-Alexandre La Brie, titular bishop of Ilta, national director of the Pontifical Missionary Work of Canada, French sector, and by Fulton John Sheen, titular bishop of Cesariana, auxiliary of New York, national director of the Pontifical Missionary Work of the United States of America. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Jérôme Rakotomalala, archbishop of Tananarive; Bernard Yago, archbishop of Abidjan; and Peter Poreku Dery, bishop of Wa. His episcopal motto was In Christo et in Ecclesia. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Camillo agli Orti Sallustiani, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; one of its three president delegates. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Special papal envoy to the Second National Eucharistic Congress and the closing of the centennial of the evangelization, Kinshasa, Zaïre, June 22 to 29, 1980. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; member of its general secretariat, 1980-1983. Member of the Council of Cardinals for Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy see, May 31, 1981. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; member of its general secretariat, 1983-1986; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; as special guest; member of its general secretariat until 1987. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Ouagadougou, June 10, 1995. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, September 3, 1997. He was the first cardinal from Upper Volta.

Death. Sunday June 4, 2000, in Ouagadougou. His funeral mass, presided by Cardinal Jozef Tomko, prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, was celebrated at Ouagadougou's Municipal Stadium on Saturday, June 10, 2000. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, in Ouagadougou.

Link. His arms and photograps, Araldica Vaticana.


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(17) 17. SHEHAN, Lawrence Joseph
(1898-1984)

Birth. March 18, 1898, Baltimore, United States of America. Son of Thomas Patrick Shehan and Anastasia Dames Schofield.

Education. Studied at Saint Charles College, Ellicott City, Maryland; at Saint Mary's Seminary, Baltimore; and at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1922, Rome, by Giuseppe Palica, titular archbishop of Filippi, vice-gerent of Rome. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Baltimore, 1923-1939; 1947-1953; and in the archdiocese of Baltimore and Washington, 1939-1947. Assistant director of Catholic Charities, Washington, D.C., 1929-1936. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, May 17, 1939. Director of Catholic Charities, Washington, D.C., 1936-1945.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lidda and appointed auxiliary of Baltimore and Washington, November 17, 1945. Consecrated, December 12, 1945, St. Patrick's church, Washington, by Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, titular archbishop of Laodicea di Frigia, apostolic delegate in United States, assisted by Peter Leo Ireton, bishop of Richmond, and by John Michael McNamara, titular bishop of Eumenia, auxiliary of Baltimore and Washington. His episcopal motto was Omnia in caritate. Named auxiliary bishop of Baltimore, when the see was separated from Washington, March 15, 1947; vicar general, February 25, 1948. Transferred to the see of Bridgeport, August 25, 1953. Promoted to titular archbishop of Nicopoli al Nesto and appointed coadjutor of Baltimore, with right of succession, September 29, 1961. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Baltimore, December 8, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Clemente, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29-October 29, 1967. President of Central Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses. Papal legate to the 40th International Eucharistic Congress, Melbourne, Australia, January 25, 1973. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 2, 1974. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, March 18, 1978.

Death. August 26, 1984, at 8 p.m., of complications related to his age, at Mercy Hospital, in Baltimore. Buried in Mary Our Queen metropolitan cathedral, Baltimore.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. ; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 272; Shehan, Lawrence. A blessing of years: the memoirs of Lawrence Cardinal Shehan. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1982.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in English, archdiocese of Baltimore; and his arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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(18) 18. DANTE, Enrico
(1884-1967)

Birth. July 5, 1884, Rome, Italy. Son of Achille Dante, a devoted supporter of Giuseppe Garibaldi, the Italian patriot, and Zenaide Ingegni; he had a brother who was a missionary in Brazil. To escape from the Austrian police, the father moved to Rome and died there when Enrico was eight.

Education. Secondary studies with the Fathers of Sion, Paris; resided at Almo Collegio Capranica, Rome, from 1901, while studying at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned doctorates in philosophy, theology canon law and civil law; and finally, at the Studium of the Sacred Roman Rota, Rome, where he obtained a diploma of advocate rotale.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 3, 1910, church of S. Apollinare, Rome, by Giuseppe Ceppetelli, titular Latin patriarch of Constantinople, vice-gerent of Rome. Professor of philosophy at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Roma, 1911 until 1928; and of theology 1928-1947. Official in the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, 1913. Member of the College of Pontifical Ceremoniers, March 25, 1914. In 1923, Pope Pius XI asked him to reopen the nunciature in Paris but he declined because he had two sisters in Rome and did not want to leave them behind. Substitute adjunct of the S.C. of Rites, October 26, 1923; substitute, September 28, 1930. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 15, 1943. Under-secretary of the S.C. Ceremonial, May 27, 1943. Prefect of pontifical ceremonies, June 13, 1947. Pro-secretary of the S.C. of Rites, January 24, 1959; secretary, January 5, 1960. Pastoral ministry in Agro Romano and in Torre Nova, as well as in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Dean of the chapter of the church of S. Maria in Monte, piazza del Popolo, Rome. Administered the sacrament of confession for forty years in the church of Sacro Cuore al Suffragio, Rome. He was an enthusiastic athlete and helped to inaugurate the Rome soccer team; he was also a mountaineer. As papal ceremoniere he participated in the conclaves of 1914, 1922, 1939, 1958 and 1963 and the coronation of Popes Benedict XV, Pius XI, Pius XII, John XXIII and Paul VI. He was the first papal master of ceremonies to assist the pope in a consecration of a bishop, Gabriel Acacius Coussa, O.S.B.A., future cardinal, of the Byzantine rite.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Carpasia, August 28, 1962. Consecrated, September 21, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Francesco Carpino, titular archbishop of Sardica, assessor of the S.C. Consistorial, and by Pietro Parente, titular archbishop of Teolemaide di Tebaide, assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Cesare Zerba, Pietro Palazzini, and Paul-Pierre Philippe, O.P. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Agata dei Goti, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, February 25, 1965. Pope Paul VI visited him in the hospital, where he was convalescing, on April 6, 1967.

Death. April 24, 1967, in the early morning, of cancer, in Rome. Buried, basilica of S. Agata dei Goti, Rome (1).

Bibliography. "Enrico Dante" in "I cenni biographici, le attività i meriti dei nuovi porporati." L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, CV, n. 44 (February 22-23, 1965), p. 5; McElwain, A. R. "That man beside Pope John. Monsignor Dante is always in the picture." Catholic Digest. XXVI, 9 (July 1962), 14-18.

Links. Biography, in English; his funeral monument, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his tomb, church of S. Agata dei Goti, Rome; his epitaph, church of S. Agata dei Goti, Rome; his bust, in that same church; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

HENRICVS S.R.E. CARD DANTE
PRESB. S. AGATHAE IN VRBE
ROMANVS
5.7.1884 - 24.4.1967


This is the text of his epitaph, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, London, in a photograph:

HEIC IN SEDE HONORIS SVI
CONDITVS EST
HENRICVS S.R E. CARDINALIS DANTE
PRESB. SANCTA AGATHAE IN VRBE
ROMANVS
QVI SACRIS DISCIPLINIS EGREGIE INSTRVCTVS
AC GLORIAE CHRISTIEVSQVE ECCLESIAE
CVM PRIMIS STVDIOSVS
PER OMNENM VIVENDI CVRSVM
INSIGNEM AC FIDELEM POSSUIT OPERAM
IN HOMINVM ANIMIS FORMANDIS EXCOLENDIS
IN RELLIGIONIBVS SANCTORVM RITIBVSQVE TVTANDIS
INQVE SUMMORVM PNTIFICVS MODERANDIS
CAEREMONIS
PIE DECESSIT A.D. VIII CAL. MAI. A. MCMLXVIII
AN. LXXXII AGENS
TE IN PACE CHRISTUS


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(19) 19. ZERBA, Cesare
(1892-1973)

Birth. April 15, 1892, Castelnuovo Scrivia, diocese of Tortona, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Stazzano; at the Seminary of Tortona; at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome; and at the University of Pavia.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 4, 1915. Military chaplain during the First World War, 1915-1919. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1919-1962. Staff member in the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, 1924-1939. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, June 30, 1932. Domestic prelate of His Holiness and prelate of the Supreme Tribunal of Apostolic Signature, April 23, 1939. Undersecretary of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, May 5, 1939; secretary, December 18, 1958.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Colosse, August 28, 1962. Consecrated, September 21, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Francesco Carpino, titular archbishop of Sardica, assessor of the S.C. Consistorial, and by Pietro Parente, titular archbishop of Teolemaide di Tebaide, assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Paul-Pierre Philippe, O.P., Pietro Palazzini, and Enrico Dante. His episcopal motto was Arx mea Dominus. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora del Sacro Cuore in Piazza Navona, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, February 25, 1965. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, April 15, 1972.

Death. July 11, 1973, of diabetes, in his residence in Rome. Buried in the parish church of Ss. Pietro e Paolo of Castelnuovo Scrivia. A street was named after him in his native town. On July 11, 2013, the 40th anniversary of his death, a mass was celebrated in the parish of Ss. Pietro e Paolo, in Castelnuovo Scrivia and the collection Quaderni di Teologia was established in his memory.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(20) 20. ROSSI, Agnelo
(1913-1995)

Birth. May 4, 1913, Joaquim Egidio, diocese of Campinas, Brazil. Son of Vicente Rossi, commander of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, and Vitória Colombo. He had one brother, Miguel.

Education. Initial studies, Valinhos; Diocesan Minor Seminary of Santa Maria, Campinas (philosophy); left for Rome, October 15, 1933; for five months resided at Pontifical Collegio Pio Latino-Americano; on April 4, 1934, he was one of the thirty-three founding students of the Pontifical Collegio Pio Brasileiro; he was student number 01; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 27, 1937, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Secretary to the bishop of Campinas, 1937-1938. Faculty member of the Central Seminary of São Paulo, 1938-1942. From 1943-1956, in Campinas, vice-rector of the faculty of economic science; director of La Tribuna; vice-rector of the University of Campinas; and canon of the cathedral chapter, 1943-1956.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Barra do Pirai, March 5, 1956. Consecrated, April 15, 1956 by Paulo de Tarso Campos, bishop of Campinas, assisted by Vicente Marchetti Zioni, titular bishop of Lauzado, auxiliary of São Paulo, and by Helder Pessoa Câmara, titular bishop of Salde, auxiliary of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro. His episcopal motto was Oportet illum regnare. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Ribeirão Preto, September 6, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Episcopal Conference of Brazil, 1963-1970. Transferred to the metropolitan see of São Paulo, November 1, 1964.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Gran Madre di Dio, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. President-delegate of the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; member of the board of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, 1969-1971. Prefect of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, October 22, 1970 until April 9, 1984. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 24, 1976 until June 27, 1977. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Confirmed as prefect of the S.C. for Evangelization of Peoples by Pope John Paul II, November 3, 1978. Attended the Thrid General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 8, 1979. Special papal envoy to the International Missionary Congress, Manila, Philippines, December 2 to 6, 1979. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Participated in the Second Plenary Meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 23 to 26, 1982. Special papal envoy to the Second Latin American Missionary Congress, Tlaxcala, México, May 16 to 21, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, April 8, 1984 until December 6, 1989. Named cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, June 25, 1984; the name of the suburbicarian see was changed to Sabina-Poggio Mirteto on September 30, 1986. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Dean of the College of Cardinals and bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, retaining the title of the suburbicarian see of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto, December 19, 1986. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Participated in the Fourth Extraordinary Consistory of College of Cardinals, April 4 to 7, 1991. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, May 4, 1993. Resigned the deanship of the College of Cardinals and the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, May 31, 1993. Returned to Brazil, residing in Campinas. Author of Cardinali santi (Roma : Pontifica Universitas Urbaniana, 1994; La diocesi di Ostia: e i cardinali decani. Roma : Pontificia Universitas Urbaniana, 1993; and Il Sacro Collegio Cardinalizio. (Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1990).

Death. May 21, 1995, of cancer, in Vila Santa Sílvia, neighborhood of Helvetia, Indaiatuba. His body was was laid out in state at the metropolitan cathedral of Campinas. The funeral mass, celebrated at that cathedral, was presided by Cardinal Lucas Moreira Neves, prefect of the Congregation for Bishops, in the presence of Cardinals Paulo Evaristo Arns, O.F.M. and Eugenio de Araújo Sales, twenty two bishops, eighty five presbyters and 2000 people. Buried in the shrine of Nossa Senhora de Guadalupe, Campinas, which he had built after recovering from a kidney and liver cancer in 1989.

Links. Biography, in Portuguese, archdiocese of São Paulo; and his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(21) 21. COLOMBO, Giovanni
(1902-1992)

Birth. December 6, 1902, Caronno Pertusella (Varese), archdiocese of Milan, Italy. Sixth of the seven children of Enrico Colombo, office head of a factory, and Luigia Millefanti, shirt maker and embroiderer. He was baptized on December 8, 1902 in the parish church of S. Margherita, Caronno Pertusella; his middle name was Umberto.

Education. Initial studies, scuola comunale of the Sisters of the Immaculate Conception, Ivrea; Seminary Ginnasiale of S. Pietro Martire, Seveso (entered, September 14, 1914); Seminario Liceale of Monza, Monza; Seminary of Milan at Corso Venezia (doctorate in theology, September 30, 1926). Catholic University of Milan, Milan (doctorate in letters, 1932; thesis: "La rinascita cattolica e il suo secolo - Primi saggi"). Received the ecclesiastical tonsure, May 26, 1923; the first minor orders, December 22, 1923; the second minor orders, March 19, 1924; the subdiaconate, June 28, 1925; and the diaconate, November 1, 1925.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 29, 1926, metropolitan cathedral of Milan, by Cardinal Eugenio Tosi, O.SS.C.A., archbishop of Milan. Professor of letters at the Seminary Ginnasiale of San Pietro Martire (Seveso), October 1926. Professor of Italian at the Seminary Liceale of Venegono Inferiore, Milan, October 1931. Professor of sacred eloquence in the courses for the seminarians and at the Theological Faculty of the seminary, 1932-1944. Professor of Italian language and literature at the Faculties of Education and of Letters and Philosophy of the Catholic University of Sacro Cuore of Milan, 1937-1939. On August 2, 1939, Cardinal Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, O.S.B., archbishop of Milan, named him rector of the Seminary Liceale of Milan at Venegono inferiore; occupied the post until 1953. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, December 7, 1948. Rector major of the Seminaries of Milan, July 23, 1953 until 1960. On August 30, 1954, he administered the last rites to Cardinal Schuster, who died saintly in the Seminary of Venegono.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Filippopoli di Arabia and appointed auxiliary of Milan, October 25, 1960. Consecrated, December 7, 1960, metropolitan cathedral basilica of S. Ambrogio of Milan, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini, archbishop of Milan, future Pope Paul VI, assisted by Anacleto Cazzaniga, archbishop of Urbino, and by Giuseppe Schiavini, titular bishop of Farsalo, auxiliary and vicar general of Milan. His episcopal motto was Veritas et amor. Member of the preparatory commission for seminaries and universities of the Second Vatican Council. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Milan, August 10, 1963.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, February 25, 1965. Special papal envoy to the 19th National Eucharistic Congress, Pescara, Italy, September 11 to 18, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5-9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of archdiocese, December 29, 1979. From January 1980 to May 1992, he resided in the Seminary at Corso Venezia, Milan, which he had restored, carrying out an intense cultural and pastoral activity at the service of the Ambrosian archdiocese and the Italian church. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, December 6, 1982.

Death. May 20, 1992, of a heart attack, at the Seminary of Corso Venezia, Milan. His requiem mass took place on May 22, 1992, at the metropolitan cathedral of Milan, presided by Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini, S.J.,, archbishop of Milan, with the participation of several cardinals, twenty one bishops and hundreds of priests. Present among others were Cardinals Camillo Ruini, vicar of Rome, representing Pope John Paul II; Marco Cè, patriarch of Venice; Giovanni Saldarini, archbishop of Turin; Giacomo Biffi, archbishop of Bologna; and Giovanni Canestri, archbishop of Genoa. Buried under the pavement of the right side nave in front of the altar that contains the remains of Blessed Cardinal Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, O.S.B., in the metropolitan cathedral of S. Maria Nascente, Milan (1).

Bibliography. Biffi, Inos. Il cardinale Giovanni Colombo. Milano : Jaca Book, 2012; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 295-299; Colombo, Giovanni ; Majo, Angelo. Cardinale a Milano : l'episcopato di Giovanni Colombo. Milano : NED, 1982; Majo, Angelo ; Colombo, Giovanni ; Russo, Mimma. Il cardinale Giovanni Colombo : profumo di opere buone. Cinisello Balsamo (Milano) : San Paolo, 1998. (Testimoni del nostro tempo. 29); Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, V, 20, 25, 56n, 86, 89, 131, 133-141, 143n, 144n, 149, 150, 152n, 153, 158-163, 166 and 173.

Links. Photograph, documents and biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; and photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Majo, Il cardinale Giovanni Colombo : profumo di opere buone, p. 21:

IOANNES
CARD. COLOMBO
ARCHIEPISCOPUS
QUI AB ANNO 1963 AD ANNUM. 1979
PRECLARA DOCTRINA
PRUDENTIQUE CONSILIO
ABROSIANAM REXIT ECCLESIAM
FILIORUM MEMORIAE
PRECIBUSQUE
COMMENDATUS
6 DEC. 1902 - 20 MAI 1992


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(22) 22. CONWAY, William John
(1913-1977)

Birth. January 22, 1913, Belfast, diocese of Down and Connor, Ireland.Son of Patrick Conway, was a house painter who ran a paint shop near Royal Avenue, and Annie Donnolly.

Education. Studied at Queen's University, Belfast; at St. Patrick's College, Maynooth; abd at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 20, 1937, at the chapel of Saint Patricks College, Maynooth, by Francis Joseph Wall, titular bishop of Taso, auxiliary of Dublin. Further studies, 1937-1940. Faculty member of St. Malachias' Major Seminary, 1940-1947. Faculty member of St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, 1947-1957; rector, 1957-1958.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Neve and appointed auxiliary of Armagh, May 31, 1958. Consecrated, July 27, 1958, Saint Patrick`s metropolitan cathedral, Armagh, by Cardinal John Francis D'Alton, archbishop of Armagh, assisted by Neil Farren, bishop of Derry, and by William MacNeely, bishop of Raphoe. His episcopal motto was Praedicare Evangelium. Promoted to the primatial and metropolitan see of Armagh, September 9, 1963. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Patrizio a Villa Ludovisi, February 25, 1965. President delegate of the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Special papal envoy to the opening of the restored Holy Cross Abbey, Cashel, Ireland, October 5, 1975.

Death. April 17, 1977, after a brief battle with cancer, following surgery for removal of his gall bladder, Armagh. The requiem mass was celebrated by Bishop William Philbin of Down and Connor, assisted by the late cardinal's two brothers. Buried in the grounds of St. Patrick's metropolitan cathedral, Armagh.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(23) 23. HERRERA ORIA, Ángel
(1886-1968)

Birth. December 19, 1886, Santander, Spain. Thirteenth of the fifteen children of José Herrera Ariosa and Asunción Oria. Four of the siblings were Jesuit priests, one of them a missionary in China.

Education. Secondary studies with the Jesuit Fathers in Valladolid; University of Deusto, Deusto (law); University of Salamanca, Salamanca (licentiate in law, 1905); University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland (ecclesiastical studies, 1936-1940).

Early life. Entered the Cuerpo de Abogados del Estado, by opposition, in 1908; sent to the Delegation of the Treasury, Burgos; he was there for a year. Returned to Madrid and entered the Marian Congregation of los Luises, directed by Father Ángel Ayala, S.J. On December 3, 1909, he was named president of the recently founded Asociación Católica Nacional de Jóvenes Propagandistas; he travelled through a large part of the country promoting Catholic principles. Director of El Debate, November 1, 1911-1933. Founder of Editorial Católica, of El Debate School of Journalism, of Confederación Nacional Católica Agraria, and of Centro de Estudios Universitarios e Instituto Social Obrero.Participated in the formation of Pax Romana as well as in the initial steps of the Summer University of Santander. President of Central Board of Spanish Catholic Action, 1933-1936.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 28, 1940, Seminary of Saint Charles, Fribourg. Returned to Spain in 1943. Coadjutor of the parish of Santa Lucía, the diocese of Santander, 1943-1947.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Málaga, April 24, 1947. Consecrated, June 30, 1947, parish church of Santa Lucía, temporary cathedral, by Gaetano Cicognani, titular archbishop of Ancira, nuncio in Spain, assisted by José María Eguino Trecu, bishop of Santander and by Juan Hervás y Benet, titular bishop of Alinda and coadjutor of Mallorca. He was installed on the following October12. His episcopal motto was Orationi et ministerio Verbi. Established Instituto Social Leôn XIII in 1952; its Facultad Eclesiástica de Ciencias Sociales earned great prestige. Promoted the Escuela de Ciudadanía Cristiana; the Residencia para Obreros Pío XI; and created the School of Journalism of the Church. He steadfastly campaigned for greater freedom and better living conditions for his countrymen and fought illiteracy with the construction of some 250 new elementary schools.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta, March 1, 1965, Madrid, from Generalissimo Francisco Franco, chief of State; and the title of Sacro Cuore di Maria, March 26, 1965. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese, August 27, 1966.

Death. July 28, 1968, Madrid. Buried in the chapel of San Rafael in the cathedral of Málaga on July 31, 1968 (1); the bust of the cardinal, in bronze, was sculpted by Víctor de los Ríos, from Málaga; the wrought iron grill that closes the chapel is the work of maestro Luis Gómez (1770).

Beatification. His cause of beatification was introduced on November 20, 1995. The diocesan phase was finished in 2010.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 108; García Escudero, José María. Conversaciones sobre Ángel Herrera. Prólogo por Emilio Benavent Escuín. Madrid : Editorial Católica, 1986. (Biblioteca de autores cristianos ; 485); García Escudero, José María. De periodista a cardenal : vida de Angel Herrera. Madrid : Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1998. (Biblioteca de autores cristianos ; 590); Herrera Oria, Ángel ; García Escudero, José María. El pensamiento de Ángel Herrera : antología política y social. Madrid : Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1987. (Biblioteca de autores cristianos ; 486); Herrera Oria, Ángel: Obras completas. 6 vols. Edited by José Luis Gutiérrez García. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 2002-2006; Herrera Oria, Angel; García Escudero, José María. Homenaje a Ángel Herrera Oria. Santander : Tantin, 1987. Contents: Ángel Herrera / José María García Escudero -- La Iglesia y la guerra civil / Fernando García de Cortázar -- Herrera Oria ante la problemática social / José Andrés Gallego -- Herrera Oria y el catolicismo político español / Javier Tusell -- Angel Herrera, hombre de Iglesia / José Luis Gutiérrez García; Martín Artajo, Alberto. El pensamiento social del cardenal Herrera Oria. Madrid : [s.n.], 1969. General Info: Overdr. uit: "Anales" de la Real Academia de Ciencias Morales y Políticas; no. 46, 1969. Other title: "Anales" de la Real Academia de Ciencias Morales y Políticas; no. 46, 1969; Sánchez Jiménez, José. El cardenal Herrera Oria : pensamiento y acción social. Madrid : Ediciones Encuentro, 1986. (Ensayos ; 28; Variation: Ensayos (Ediciones Encuentro) ; 28).

Links. His statue and biography, in English, Wikipedia; El Siervo de Dios Ángel Herrera Oria. Semblanza biográfica by José María García Escudero, Fundación Pablo VI, Pontificia Universidad de Salamanca, campus de Madrid; photograph and biography by Nieves San Martín, in Italian, Santi e Beati; his tomb, chapel of San Rafael, cathedral of Málaga, Málaga (at the bottom of the page); and his arms and portraits, Araldica Vaticana (the top photograph is not his); Ángel Herrera Oria: Documental, in Spanish, You Tube; He was a Cardinal and a journalist, now Ángel Herrera Oria could soon become a saint, in English, Rome Reports.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his sarcophagus, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

+ ANGEL CARDENAL HERRERA ORIA
OBISPO DE MALAGA
19 - XII - 1886         28 - VII - 1968


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(24) 24. CALLORI DI VIGNALE, Federico
(1890-1971)

Birth. December 15, 1890, Vignale Monferrato, diocese of Casale Monferrato, Italy, from a noble family. He was the seventh of ten children to Count Ranieri Massimiliano Callori di Vignale and Countess Emanuela Beccaria Incisa. His grandparents, Federico and Carlotta, were great benefactors to Don Bosco. His godfather on the occasion of his confirmation was Don Michele Rua, co-founder of the Salesians of Don Bosco, future blessed.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 16, 1917, Rome. Pastoral ministry in Rome, 1917-1958. Privy chamberlain participant, July 6, 1919; reappointed, February 7, 1922, and March 3, 1939. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, June 3, 1935. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 28, 1935. Protonotary apostolic, June 6, 1935. Pro-master of the Papal Chamber, December 20, 1950. Knight grand cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic, January 12, 1953. Majordomo of the Sacred Apostolic Palace, October 29, 1958.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Maiuca, February 15, 1965. Consecrated, February 21, 1965, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, bishop of Ostia and Porto e Santa Rufina, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Diego Venini, titular archbishop of Adana, privy almoner of His Holiness, and and Pericle Felici, titular archbishop of Samosata, secretary General of the Second Vatican Council. His episcopal motto was In tenebris amen absque tenebris.

Cardinal. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni Bosco, February 25, 1965. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971.

Death. August 10, 1971, following a lengthy illness, Vatican City. Buried in the chapel-tomb of his family in Vignale Monferrato (1).

Links. Photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave; his arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the simple inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

Stanislao Federico - cardinale-vescovo


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(25) 25. CARDIJN, Joseph-Léon
(1882-1967)

Birth. November 18, 1882, Schaerbeek-Brussels, Belgium. Eldest son of Henri Cardijn and Louise van Daelen.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Mechelen; and at the University of Louvain.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 22, 1906, Mechelen. Faculty member of the Seminary of Basse-Wabre, 1906-1912. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Mechelen, 1912-1915. Imprisoned during the First World War, 1915-1917. Pastoral ministry with the workers in Mechelen, 1917-1925. Founder of the Young Christian Workers, 1925; General chaplain, 1927-1965. Imprisoned during the Second World War, 1941. He was awarded an honorary doctorate in law by the University of Ottawa in 1947. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, April 30, 1950. Protonotary apostolic, September 25, 1962.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tusuro, February 15, 1965. Consecrated, February 21, 1965, chapel of the Urbanian College de Propaganda Fide, Rome, by Cardinal Leo-Joseph Suenens, archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels, assisted by Charles-Marie Himmer, bishop of Tournai, and by Emiel-Jozef De Smedt, bishop of Brugge. His episcopal motto was Evangelizare pauperibus.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Michele Arcangelo a Pietralata, February 25, 1965.

Death. July 25, 1967, of kidney ailment, Louvain. Buried in the parish church of Notre-Dame of Laeken, Brussels.

Bibliography. De la Bedoyere, Michael. The Cardijn story. Milwaukee : Bruce Publishing Co., 1958; Verhoeven, Joseph. Joseph Cardijn, prophète de notre temps. Préface de Léon-Joseph Cardinal Suenens. Bruxelles : Éditions "Labor", 1971. (Ceux dhier et daujourdhui, 8).

Links. The Cardijn Project, in English; his arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana; Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia.


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(26) 26. JOURNET, Charles
(1891-1975)

Birth. January 26, 1891, Genève, Switzerland. Son of Jean-Louis Journet and Jenny Bondat. He was baptized on the same day of his birth in the church of Sacré-Coeur. He received the sacrament of confirmation on June 12, 1903, in the same chuch, from Joseph Déruaz, bishop of Lausanne et Genève.

Education. Seminary of Fribourg, Fribourg.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 15, 1917, Fribourg. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Fribourg, 1917-1924. Faculty member of the Seminary of Fribourg, 1924-1965. Founder of the theological journal Nova et Vetera. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 13, 1946. He was a world famed theologian (1).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Fornos minore, February 15, 1965. Consecrated, February 20, 1965, cathedral of Saint Nicholas, Fribourg, by François Charrière, bishop of Lausanne, Genève et Fribourg, assisted by Franz von Streng, bishop of Basel e Lugano, and by Louis-Sevérin Haller, titular bishop of Betlemme, abbot nullius of Saint Maurice. His episopal motto was Dominus misereatur.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, February 25, 1965. Attended the last session of the Second Vatican Council, 1965. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, January 26, 1971. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, March 5, 1973.

Death. April 15, 1975, Fribourg. Buried in the Chartreuse de la Valsainte, in Gruyères, Fribourg Canton, Switzerland.

Bibliography. Boissard, Guy. Charles Journet (1891-1975) : biographie. Paris : Salvator, 2008. (Biographie; Variation: Biographie (Paris, France)); Boissard, Guy; Latala, Renata ; Rime, Jacques. Charles Journet et "Nova et vetera". Génève : Ad Solem, 2007. Corporate Author: Bibliothèque cantonale et universitaire (Fribourg, Switzerland). Note: Issued in conjunction with an exhibition held at the Bibliothèque cantonale et universitaire de Fribourg, from April 28-June 17, 2006; Boissard, Guy. Une grande amitié : Charles Journet - Jacques Maritain. Préface de Nathalie Nabert. Génève : Ad Solem, 2006; Boissard, Guy. Quelle neutralité face à l'horreur : le courage de Charles Journet. Préface de René Rémond ; postface du père Georges Cottier. Saint-Maurice : Saint-Augustin, 2000; Charles Journet (1891-1975): un théologien en son siècle: actes du colloque de Genève, 1991. Sous la direction de Philippe Chenaux; contrib. de Guy Bedouelle ... et al. 2e éd. (réimpr.) Fribourg : Éditions universitaires; Paris: Éditions Mame, 1992; Charles Journet : un témoin du XXe siècle : actes de la Semaine théologique de l'niversité de Fribourg, Faculté de théologie, 8-12 avril 2002. Édition établie par Marta Rossignotti Jaeggi et Guy Boissard. Paris : Parole et silence, 2003. (Collection Sagesse et cultures). Corporate Author: Université de Fribourg. Faculté de théologie. Semaine théologique (2002 : Fribourg, Switzerland); Charles Journet, un théologien contemplatif. Fribourg : Éditions universitaires, 1991. (Nova et vetera; année 66, no 4, octobre-decembre 1991); Méroz, Lucien. Le cardinal Journet, ou, La sainte théologie. Lausanne : L'Age d'homme, 1981.

Link. His portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the catalog of his works, taken from Boissard, Charles Journet (1891-1975) : biographie, p. 593-596:
L'Église du Verbe incarné, premières éditions: Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, t. I, 1941; t. II, 1952; t. III, 1969. Réédition: Saint-Maurice, St-Augustin, t. I, "La hiérarchie apostolique" (1998); t. II, "La structure interne de l'Église: la Christ, la Vierge, l'Esprit Saint" (1999); t. III, "La structure interne de l'Église et son unité catholique" (2000); t. IV; "Essai de théologie de l'histoire du salut" (2004); t. V, "Compléments et inédits" (2005); Journet-Maritain, Correspondance, Fribourg, Éd. Universitaires, Paris, Éd. Saint-Paul, t. I, 1920-1929 (1996); t. II, 1930-1939 (1997); Saint-Maurice, Éd. Saint-Augustin, Éd. Parole et Silence, t. III, 1940-1949 (1998); Saint-Maurice, Saint-Augustin, t. IV, 1950-1957 (2005); t. V, 1958-1964 (2006); Quelques réflexions sur "La vie de Jésus au point de vue Psychologique et Psychanalytique" de M. le pasteur G. Berguet, Genève, Gilbert, 1920; Une âme dominicaine, frère Louis Dupraz, novice profés, Genève, Presses de Jules Deshusses, 1924; L'esprit du protestantisme en Suisse, Paris, Nouvelle Librairie Nationale, 1925; L'union des Églises, Paris, Bernard Grasset, coll. "La Vie chrétienne", 1927; De la Bible catholique ` la Bible protestante, Paris, André Blot Éditeur, 1930; La juridiction de l'Église sur la Cité, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1931; Notre-Dame des Sept Douleurs, Paris, Cerf, 1934; Saint-Maurice, Saint-Augustin, 1955; Petite biographie de Nicölas de Flue, Neuchâtel, La Baconnière, 1942; complété et réédité: Saint-Nicolas de Flue, La Baconnière, 1947, 1966; Fribourg-Paris, Éd. Saint-Paul, 1984; Connaissance et inconnaissance de Dieu, Fribourg, Éd. de la librairie de l'Université, 1943; Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, " Foi vivante ", 1969; Saint-Maurice, Saint-Augustin, 1996; Traduction de Savonarole, Dernièe méditation sur le psaume "Miserere", Paris, Luf, 1943, 1947; texte présenté par Pierre-Marie Émonet, Paris, DDB, 1995; Destinées d'Israël. À propos du salut par les Juifs, Paris, Egloff, 1945; Exigences chrétiennes en politique, Paris, Egloff, 1945; Saint-Maurice, Saint-Augustin, 1990; Introduction à la théologie, Paris, "Questions disputées", Desclée de Brouwer, 1947; Vérité de Pascal, Essai sur la valeur apologétique des "Pensée", Saint-Maurice, Saint-Augustin, 1951; Les sept paroles du Christ en Croix, Paris, Seuil, 1952, 1964; Primauté de Pierre dans la perspective protestante et dans la perspective catholique, Paris, Alsatia, 1953; Esquisse du développement du dogme marial, Paris, Alsatia, 1954; La messe, présence du sacrifice de la Croix, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1957, 1958, 1961; Théologie de l'Église, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1957, 1958; La volonté salvifique sur les petits enfants, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1958; Entretiens sur la gráce, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1959, 1961; Saint-Maurice, Saint-Augustin, 1969, 1985; Le Mal, essai théologique, Paris, Desclé de Brouwer, 1961, 1962; Saint-Maurice, Saint-Augustin, 1988; Le dogme, chemin de la foi, Paris, Fayard, 1963; Le message révéIé, sa transmission, son développement, ses dépendances, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1964; La Vierge Marie et l'Église, Paris, Tiqui, 1980; Dieu à la rencontre da l'homme. La voie théologale, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer et Fribourg, Saint-Paul, 1981; Comme une flèche de feu, Paris, Le Centurion, 1981. Lettres choisies par Marie-Agnès Cabanne, préface de Mgr Pierre Mamie; Le mystère de l'Eucharistie, Paris, Tiqui, 1983; Notre Père qui es aux cieux, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1987; Saint-Maurice, Saint-Augustin, 1997; Théologie de la politique, introduit et présenté par Marie-Agnès Cabanne, Coll. "Prémices", Fribourg, Éd. Universitaires, 1987; Charles Journet, Jacques Maritain, Philippe de la Trinité, Le péchéde l'ange. Peccabilité, nature et surnature, Paris, Beauchesne, 1961; Petits catéchismes: Publiés aux Éditions Saint-Augustin - CH Saint-Maurice: Petit catéchisme sur les origines du monde, 1950; La définition solennelle de l'Assomption de la Vierge, 1950, 1965; Petit catéchisme sur l'Église, 1960; Petit catéchisme sur la Messe, 1960; L'Église et la Bible, 1960; Petit catéchisme de la Sainte Vierge, 1964; Le mariage indissoluble, 1966, 1968; La présence sacramentelle du Christ, 1966, 1987; Autres opuscules: Le purgatoire, Liège, La Pensée Catholique; Les images, ColI. "Débats et Litiges ", Fribourg, Éd. Saint-Paul, 1950. La sainte messe, "Débats et Litiges", Fribourg, Éd. Saint-Paul, 1950. Communisme au christianisme, deux aventures, "Débats et Litiges", Fribourg, Éd. Saint-Paul, 1956; Le quiétisme, "Débats et Litiges", Fribourg, Éd. Saint-Paul, 1950. La naissance de la foi, "Débats et Litiges", Fribourg, Éd. Saint-Paul, 1950. La sainte messe ou la permanence du sacrifice de la Loi nouvelle, Coll. "Études religieuses", no. 411, Liège, La Pensée Catholique, 1938; Fribourg, Éd. Saint-Paul, 1951. Propriété chrétienne et pauvreté chrétienne, Coll. "Études religieuses ", no. 383, Paris, La Pensée Catholique, 1937; Fribourg, Éd. Saint-Paul, 1951. Le quiétisme, sa déviation théologique, Fribourg, Éd. Saint-Paul, 1951. Carnets de notes, inédits; Retraites et cours: Retraites publiéés aux Éditions Parole et Silence - CH Les Plans-sur-Bex: Entretiens sur l'espérance; Entretiens sur la charité; Entretiens sur le Saint-Esprit; Entretiens sur Dieu le Père; Entretiens sur l'Eucharistie; Entretiens sur la Trinité; Entretiens sur l'Église; Entretiens sur Marie; Entretiens sur l'Incarnation; Entretiens sur la Rédemption; Retraites et cours inédits; La foi; Le mystère de la sacramentalité; Le baptême; Les venus théologales; Le Mal; La Messe; La Transfiguration; La prière avec ]ésus; Les fins dernières; L'annonce de Jésus dans l'Ancien Testament; Les tentations de Jésus au désert; La présence corporelle du Christ; L'Évangile divin et humain La Passion selon saint Marc L'Église telle que la pense et la vit sainte Thérèse de Lisieux Les dons du Saint-Esprit Les Paradoxes des Noms divins Les Demeures de sainte Thérèse d'Avila Entretiens sur le mystère chrétien, exposé de la foi catholique Saint François de Sales Trois saints du Carmet : saint Jean de la Croix, sainte Thérèse d;Avila, sainte Thérèse de Lisieux Commentaire de la première lettre de saint Jean et de ses récits de la Résurrection Saint Paul Commentaire de l'épître aux Bomains L'épître aux Philippiens; Les lettres de Saint Pierre L'Apocalypse: le mystère de l'Église; La collégialité et le Souverain Pontife.


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(27) 27. BEVILACQUA, Orat., Giulio
(1881-1965)

Birth. September 15, 1881, at noon, Isola della Scala, diocese of Verona, Italy. Of a family of merchants. Son of Mattia Bevilacqua and Carla Olivari. He was baptized on the following September 22 by Pietro Gazzotti, abbot archpriest of the local parish; he received the name Giulio Pietro. In 1889, the family moved to Verona.

Education. He stydued at Ginnasio-liceo "Scipione Maffei", Verona, from 1893 to 1896; at Alunnato Filippini, Brescia, from 1896 to 1902; at the University of Louvain, Louvain, Belgium, from 1902 to 1905; there, he studied under Desiré Mercier, future cardinal; doctoral thesis on Italian labor laws, April 25, 1905; and at the Seminary of Brescia in 1905. He joined the Oratory of St. Philip Neri of La Pace in 1905.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 13, 1908, Brescia. Pastoral ministry in diocese of Brescia, 1908-1914; 1918-1926; 1933-1939; 1945-1965. Chaplain in Italian Army during the First World War; captured and imprisoned, 1916-1918. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, Rome, for protection against Fascist threats, 1926-1933; pastoral ministry in Rome, 1926-1933. Chaplain in the Italian Navy during the Second World War, 1939-1945. Spiritual director and personal friend of Giovanni Battista Montini, future Pope Paul VI, while he was a student in Brescia.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Gaudiana, February 15, 1965. Consecrated, February 18, 1965, basilica of Ss Faustus e Jovita, Brescia, by Luigi Morstabilini, bishop of Brescia, assisted by Giuseppe Carraro, bishop of Verona, and by Carlo Manziana, Orat., bishop of Crema. His episcopal motto was Virtus in infirmitate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received red biretta and deaconry of S. Girolamo della Carità, February 25, 1965. By special papal permission continued to be the pastor of S. Antonio della Pace parish, Brescia, February-May, 1965.

Death. May 6, 1965, Brescia. Buried in the parish church of S. Antonio della Pace, Brescia (1).

Bibliography. Barra, Giovanni. Padre Bevilacqua, parroco cardinale. Torino: Gribaudi, 1966; Bevilacqua, Giulio. La parola di padre Giulio Bevilacqua. Brescia : Morcelliana, 1967; Bevilacqua, Giulio. Saggio su la legislazione operaia in Italia. Brescia : Sintesi, 1973, 1906. Note: At head of title: Scuole di scienze politiche e sociali, Università di Lovanio; Bevilacqua, Giulio. Scritti e testimonianze in memoria di Padre Giulio Bevilacqua Cardinale : 1881-1965. Brescia : La scuola, 1965. Note: Cover title: Padre Giulio Bevilacqua Cardinale; Bevilacqua, Giulio. Scritti tra le due guerre. A cura di Enzo Giammancheri. Brescia : La Scuola, 1968.Il Cardinale Giulio Bevilacqua. Brescia : Centro di Documentazione, 1990; Fappani, Antonio. P. Giulio Bevilacqua, prete e cardinale sugli avamposti. Verona : Banca Mutua Popolare, 1975; Fappani, Antonio. Padre Giulio Bevilacqua, il cardinale-parroco. Brescia : Queriniana, 1979; L'Impegno religioso e civile di P. Giulio Bevilacqua : atti del colloquio di studio tenuto a Brescia il 9 giugno 1982. Brescia : Centro di documentazione, 1983. Note: Conference organized by: Centro di documentazione. "Brevissimi schemi delle lezioni di religione tenute alla 'Pace'"; Mondini, Giovanni. Attualità del cardinale Giulio Bevilacqua. Roma : Pontificia Università Lateranense, 1980. Material type: Thesis/dissertation (deg).

Link. Portrait, plaque and biography, in Italian; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

P. GIULIO BEVILACQUA d. o.
Cardinale di S.R.C.
del Titolo di San Girolamo
della Carità
Isola della Scala      Brescia
14 settembre 1881 6 maggio 1965


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GUARDINI, Romano
(1885-1968)

Birth. February 17, 1885, Verona, Italy. Son of Romano Tullo Guardini and Paolo Maria Bernardinella. His baptismal name was Romano Michele Antonio Maria. He had three brothers, Gino, Mario and Aleardo. In 1886, the family moved to Mainz, Germany.

Education. Gymnasium of Mainz (graduated in August 1903; humanities); studied chemistry and then economics in Tübingen, Münich, and Berlin, 1903-1905; in August 1905, he experienced a religious conversion and the following November decided to study for the priesthood; studied theology in Freiburg, Tübingen, and Mainz, 1906-1910; doctoral studies at the University of Freiburg, October 1912 (obtained a doctoral degree in May 1915; dissertation: Die Lehre des heiligen Bonaventura von der Erlösung; it was published in 1922); studies for his "Habilitation" in Bonn, 1920.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 28, 1910, by Georg Heinrich Kirstein, bishop of Mainz. He celebrated his first mass the next day in the Abbey of Beuron with the chalice given to him by his parents as a present for his ordination. Curate in the diocese of Mainz, 1910-1912. Further studies, Freiburg, 1912-1915. Became a German citizen in 1911. Curate in the diocese of Mainz and chaplain to "Iuventus", 1915-1920. His father died in September 1919 and his mother and brothers moved to Lake Como and eventually to Isola Vicentina. Further studies, Bonn, 1920; in Easter of that year, he attended a meeting of the youth movement "Quickborn" in Burg Rothenfels. In 1923, he began to teach "Religionsphilosophie und Katholische Weltanschauung" at the University of Berlin. Together with Josef Aussem, became co-editor of Die Schildgenossen in 1924. In 1927, he became the national leader of "Quickborn" and the spiritual leader at Burg Rothenfels. Preacher at St. Benedict chapel in Berlin, 1928-1942. In February 1939, he was dismissed by the Third Reich from his professorship; and in August, the SS seized Burg Rothenfels and the Reich disbanded "Quickborn". From 1939 to 1943, he remained in Berlin, continued to write, and lectured at St. Canisius church. In 1941, the Reich suppressed Die Schildgenossen and prohibited Fr. Guardini from giving public addresses. From 1943 to 1945, he resided in Mooshausen with Fr. Josef Weiger. From 1945 to 1947, he was professor of "Religionsphilosophie und Christliche Weltanschauung" at the University of Tübingen; and 1948 to 1963, taught the same subject at the University of Münich; also, during those years, he preached every Sunday at St. Ludwig's church. On February 21, 1952, Pope Pius XII named him domestic prelate. That same year, he was awarded the Peace Prize of the German Book Association. In 1954, he was awarded an honorary doctorate in philosophy by the University of Freiburg. He was received into the Peace Society of the Order "Pour le Mérite" in 1958. The following year, 1959, he was awarded the Medal of Distinguished Service by the West German government; and in 1962, the "Erasmus Prize". In the Fall 1959, he had to stop teaching at the University of Münich because of bad health; in 1963, he retired from the university. The University of Padua awarded him an honorary degree in 1965.

Cardinalate. According to numerous sources, Pope Paul VI offered him the promotion to the cardinalate in 1965 but he declined. He wrote more than 75 books and 100 articles in theology, divine revelation, Jesus Christ as mediator, liturgy, history of the church, religious literature, Nazism and the Christian acceptance of modernity. Respected theologians like Karl Rahner, S.J.; Hans Urs von Balthasar, quasi cardinal; and Joseph Ratzinger, later Pope Benedict XVI, have acknowledged his influence over their theological formation and thought. From 1965 to 1968, he had to be hospitalized several times.

Death. October 1, 1968, of a cerebral hemorrhage, in a hospital in Münich. Cardinal Julius Döpfner, archbishop of Münich und Freising, presided the funeral mass on October 4, 1968 at St. Ludwig church, Münich. After the funeral, he was buried in the small cemetery of the Oratorians in the church of St. Laurentius in Münich-Nymphenburg. In 1969, he was awarded posthumously an honorary doctorate in philosophy by the University of Bologna and in 1970, the Katholische Akademie in Bayern established the "Guardini Prize", whose early recipients were Karl Rahner in 1970; Hans Urs von Balthasar in 1971; Oswald Nell-Breuning in 1972; and Werner Heisenberg in 1973. In 1997, his remains were transferred to a side chapel beside the altar of that church; his name and a cross mark his final resting place.

Bibliography. Babolin, Albino. Romano Guardini-Filosofo dell'alterità. 2 vols. Bologna: Zanichelli, 1968-1969. Volume I: Realta e persona. Vol II: Situazione umana ed esperienza religiosa; Balthasar, Hans Urs von. Romano Guardini. Reform aus dem Ursprung. Münich : Kösel, 1970; Balthasar, Hans Urs von. Romano Guardini. Translated by Albert Wimmer. San Francisco : Ignatins Press, forthcoming; Berning-Baldeaux, Ursula. Person und BiIdung im Denken Romano Guardini. Wiirzburg : Echter, 1968; Binkowski, Johannes. Jugend als Wegbereiter. Stuttgart : Konrad Theiss, 1981; Biser, Eugen. Interpretation und Veranderung. Paderborn : Ferdinand Schöningh, 1979; Börsig-Hover, Lina. Das personale Antlitz des Menschen. Eine Untersuchung zum Personbegriff bei Romano Guardini. Mainz : Matthias Griinewald, 1987; Faber, Eva-Maria. Kirche zwischen Identitdt und Differenz. Würzburg : Echter, 1993; Fischer, Dorothee. Wort und Welt. Die Pneuma-Theologie Romano Guardinis als Beitrag zur Glaubensentdeckung und Glaubensbegldtung. Stuttgar t: W. Kohlhammer, 1993; Forster, Karl, ed. Akademische Feier zum 80. Geburtstag von Romano Guardini. Wütrzburg : Echter, 1965; Gerl, Hanna Barbara. Anfechtung und Treue: Romano Guardinis geistige Gestalt in ihrer heutigen Bedeutung. Donauwörth : Ludwig Auer, 1989; Gerl, Hanna Barbara. Begegungen in Mooshausen. Weissenhorn : Anton H. Konrad, 1990; Gerl, Hanna Barbara. Romano Guardini 1885-1968. Mainz : Matthias Grtinewald, 1985; Guardini, Romano. Letters from Lake Como : explorations in technology and the human race. Uniform Title: Briefe vom Comer See. English With an introduction by Louis Dupré ; translated by Geoffrey W. Bromiley. Grand Rapids, Mich. : W.B. Eerdmans, 1994. (Ressourcement; Variation: Ressourcement (Grand Rapids, Mich.)) Abstract: This book collects a fascinating series of letters written by theologian-philosopher Romano Guardini in the mid-1920s in which he works out for the first time his sense of the challenges of humanity in a culture increasingly dominated by the machine. With prophetic clarity and unsettling farsightedness, Guardini's letters poignantly capture the personal implications and social challenges of living in the technological age - concerns that have now come to fruition seventy years after they were first raised; Guardini, Romano. Meditations before mass. Translated from the German by Elinor Castendyk Briefs. Westminster, Md. : Newman Press, 1956, ©1955 Note: Translation of Besinnung vor der Feier der heiligen Messe; Halda, Bernard. Christianisme et humanisme chez Romano Guardini. Paris : Editions Fleurus, 1978; Haubenthaler, Reinhard. Askese und Freiheit bei Romano Guardini. Paderborn : Ferdinand Schöningh, 1995; Henrich, Franz. Die Bünde der katholischen lugendbewegung. Münich : Kösel, 1968; Honnefelder, Ludger, and Mattbias Lutz-Bachmann, eds. Auslegungen des Glaubens Zur Hermeneutik christlicher Existenz. Berlin : Morus, 1987; Kleiber, Hansruedi. Glaube und religiöse Erfahrung bei Romano Guardini. Freiburg : Herder, 1985; Knoll, Alfons. Glaube und Kultur bei Romano Guardini. Paderborn : Ferdinand Schöningh, 1993-; Krieg, Robert A. Romano Guardini, a precursor of Vatican II. Notre Dame : University of Notre Dame Press, 1997; Krieg, Robert A., ed. Romano Guardini: Proclaiming the Sacred in a Modern World. Chicago : Liturgy Training Publications, 1995; Kuhn, Helmut. Romano Guardini. Münich: Kösel, 1961; Kuhn, Helmut. Romano Guardini, Philosoph der Sorge. St. Ottilien : EOS, 1987; López Quintas, Alfonso. Romano Guardini y la dieléctica de lo viviente. Madrid : Los Libros del Monograma, 1966; Marschall, Martin. In Wahrheit beten. St. Ottilien : EOS, 1986; Mercker, Hans. Christliche Weltanschauung als Problem: Untersuchungen zur Grundstruktur im Werk Romano Guardinis. Paderborn : Ferdinand Schöningh, 1988; Mercker, Hans; Katholische Akademie in Bayern, eds. Bibliographie Romano Guardini (1885-1968). Paderborn : Ferdinand Schöningh, 1978; Negri, Luigi. La antropologia di Romano Guardini. Milan : Jaca, 1989; Ratzinger, Joseph, ed. Wege zur Wahrheit. Düsseldorf : Patmos, 1985-; Richter, Klemens ; Arno Schilson, eds. Den Glauben feiern. Mainz : Matthias Grünewald, 1989; Ruster, Thomas. Die verlorene Niitzlichkeit der Religion. Paderborn : Ferdinand Schöningh, 1994; Schilson, Arno, ed. Konservative mit Blick nach Vorn: Versuche zu Romano Guardini. Würzburg : Echter, 1994; Schilson, Arno. Perspektiven theologischer Erneuerung. Düsseldorf : Patmos, 1986; Schlette, Heinz Robert. Romano Guardini. Werk und Wirkung. Bonn : Bouvier, 1985; Schmucker von Koch, Joseph F. Autonomie und Transzendenz: Untersuchungen zur Religionsphilosophie Romano Guardinis. Mainz : Matthias Grünewald, 1985; Schuster, Hermann Josef, ed. Guardini Weiterdenken. Berlin : Guardini Stiftung, 1993; Seidel, Walter, ed. "Christliche Weltanschauung'". Wiederbegegnung mit Romano Guardini. Würzburg : Echter, 1985; Watzal, Ludwig. Das Politische bei Romano Guardini. Percha am Starnberger See : R. S. Schulz, 1987; Wechsler, Fridolin. Romano Guardini als Kerygmatiker. Paderborn : Ferdinand Schöningh, 1973; Wucherer-Huldenfeld, Karl. Die Gegensatzphilosophie Romano Guardinis in ihren Grundlagen und Folgerungen. Vienna : Verlag Notring, 1968.

Links. Photographs and biographical information, in German; photographs and biography, in German; postal stamp and biography, in English; photograph and profile, in Italian; and photograph and biographical chronology, in German; Benedict XVI Has a Father, Romano Guardini by Sandro Magister, Chiesa, October 1, 2008.

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