The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Paul VI (1963-1978)
Consistory of April 28, 1969 (III)


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(55) 1. YÜ PIN, Paul
(1901-1978)

Birth. April 13, 1901, Hai-lun, vicariate apostolic of Lan-si-sein (Kirin), Heilungkinang, Manchuria, China. Only son of Shuayuan Yü Pin and Ai-mei Siao, who were not Catholic; his father died when he was six, and his mother when he was seven; he was raised by his grandparents. The village where they lived in was mostly Catholic, and young Paul was sent to a Catholic school. He was baptized in 1914. When Peking students founded the May 4th Student Movement to protest against the Treaty of Versailles and to work for the Republic from within, Paul, aged barely 18, was elected president of the movement. Speaking to large crowds of students, he gave them the watchword "We must love our country, but we must not create turmoil." His last name is also listed as Yu Bin.

Education. Studied at the Teachers Training College, Heilunkiang; and at Aurora University, Shanghai; he entered the Seminary of Kirin in 1920, his grandmother having helped him to overcome family opposition; later, he was sent to the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome; he also attended the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome; and the Royal University, Perugia. He knew Chinese, Latin, English, French, Spanish, Portuguese and German.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1928, Rome by Giuseppe Palica, titular archbishop of Filippi, vice gerent of Rome. For a year, he was professor of Chinese literature at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide". From 1931 to 1933, he worked at Vatican Library. In 1933, he returned to China. National director of Catholic Action and inspector general of Catholic Schools, 1933-1936.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Sozusa di Palestina and appointed vicar apostolic of Nanking (Nanjing), July 17, 1936. Consecrated, September 20, 1936, Peiping, by Mario Zanin, titular archbishop of Traianopoli di Rodope, apostolic delegate in China, assisted by Simon Tchu, S.J., titular bishop of Lesvi, vicar apostolic of Haimen, and by Paul Leo Cornelius Montague, C.M., titular bishop of Sidima, vicar apostolic of Peiping. His episcopal motto was Restaurare omnia in Christo. The new bishop became a close friend of President Chang Kai-shek, but the Sino-Japanese War and the ensuing civil war reduced China to a state of turmoil. On the establishment of the Catholic hierarchy in China, he was promoted to the metropolitan see of Nanking (Nanjing) when the vicariate was elevated to the metropolitan rank, April 11, 1946. Expelled from his see by the Communist regime in 1949. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. When Fu Jen University was transferred from Peking to Taipei in 1964, he was appointed its rector.

Cardinal. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of Gesù Divin Lavoratore, April 30, 1969. Resigned the rectorship and was named grand chancellor, August 5, 1978. He went to Rome to participate in the conclave after the death of Pope Paul VI occurred on August 6, 1978. He fainted during the pope's funeral and was taken to a convent, where he died four days later.

Death. August 16, 1978, at 12.50 p.m., of a heart attack, in a Roman institute of nuns, during the first sede vacante of 1978, at the death of Pope Paul VI. Buried, metropolitan cathedral, Taipei. Later, his remains were transferred to a specially built mausoleum on the campus of Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei. A monument in his memory has also been erected on campus. On the occasion of the centenary of his birth, a special commemorative stamp was issued by the Republic of China (Taiwan).

Bibliography. Brender, Andreas ; Kierein-Kuenring, Mandred D. Catholic Hierarchy in China since 1307. Cluj-Napoca, 2012, pp. 213 and 260; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 448; De Jaegher, Raymond. Vie de Mgr Paul Yu Pin : promoteur de l'Association du Pacifique libre. Traduit de l'anglais par Denise Meunier. Priface de Pierre Ngo Dinh-Thuc. Cholon, Viet-Nam : Ed. du Pacifique libre, 1959.

Links. Photograph and biographical information, in Chinese and English, Hong Kong Catholic Diocesan Archive; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Christianity in China by Archbishop Paul Yu-Pin, Life, Jan 13, 1947.


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(56) 2. SCHERER, Alfredo Vicente
(1903-1996)

Birth. February 5, 1903, Santa Teresinha, Bom Princípio, archdiocese of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Second child of Pedro Scherer and Anna Opermann. Distant relative of Cardinal Odilo Pedro Scherer (2007).

Education. Initial studies at Colégio Marista in Bom Princípio; then, studied at the Minor Seminary of São Leopoldo, Porto Alegre; later, at the Seminary of Porto Alegre; and finally, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology, summa cum laude.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 3, 1926, in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Basilio Pompilj, vicar general of Rome. From January 1, 1928 to 1933, he was private secretary to João Batista Becker, archbishop of Porto Alegre. On October 8, 1930, he accompanied the Gaúchas revolutionary forces to Rio de Janeiro as military chaplain. On January 29, 1934, he was named cooperator of the parish of Pedras Brancas, Guamba, in which his brother, Canon Estanislao Scherer, was the pastor. He also organized the parishes of Tapes and Barra do Ribeiro. On March 15, 1935, he was named vicar of the parish of São Geraldo, then a workers' neighborhood (Bairro Operário) of Porto Alegre.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Emeria and appointed auxiliary of Porto Alegre, June 13, 1946. His episcopal motto was Evangelizare misit me. His consecration was delayed because of the death of Archbishop Becker. Named vicar capitular of the archdiocese. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Porto Alegre, December 30, 1946. Consecrated, February 23, 1947, by Carlo Chiarlo, titular archbishop of Amida, nuncio in Brazil, assisted by José Baréa, bishop of Caxias, and by José Newton de Almeida Baptista, bishop of Uruguaiana. He took possession of his see on that same day. On the occasion of the Fifth National Eucharistic Congress celebrated in 1948 in Rio Grande do Sul - Porto Alegre, on the subject Social Action, he wrote a pastoral letter, entitled A Restauração Social. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora de La Salette, April 30, 1969. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Third General Conference of Latin American Episcopal Council, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. Stabbed and robbed by unknown assailants, who left him in a ditch outside the city when he could not meet their demands for more money, on December 31, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, August 29, 1981. In a TV interview after his resignation, he said that he felt like a cardinal out of the cage. Provedor of the Fraternity of the Santa Casa de Misericordia until his death. On December 1, 1981, he received an honorary doctorate from the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS); and on the following December 19, the Ponche Verde Grand Cruz from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 5, 1983. Attended the Fourth General Conference of Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12-28, 1992. Member of the Instituto Histórico e Geográfico do Rio Grande do Sul.

Death. March 8, 1996, at 11:57 p.m., Porto Alegre. Buried at the right side of the altar of the metropolitan cathedral Nossa Senhora Mãe de Deus, Porto Alegre. On the occasion of the centenary of his birth, a 50¢ stamp was issued by the Empresa Brasiliera de Correios e Telegrafos. The "Hospital Dom Vicente Scherer" of Porto Alegre was named after him.

Bibliography. "Alfredo Vicente Scherer" in "Terceira parte, Bispos do Brasil-Republica, II, A" in "Diocesis e bispos do Brasil" by Apolônio Nóbrega, Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, volume 222 (Janeiro-Março 1954), 212; Lorenzatto, António D. O cardeal gaúcho. Porto Alegre : Suliani Letra & Vida Editora : Est Edições, 2008; Moesch, Eduardo Pretto. Dom Vicente Scherer: a voz de um pastor. Porto Alegre: Padre Reus, 2007; Moesch, Eduardo Pretto. "Evangelizare misit me" (Lc 4,18) : o cardeal Alfredo Vicente Scherer (1903-1996), terceiro arcebispo de Porto Alegre (Brasil), e "a voz do pastor". Roma, 2006. Dissertation: Diss. Pontificia Univ. Gregoriana, 2006; Pizzato, Edy Job. Dom Vicente Cardeal Scherer no seu tempo. Porto Alegre : Edições Est, 2005; Santos, Manoel Augusto. Enviou-me para evangelizar : celebrando o centenàrio de nascimento do Cardenal Dom Alfredo Vicente Scherer (1903-2003). Porto Alegre : EDIPUCRS, 2003. Responsibility: Manoel Augusto Santos (organizador).

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in Portuguese, Wikipedia; his arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; his bust, Wikimedia; Letter from His Holiness Pope Paul VI to Cardinal Scherer on the 50th anniversary of his presbyteral ordination (March 15, 1976), in Latin, The Holy See.


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(57) 3. ROSALES Y RAS, Julio
(1906-1983)

Birth. September 18, 1906, Calbayog, Philippines. Son of Basilio Rosales y Cinco and Agueda Ras y Sison.

Education. Seminary of Calbayog, Calbayog.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 2, 1929, Calbayog. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Calboyog, 1929-1946.

Episcopate. Elected first bishop of Tagbilaran, June 29, 1946. Consecrated, September 21, 1946, Palo, by Guglielmo Piani, titular archbishop of Nicosia, apostolic delegate in the Philippines, assisted by Manuel Mascariñas y Morgia, bishop of Caceres, and by Miguel Acebedo, bishop of Calbayog. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Cebu, December 17, 1949. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Episcopal Conference of Philippines.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of Sacro Cuore di Gesù a Vitinia, April 30, 1969. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, August 24, 1982.

Death. June 2, 1983, Cebu. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Cebu.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles. "Philippine episcopology (III)." Boletín Eclesiástico de Filipinas, LXV, 716-717 (July-August 1989), 575; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 451.


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(58) 4. GRAY, Gordon Joseph
(1910-1993)

Birth. August 10, 1910, Leith, northern Edinburgh, Scotland. He was the third child of Frank Gray and Angela Jane Oddy; the other two were Josephine and George. His uncle, Canon John Alan Gray, was the first one who approached him about the priesthood.

Education. Studied at Holy Cross Academy, Edinburgh; at Saint Joseph's Junior College Seminary, Mark Cross, East Sussex, from 1927 to July 1929; at Saint John's Seminary, Wonersh, Southwark, England, from September 1929 to 1935. He received the minor orders, the subdiaconate and the diaconate from Peter Emanuel Amigo, bishop of Southwark. He also studied at Saint Andrews University, Saint Andrews from 1936 to 1939 (honors; he was the first Catholic priest to graduate since the Reformation); and at Strawbridge Hill College of Education, London, 1939; his studies were interrupted by the Second World War.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 15. 1935, St. Mary's metropolitan cathedral, Edinburgh, by Andrew Joseph McDonald, O.S.B., archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, 1935-1947. Rector of Saint Mary's College, Blairs, Aberdeen, 1947-1951.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, June 20, 1951. Consecrated, September 21, 1951, St. Mary's metropolitan cathedral, Edinburgh, by William Godfrey, titular archbishop of Cio, apostolic delegate in Great Britain, assisted by James Donald Scanlan, bishop of Dunkeld, and by Edward Wilson Douglas, bishop of Motherwell. His episcopal motto was Spiritus Sanctus subveniet. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Chiara a Vigna Clara, April 30, 1969. President of the Bishops' Conference of Scotland. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the III Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Special papal envoy to the centennial celebrations of Fort Augustus Abbey, Scotland, July 11, 1981. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, May 30, 1985. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, August 10, 1990. First cardinal resident of Scotland since the assassination of Cardinal David Beaton, archbishop of Saint Andrews, in 1546.

Death. July 19, 1993, of a heart ailment, Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh. His body was exposed in Gillis College and in St. Mary's metropolitan cathedral. The funeral mass was celebrated by Keith Michael O'Brien, archbishop of St. Andrews and Edinburgh. Buried in the crypt of St. Mary's metropolitan cathedral, Edinburgh.

Bibliography. Turnbull, Michael. Cardinal Gordon Joseph Gray : a biography. Edinburgh : Saint Andrew, 1994.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(59) 5. MCKEEFRY, Thomas Peter
(1899-1973)

Birth. July 3, 1899, Greymouth, diocese of Christchurch, New Zealand. He was the fifth of seven children of Michael McKeefry, a police constable, and Mary McAlary; they both were born in County Londonderry, Ireland. His baptismal name was Peter Thomas Bertram. After living in Christchurch for a short time, the family moved to Dunedin.

Education. Initial studies at Christian Brothers' Boys' School, Dunedin; then, he entered the Holy Cross Seminary, Mosgiel, where he studied from 1916 to 1922; and finally, he attended the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, from 1922 to 1926.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 3, 1926, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Returned to New Zealand in November 1926. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Auckland; secretary to the bishop of Auckland; administrator and director of the diocesan newspaper, 1926-1947. Special news reporter in Spain during the Civil War, 1936-1939.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Derco and appointed coadjutor of Wellington, with right of succession, June 12, 1947. Consecrated, October 19, 1947, St. Patrick's cathedral, Auckland, by Cardinal Norman Thomas Gilroy, archbishop of Sydney, Australia, assisted by Thomas O`Shea, S.M., archbishop of Wellington, and by James Michael Liston, bishop of Auckland. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Wellington, May 9, 1954; he was the first native of New Zealand to occupy the see; and the first who was not a member of a religious order. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. President of the Episcopal Conference of New Zealand.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received red biretta and title of Immacolata al Tiburtino, April 30, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. He was the first cardinal from New Zealand.

Death. Sunday November 18, 1973, Wellington; a life long chain smoker, he died suddenly, while making arrangements by telephone at the presbytery for the accommodation of a convalescent priest whom he had just visited; he had a cigarette burning between his fingers. Buried in the priests' plot at Karori Cemetery, outside Wellington (1). In the same plot is buried Cardinal Reginald John Delargey, archbishop of Wellington, second cardinal from New Zealand. The Cardinal McKeefry School of Wilton, Wellington, was named after him.

Bibliography. Kennedy, John Patrick. Peter Cardinal McKeefry, 1899-1973. Dunedin : New Zealand Tablet, 1974. Note: Includes Bishop Snedden's panegyric at the Requiem Mass for the Cardinal; van der Krogt, Christopher. "McKeefry, Peter Thomas Bertram 1899-1973". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, updated 7 April 2006. URL: http://www.dnzb.govt.nz. The original version of this biography was published in the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, Volume Five (1941-1960), 2000, 319-321.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

PRAY FOR HIS EMINENCE
Peter Cardinal McKeefry
BORN JULY 3, 1899 - ORDAINED PRIEST APRIL 3, 1926
COADJUTOR ARCHBISHOP OCTOBER 19, 1947
ARCHBISHOP OF WELLINGTON MAY 9, 1954
METROPOLITAN OF NEW ZEALAND NOVEMBER 10, 1954
CARDINAL PRIEST OF MARIA IMMACULATA APRIL 28, 1969
DIED NOVEMBER 18, 1973
R.I.P.


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(60) 6. MIRANDA Y GOMEZ, Miguel Darío
(1895-1986)

Birth. December 19, 1895, León, México. Son of Cirpriano Miranda and María de las Nieves Gómez.

Education. Seminary of León, León; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1918, Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of León and faculty member of its seminary, 1919-1925; 1929-1937. Director of the National Social Secretariat, 1925-1926. Imprisoned and exiled during the religious persecution, 1926-1929.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tulacingo, October 1, 1937. Consecrated, shrine of Guadalupe, December 8, 1937, by Leopoldo Ruíz Flores, archbishop of Morelia, assisted by José Ignacio Márquez Toriz, titular archbishop of Bosporo, coadjutor with right of succession of Puebla de los Ángeles, and by Maximino Ruiz y Flores, titular bishop of Derbe. Participated in the V Interamerican Congress of Catholic Education, Colegio de Belén, La Habana, Cuba, January 1954. Promoted to titular archbishop of Selimbria and appointed coadjutor of México, December 20, 1955. Transferred to the metropolitan see of México, June 28, 1956. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM), 1958-1963. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria di Guadalupe a Monte Mario, April 30, 1969. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, December 19, 1975. Papal legate to the dedication of Our Lady of Guadalupe's basilica, México City, October 12, 1976. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 19, 1977.

Death. March 15, 1986, León, México. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of México.

Links. Biography, in Spanish; biography, in English; biography, in Spanish; El cardenal Miguel Darmo Miranda y la mzsica by Felipe Monroy G., in Desde la Fe, Semanario Católico de Información, Arquidiócesis Primada de México, 10.08.2008; and Instituto de Liturgia, Música y Arte "Cardenal Miranda", in Spanish.


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(61) 7. PARECATTIL, Joseph
(1912-1987)

Birth. April 1, 1912, Kindagoor, Kerala, archdiocese of Ernakulam of the Chaldean-Malabar, India.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Ernakulam; at the Seminary of Kandy, Ceylon, where he earned a doctorate in theology; with the dissertation Augustine vs. Pelagius on Grace); and at the University of Madras, where he specialized in economics.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 24, 1939, Kandy. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Ernakulam of Chaldean-Malabar; directory of the weekly Sathyadeepamn (Truth's Light), 1939-1953.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Aretusa per i Siri and appointed auxiliary of Ernakuam of Chaldean-Malabar, October 28, 1953. Consecrated, November 30, 1953, Ernakulam, Cardinal Eugene Tisserant, bishop of Ostia and Porto e Santa Rufina, secretary of the S.C. of the Oriental Church, assisted by by archbishop Augustine Kandathil, archbishop of Ernakulam, and by Martin Lucas, S.V.D., titular archbishop of Aduli. Apostolic administrator of Ernakulam of Chaldean-Malabar, January 20, 1956. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Ernakulam of Chaldean-Malabar, July 20, 1956. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. President of the Chaldean-Malabar Episcopal Conference; of the Catholic Episcopal Conference of Kerala; and of the Catholic Episcopal Conference of India.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora "Regina Pacis," April 30, 1969. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Oriental Canon Law (1972-1987) Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, January 30, 1984.

Death. February 20, 1987, of cardiac related complications while recovering in a hospital in Cochin, India. Buried in St. Mary's Cathedral Basilica, Ernakulam, Kochi, Kerala.

Bibliography. Cardinal Parecattil, the man, his vision, and his contribution. Edited by A.M. Mundadan. Alwaye: Star Publications, 1988; Bharanikulangara, Kuriacose. "Strenuo diffensore della dignità dela Chiese di rito orientale". L'Osservatore Romano, edizione quotidiana, CXXXVII, n. 42 (41,480), February 20, 1997, p.6.


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(62) 8. DEARDEN, John Francis
(1907-1988)

Birth. October 15, 1907, Valley Falls, diocese of Providence, Rhode Island, United States. He was the first of the five children of John Sidney Dearden and Agnes Gregory.

Education. Studied at St. Mary's Seminary, Cleveland; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; while in Rome, he resided at the Pontifical North American College.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 8, 1932, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, vicar general of Rome. Further studies, 1933-1934. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Cleveland, 1934-1937. Faculty member of St. Mary's Seminary, Cleveland, 1937-1944; rector, 1944-1948. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, July 19, 1945.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Sarepta and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Pittsburgh, March 13, 1948. Consecrated, May 18, 1948, Saint Agnes Church, Cleveland, by Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, titular archbishop of Laodicea di Frigia, apostolic delegate in the United States, assisted by Edward Francis Hoban, bishop of Cleveland, and by Floyd Lawrence Begin, titular bishop of Sala, auxiliary of Cleveland. His episcopal motto was Servio in Evangelio. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, October 15, 1950. Succeeded to the see of Pittsburgh, December 22, 1950. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Detroit, December 18, 1958. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops/U.S. Catholic Conference, 1966-1971. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Pio X alla Balduina, April 30, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14-16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 15, 1980. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; special guest. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 15, 1987.

Death. August 1, 1988, from pancreatic cancer, in Southfield, archdiocese of Detroit. Buried in Holy Sepulchre Catholic Cemetery, Southfield (1).

Bibliography. Boyea, Earl. "Dearden, John Francis." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Palatine, IL. ; Washington, DC : Jack Heraty & Associates ; The Catholic University of America, 1967-1996, vol. XIX, Supplement 1989-1995, p. 101-103; Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 113; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 63.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his gravestone, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

HIS EMINENCE
JOHN CARDINAL DEARDEN
ARCHBISHOP OF DETROIT, 1958 - 1980
DIED AUG. 1, 1988


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(63) 9. MARTY, François
(1904-1994)

Birth. May 16, 1904, Vaureilles, Pachins, diocese of Rodez, France. Of a family of farmers. Son of François Marty and his wife, and Zoé. His first baptismal name was Gabriel but he changed to the second one, François, to avoid confusion with a classmate also named Gabriel Marty.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Rodez; and at the Catholic Institute, Toulouse.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 28, 1930, Rodez. Further studies, 1930-1932. Vicar of Villefranche-de-Rouergue, between July 1932 and 1933; and successively, in that of Saint-Amans, Rodez; pastor of Bournazel; and later of Rieupeyroux; and archpriest of Millau. Vicar general of Rodez, 1951-1952.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Saint-Flour, February 1, 1952. Consecrated, May 1, 1952, cathedral of Rodez, by Marcel-Marie Dubois, bishop of Rodez, assisted by Aimédée-Alexis-Marie Maisonobe, bishop of Belley, and by Alfred Coudere, bishop of Viviers. Promoted titular archbishop of Emesa and appointed coadjutor of Reims, with right of succession, December 14, 1959. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Reims, May 9, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Prelate nullius of the Mission de France, February 22, 1965 to July 15, 1968; and May 6 to November 25, 1975. Vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of France, May 31, 1966 to May 26, 1969; president, May 26, 1969 to October 24, 1975. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Paris, March 26, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Luigi dei Francesi, April 30, 1969. President of the French Episcopal Conference, 1969-1975. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, January 31, 1981. Following his retirement, he resided at the Dominican house of Villefranche-de-Rouergue. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, May 16, 1984. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; special guest.

Death. Wednesday February 16, 1994, Villefranche-de-Rouergue, Aveyron, when his Citroen 2CV, trapped between the barriers of a grade crossing, was cut through by a passenger train (1); on July 31, 1974, he had been involved in another traffic accident. His funeral was celebrated on February 21, at the cathedral of Rodez, Aveyron. According to his wishes, he was buried in the cemetery of Pachins, Aveyron, Commune de Vareilles, beside his parents.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 407-408; Escoulen, Daniel. Il cardinal Marty : l'arcivescovo piú amato dai francesi. Prefazione del Cardinal Roger Etchegaray. Milan : Paoline, 1996. (Testimoni di ieri e di oggi ; 19). Translation of Fioretti du cardinal Marty; Escoulen, Daniel. François Marty, evêque en France. Rodez: Editions du Rouergue, 1991; Escoulen, Daniel. Petite vie du cardinal Marty. Paris : Desclée de Brouwer, 1996; Escoulen, Daniel.; Bousquet, Christian. Présence : Cardinal François Marty, témoin de l'espérance. Saint-Affrique : Fleurines, 1998; Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 2136.

Links. Photograph and biography, in French, cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica.

(1) The day of his death, he was on his way to have lunch at his sister's, Madeleine, in their native village of Pachins, as was customary for him every Wednesday.


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(64) 10. RAKOTOMALALA, Jérôme
(1914-1975)

Birth. July 15, 1914, Sainte-Marie, apostolic vicariate of Tananarive, Madagascar.

Education. Regional Seminary of Ambotaraka, Madagascar.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 31, 1943. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Tananarive, 1943-1946. Faculty member of the Regional Seminary of Ambotaraka, director of Saint Peter Canisius School, and vicar general of Tananarive, 1946-1960.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Tananarive, April 4, 1960. Consecrated, May 8, 1960, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Napoléon-Alexandre La Brie, titular bishop of Ilta, national director of the Pontifical Missionary Work of Canada, French sector, and by Fulton John Sheen, titular bishop of Cesariana, auxiliary of New York, national director of the Pontifical Missionary Work of the United States of America. His episcopal motto was Opus fac evangelista. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Paul Zoungrana, M.Afr., archbishop of Ouagadougou; Bernard Yago, archbishop of Abidjan; and Peter Poreku Dery, bishop of Wa. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Consolatrice a Casalbertone, April 30, 1969. He was the first cardinal from Madagascar.

Death. November 1, 1975, Tananarive. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Tananarive.

Link. His arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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(65) 11. FLAHIFF, C.S.B., George Bernard
(1905-1989)

Birth. October 26, 1905, Paris, diocese of Hamilton, Canada. Fourth of the nine children of John Flahiff, an innkeeper, and Eleanor Rose Marie Fleming; the children were six boys and three girls: John Joseph (died at eighteen months, chocking to death on the pits of cherries), Edward Waller, James Norma, George Bernard (the cardinal), Terrence Fleming, Eleanor Rose, Margaret Mary, Catherine McEllistrum and John Benedict.

Education. Primary studies, 1910-1917, in his home town; secondary studies, 1917-1920 and 1921-1922, also in his home town; secondary studies, St. Jerome's School, Kitchener, 1920-1921; St. Michael's College, Toronto, 1922-1926 (classics; bachelor's of arts, 1926; had Mr. Lester Pearson, future prime minister, as one of his professors; he encouraged him to follow a diplomatic career). Joined the Congregation of St. Basil; St. Basil's Novitiate, Toronto, 1926; first profession, September 20, 1927. St. Basil's Seminary, Toronto theology); Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France, 1930-1931 (history and canon law); École de Chartes, Paris (diploma of archiviste-paléographe, June 1935).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 17, 1930, church of St. Basil, Toronto, by Neil McNeil, archbishop of Toronto. Further studies, 1930-1935. Professor of medieval history at the Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, Toronto, 1935-1954; faculty member, Department of History, School of Graduate Studies, University of Toronto, 1940-1954. Secretary of the Institute of Mediaeval Studies, Toronto, 1943-1951. Member of the General Council of the Basilian Fathers, July 6, 1948. Local superior of the Basilian Fathers at Institute House, July 1, 1951. Superior general of his congregation, July 6, 1954; reelected, June 14, 1960. President of the Canadian Religious Conference, 1959-1961.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Winnipeg, March 10, 1961. Consecrated, May 31, 1961, cathedral of St. Michael, Toronto, by Cardinal James Charles McGuigan, archbishop of Toronto, assisted by Philip Francis Pocock, titular archbishop of Isauriopoli, coadjutor of Toronto, and by Michael Cornelius O'Neill, archbishop of Regina. Secretary of the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops, 1961-1962; vice-chairman, 1962; chairman, 1962-1964. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria della Salute a Primavalle, April 30, 1969. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Companion of the Order of Canada, December 6, 1975. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. In September 1980, he suffered a serious fall during the Bishop's Meeting at Chateau Laurier in Ottawa; a night watchman found him unconscious and bleeding on the staircase; evidently he had decided to use the stairs instead of the elevator and somehow missed his step because of insufficient lighting; the fall had tremendous consequences as his brain cells were damaged, which left him paralyzed; his health became more and more frail, until he died. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 31, 1982. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 26, 1985.

Death. Tuesday August 22, 1989, St. Micheal's Hospital, Toronto, of heart and respiratory failure. He was laid out in state in the chapel of Saint Basil's College, which building was later renamed after him. The first funeral took place on Monday August 28, 1989, in the metropolitan cathedral of Toronto, celebrated by Cardinal Gerald Emmett Carter, archbishop of that city; the second one took place on Wednesday August 30, in the archiepiscopal cathedral of St. Mary, Winnipeg. He was buried in the priest's plot in St. Mary's cemetery, Winnipeg (1).

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latines et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson and Lafleur, 2002, pp. 464-465; Platt, Philip Wallace. Gentle Eminence: A life of Cardinal Flahiff. Montreal: McGill Queens University Press, 1999. (McGill-Queen's Studies in the History of Religion).

Link. From Professor to Pastor: George Bernard Flahiff and the Experience of Vatican II by P. Wallace Platt, The Canadian Catholic Historical Association (CCHA), Historical Studies, 67 (2001), 42-56, in English.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

HIS EMINENCE
GEORGE BERNARD CARDINAL FLAHIFF, C.S.B.
Born: Paris, Ontario, October 26, 1905
Ordained A Priest: August 17, 1930
Consecrated A Bishop: May 31, 1961
Created A Cardinal: April 28, 1969
Archbishop Of Winnipeg 1961 - 1982
Died: August 22, 1989
"Happy Are The Gentle"


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(66) 12. GOUYON, Paul
(1910-2000)

Birth. October 24, 1910, Bordeaux, France. His baptismal name was Paul-Joseph-Marie.

Education. University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux; Seminary of Bordeaux, Bordeaux; Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Institut Catholique, Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 13, 1937. Further studies, 1937-1939. In the French Army during the Second World War, 1939-1940. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Bordeaux: pastor of Montussan and of Beychac (1940-1944); chaplain of the lycée Michel-Montaigne, in Bordeaux (1944-1951); and vicar general, in charge of the direction of Works (1951). Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 6, 1955.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bayonne, August 6, 1957. Consecrated, October 7, 1957, cathedral of Saint-André, Bordeaux, by Paul-Marie-André Richaud, archbishop of Bordeaux, assisted by Joseph-Marie-Eugène Martin, archbishop of Rouen, and by Louis Jean Guyot, bishop of Coutances et Avranches. His episcopal motto was In spiritu et veritate. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to titular archbishop of Pessinonte and appointed coadjutor of Rennes, with right of succession, August 6, 1963. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Rennes, September 4, 1964.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of Natività di Natività di Nostro Signore Gesù Cristo in via Gallia, April 30, 1969. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. National president of the association Pax Christi. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, October 15, 1985. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 24, 1990.

Death. Tuesday September 26, 2000, in the morning, in Bordeaux. His funeral took place at the metropolitan cathedral of Rennes on Friday September 29, at 3 p.m. Buried in the cemetery of the Mother House of the Little Sisters of the Poor in Saint-Pern.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 321-322.

Links. His episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(67) 13. CASARIEGO Y ACEVEDO, C.R.S., Mario
(1909-1983)

Birth. February 13, 1909, Figueras de Castropol, diocese of Oviedo, Spain. Son of Mario Casariego and Ágata Acevedo. He became an orphan when he was a little child and was sent to Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, where an uncle had a bakery. He went to Ciudad Guatemala, where he earned a living shining shoes. The boy was taken in by Doña Amelia de Estupiñián, who was impressed by his qualities, and in agreement with Fr. Mariano Rosell Arellanmo, future archbishop of Guatemala, sent him to the Somascan Fathers in El Salvador.

Education. Joined the Clerics Regular of Somasca, 1924, El Salvador; professed, October 3, 1930, Somasca, Italy. Somascan houses of studies, Bergamo and Genoa; Somascan theological seminary, San Salvador.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 19, 1936, San Salvador. Pastoral ministry in La Ceiba Institute, San Salvador, 1936-1948; its rector, 1948-1954. Counselor of his order, 1954-1957; provincial of Central America, 1957-1958.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Pudenziana and appointed auxiliary of Guatemala, November 15, 1958. Consecrated, December 27, 1958, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Girolamo Bartolomeo Bortignon, O.F.M. Cap., bishop of Padua, and by Gioacchino Muccin, bishop of Feltre e Belluno. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinal Domenico Tardini, secretary of State; and future Cardinals Albino Luciani, bishop of Vittorio Veneto, future Pope John Paul I; Carlo Grano, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, nuncio in Italy; Giuseppe Ferretto, titular archbishop of Sardica, assessor of the S.C. Consistorial; and Angelo Dell'Acqua, titular archbishop of Chalcedonia, substitute of the Secretariat of State. Promoted to the titular see of Perge and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Guatemala, September 22, 1963. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Guatemala, December 12, 1964. Kidnapped for several days by a terrorist group, March 1968; he was released a short time later. Assistant at Pontifical Throne, June 4, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Aquiro, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, April 30, 1969. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. He was the first cardinal from Guatemala.

Death. June 15, 1983, of a heart attack after a long history of cardiac complications, in Guatemala. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Guatemala.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 120.


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(68) 14. ENRIQUE Y TARANCÓN, Vicente
(1907-1994)

Birth. May 14, 1907, Burriana, diocese of Tortosa, Spain. From a family of farmers. Son of Manuel Enrique Urios and Vicenta Tarancón Fandos. He had an older brother, Manuel, and a younger sister, Vicenta. He was baptized in the parish church of Burriana, El Salvador; his godparents were his cousins Dolores Enrique Planelles and Vicente Ríos Enrique; the date of the baptism is unknown because the baptismal certificate was destroyed in a fire in the parochial archive in August 1936. He received first communion in the church of El Salvador, in Easter, 1917.

Education. Initial studies at Colegio de la Consolación in Burriana, from 1911; Colegio San José (minor seminary), Tortosa, September 23, 1917-1921 (Latin and humanities); Seminary of Tortosa, Tortosa, 1921-1928 (philosophy and theology); received the minor orders and the subdiaconate in 1928 from Félix Bilbao y Ugarriza, bishop of Tortosa; Pontifical Seminary of Valencia, Valencia, 1928-1930 (obtained a licentiate, and a doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, November 1, 1929, Tortosa, by Félix Bilbao y Ugarriza, bishop of Tortosa; celebrated his first mass at the church of El Salvador, Burriana, November 3, 1929. Named coadjutor-organist of the church arciprestal of Vinarós on August 4, 1930; director of the Marian Congregation of Mary Immaculate and St. Luis Gonzaga, 1930-1933. Named member of Casa del Consiliario, Catholic Action, Madrid, March 7, 1933. Named archpriest of Vinarós, April 1938. Archpriest of Villarreal, July 13, 1943.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Solsona, November 25, 1945. Consecrated, March 24, 1946, church arciprestal of El Salvador, Burriana, by Manuel Moll y Salord, bishop of Tortosa, assisted by Casimiro Morcillo González, titular bishop of Agatopoli, auxiliary of Madrid, and by Juan Hervás y Benet, titular bishop of Alinda, coadjutor, with right of succession, of Mallorca. Secretary of the Spanish Episcopate, February 1953. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Oviedo, April 12, 1964. Vice-president of the Spanish Episcopal Conference, 1969-1971; its president, 1971-1981. Transferred to the primatial and metropolitan see of Toledo, January 30, 1969.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni Crisostomo a Montesacro Alto, April 30, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Apostolic administrator of Madrid-Alcalá, May 30 to December 3, 1971. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; its relator; elected member of the Board of the General Secretariat, November 6, 1971. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Madrd-Alcalá, December 3, 1971. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. On November 27, 1975, he celebrated the coronation mass fro King Juan Carlos I of Spain, delivering a very important sermon for Spain's political transition to democracy. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Plenary Assembly of Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Member of "Real Academia de la Lengua Española". Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 12, 1983. He received an honorary doctorate from the Pontifical University of Salamanca in May 1984. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, May 14, 1987. Received an honorary doctorate from the Politechnical University of Valencia on October 4, 1994. The cardinal spent his last years on a farm in Torre Anita, Vila-real, province of Castellón. He was admitted to Valencia's "Casa de Salud" hospital on Wednesday, November 23, 1994; on Friday, he went into a coma.

Death. Monday November 28, 1994, of lung cancer (he was famous for his chain smoking habit), in "Casa de Salud", Valencia. He died apologizing for the inconvenience he was causing in his last moments. Archbishop Agustín García-Gasco of Valencia celebrated a first funeral mass for the cardinal at the chapel of "Casa de Salud". The body of the cardinal was transferred to Madrid, where another funeral mass was celebrated at the Colegiata de San Isidro el Real, presided over by Archbishop Antonio María Rouco Varela of Madrid, who also preached the homily. His body was laid out in state at the colegiata. The apostolic nuncio to Spain, Archbishop Mario Tagliaferri; and the president of the Spanish Episcopal Conference, Archbishop Elías Yanes, were among the hundreds of concelebrants. He was buried at the colegiata according to his will (1). He was interred beneath the floor leading to the main altar, near his predecessors in the see of Madrid, Leopoldo Eijo Garay and Casimiro Morcillo González. A monument in his memory was erected in Burriana, his native town, in 2001; and another one in Vila-real, provincia de Castellón, in 2006.

Bibliography. Blas, Ceferino de. El cardenal que coronó al Rey: Pablo VI eligió a Tarancón para separar a la Iglesia del Franquismo. Barcelona: Prensa Ibérica, 1995; Blas, Ceferino de. Tarancón, obispo y mártir. Prólogo de J.L. Martín Descalzo. Oviedo : Ediciones Naranco, 1976. (Colección España sin secreto, 1); Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 106; Echeverría, Tomás. Don Eduardo Dato su categoría politíca y los errores de don Carlos Seco Serrano : Alfonso XIII y Monseñor Tarancón Cardenal Arzobispo de Madrid. Madrid : Graficas Letra, 1982; Enrique y Tarancón, Vicente. Confesiones. Madrid: PPC: Ediciones SM, 1996; Enrique Tarancón, Vicente. Homenaje al Cardenal Enrique y Tarancón. Valencia : Generalitat Valenciana, 1997. (Monografíes ; 33; Variation: Monografíes del Consell Valencia de Cultura ; 33). Other Titles : Cardenal Enrique y Tarancón; Homenaje al Cardenal Tarancón, 1907-1994; Cardenal Tarancón, 1907-1994. Responsibility : José María Javierre ... et al.; Enrique y Tarancón, Vicente. Recuerdos de juventud. Barcelona : Grijalbo, 1984; Madrigal, Santiago. "Tarancón, intérprete y valedor del Vaticano II." Razón y fe, Tomo 256, 1305-1306, Julio-Agosto 2007, 11-22; Rodríguez, Pedro. Vicente Enrique y Tarancón. Madrid : Grupo Libro 88, 1991. (Colección Yo soy así? ; 6).

Link. Biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

Emmo. y Rvdmo. Sr. Cardenal
D. Vicente Enrique y Tarancón,
Arzobispo de Madrid - Alcalá,
Dic. 1971 - May. 1983.
Nació el 14 de Mayo de 1907,
Descansó en el Señor el 28 de Noviembre de 1994


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(69) 15. MALULA, Joseph
(1917-1989)

Birth. December 12, 1917, Léopoldville, Congo (later Zaïre; now Democratic Republic of the Congo). Fifith of the eight children of Remacle Ngalula, from Kasaï, and Jeanne Bolumbu, from Equateur. His baptismal name was Joseph-Albert.

Education. Primary school "Sainte-Anne", Lépoldoville, directed by Fr. Raphaël de la Kétuhulle (Tata Raphaël); Minor Seminary, Mbata Kiela, 1931-1934; there he met Joseph Kasavubu, future first president of the Democratic Republic of Congo; Minor Seminary of Bolongo, Lisala, 1934-1937; Major Seminary of Christ-Roi, Kabwe, apostolic vicariate of Luluabourg, 1937-1944 (philosophy, 1937-1940; and theology, 1940-1944); professor at the Minor Seminary of Bokoro, 1944-1946.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 9, 1946, stadium Reine Astrid, Léopoldville, by Georges Six, C.I.C.M., titular bishop of Baliana, vicar apostolic of Léopoldville. Successively, 1946-1959, faculty member, Minor Seminary, Bokoro; vicar, parish of Saint-Pierre, Léopoldville; vicar, and later pastor, parish of Christ-Roi, Léopoldville; pastor, parish of Saint-Pierre, Léopoldville. In 1953, he visited Algiers, Tunisia, Malta, Rome, and Belgium.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Attanaso and appointed auxiliary of Léopoldville, July 18, 1959. Consecrated, September 20, 1959, stadium Tata Raphaël, Léopoldville, by Felix Scalais, C.C.I.M., archbishop of Léopoldville, assisted by Pierre Kimbondo, bishop of Kisantu, and by Joseph Nkongolo, titular bishop of Lebedo, vicar apostolic of Luebo. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Léopoldville, July 7, 1964; name of the see changed to Kinshasa, May 30, 1966. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Protomartiri a via Aurelia Antica, April 30, 1969. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; one of its three presidents delegate. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. He was the first cardinal from Zaïre.

Death. June 14, 1989, after a long illness, Saint-Luc Hospital, Louvain, Belgium. Buried in Notre Dame du Congo metropolitan cathedral, Kinshasa.

Bibliography. Luyeye Luboloko, François. Le Cardinal J. A. Malula. Un pasteur prophétique. Kinshasa : Éditions Jean XXIII, 1999.

Link. Le Cardinal Malula: d'une Église missionnaire à une Église africaine.


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(70) 16. MUÑOZ VEGA, S.J., Pablo
(1903-1994)

Birth. May 23, 1903, Mira, diocese of Tulcán, Ecuador. Son of Antonio Muñoz Carrera and Josefina Vega.

Education. Joined the Society of Jesus, September 27, 1918; studied at Jesuit houses of studies, Quito; at Colegio Máximo de Oña, Burgos, Spain; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 25, 1933 Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1933-1937. Faculty member of the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1937-1949; 1958-1964. Jesuit provincial of Ecuador, 1949-1955. Rector of the Pontifical Pio-Latin American College, Rome, 1955-1958. Rector magnifico of the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1958-1963. Expert at the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1963.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Ceramo and appointed coadjutor sedis datus of Quito, February 7, 1964. Consecrated, March 19, 1964, church of S. Ignazio, Rome, by Cardinal Carlo Confalonieri, secretary of S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Martin John O`Connor, titular archbishop of Laodicea di Siria, president of the Pontifical Commission for Social Communications. His episcopal motto was Aeterna veritas vera caritas. Attended the last wo sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1964-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Quito, June 23, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. President of the Episcopal Conference of Ecuador.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Roberto Bellarmino, April 30, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; named one of its three president delegates, August 2, 1971. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, May 23, 1983. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, June 1, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992.

Death. June 3, 1994, Quito. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Quito.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Spanish, Conferencia Episcopal Ecuatoriana; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(71) 17. POMA, Antonio
(1910-1985)

Birth. June 12, 1910, Villanterio, diocese of Pavia, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Pavia; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology in 1934.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 15, 1933, chapel of the Major Roman Seminary, Rome, by Giuseppe Palica, titular archbishop of Filippo, vice-gerent of Rome. Secretary to the bishop of Pavia and faculty member of the Seminary of Pavia, 1935-1947; its rector, 1947-1951.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tagaste and appointed auxiliary of Mantua, October 28, 1951. Consecrated, Sunday December 9, 1951, cathedral of Pavia, by Carlo Allorio, bishop of Pavia, assisted by Vittorio De Zanche, bishop of Concordia, and by Giuseppe Piazzi, bishop of Crema. Named coadjutor of Mantua, with right of succession, August 2, 1952. Succeeded to the see of Mantua, September 8, 1954. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to titular archbishop of Gerpiniana and appointed coadjutor of Bologna, with right of succession, July 16, 1967. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Bologna, February 12, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Luca al Prenestino, April 30, 1969. President of the Italian Episcopal Conference. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress, Udine, Italy, September 10, 1973. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the V Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 11, 1983. Apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of Bologna, February 11 to March 18, 1983.

Death. September 24, 1985, of heart related problems, Bologna; he also was a long time sufferer of erysipelas. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna (1).

Bibliography. Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica, 3), pp. 606-617.

(1) In the south side of the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna, on the eastern (left hand) side of the altar inside the chapel of S. Carlo Borromeo is the tomb of Cardinal Poma (the tomb of the short-lived Archbishop Enrico Manfredini of Bologna is on the western (right hand) side). On the wall, there is a bronze showing a chalice with wheatsheaves and a book with the words DEI AGRICULTURA ESTIS, by Marco Marchesini. On the floor is a tombstone with the cardinal's arms and this inscription, which text was provided by Mr. Mark West, London, England:

RIPOSA IN CRISTO
NEL GREMBO DELLA CHIESA MADRE
IL CARD. ANTONIO POMA
VESCOVO A MANTUA DAL 1951 AL 1967
ARCHIVESCOVO DI BOLOGNA
DAL 1968 AL 1983
N. A VILLANTERIO - PAVIA IL 12.6.1910
M. A BOLOGNA IL 24.9.1985
SEMINO' VERITA E CARITA
NEI SOLCHI DELLA PAZIENZA EVANGELICA
PASTORE BUONO
RICORDATI DI NOI DAVANTI AL SIGNORE
PERCHE FORMIANO UN CUORE SOLO
E UN' ANIMA SOLA


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(72) 18. CARBERRY, John Joseph
(1904-1998)

Birth. July 31, 1904, Brooklyn, New York, United States of America. Son of James Joseph Carberry and Mary Elizabeth O'Keefe.

Education. Studied at Cathedral College, Brooklyn; at the Pontifical Academy of the Immaculate Conception, Rome; and at The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., where he earned a doctorate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 28, 1929, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, vicar general of Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Brooklyn, 1930-1931; 1935; 1940-1941; 1945-1956. Further studies, 1931-1934. Faculty member of the Immaculate Conception Seminary, Huntington, N.Y., 1935; 1941-1945. Secretary to the bishop of Trenton, N.J., and assistant chancellor of that diocese, 1935-1940. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, February 3, 1948. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 7, 1954.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Elide and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Lafayette in Indiana, May 3, 1956. Consecrated, July 25, 1956, Our Lady of Perpetual Help church, Brooklyn, by Raymond Augustine Kearny, titular bishop of Lisinia, auxiliary of Brooklyn, assisted by George William Ahr, bishop of Trenton, and by John Benjamin Grellinger, titular bishop of Siene, auxiliary of Green Bay. Succeeded to the see of Lafayette in Indiana, November 20, 1957. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Transferred to the see of Columbus, Ohio, January 16, 1965. President of the Canon Law Society of America, May 1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of St. Louis, February 17, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni Battista de Rossi, April 30, 1969. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Resigned the pastoral government of archdiocese, July 31, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, July 31, 1984.

Death. June 17, 1998, at St. Agnes Home in Kirkwood, Missouri, where he retired after suffering from a stroke. Buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral basilica of St. Louis, beside Cardinal Joseph Elmer Ritter (1). His remains were later transferred to the All Souls chapel in the same cathedral (2).

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 127; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 35.

Link. Photograph and brief biographical data, in English, fourth from the bottom of the page.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

CARDINAL
JOHN J.
CARBERRY
1904 - 1998


(2) This is the inscription on his vault, also provided by Mr. Bonnici:
CARDINAL
JOHN JOSEPH CARBERRY
BORN JULY 31, 1904
ORDINATION TO THE PRIESTHOOD
JULY 28, 1929
EPISCOPAL ORDINATION
JULY 25, 1956
COADJUTOR BISHOP OF LAFAYETTE IN INDIANA
AUGUST 22, 1956
BISHOP OF LAFAYETTE IN INDIANA
NOVEMBER 20, 1957
BISHOP OF COLUMBUS
MARCH 25, 1965
ARCHBISHOP OF ST. LOUIS
MARCH 25, 1968
CARDINAL
APRIL 28, 1969
DIED JUNE 17, 1998
MARIA REGINA MATER


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(73) 19. COOKE, Terence James
(1921-1983)

Birth. March 1, 1921, New York, New York, United States of America. Son of Michael Cooke, a chauffeur, and Margaret Gannon; she died when Terence was nine years old.

Education. Initial studies at Cathedral College, New York; he then entered St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, New York; The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. (graduate studies in social work); University of Chicago, Chicago.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 1, 1945, New York, by Francis Joseph Spellman, archbishop of New York. Chaplain at Saint Agatha's Home for Children, Bronx, 1945-1947. Further studies, 1947-1949. Faculty member of Fordham University, New York, 1949-1954. Pastoral ministry in Saint Athanasius parish, New York, 1949-1954. Director of youth activities of the Catholic Charities of New York, and bursar of St. Joseph's Seminary, 1954-1956. Episcopal vicar of the Bronx and Manhattan, and secretary to the cardinal archbishop of New York, 1957-1965. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, August 13, 1957. Vice-chancellor of the archdiocese of New York, 1958-1961; chancellor, 1961-1965. Supervisor of all the programs of building constructions of the archdiocese of New York, 1958-1965.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Summa and appointed auxiliary of New York, September 5, 1965. Organized the visit of Pope Paul VI to the United Nations Organization and New York City, October 4, 1965. Consecrated, December 15, 1965, St. Patrick's cathedral, New York, by Cardinal Francis Joseph Spellman, archbishop of New York, assisted by Joseph Thomas McGucken, archbishop of San Francisco, and by John Joseph Maguire, titular archbishop of Tabalta, coadjutor of New York. In the same ceremony was consecrated William Joseph Moran, titular bishop of Centuria, auxiliary of the military vicar of the United States of America. His episcopal motto was Fiat voluntas tua. Named vicar general of the archdiocese of New York, December 15, 1965. Member of the National Commission to study civil disorders. Promoted to the metropolitan see of New York, March 2, 1968. Named military vicar of U.S. Armed Forces, April 4, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, April 30, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981.

Death. October 6, 1983, in his archiepiscopal residence in New York, after a five year battle with acute myelomonoblastic leukemia, which he spent on almost constant chemotherapy treatment. Buried in the crypt of St. Patrick's metropolitan cathedral, New York; according to his personal wishes, he was buried in the simplest of caskets and clad in a white chasuble, a gift from students at Monsignor Farrell High School on Staten Island (1).

Sainthood. Father Benedict J. Groeschel, C.F.R., was named postulator of the cause of canonization by Cardinal John O'Connor; and in 1992, Cardinal Cooke was officially designated Servant of God by the Congregation of the Causes of Saints. On April 14, 2010, the positio for his beatification was submitted to Pope Benedict XVI by Archbishop Timothy Dolan of New York.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, pp. 146-147; Code, Bernard. American Bishops 1964-1970. St. Louis : Wexford Press, 1970, p. 7; Groeschel, Benedict J. Thy will be done : a spiritual portrait of Terence Cardinal Cooke. Staten Island, N.Y.: Alba House, 1990.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana; Terence Cardinal Cooke Cause for Canonization, Cardinal Cooke Guild.

(1) This is the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

SERVANT OF GOD
1992
TERENCE CARDINAL COOKE
1921 - 1983
ARCHBISHOP
MILITARY VICAR
1968 - 1983


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(74) 20. KIM, Stephen Sou-hwan
(1922-2009)

Birth. May 8, 1922, Tae Gu, South Korea. He was the youngest of the eight children of a poor and devout Catholic family. His grandfather, John Kim Bo-hyeon, died while preaching in prison after being persecuted for being a Catholic.

Education. Secondary studies at Dong Sung High School, a Catholic institution; then, studied at the Seminary of Tae Gu; at the Catholic University of Sophia, Tokyo, Japan, from 1941 to 1944 (philosophy); while studying in Japan, he was temporarily sent to train as a student soldier; later, he returned to his studies when the Korean War (1950-1953) ended; then attended the Catholic University of Korea from 1947 to 1951 (theology); and finally, the University of Münster, Germany, from 1957 to 1964 (theology and sociology).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 15, 1951, Tae Gu. Secretary to the bishop of Tae Gu, pastoral ministry in the diocese of Tae Gu, and director of the diocesan newspaper The Catholic Shilbo, 1947-1956, and 1964-1966. Further studies, 1957-1964.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Masan, February 15, 1966. Consecrated, May 31, 1966, by Antonio del Giudice, titular archbishop of Gerapoli di Siria, internuncio in Korea, assisted by John B. Sye Bong-Kil, archbishop of Tae Gu, and by John A. Choi Jae-seon, bishop of Pusan. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Seoul, April 9, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Felice da Cantalice a Centocelle, April 30, 1969. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Apostolic administrator of Pyeong Yang, June 10, 1975. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 19 to May 18, 1998; one of its three president delegates. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, May 29, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, May 8, 2002. Cardinal protopriest, March 13, 2004. He was renowned as an advocate of human rights and contributed to the democracy in his country where military regimes ruled in 1960s and 1970s. He made the Myong-dong cathedral in Seul a refuge for the non-violent opponents of the dictatorship; the military did not dare to enter the cathedral because they knew that it was deffended by the people. For many years, Cardinal Kim was the most influentail personality of South Korea. He was devoted to North Korean churches and their believers and created a religious organization in 1995 to prepare for the reunification of the two Koreas. He was the first cardinal from South Korea.

Death. Monday February 16, 2009, at 6:12 p.m., Korean time, of a combination of old age and a history of frail health, at the Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital in Seoul, where he had been since last July. The archdiocese of Seoul set up a mourning hall in the metropolitan cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of Mary, Myeongdong, Seoul, and celebrated a funeral mass at 10 a.m., February 20, after four days of memorial masses dedicated to Cardinal Kim. More than 400,000 people had paid homage to the late cardinal during those days. According to the hospital where he died, his eyes were donated to two patients awaiting cornea transplants. The number of organ donations tripled after his death. Cardinal Nicholas Cheong Jin-suk, archbishop of Seoul, was the special representative of the pope to preside over the funeral ceremony. Apostolic Nuncio Osvaldo Padilla read a eulogy on behalf of the pope; there were four more eulogies during the mass, including one from President Lee Myung-bak read by Prime Minister Han. Around 800 people, including the cardinal's family and close friends, Catholic clergymen, Prime Minister Han Seung-soo, Culture Minister Yu In-chon, and ambassadors from Great Britain, Spain, Germany, Italy and Australia, attended the nearly two-hour-long ceremony. Religious leaders from Protestantism, Buddhism, Won-Buddhism and Cheondoism took up the first-row at the funeral mass. Another estimated 10,000 people braved the cold weather to watch it on big screens outside the cathedral. Many were seen wiping away tears throughout the Mass. The body of the late cardinal was buried in the ground in the Catholic priests' cemetery in Yongin, province of Gyeonggi, next to Archbishop Paul Marie Ro Ki-nam. A red banner inscribed with the late cardinal's name and titles was placed over the coffin. Incense was burnt and holy water sprinkled over it. Then shovels of dirt were heaped on by remaining family members and bishops. Sounds of prayer grew louder as dirt covered the coffin, and hymns were mixed with them to bid a final farewell. U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton, who was holding a press conference with Foreign Minister Yu Myung-hwan at the same time as the funeral, also paid tribute to Cardinal Kim.

Link. Photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Ofice; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(75) 21. TABERA ARAOZ, C.M.F., Arturo
(1903-1975)

Birth. October 29, 1903, Barco de Ávila, diocese of Ávila, Spain. His parents were Obdulio Tabera and Emilia Araoz.

Education. Joined the Congregation of Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, May 1915, Don Benito, Badajoz; professed in the Novitiate of Jerez de los Caballeros on August 15, 1920; continued his studies at Aguas Santas, Jerez de los Caballeros, studying philosophy for three years; and then at the Theologate of Zafra, where he studied theology for five years; chosen by his superior to continue his studies in Rome, he was sent to the Eternal City in the summer of 1928; rceived the subdiaconate on November 25, 1928; and the diaconate on the following December 2. He studied at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law in 1930; among his professors was Father Arcadio Larraona, C.M.F., future cardinal.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1928, by Cardinal Basilio Pompilj, vicar general of His Holiness for Rome, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Further studies, 1929-1930. From 1929 until 1933, he collaborated with Commentarium pro religiosis, particularly with a serie of studies on the theme of the demission of the religious. Successively, 1930-1946, faculty member of Theological School of Zafra, Badajoz. In 1933, together with Father Larraona, attended the International Congress of Roman Law celebrated in Bologna and Rome on the occasion of the 14th centennial of the publication of the Pandoctas by Emperor Justinian in 533. Sub-director of the journal Ilustración del Clero, Madrid, 1935. From 1940, he was apostolic visitor to the Congregation of Santo Ángel. Secretary-redactor of the journal Commemoratium pro religiosis, Rome. Secretary of the prefecture of studies of his congregation. Founder of the journal Vida religiosa, Rome, 1944. Vice-postulator of the cause of beatification of Cardinal Marcelo Spínola Maestre, archbishop of Sevilla. Secretary of the general prefecture of studies of his congregation.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lirbe and appointed apostolic administrator of Barbastro, Spain, February 16, 1946. Consecrated, May 5, 1946, church of San Francisco el Grande, Madrid, by Leopoldo Eijo y Garay, bishop of Madrid, patriarch of the West Indies, assisted by Enrique Delgado y Gómez, bishop of Almería, and by Santos Moro Briz, bishop of Ávila. His episcopal motto was Donec formetur Christus in vibos. Took possession of the see on June 16, 1946. Delegate of Spain to the First Bolivarian Eucharistic Congress celebrated in Cali, Colombia, from January 23 to 29, 1949. On February 2, 1950, when the apostolic administration of Barbastro was elevated to the rank of diocese, he became its first bishop. Transferred to the new diocese of Albacete, May 13, 1950. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Pamplona, July 23, 1968. Took possession of the see on August 14, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, April 30, 1969. Named prefect of the S.C. for Divine Worship on February 20, 1971. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Papal legate to the 8th centennial celebration of Saint Dominic's birth, Bologna, Italy, October 25, 1971. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Pamplona, December 4, 1971. Special papal envoy to the 8th National Eucharistic Congress, Valencia, Spain, May 22 to 28, 1972. Prefect of the S.C. for Religious, September 8, 1973. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974.

Death. June 13, 1975, at 12:06 p.m., of a heart attack, after having received the last sacraments, at clinica Pio XI, Rome. His body was exposed in the chapel of the Claretianum, near the clinic where he had died. The funeral took place on the following June 16, in the transept of Ss. Processo e Martiniano, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. The mass was celebrated by Paul Augustine Mayer, O.S.B., titular archbishop of Satriano, secretary of the S.C. for Religious and Secular Institutes. At the end of the ceremony, Cardinal Lugi Traglia, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, imparted the final absolution and said the final prayers. He was buried in the basilica of Sacred Heart of Mary, Piazza Euclide, Rome.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 107; Mesa, Carlos E. Galería de prelados claretianos. Medellín : Editorial Zuluaga, 1985, p. 465-522.

Link. Photograph and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.

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(76) 22. SALES, Eugênio de Araújo
(1920-2012)

Birth. November 8, 1920, farm Catuana (now a shelter for the elderly), Acari, diocese of Caico, Brazil. Son of Celso Dantas Sales, judge of the High Court, and Josefa de Araújo Sales. He was baptized on the day of his birth in the parish of Nossa Senhora da Guia in Acari. His younger brother, Heitor, was archbishop of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, from 1993 until 2003.

Education. Initial studies in a private school in Natal for a year, 1930; and at the Marist School of the same city from 1931 until 1935; then, he entered the Minor Seminary of São Pedro, Natal in 1936; in 1937, he was sent to the Major Seminary of Prainha, in Fortaleza, where he studied philosophy and theology until 1943.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 21, 1943, Natal, by Marcolino Esmeraldo de Souza Dantas, bishop of Natal. Pastoral ministry, Natal, 1943-1954.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tibica and appointed auxiliary of Natal, June 1, 1954. Consecrated, August 15, 1954, Natal, by José de Medeiros Delgado, archbishop of São Luis do Maranhão, assisted by Elizeu Simões Mendes, bishop of Mossoró, and by José Adelino Dantas, bishop of Caicó. Apostolic administrator, sede plena, of Natal, January 6, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Apostolic administrator of the archdiocese of São Salvador da Bahia, July 6, 1964. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of São Salvador da Bahia, October 29, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Gregorio VII, April 30, 1969. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Brasília, May 5, 1970. Transferred to the metropolitan see of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, March 13, 1971. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Ordinary for the faithful of Oriental rite without their own ordinary, June 22, 1972. Between 1976 and 1982, he provided shelter to nearly 5,000 Brazilian opponents of the military regime as well as political refugees fleeing the dictatorships of Argentina and Chile; they were put up in 80 apartments rented by the archdiocese or received help to travel to other countries, mostly in Europe. Attended the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Attended the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of Holy See, May 31, 1981 to 1993. Co-president of the Pontifmcal Council for Culture from 1982 until 1988. He was member of the Congregations for Catholic Education (1983-1989); for Oriental Churches (1983); for the Evangelization of Peoples (1983); for Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments (1984); of the Prefecture for the Economical Affairs of the Apsotlic See (1991); and of the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law. Attended the Second Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 23 to 26, 1982; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Third Plenary Meeting of the College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 21 to 23, 1985; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Special papal envoy to the 12th National Eucharistic Congress, Natal, October 6 to 13, 1991. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. President delegate of the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, November 16 to December 12, 1997, Vatican City. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, November 8, 2000. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 25, 2001. Apostolic administrator of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, July 25, 2001 to September 22, 2001. Resigned the office of ordinary for the faithful of Oriental rite without their own ordinary, October 3, 2001. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the coronation of the statue of "Nossa Senhora Aparecida" and the 150th anniversary of the definition of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception that took place in Aparecida, Brazil, September 8, 2004. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the centennial of the coronation of the image of "Nossa Senhora do Sameiro" and of the 150th anniversary of the definition of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception. The celebrations took place in Braga, Portugal, on December 8, 2004. Cardinal protopriest, February 16, 2009. His immense concern for the poor and the social question was manifested by the establishment of pastoral plans for the incarcerated, for health, for workers, for domestics, for the anonymous, for minors, and for the Favelas (a settlement of jerry-built shacks lying on the outskirts of Brazilian cities).

Death. Monday July 9, 2012, at 10:30 p.m., of a myocardial infarction, in his sleep, at Residência Episcopal de Nossa Senhora da Assunção, in the neighborhood of Sumaré, in Rio de Janeiro. Successively, his body was embalmed at the Cemitério de Inhaúma, from where a cortège left to Centro do Rio. His body was laid out in state in the metropolitan cathedral of São Sebastião do Janeiro on Tuesday July 10, from noon. Masses were celebrated every two hours. The funeral, presided by Archbishop Orani João Tempesta, O. Cist., of Rio de Janeiro, took place on Wednesday July 11, at 3 p.m., as soon as Karl Romer, titular bishop of Colonnata, auxiliary emeritus of Rio de Janeiro and former secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Family, arrived in Brazil from Rome. The cardinal's brother, Heitor Sales, archbishop emeritus of Natal, was in Switzerland at the time of the cardinal's death, but returned to Brazil upon learning the news. The cardinal's death came quite unexpectedly. Despite his advanced age, he suffered from no diseases and kept himself active and updated by watching TV and reading several newspapers. The late cardinal was buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral, which is a separate building in the cathedral grounds (1). Upon learning the news of his death, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Archbishop Tempesta (2). The governor of Rio de Janeiro, Sérgio Cabral, decreed three days of mourning in the state. He and the prefect of the city, Eduardo Paes, issued statements lamenting the death of the cardinal.

Link. Photograph and biography, in Portuguese, archdiocese of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Homenagem a Dom Eugenio por ocasião dos seus 90 anos, You Tube, 6 de novembro de 2010; Morre o cardeal dom Eugenio Sales, O Globo, 09/07/2012 23h58 - Atualizado em 10/07/2012 12h42; Eldest Cardinal passes away: Eugenio de Araújo Sales was named Cardinal by Paul VI, Rome Reports, 2012-07-10 16:28:42. Note: He was not the eldest but the most senior cardinal; Uma herança pautada na humildade e no amor à Igreja, Colaboração: Raquel Araujo, Arquidiocese de São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, 10/07/2012; Brazilian cardinal who attended Vatican II, helped poor, dies at 91 by Carol Glatz, Catholic News Service, Jul-10-2012.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

DOM EUGENIO DE ARAUJO CARDEAL SALES
ARCEBISPO DA ARQUIDIOCESE DE
SAO SEBASTIAO DO RIO DE JANEIRO
DE 24-04-1971 A 25-07-2001
ORDENACAO PRESBITERAL 21-11-1943
ORDENACAO EPISCOPAL 15-08-1954
"IMPENDAM ET SUPERIMPENDAR"
DESPENDEREI, E ME DESPENDEREI TODO INTEIRO
EM VOSSO FAVOR - 2 COR 12,15
* 08-11-1920
+ 09.07.2012

(2) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the site of the archdiocese of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro:

Exmo Revmo Dom Orani João Tempesta
Arcebispo de São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro

Recebi a triste notmcia do falecimento do Venerado Cardeal Eugenio de Araujo Sales, depois de uma longa vida de dedicagão à Igreja no Brasil, venho exprimir meus pêsames a si e aos bispos auxiliares, ao clero e comunidades religiosas, aos fiéis da Arquidiocese de São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, que por três décadas teve nele um intrépido pastor, revelando-se autêntica testemunha do Evangelho no meio do seu povo.
Dou graças ao Senhor por ter dado à Igreja tão generoso pastor que, nos seus setenta anos de sacerdócio e cinquenta e oito de episcopado, procurou apontar a todos a senda da verdade na caridade e do serviço à comunidade, em permanente atengão pelos mais desfavorecidos, na fidelidade ao seu lema episcopal: Impendam et superimpendar (gastarei e gastar-me-ei por inteiro por vós).
Enquanto elevo fervorosas preces para que Deus acolha na sua felicidade eterna este seu servo bom e fiel, envio a essa comunidade arquidiocesana, que lamenta perda dessa admirada figura, à Igreja no Brasil, que nele sempre teve um seguro ponto de referência e de fidelidade à Sé Apostólica e a quantos tomam parte nos sufrágios animados pela esperança da ressurreigão, uma confortadora bênção apostólica. "


An analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B, secretary of State.


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(77) 23. HÖFFNER, Joseph
(1906-1987)

Birth. December 24, 1906, Horhausen, diocese of Trier, Germany. He was the eldest son of Paul Höffner, a famer, and Helene Schug.

Education. Studied at Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gymnasium in Montabaur, until 1922; at Friedrich-Wilhelms-Gymnasium in Trier, from 1922 to 1926; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1926 to 1934 (theology and philosophy; obtained a doctorate in philosophy in 1929, thesis: "Der technische Fortschritt und das Heil des Menschen"; obtained a doctorate in theology in 1934, thesis: "Soziale Gerechtigkeit und soziale Liebe: Versuch einer Bestimmung ihres Wesens"; further studies from 1937 to 1939 in theology and economics in Freiburg; earned a second doctorate in theology in 1938, thesis: "Bauer und Kirche im deutschen Mittelalter"; obtained a diploma in economics in 1939; earned a doctorate in economics in 1940, thesis: Wirtschaftsethik und Monopole im fünfzehnten und sechzehnten Jahrhundert"; received the "Habilitation" in theology in the Theological Faculty of Friburg im Breisgau in 1945, thesis: "Christentum und Menschenwürde. Das Anliegen der spanischen Kolonialethik im Goldenen Zeitalter".

Priesthood. Ordained, October 30, 1932, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, vicar general of Rome. Further studies, 1934-1940. Pastoral ministry: chaplan in Saarbrücken, 1934-1936; parish priest in Kail (Mosel); parish priest in Trier; 1943-1945. Professor of pastoral theology and "Christliche Soziallehre" at the Seminary of Trier, 1945-1950; of the Theological Faculty of Trier, 1950-1951. Professor of "Christliche Sozialwissenschaften" at the University of Münster, 1951-1962. Founder, director, and faculty member of the Institute of Christian Social Sciences, Münich, 1951-1961. Scientific advisor to three ministries of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Münster, July 9, 1962. Consecrated, September 14, 1962, by Matthias Wehr, bishop of Trier, assisted by Heinrich Baaken, titular bishop of Gordo, and by Heinrich Tenhumberg, titular bishop of Tuburnica, auxiliary of Münster. His episcopal motto was Justitia et Caritas. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. In 1966, he was granted the grand plaque of honor of the Kolping-Familie and the grand Order of Merit with star; the grand cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (1981); the grand cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Italy (1982); and the ring of honor of the Gverres Society (1986). Promoted to titular archbishop of Aquileia and appointed coadjutor of Cologne, with right of succession, January 6, 1969. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Cologne, February 24, 1969.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Andrea della Valle, April 30, 1969. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; relator; member of the Board of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, November 6, 1971. Received a doctorate honoris causa from Sophia-University, Tokio (1973); from the Pontifical University of St. Thomas, Manila, Philippines (1978); from Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipeh (1979); from Ateneo de Manila University (1983); and from Universidad Panamericana, México (1986). Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; member of the general secretariat, 1977-1980. Chairman of the German Conference of Bishops, 1976 to 1987. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. Special papal envoy to the consecration of the cathedral of Stockholm, Sweden, March 25, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, December 24, 1986. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, September 14, 1987; a few months before he had been diagnosed with an unoperable brain tumor. He was one of the greatest experts of his time on Church social doctrine.

Death. October 16, 1987, of a brain tumor, in Cologne. The funeral mass was celebrated by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, later Pope Benedict XVI. He was buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Cologne. In October 2003, he and his sister Helene Hesseler-Höffner were named "Righteous Among the Nations" by the state of Israel, for having saved Jewish lives during the Second World War. The award is the highest conferred by Israel on non-Jews.The "Deutsche Post" honored him in 2006, on the occasion of his 100th birthday, with a stamp, which included his photo and episcopal motto.

Bibliography. Gatz, Erwin. "Höffner, Joseph." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1945 2001 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Unter Mitwirkung von Franz Xaver Bischof ... [et al.] ; herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2002, p. 290-295; Höffner, Joseph ; Weyand, Winfried. Schriftenverzeichnis Joseph Höffner, 1933-1983. Köln : Die Bibliothek, 1986. Responsibility: von Winfried Weyand ; herausgegeben von der Erzbischöflichen Diözesan- und Dombibliothek Köln; Höffner, Joseph ; Weyand, Winfried. Schriftenverzeichnis Joseph Höffner, 1984-1988. Köln : Die Bibliothek, 1986. Responsibility: von Winfried Weyand ; herausgegeben von der Erzbischöflichen Diözesan- und Dombibliothek Köln. Note: Continues: Schriftenverzeichnis Joseph Höffner, 1933-1983.

Links. Portrait and biographical informatiom, in German; his tomb, metropolitan cathedral of Colgne; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; and catalog of bishops and archbishops of Cologne with their portraits and biographies in German.


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(78) 24. WRIGHT, John Joseph
(1909-1979)

Birth. July 18, 1909, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. Son of John Joseph Wright, a paper-factory clerk, and Harriet Louise Cokely.

Education. Studied at Boston College; at Saint John's Seminary, Brighton; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 8, 1935, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, vicar general of Rome. Further studies, 1935-1939. Faculty member of Saint John's Seminary, Brighton, 1939-1943. Secretary to the archbishop of Boston, November 8, 1944. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, December 17, 1944.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Egea and appointed auxiliary of Boston, May 10, 1947. Consecrated, June 30, 1947, cathedral of the Holy Cross, Boston, by Richard Cushing, archbishop of Boston, assisted by Ralph Leo Hayes, bishop of Davenport, and by James Louis Connelly, titular bishop of Milasa and coadjutor of Fall River. His episcopal motto was Resonare Christum. Transferred to the diocese of Worcester, January 28, 1950. Transferred to the diocese of Pittsburgh, January 23, 1959. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Prefect of the S.C. for Clergy, April 23, 1969.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of Gesù Divin Maestro alla Pineta Sacchetti, April 30, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; president delegate, August 2, 1971. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Did not participate in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I, because of illness. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. In 1978, after undergoing a cataract operation and surgery to correct a neuromuscular disorder in his legs, he was confined to a wheelchair the rest of his life. He was very knowledgeable about St. Joan of Arc.

Death. August 10, 1979, of polymyositis, at Youiville Rehabilitation and Chronic Disease Hospital, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America. Buried in the family plot, at the Field of St. Paul, Lot 3090, in Holyhood Cemetery, Brookline, Massachusetts (1).

Bibliography. Almagno, R. Stephen. Cardinal John Joseph Wright, the bibliophile. Pittsburgh: The Pittsburgh Bibliophiles, 1980; Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 109; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 300.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

WRIGHT
JOHN CARDINAL WRIGHT
1909 - 1979
"RESONARE CHRISTUM CORDE ROMANO"


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(79) 25. BERTOLI, Paolo
(1908-2001)

Birth. February 1, 1908, Poggio Garfagnana, diocese of Apuania (now archdiocese of Lucca), Italy. Son of Carlo Bertoli and Aride Poli.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Lucca; at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, where he earned doctorates in philosophy and theology; and at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 15, 1930, Lucca, by Giuseppe Bertazzoni, bishop of Massa Carrara. Further studies, 1930-1933. Attaché and auditor of the nunciature in Yugoslavia, 1933-1938. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, January 16, 1934; reappointed, March 3, 1939. Auditor of the nunciature in France, 1938-1942. Chargé d'affaires of apostolic delegation in the Antilles, 1942-1946. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, January 26, 1946. Papal representative to the International Conference to solve the problems caused by the Second World War, Berne, Switzerland, 1946; papal representative to the Red Cross Congresses in Copenhagen and Genève. Chargé d'affaires of the nunciature in Czechoslovakia, 1949; unable to hold the post for political reasons.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicomedia, March 24, 1952. Appointed apostolic delegate in Turkey, March 26, 1952. Consecrated, May 11, 1952, church of S. Maria in Campitelli, Rome, by Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, bishop of Ostia and Porto e Santa Rufina, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Valerio Valeri, titular archbishop of Efeso, assessor of the S.C. of the Oriental Church, and by Filippo Bernardini, titular archbishop of Antiochia di Pisidia, nuncio in Switzerland. His episcopal motto was Fide tutior. Named nuncio in Colombia, May 7, 1953. Nuncio in Lebanon, April 15, 1959. Nuncio in France, April 16, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Girolamo della Carità, April 30, 1969. Prefect of the S.C. for the Causes of the Saints, May 7, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Resigned the prefecture, March 1, 1973. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, March 5, 1973. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. Named camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, May 5, 1979. Bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, June 30, 1979. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Special papal envoy to the National Marian Congress, Mendoza, Argentina, October 8 to 12, 1980. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Papal legate to the opening of the Holy Door at S. Paolo fuori le mura basilica, December 24, 1983. Resigned the post of camerlengo, March 25, 1985. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 1, 1988.

Death. November 8, 2001, Rome. Buried in the family chapel in the cemetery of Garfagnana, archdiocese of Lucca.

Bibliography. Restrepo Posada, José. "Galería de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia." Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica, V (January-June, 1970), 242-243.

Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; and Cappella Papale, funeral mass for Cardinal Paolo Bertoli, November 9, 2001, L'Osservatore Romano.


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(80) 26. BAGGIO, Sebastiano
(1913-1993)

Birth. May 16, 1913, Rosà, diocese of Vicenza, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Vicenza (classics);at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (theology; doctorate in canon law); and at the School of paleography, diplomacy and library science, Vatican City.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1935. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See, 1936; attaché of the nunciature in Austria, 1936-1938; in El Salvador, 1938-1940; secretary of the nunciature in Bolivia, 1940-1942; in Venezuela, 1942-1946; in Austria, August to December 1946. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 3, 1939. Attaché of the first section of the Secretariat of State, 1946-1948. Chargé d'affaires of the nunciature in Colombia, 1948-1950. Substitute of the S.C. Consistorial, June 1950 to 1953. National chaplain of the Italian Catholic Scouts and liaison between the Holy See and the International Federation of Scoutism, 1950. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, October 4, 1951.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Efeso, June 30, 1953. Appointed nuncio in Chile, July 1, 1953. Consecrated, July 26, 1953, church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, by Cardinal Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, O.C.D., bishop of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Carlo Zinato, bishop of Vicenza. His episcopal motto was Operando custodire. Apostolic delegate in Canada, March 12, 1959. Nuncio in Brazil, May 26, 1964. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Angeli Custodi a Città Girardino, April 30, 1969. Named archbishop of Cagliari, June 23, 1969. Prefect of the S.C. for Bishops, February 26, 1973. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Sebastiano alle Catecombe, December 21, 1973. Special papal envoy to the Bolivarian Eucharistic Congress, Quito, Ecuador, June 9 to 16, 1974. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Named cardinal bishop of title of suburbicarian see of Velletri, December 12, 1974; on October 21, 1981, the see of Segni was united with the suburbicarian see of Velletri and they became the see of Velletri e Segni; on September 30, 1986, the name was changed to Velletri-Segni. Special papal envoy to the Ninth Brazilian National Eucharistic Congress, Manaus, July 6-20, 1975. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; president delegate. Appointed one of the three presidents of the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, February 2, 1978; the assembly was scheduled for October 12 to 28, 1978, Puebla, México; it was suspended because of the death of the pope. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Confirmed as prefect of the S.C. for Bishops and president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, August 28, 1978. Confirmed as a president delegate of the Third General Assembly of the Latin American Episcopate, August 30, 1978. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Confirmed as prefect of the S.C. for Bishops and president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, October 28, 1978. Attended the Third General Conference of Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; one of its three presidents delegate. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980, Vatican City; the Second Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 23 to 26, 1982; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned the prefecture of the Congregation for Bishops, April 8, 1984. President of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, April 8, 1984. Cardinal patronus of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, May 26, 1984. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, March 25, 1985. Special papal envoy to the Tenth Brazilian National Eucharistic Congress, Aparecida, July 16-21, 1985. Attended the Third Plenary Assembly of the College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 21 to 23, 1985; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Subdean of the College of Cardinals, April 15, 1986. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, October 31, 1990. Attended the Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991.

Death. March 21, 1993, of a brain hemorrhage, at "Agostino Gemelli Policlinico", in Rome. Buried in the family tomb in Rosà.

Bibliography. "Baggio, Sebastiano." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1970. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1970, p. 35*; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 265-266.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(81) 27. ODDI, Silvio
(1910-2001)

Birth. November 14, 1910, Morfasso, diocese of Piacenza, Italy. He was the twelfth of fourteen children, seven boys and seven girls. His baptismal name was Silvio Angelo Pio.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Piacenza from October 1921 to 1926 (studies ginnasiali); at Collegio Alberoni, Piacenza, from 1926 to 1933 (philosophy, theology and moral); at the Pontifical Athenaeum Angelicum, Rome; and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 21, 1933, Piacenza. Further studies, Rome, 1933-1936. Scretary of the apostolic delegation in Iran, 1936-1939. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, April 24, 1937; reappointed, March 3, 1939. Secretary of the apostolic delegation in Lebanon and Syria, 1939-1945; in Egypt, 1945-1948; in the nunciature in France, 1948-1951. Regent of the nunciature in Yugoslavia, 1951-1953.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Messembria, July 30, 1953. Appointed apostolic delegate in Jerusalem, Palestine, Transjordania, and Cyprus, July 31, 1953. Consecrated, September 27, 1953, cathedral of Piacenza, by Cardinal Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, patriarch of Venice, assisted by Umberto Malchiodi, titular archbishop of Serre, coadjutor, with right of succession, of the archbishop-bishop of Piacenza, and by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. His episcopal motto was Dominus fortitudo. Internuncio in Egypt, January 11, 1957. Nuncio in Belgium and internuncio in Luxemburg, May 17, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Agata in Urbe, April 30, 1969. President of the Commission of Cardinals for the Pontifical Shrines of Pompei and Loreto, and pontifical legate for the patriarchal basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi, June 13, 1969. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated, pro illa vice, to title, June 30, 1979. Prefect of the S.C. for the Clergy, September 29, 1979. Attended the V Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the VI Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Camerlengo of the College of Cardinals, June 25, 1984 to June 22, 1987. Attended the II Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Resigned prefecture, January 9, 1986. Special papal envoy to the state funeral of Emperor Hirohito of Japan, Tokyo, February 24, 1989. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, November 14, 1990. Cardinal patronus of the Milizia del Tempio - Ordine dei Poveri Cavalieri di Cristo, from 1993 until his death.

Death. June 29, 2001, at a hospital in Cortemaggiore, Piacenza. Buried in the old parish church in Morfasso.

Bibliography. Oddi, Silvio ; Brunelli, Lucio. Il tenero mastino di Dio : memorie del Cardinale Silvio Oddi. Roma : Progetti museali editore : ENEL, 1995. Other Title : Memorie del Cardinale Silvio Oddi.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(82) 28. PAUPINI, Giuseppe
(1907-1992)

Birth. February 25, 1907, Mondavio, diocese of Fano, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Fano; at the Pontifical Regional Seminary "Pio XI," Fano (liceali studies and theology); and at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 19, 1930, cathedral of Fano. Further studies, 1930-1932. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Fano and professor of canon law at its seminary, 1932-1939. Entered the service of the Secretariat of State in 1939 as attaché of the nunciature in France; and later, secretary of the nunciature in Italy. Successively, chargé d'affaires of the nunciatures in Honduras and Nicaragua, and Cuba, 1947-1951. Promoted to counselor of nunciature and destined to the Secretariat of State, 1951. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, October 19, 1952. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1952-1956.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sebastopoli di Abasgia and appointed internuncio in Iran and apostolic administrator of Ispahan of the Latins, February 2, 1956. Consecrated, February 26, 1956, church of S. Eugenio, Rome, by Cardinal Valerio Valeri, prefect of S.C. of Religious, assisted by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Vincenzo Del Signore, bishop of Fano. Nuncio in Guatemala and El Salvador, February 25, 1957. Nuncio in Colombia, May 23, 1959. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ognissanti in Via Appia Nuova, April 30, 1969. Named grand penitentiary, March 21, 1973. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 24 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Opted for the order of priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned the post of grand penitentiary, April 8, 1984. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 25, 1987. Camerlengo of the College of Cardinals, June 22, 1987 until May 2, 1988.

Death. July 18, 1992, Rome. His funeral mass was celebrated by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, secretary of State, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Buried in the collegiate church of Ss. Pietro e Paterniano, Mondavio, Marche.

Bibliography. Restrepo Posada, José. "Galería de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia." Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica, V (January-June, 1970), 243-244.


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(83) 29. VIOLARDO, Giacomo
(1898-1978)

Birth. May 10, 1898, Govone, diocese of Alba, Italy. Of a modest family of small proprietors.

Education. Entered the Seminary of Alba but had to interrupt his studies when he was called by the army; took part in the First World War with the rank of sub-lieutenant, and later lieutenant after the war, returned to the seminary, where he completed his theological studies under the guidance of Professors Chiesa and Priero. After his priestly ordination, he was sent to the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law; later, he went to study at the Catholic University, Milan, where he obtained a doctorate in jurisprudence, with unanimous vote and the publication of a thesis.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1923, Rome. Further studies, 1923-1928. Professor of moral theology and canon law at the Pontifical Regional Seminary "Pio XI," Fano, 1928-1935. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, December 14, 1935. Professor of canon law (Book III) at the Pontifical Lateran University, 1935-1964; dean of the faculty of Canon Law. Auditor of the nunciature in France, February to July, 1938. Promoter of justice at the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, 1938; later, undersecretary. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 23, 1939. Voting prelate and referendary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, April 23, 1939; its undersecretary, July 24, 1954. Secretary of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, April 2, 1962. First secretary of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law, 1963. Secretary of the S.C. for the Discipline of Sacraments, January 26, 1965.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Satafi, February 19, 1966. Consecrated, March 19, 1966, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Francesco Carpino, titular archbishop Sardica, assessor of the S.C. Consistorial and secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, and by Ettore Cunial, titular archbishop of Soteropoli, vice-gerent of Rome. In the same ceremony was consecrated Ferdinando Giuseppe Antonelli, O.F.M., titular archbishop of Idicra, secretary of the S.C. for the Causes of the Saints, future cardinal.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Eustachio, April 30, 1969. He was appointed cardinal patronus of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta on July 3, 1969. He was an eminent and erudite scholar of Canon Law. Besides his nearly thousand votes in the Apostolic Signature, which were works of scientific research, among his most famous publications are Il pensiero politico di San Girolamo (Milan 1937), and Il diritto matrimoniale in Sant'Ambrogio (Milan 1940). e contributed ten long articles to Enciclopedia Cattolica; he also collaborated with Dizionario di Teeologia Morale; and with Studi Cattolici, where he wrote several essays, one particularly notable on Santa Caterina da Siena.

Death. Friday March 17, 1978, late in the afternoon; he had been ill for a while and had been interned in a Roman clinic but had recently returned to his residence at the Palace of the Holy Office, in the Vatican; he was found lying dead underneath a staircase in that palace. The pope sent telegrams of condolence to the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Cardinal Carlo Confalonieri; to the bishop of Alba, Fausto Vallainc; and to the brother of the cardinal, Ignazio Violardo. Similar telegrams were sent by Cardinal Jean Villot, secretary of State. Exposed in that palace until Monday March 20, when, after the reading of the rogito, the body was transferred to the patriarchal Vatican basilica and placed in the center of the transept of Ss. Processo e Martiniano. The funeral took place in the morning of March 21, celebrated by Antonio Innocenti, titular archbishop of Eclano, secretary of the Congregation for the Discipline of the Sacraments and the Divine Worship, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica; Cardinal Carlo Confalonieri, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian sees of Ostia and Palestrina, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, imparted the final blessing. The remains of the late cardinal were taken to his native town, Govone, and buried in its parish church.

Bibliography. Fabris, Rinaldo. "Mons. Giacomo Violardo, decano della Facoltà di Diritto Canonico." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p.249-250; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, CXVIII, n. 65 (March 19, 1978), pp. 1 and 2; and CXVIII, n. 67 (March 22, 1978), p. 2.


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(84) 30. WILLEBRANDS, Johannes
(1909-2006)

Birth. September 4, 1909, Bovenkarspel, diocese of Haarlem, Holland. He was the oldest son of the nine children of Herman and Afra (Kok) Willebrands. His father was a businessman and one of his brothers was a Redemptorist priest who did missionary work in Surinam. His baptismal name was Johannes Gerardus Maria. His first name is also listed as Jan.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Warmond; and at the Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1934, Warmond. Further studies, 1934-1937. Pastoral ministry the in diocese of Haarlem, 1937-1940. Faculty member of the Seminary of Warmond, 1940-1945; its rector, 1945-1960. Secretary of the Secretariat for Christian Unity, June 28, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965, as expert. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, June 1, 1963. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, October 5, 1963.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Mauriana, June 4, 1964. Consecrated, June 28, 1964, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Diego Venini, titular archbishop of Adana, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Ettore Cunial, titular archbishop of Soteropoli, vice-gerent of Rome. Named president of the Secretariat for Christian Unity, April 12, 1969.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, April 30, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 7th centennial of the Council of Lyon, France, October 18 to 20, 1974. Named archbishop of Utrecht and military vicar of Holland, December 6, 1975. Transferred to order of cardinal priests, received title of S. Sebastiano alle Catecombe, December 6, 1975. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Special Synod of Dutch Bishops, Vatican City, January 14 to 26, 1980; he was the first president-delegate. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Resigned the military vicariate, November 22, 1982. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Utrecht, December 3, 1983. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; one of its three president-delegates. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Camerlengo of the College of Cardinals, May 2, 1988 until 1997; the office of camerlengo was abolished at an unknown date that year. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, September 4, 1989. Resigned the presidency of the secretariat and was named president emeritus, December 12, 1989. After his retirement, he resided in the Pontifical Dutch College, Rome. He was decorated with the cross of the Order of Oranje Nassau and granted several honorary doctorates by universities in Europe and the United States. He was known at the Vatican as ''The Flying Dutchman'' for his travels promoting Christian unity.

Death. August 2, 2006, in Saint Nicolaasstichting, of the Franciscan sisters, at Denekamp. The funeral took place on Tuesday August 8, 2006, at 11.00 am, in St Catharina metropolitan cathedral, Utrecht. The remains of the cardinal were buried in the adjacent St. Barbara cemetery, in the cathedral's court, where his two immediate predecessors, Cardinals Jan de Jong and Bernardus Johannes Alfrink, are also buried (1). Cardinal Walter Kaspar, president of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of the Unity of Christians, represented the pope at the funeral. Queen Beatrix of Holland sent a letter of condolence to Cardinal Simonis. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Meeking, Basil. "Willebrands, Johannes Gerardus Maria." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, pp. 423-425.

Links. Portrait and biography, in Dutch; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Entierran al cardenal holandis Johannes Willebrands en Utrecht, in Spanish, Cardinal Rating, Aug 09, 2006.


(1) This is the text of his epitaph kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

+
JOHANNES
WILLEBRANDS
KARDINAAL
AARTSBISSCHOP
4 SEPTEMBER 1909
2 AUGUSTUS 2006
DAT ALLEN EEN ZIJN


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(85) 31. NASALLI ROCCA DI CORNELIANO, Mario
(1903-1988)

Birth. August 12, 1903, Piacenza, Italy, of a noble family. Youngest of the four children of Count Camillo Nasalli Rocca, who died when Mario was a child, and Marchioness Caterina (Katie) Taffini d'Accegliano. The other siblings were Chiara, Luigi and Carlo. Great-grand-nephew of Cardinal Ignazio Nasalli (1827). Nephew of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano (1923).

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary; then, at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare"; and finally, at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 9, 1927, Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1927-1969. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, November 22, 1931; reappointed, March 3, 1939. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 1, 1949. Master of the Papal Chamber, October 29, 1958; reappointed, June 21, 1963. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace, August 15, 1967.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Anzio, April 11, 1969. Consecrated, April 20, 1969, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Paolo Marella, archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, assisted by Diego Venini, titular archbishop of Adana, almoner of His Holiness, and by Alberto Scola, bishop of Norcia. His episcopal motto was Ut turris, the same as his uncle the cardinal.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giovanni Battista decollato, April 30, 1969. Special papal envoy the to first centennial of the coronation of image of Madonna dell'Arco, Italy, September 8, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. He was member of the SS.CC. for the Sacraments and Divine Worship, and for the Causes of the Saints; and of the Secretariat for Non-Believers. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, August 12, 1983. Due to his frail health, the cardinal had been recovering in a home beside Lago di Nemi during the last months of his life.

Death. Wednesday November 9, 1988, at at 9:30 p.m., in a Roman clinic, after suffering from a cerebral ictus. The funeral took place on the following Friday November 11, at noon, in the Altar of the Chair of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, presided by Pope John Paul II who delivered the homily. Later that day, his body was transferred to Vigolzone, Piacenza, where a vigil was held during the evening. Another funeral mass was celebrated at 3.30 pm., on Saturday November 12, presided by Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, prior to interment, in the church of S. Mario Martire, which was erected years before by the cardinal himself.

Bibliography. Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano, Mario. Accanto ai Papi. Cittaà del Vaticano : Libreria editrice vaticana, 1976; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), VI, 682.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; brief biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; his portrait by Ghiglia Paulo, Galleria d'Arte Moderna Ricci Oddi, Piacenza, Italy; his genealogy, Geneall; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; and another picture of his arms, also in Araldica Vaticana; Letterfrom Pope Paul VI to Cardinal Mario Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano, Special Envoy on the 1st centenary of the crowning of the prodigious image of the Virgin Mary (September 8, 1974), in Latin, The Vatican; Letter from Pope Paul VI to Cardinal Mario Nasalli Rocca of Corneliano on the 50th anniversary of priestly ordination (April 3, 1977), in Latin, The Vatican.


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(86) 32. GUERRI, Sergio
(1905-1992)

Birth. December 25, 1905, Tarquinia, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Interdiocesan Seminary of Montefiascone; at the Seminary of Viterbo; at the Pontifical Roman Seminary; at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome; and at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare".

Priesthood. Ordained, March 30, 1929. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Tarquinia, 1931-1937. Further studies, 1929-1931. Administrator of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," 1937-1941. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, April 11, 1940. Official of the Institute for Works of Religion, 1941-1946; substitute secretary, 1946-1948. Pro-secretary of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See, March 9, 1948. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 19, 1949. Secretary of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See, January 1, 1951. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, April 25, 1952. Secretary of the Administrative Secretariat for the Preparation of the Second Vatican Council, June 22, 1960. Delegate for the Special Administration of the Holy See, October 4, 1961. Administrative secretary of the II Vatican Council, 1960-1965. Secretary of the Administration of the Patrimony of Holy See, May 7, 1968. Pro-president ad interim of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, November 6, 1968.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Trevi, April 11, 1969. Consecrated, April 27, 1969, chapel of the Lateran Seminary, Rome, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, secretary of State, cardinal bishop of title of suburbicarian see of Frascati, assisted by Joseph Mark McShea, bishop of Allentown, and by Plinio Pascoli, titular bishop of Suava, auxiliary of Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss.mo Nome di Maria al Foro Troiano, April 30, 1969. Confirmed as pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City.Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pro-presidency, September 26, 1981. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, December 25, 1985.

Death. March 15, 1992, Vatican City. After learning the news of his death, Pope John Paul II visited his Vatican apartment and prayed before his body. Buried in his family's chapel in the cemetery of Tarquinia.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(87) 33. DANIÉLOU, S.J., Jean
(1905-1974)

Birth. May 14, 1905, Neuilly-sur-Seine, archdiocese of Paris, France. Son of Charles Daniélou, an anticlerical politician, and Madeleine Clamorgan, founder of Université libre de jeunes filles. His baptismal name was Jean-Guenolé-Marie. His brother, Alain, was a renowned historian, intellectual, musicologist, and a noted Western convert to and expert on Shaivite Hinduism.

Education. University of La Sorbonne (superior studies; agrégé (grammaire, 1927). Joined the Society of Jesus, 1929. Novitiate of Laval, Laval; Scholasticate of Jersey, Jersey (philosophy, 1931-1934); Professor de première at the school Saint-Joseph de Poitiers, 1934-1936. Theologate of Lyon-Fourvière (theology, 1936-1939); Catholic Institute, Paris (doctorates in letters and theology; thesis: Platonisme et théologie mystique. Essai sur la doctrine spirituelle de saint Grégoire de Nysse, 1943).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 20, 1938. Further studies, 1938-1939. Served in the Frech army, 1939-1940. Faculty member of Jesuit school, Poitiers, 1940-1941. Staff member of the journal Études, 1941-1969; its editor, 1944-1969; he lived for decades at the residence of the journal but moved to the convent of the Daughters of the Heart of Mary in his later years. Chaplain of the École normale supérieure de jeunes filles, 1942-1969. Professor of the history of the origins of Christianity at the theological faculty of the Catholic Institute, Paris, 1943-1969; dean of theological faculty, 1961-1969. Pastoral ministry with university students, 1944-1969. Founder, with Father Henri de Lubac, future cardinal, of the collection Sources chrétiennes, 1944. Founder of Cercle Saint-Jean-Baptiste, 1944. Contributor to Revue Dieu Vivant, 1945-1956. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965, as an expert. Founder of the Institut de science et de théologie des religions (ISTR) in 1967 at the Catholic Institut, Paris.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Taormina, April 11, 1969. Consecrated, April 19, 1969, Saint-Joseph-des-Carmes, Catholic Institute, Paris, by Cardinal-designate François Marty, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Julien Gouet, titular bishop of Auguro, auxiliary of Paris, and by Daniel Pézeril, titular bishop of Reperi, auxiliary of Paris. His episcopal motto was Fluvium aquae vita.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Saba, April 30, 1969. Attended First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Elected member of the Academie Française, November 9, 1972; reception, November 22, 1972; succeeded Cardinal Eugène Tisserant. Knight of the Légion d'honneur. He published numerous theological works (1).

Death. May 20, 1974, suddenly and unexpectedly, of a heart attack, in the stairs of a brothel on 56, Rue Dulong, north of Boulevard des Batignolles, Paris 17e, that he was visiting as part of his priestly ministry; he used to provide pastoral care to poor people and women of Paris slums. The funeral took place at Notre-Dame metropolitan cathedral of Paris. Buried in tomb of the Society of Jesus, Vaugirard cemetery, Paris; in the same vault is buried Cardinal Henri de Lubac, S.J. (1983) (2).

Bibliography. Actualité de Jean Daniélou. Paris : Cerf, 2006. Responsibility: sous la direction de Jacques Fontaine ; messages de Benoît XVI, François-Xavier Dumortier, Jacques Briend ; textes de Frédéric-Marc Baldé, Mariette Canévet, Michel Fédou ... [et al.] ; témoignages de Maurice Druon, Jean-Marie Lustiger, Jean Daniélou; Daniélou, Jean. Memorias. Bilbao : Ediciones Mensajero, 1975; Épektasis : mélanges patristiques offerts au cardinal Jean Daniélou. Publiés par Jacques Fontaine et Charles Kannengiesser. Paris : Beauchesne, 1972. Contents: I. Exégèse, hagiographie, liturgie -- II. Origène et la tradition Alexandrine -- III. Grégoire de Nysse et la Cappadoce chrétienne -- IV. Le christianisme sous Théodose --V. Contributions diverses; Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3160; Lebeau, Paul. Jean Daniélou. Paris, Éditions Fleurus, 1967; Pizzuto, Pietro. La teologia della rivelazione di Jean Daniélou : influsso su Dei verbum e valore attuale. Roma : Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 2003. (Tesi gregoriana.; Serie Teologia ; 96); Rondeau, Marie-Joséphe. Jean Daniélou, 1905-1974. Paris : Éditions du Cerf : Axes, 1975.

Links. Biography, in French, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; La mort du Cardinal Jean Daniilou : les faits authentiques by Emmanuelle de Boysson, Vivre pour la Vérité, lundi 6 octobre 2008; Cardinal Jean Daniélou S.J., Memorial, by Eman Bonnici, Find a Grave; Daniélou, la verità usurpata by Jonah Lynch - Vicerector of Fraternità San Carlo Borromeo, Avvenire (Cultura), 8 maggio 2012; For the Cardinal Under Ban, the Quarantine Has Ended by Sandro Magister, Chiesa, May 11, 2012.

(1) This is a list of his books, taken from the site of the Academie Française, linked above: Le signe du temple (1943); Platonisme et théologie mystique (1944); Le mystère du salut des nations (Le Seuil, 1946); Origéne (1948); Bible et Liturgie (1950); Essai sur le mystère de l'histoire (Le Cerf, 1953); Dieu et nous (Grasset, 1956); Théologie du Judéo-Christianisme (1958); Philon d'Alexandrie (1958); Approches du Christ (Grasset, 1960); Scandaleuse vérité (1961); Les Symboles chrétiens primitifs (Le Seuil, 1961) Au commencement (1963); L'Oraison, problème politique (1965); Mythes païens -- Mystère chrétien (1966); Les Évangiles de l'enfance (Desclie de Brouwer, 1967) Tests (Beauchesne, 1968); L'avenir de la religion (1968); La Résurrection (1969); La Foi de toujours et l'homme d'aujourd'hui (Beauchesne, 1969); Lêtre et le temps chez Grégoire de Nysse (Brill, 1971); Pourquoi l'Église? (1972).
(2) This is the text of the simple inscription in their tomb kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

Cardinal Jean
DANIELOU
1905 - 1974
Cardinal Henri
DE LUBAC
1896 - 1991


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(88) 34. TROCHTA, S.D.B., Stepán
(1905-1974)

Birth. March 26, 1905, Francova Lhota, archdiocese of Olomouc, Moravia, Austria-Hungary (later Czechoslovakia; now Czech Republic). His baptismal name was Stepán Maria. Having lost his father at the age of eight, he spent his early youth in hardship.

Education. After having finished elementary school, he was accepted in the archbishopric high school in Kromeriz, Olomouc; when his mother fell ill, he had to interrupt his studies to take care of their small farm. After his mother's recovery, he went to Italy, where he joined the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco), 1923; after graduating from high school, he studied philosophy and theology at the Salesian Philosophical Institute, Turin; and the Salesian Athenaeum, also in Turin, where he received his doctorate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1932, Turin. After his ordination, he was sent to Frystak in central Moravia, where he worked he taught philosophy, pedagogy, and religion. Then, he was charged with building an apprentice home and the Saint John Bosco Church in Ostrava. Having successfully completed this assignment, he began, in 1937, the construction of an educational institute in Prague-Kobylisy, a project which, however, was stopped by the Nazi occupation. After the assassination of Schutzstaffel (SS) leader Reinhard Heydrich on June 4, 1942, the Gestapo and SS hunted down and murdered the Czech agents, resistance members, and anyone suspected of being involved in Heydrich's death, totaling over 1000 persons. Fr. Trochta was seized by the Gestapo, subjected to a number of brutal interrogations at the Prague Gestapo headquarters, and at the Prague Pankrac prison and subsequently deported to the Terezin concentration camp. From there, he was transferred to the Mauthausen extermination camp, but, by almost a miracle, he managed to escape, though wounded, from a death transport. Having being returned to camp, he was transferred to the Dachau concentration camp in December 1944, from where he was liberated by United Sates troops.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Litoměřice, September 27, 1947. Consecrated, November 16, 1947, Prague, by Xavier Ritter, titular archbishop of Aegina, nuncio in Czechoslovakia, assisted by Josef Beran, archbishop of Prague, and by Maurizio Picha, bishop of Hradec Králové. His episcopal motto was Actio sacrificum caritas. Impeded from exercising his pastoral ministry by the Communist regime, 1949-1968. In January 1953, he was arrested by the State Security Service, and, in July 1954, he was sentenced to twenty five years imprisonment on concocted charges of "espionage" and "anti-state activities." In June I960, Bishop Trochta was amnestied, but was not allowed to resume his clerical duties. For several years, he worked as a construction laborer, and then a plumber, doing such jobs as repairing toilets. After having suffered a stroke, he was allowed to retire to a home for priests, first in Tabor, and then in Radvanov. On July 20, 1968, at the time of the Prague Spring, the Supreme Court of Czechoslovakia struck down Bishop Trochta's sentence as a violation of legality, and on August 6, 1968, he resumed his office as residential bishop of Litoměřice.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest and reserved in pectore in the consistory of April 28, 1969; published in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni Bosco in via Tuscolana, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, April 12, 1973. At the time, he said he had not aspired to that office, but had not turned it down out of respect for the pope's wish. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; and the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. His last public ceremony was the March 1973 consecration of three bishops in Slovakia, and one in Moravia.

Death. April 6, 1974, Litoměřice; he suffered a stroke in the morning, was taken to a hospital, and died without having recovered consciousness. Buried in the bishops' tomb in the city cemetery of Litoměřice (1).

Beatification. The diocese of Litoměřice and Salesians Fathers are gathering all the necessary documents to start the beatification process of Cardinal Trochta.

Bibliography. Trochta, Stepán. Kardinál Trochta mucedník Terezín, Mauthausen, Dachau. 2. vyd. Nove Mesto: Signum unitatis ve Vrchovinach, 1992.

Links. Photographs and biography, in English, Travel Eye; Life of Stepan Cardinal Trochta, You Tube, June 11, 2008; his arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

XVII EPISCOPUS
+
STEPHANUS MARIA
CARDINALIS
TROCHTA
TIT. S. IOANNIS BOSCO
IN VIA TUSCOLANA
OBIIT D.6.APRILIS 1974


hossu.jpg

HOSSU, Iuliu
(1885-1970)

Birth. January 30, 1885, Milasul Mare, archdiocese of Făgăraş e Alba Julia, Rumania. His parents were Ioan Hossu and Victoria Măriuţiu.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Cluj; at the Seminary of Budapest, Hungary; at the University of Vienna, Austria; and at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, where he obtained doctorates in philosophy in 1906; and in theology in 1908.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 27, 1910, Rome, by Vasile Hossu, bishop of Gherla, who was his uncle. Further studies, 1910-1911. Protocolist, archivist, librarian, and later, vicar and secretary to the bishop of Gherla, 1911-1914. Military chaplain to the Rumanian soldiers in the Austro-Hungarian Army during World War I, 1914-1917.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Gherla of the Byzantine-Rumanian rite, April 21, 1917. Consecrated, December 4, 1917, Blaj, by Victor Mihali d'Apsa, archbishop of Făgăraş e Alba Julia, assisted by Demetriu Radu, bishop of Oradea Mare, and by Valeriu Frentiu, bishop of Lugoj. Named bishop of Cluj-Gherla when the see was transferred to Cluj, June 5, 1930. Apostolic administrator of Maramures from July 19, 1930 to January 31, 1931. Senator of the Kingdom of Rumania. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, September 16, 1936. Apostolic administrator of Oradea Mare from August 29, 1941 until 1947. For his firm opposition to the governmental plans to separate the Byzantine-Rumanian Church from Rome, was compelled to leave his diocese, October 28, 1948. Interned at Jilava, Drogoslavele, Sighet, and Gherla, 1948-1964. Confined in the monastery of Caldrusani, Moara Saraca, near Bucharest, 1964-1970. Transferred to the Coletina Hospital, Bucharest, May 1970.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of April 28, 1969. His creation was revealed on March 5, 1973, after his death (1).

Death. May 28, 1970, at 9 a.m., Coletina Hospital, Bucharest, assisted by Alexandru Todea, titular bishop of Cesaropoli. Buried, Bellu Catholic Cemetery, Bucharest. His last words were "Lupta mea s-a sfârs,it, a voastra continua" (My struggle ends, yours continues). On December 7, 1982, his remains were exhumed fron the provisional tomb in which they had been placed when he died, and transferred to a permanent one in the same cemetery.

Bibliography. Dumitriu-Snagov, Ion. "Hossu (Jules)." Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, v. 24, col. 1237.

Link. Photographs and biography, in Romanian.

(1) According to Wilhelm von Tacke's article Ein Zeuge der vatikanischen Ostpolitik Erst in der rumänischen Untergrundkirche, dann zwölf Jahre in Gefängnissen - Zum Tode von Prälat Hieronymus Menges, Die Tagespost, no. 59, May 16, 2002, on February 22, 1969, Pope Paul VI granted a private audience to Msgr. Hieronymus Menges, who probably was one of the last living witnesses of the Vatican's Ostpolitik under Popes Pius XII to Paul VI. During the audience, Msgr. Menges asked the pope to encourage the Romanian faithful and to give them a sign that they are not forgotten. When the pope asked "What?" the monsignor recommended to the pope that the Byzantine Romanian Bishop Juliu Hossu of Cluj-Gherla and Áron Márton, Latin Bishop of Alba Julia, be appointed cardinals; and to reward a few distinguished priests with the title of monsignor. Archbishop Agostino Casaroli, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs and main conductor of the Vatican Ostpolitik, sent his secretary to Romania and asked the Ministry of Culture in Bucharest whether the state would accept the double promotion. The ministry agreed to the promotion of Latin Bishop Márton but not to the one of Byzantine Romanian Bishop Hossu. Bishop Márton refused the promotion when he heard that the Romanian government had rejected Bishop Hossu's cardinalitial creation. As a result, Bishop Hossu became cardinal in pectore and Bishop Márton, now a Servant of God, never received the red hat. Bishop Márton's biography in Wikipedia says that "in 1945, after the death of Cardinal Jusztinián Serédi, Pope Pius XII wanted Bishop Márton to become the next cardinal in Hungary, but, as the Hungarian Communist Party strongly opposed him, József Mindszenty was chosen for the position."

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